WorldWideScience

Sample records for community psychiatry field

  1. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive.

  2. The future of community psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Feiner, Joel S; Huffine, Charles; Moffic, H Steven; Thompson, Kenneth S

    2003-10-01

    Leaders of national groups that have focused on issues of community and social psychiatry present their ideas about the future of psychiatry. They identify five areas: theory development; the relevance of community psychiatry in the 21st century; education and training; the relationship between community psychiatry and health maintenance organizations; and role of community psychiatry in bridging medical science with humanism. The unifying theme for these topics is that community psychiatry can be a vehicle for modifying general psychiatry's propensity towards individualism and reductionism by offering a more holistic and integrative approach to illness and well-being.

  3. [Community psychiatry. Evaluation and research perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, J

    1986-01-01

    The author deals with 3 possible types of epidemiological studies in community mental health services: studies on the efficiency measuring the difference between the objectives of each team and the results; studies on the distribution between the teams and within each team, institutionalised models and implicit defensive modalities elaborated by the staff against the fear of the insane; studies on the populations considered at risk by psychoanalytical theories en vogue (depressive mothers, relationship anomalies). These studies would have the advantage to limit the "etiopathogenic pretentions" in psychiatry and avoid the "realistic slide" of imaginary constructions (myths or fiction of origin) which the community health service psychiatrist needs to work with but which has only an uncertain relationship with historical truth.

  4. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Wilcox, Holly C; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H; Newcomer, Alison; McKitty, Mellisha V; Regier, Darrel A; Narrow, William E

    2014-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients' experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies.

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H.; Newcomer, Alison; Mckitty, Mellisha V.; Regier, Darrel A.; Narrow, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients’ experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. PMID:24615761

  6. [Psychiatry, the field of all risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders lead patients along paths of irrationality. Insanity is perceived as excessiveness, often associated with violence. Risk in psychiatry is omnipresent and nursing practice is performed within a narrow safety zone. The media coverage of sensitive situations does not help. Ensuring the patient's recovery, respecting the fundamental principles of individual freedom while assuring the utmost safety of others is the constant challenge facing caregivers in psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine ... American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of ...

  11. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry American Association for Emergency Psychiatry ...

  12. Community psychiatry: An audit of the services in southern Gauteng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatric registrars (in training) and psychiatric nurses. For first appointments, a ... where psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are present .... budgets from shut-down institutions should be made available to community ...

  13. A Psychodynamic Psychologist in Community Psychiatry: 14 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Roquette

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review the role of a psychodynamic psychologist integrated in a community outpatient clinic of a Psychiatric Department. It describes the characteristics of a psychodynamic intervention that is complementary to the psychiatric approach while sharing a common goal –the suffering patient – and enhancing the knowledge and understanding of several domains like psychopathology, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and integration. Furthermore it describes how the use of Psychological Assessment led to the formulation of specific individual psychotherapies, spanning 14 years of clinical practice. The paper concludes with some considerations regarding the integration of Psychodynamic Psychology in a multidisciplinary mental health team, addressing issues such as the boundaries between technical characteristics, the appropriateness of language to other disciplines and psychodynamic implications of the different features of this clinical setting.

  14. Psychiatry and fads: why is this field different from all other fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Fads in psychiatry are little more than bad ideas with short half-lives. They have arisen because of the great discontinuities that have swept psychiatry unlike other specialties in the 20th century: the transition in the 1920s from asylum-based biological psychiatry to psychoanalysis, and the transition in the 1960s from psychoanalysis to a biological model based on psychopharmacology. In no other medical specialty has the knowledge base been scrapped and rebuilt, and then again scrapped and rebuilt. In these great transitions, when psychiatry each time has had to reconstruct from scratch, bad ideas have crept in with good. Psychiatry, in its heavy use of consensus conferences, is often unable to employ science as a means of discarding fads, which, once installed, are often difficult to remove. Each of the great paradigms of psychiatry in the last hundred years has given rise to fads, and psychopharmacology is no exception, with faddish uses of neurotransmitter doctrine claiming centre stage. Only when psychiatry becomes firmly linked to the neurosciences will its subjugation to the turbulence of faddism be moderated.

  15. [Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T

    2012-07-01

    The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany.

  16. [Fifty years of public service for Quebec community psychiatry services. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This essay comprises 2 parts. It aims to recognize the public service of psychiatrists of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal who served at the provincial level of the Ministry of Health and Social Services for deinstitutionalisation of policies and organisation of services, at the service of people with severe mental disorders. First with Dr. Camille Laurin post-face of the 1962 book Les fous crient au secours! (Mentally ill patients cry for help); then the insight on the latest phase of differentiated specialised clinics by Dr. Denis Lazure, who participated in 1962 to the Bédard, Lazure, Roberts commission that launched community psychiatry, but who will also be Social Affairs Minister in the late '70 s; Dr. Arthur Amyot will sail through the budgetary issues when in the beginning of the '80s the mental health directorate was under Social Affairs; Dr. Luc Blanchet will be associated to a rich production of interdisciplinary reports by the advisory Mental Health Committee until its dismissal in 2003; and finally, Dr. André Delorme, who probably has the record of longevity at the head of the mental health directorate, transferred in 2003 under the deputy minister for medical and university affairs.The essay will propose since the beginning a grid or referential of four health services analysis. First; the arguments for community care by British and Italian psychiatrists and researchers, Thornicroft and Tansella. Second; system issues of mental health reforms proposed by Canadian psychiatric nurse and researcher Paula Goering. Third; the model of socio-political regulation of health system proposed by the Université de Montréal' health administration researcher Dr. André-Pierre Contandriopoulos; and Fourth; the structural tension between the medical and social sector signaled by the American medical sociologist, Leutz.The same phases of deinstitutionalization in other countries as UK, took place as followed: a) the asylum phase

  17. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.

  18. Managing madness, murderers and paedophiles: Understanding change in the field of English forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Furtado, Vivek; Vollm, Birgit

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses changes occurring in the field of English forensic psychiatry which appear to be linked to feelings of discomfort amongst medical professionals who manage care in such settings. These changes are neither the result of a sudden 'shock' to the system, nor small improvisations at the margins, but instead appear to reflect a growing perception amongst psychiatrists of accepted field practice as inadequate for some types of patients. To understand how feelings and emotions are implicated in these changes we draw on and develop the work of Pierre Bourdieu to suggest that changes must be seen in the context of field tensions, which have implications for habitus. However, we do not view feelings of discomfort merely as a response to these tensions. Instead we suggest a more dynamic process. The habitus plays a key role in structuring what people pay attention to, how they perceive it and therefore, whether they experience particular feelings in the first place.

  19. Between phenomenological and community psychiatry: the Comprehending Anthropology of Jürg Zutt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönknecht, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Phenomenological and existential philosophical approaches to mental illness have had great influence on psychiatric research and theory in European psychiatry (Berrios, 1992: 309). Among them, the work of Jürg Zutt (1893-1980), Professor of Psychiatry at University Hospital Frankfurt 1950-63, closely relates to the anthropological psychiatry of Ludwig Binswanger, Victor von Gebsattel and Erwin Straus. Since both anthropological psychiatry and social psychiatry are based on a person-centred approach, it was hypothesized that common roots are to be detected in what is called humanistic psychology. The main finding of the present paper is that there is a strong relationship between Zutt's concept of Comprehending Anthropology and the biopsychosocial model on which social psychiatry is based. However, it cannot be concluded from the existing evidence that the reform of psychiatric services necessarily resulted from the anthropological approach.

  20. Conceptualising molecular psychiatry and translational psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Johannes

    2011-09-01

    The terms "molecular psychiatry" and "translational psychiatry" are frequently used key words of today's scientific community. However, the exact meaning of these terms remains surprisingly unclear. They also seem to be interpreted in different ways by different authors. Here, we first analyse how the terms have emerged historically and then try to indicate how meaningful and widely acceptable definitions could be achieved. Clearly, with the further development of these emerging psychiatric research areas, it will be necessary to regularly adjust these definitions accordingly.

  1. [Qualitative survey of the law of 5 July 2011 in the field of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Gentiane; Bougerol, Thierry; Micheletti, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The law of 5 July 2011 concerning the rights and protection of subjects in psychiatric care and the modalities of their management has been severely criticized and often rejected, both before and following its application in August 2011. This study was designed to describe and compare perceptions of this law by actors in the field, six months after application of the law. This qualitative study based on twenty-four interviewees from Isère and Savoie - including psychiatrists, judges, patients and families - shows that this law is not completely rejected in practice and that it provides a number of advantages: independent view of a judge, an initial observation period, rapid management for isolated patients presenting an immediately life-threatening risk, improvement of mandatory outpatient healthcare. However, the law of 5 July 2011 also raises a number of problems: hospital leave for more than twelve hours was strictly limited by the initial text; complex relationships between justice and psychiatry; insufficient funding; hearings are problematic as they are held early, in public, and sometimes outside of hospitals; excessive number of medical certificates; certain parts of the text are unclear. As is already the case for some of these issues (law of 23 September 2013), these problems should be resolved in order to ensure better law enforcement.

  2. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  3. Who and What Does Involvement Involve? A Multi-Sited Field Study of Involvement of Relatives in Danish Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oute, Jeppe; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric system-a family site, a clinical site and a policy site-the first author (J.O.) investigated how, and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family.

  4. Use of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing in two cases from community psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fields ES

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eve S Fields,1 Raymond A Lorenz,2 Joel G Winner2 1Northwest Center for Community Mental Health, Reston, VA, USA; 2Assurex Health, Mason, OH, USA Abstract: This report describes two cases in which pharmacogenomic testing was utilized to guide medication selection for difficult to treat patients. The first patient is a 29-year old male with bipolar disorder who had severe akathisia due to his long acting injectable antipsychotic. The second patient is a 59-year old female with major depressive disorder who was not ­responding to her medication. In both cases, a proprietary combinatorial pharmacogenomic test was used to inform medication changes and improve patient outcomes. The first patient was switched to a long acting injectable that was not affected by his genetic profile and his adverse effects abated. The second patient had her medications discontinued due to the results of the genetic testing and more intense psychotherapy initiated. While pharmacogenomic testing may be ­helpful in cases such as these presented here, it should never serve as a proxy for a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach. The pharmacogenomic information may be selectively added to this comprehensive approach to support medication treatment. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, adverse effects, risperidone, nortriptyline, paliperidone

  5. Choosing a Career in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... students follow a standard curriculum. In addition to anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology, students take courses in psychiatry, ... university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, military settings, schools and universities, ...

  6. [From "psychopathy" to "personality disorder"--conceptual history of a problematic field within psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paul; Camenisch, Paul

    2015-11-11

    The issue of personality disorders addresses fundamental questions of psychiatry: Is there a clear boundary between normal behaviour and the state of mental illness? Which criteria are defining this boundary? Is a personality disorder really a mental illness or «just» a special variation of an individual lifestyle? This paper reviews the development of the terms psychopathy/personality disorder from the early 19th century to the present-day diagnostic manuals ICD-10 and DSM-5. This debate spreads out–as it does with regard to any other mental disorder–between psychopathological, neurobiological and social sciences approaches. It is of high practical relevance to realize that nowadays effective therapeutic options for patients with personality disorders are available. Therefore, the therapeutic nihilism of earlier times is no longer justified.

  7. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea.

  8. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  9. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    Psychiatry, Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University) was the center for psychiatry training. The Korean War (1950-1953) enabled the interchanges between. Korean and American military psychiatrist, and motivated great change in Korean psychiatry from biologic oriented German descriptive psychiatry to the American dynamic psychobiological psychiatry. The German educational clinical systems were completely displaced by the American system, when internship and residency training system was conducted since 1958. However, there were always attempts to integrate old traditional Korean wisdoms into the modern psychiatry and to introduce European approaches and knowledges in psychiatry. With the rapid industrialization and economic development of the country since the late 1960s and the prevailing social defensive attitudes towards mentally ill patients of the leaders of the military regimes the increase of private asylums appeared where many chronically ill mental patients were kept without adequate treatment. The reform of asylums in the mid 1980s was gradually proceeded by the government leading consequently to the increase of huge mental hospitals in the land. With the democratization of the political situation as well as the social welfare policy of the government in the 1990s and with the steady stimulation elicited by some NGOs Mental Health Act was enacted in 1995 and the community mental health centers were increasingly set up in several districts. In concern with research activities in psychiatry remarkable development in social cultural as well as biological fields are recognized especially since in the 1970s academic societies for the subspecialities of psychiatry have been organized which cover the various schools of psychotherapy, social psychiatry as well as many subspecialities of biological psychiatry. The number of training hospitals have been increased as the result, the number of psychiatry specialists was increased from 93 in 1956 to 1593 in 1999. KNPA (Korean

  10. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A M; Ullmann, J F P; Norton, W H J; Parker, M O; Brennan, C H; Gerlai, R; Kalueff, A V

    2015-02-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern molecular psychiatry research.

  11. [Concept of budget-based remuneration system for the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A new remuneration system is currently being developed for the hospital care of people with mental disorders. Last year, because of sharp criticism the option phase of the planned Flat-rate Charges in Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (Pauschalierende Entgelte Psychiatrie und Psychosomatik, PEPP) was extended by 2 years. During this time the Federal Ministry of Health wants to look for alternatives and possible starting points for the further development of care. Now, 16 scientific professional associations and organisations have presented a joint concept for a sustainable solution: the budget-based remuneration system. The system is suitable for ensuring that people with mental disorders are treated according to their particular needs and for promoting the appropriate further development of regional care in all treatment settings. It corresponds with the objectives as formulated in Section 17d of the Hospital Finance Act (Krankenhausfinanzierungsgesetz, KHG) and translates the PEPP system, which is currently being developed and focusses on average prices, into a performance-oriented, transparent budgetary system. The fundamental principle is the separation of the individual hospitals' budgeting on the basis of evidence-based, feature- and performance-related modules and billing in the form of advance payments from the agreed budget.

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because they are physicians, psychiatrists can order or perform a full range of medical laboratory and psychological ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ...

  13. Racism and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alexander; Sillen, Samuel

    White racism has influenced theory and practice in psychiatry and allied fields. Psychiatrists have largely ignored the interactionist approach, as expounded by Sullivan and Rush, in analyzing Negroes within their respective societies. Rather, in the vein of Freudian preoccupation with unconscious motivation, abnormal behavior and what is…

  14. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  15. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient.

  16. The coproduction of moral discourse in U.S. community psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodwin, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Anthropologists often criticize the discipline of bioethics because its remote, abstract theories fail to capture how front-line clinicians experience and resolve moral uncertainty. The critique overlooks, however, the ways that everyday, emergent moral discourse is influenced--over time and through several mediations--by formal ethical notions. High-order ethical pronouncements become sedimented into the conditions of work, illustrated in this article by a two-year ethnographic study of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT), a popular mode of outpatient psychiatric services. ACT clinicians' moral unease when they break the confidentiality of patients is connected to high-order debates, dating back 35 years, about ensuring patients' autonomy without abandoning them. These debates originally spurred the invention of ACT, and they get braided into today's moral discourse through several mediations: regulatory paperwork, the mandates and micropolitics of staff-patient interactions, and the idealized self-image of front-line staff. This article shows how everyday moral talk is coproduced by both the immediate contexts of clinical work and the categories of formal bioethics.

  17. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  18. Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University; United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Winn O'Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human responses to music may be viewed through a neuroscience lens with increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technology, providing neurological and biomedical measures of psychological states. These developments have been harnessed in collaborative research investigations seeking to develop the therapeutic applications of music. As a consequence of these collaborations, neuroscientific understanding is emerging of how music therapy may support improvements in cognition, movement and emotional regulation, as well as helping us to explore the neurological aspects of therapeutic relationships. This paper provides an overview of this field of investigation, focussing on the significant areas of progress in work with those living with stroke, neurodegenerative conditions, affective disorders, disorders of consciousness, autism, cancer and palliative conditions. Advances, challenges and opportunities associated with using neuroscience methods to develop the evidence base for music therapy will be explored from the perspective of a music therapy clinician and researcher.

  19. [Psychiatry and the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    During the World War I, the high rate of psychiatric casualties was differently tackled according to the nations: the Central Powers carried an authoritarian approach with prevailing physical treatment methods whereas the Allies' attitude reflected their democratic background. Particularly French psychiatry demonstrated a real willingness and ability to respond to the clinical realities. The conceptual problem of what DSM IV now classified as acute stress disorder was resolved so successfully that this disorder deserves the eponym "Viovenel's Syndrome". American Military Psychiatry followed the French methods of precise diagnosis and expeditious treatment close to the front and amplified them by creating effective treatment methods : brief psychotherapy methods and group psychotherapy within a therapeutic environment. Franco-American psychiatry thereby created the foundation for modern community psychiatry.

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Connections What Is Psychiatry? Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch ... of Use Copyright Contact © 2017 American Psychiatric Association. All Rights Reserved. 1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825, Arlington, ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections What Is Psychiatry? Back to Patients & Families All Topics What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  3. [Psychiatry and neuroethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Richards, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge have enter to psychiatry in a new era, however, new technology for viewing images, brain function, psychopharmacology, non-invasive methodology requires an ethical approach, framed in the bioethical environment. The field of neuroethics has evolved to address many of the specific concerns and what neuroenhancement and neuroimaging provide us, is necessary to extend the scope of ethical things to consider the clinical implications for the psychiatric work.

  4. Current challenges and future perspectives in the field of addiction psychiatry in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attas, Javier Didia; de Pabón, Elvia Velázquez; Cueva, Rafael Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the addictions field in Latin America. Epidemiology, legal aspects, dual pathology, treatment, prevention and future directions are discussed. This increasing disease is one of the major contributors for mental health problems in the region. Efforts have been made in treatment and prevention but results and budgets are scarce. Dual pathology, new modalities such as injected heroin in countries such as Colombia, low coverage of programmes, training resources, research and publications are important challenges. The tendency to liberalize legal terms of use would require more effort for prevention and education. Based on relevant literature and a long and current experience in the area, the authors summarize this important theme.

  5. Cultural psychiatry: a general perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2013-01-01

    The current scene in the field of cultural psychiatry shows a vigorous growth, multifaceted conceptual and research developments and more relevant clinical presence. After a pertinent definition of the discipline, this chapter examines the contribution of cultural psychiatry to the etiopathogenesis of mental disorders, to the variations of clinical presentations in numerous entities, to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment and to the relatively unexplored rubric of preventive psychiatry. Advanced concepts of neurosciences and technology-based research can find a place in the realm of biocultural correlates. The role of culture in the definition of mental illness, the renewed notions of the old 'culture-bound syndromes', hope, cognition and culture in psychiatric treatments (including the so-called 'cultural therapies'), and resiliency are areas duly examined and discussed. Cultural psychiatry has re-emerged as a reliable body of knowledge aimed at a comprehensive assessment of human beings as patients.

  6. [Elements for an history of the therapeutic community in Western psychiatry of the 2nd half of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussinger, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Based on a critique of the traditional ruling of mental hospital, therapeutic community is an innovative model elaborated in Great Britain during World War II. According to this approach, all the relationships at work inside the institution have a big impact on the patients' state. One of the favoured tools of the therapeutic community lies in regular meetings common to patients and staff, but also reserved to professionals. During these sessions small and big problems are intended to be discussed and resolved collectively. The constitution of this approach as a model and its diffusion in continental European psychiatry during the second half of the 20th century is described in this paper. Four stages are distinguished: the genesis, the constitution of a distinct approach and diffusion in Continental Europe, the radicalisation and criticism by the antipsychiatric movement, the institutionalisation and decline.

  7. The Brazilian Neurology centenary (1912-2012 and the common origin of the fields of Neurology and Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is reported the Brazilian Neurology birth (1912, that has as the hallmark its first Neurology Cathedra of Rio de Janeiro, and the links between Neurology and Psychiatry, besides the main medical protagonists at that time in Rio de Janeiro: João Carlos Teixeira Brandão (1854-1921, first professor of the cathedra of Clinical Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases (1883-1921; Juliano Moreira (1873-1933, the founder of the Brazilian scientific Psychiatry and director of the Hospício Nacional de Alienados (National Hospice for the Insane (1903-1930; Antônio Austregésilo Rodrigues de Lima (1876-1960, first professor of the cathedra of Neurology, considered the father of the Brazilian Neurology. Aloysio de Castro (1881-1959 was a great Brazilian neurosemiologist at that time. Austregésilo practiced both disciplines, Neurology and Psychiatry, and like Jean-Martin-Charcot, he was very interested in a typically psychiatric disorder, the hysteria. It is also considered in this paper the first Brazilian authors of Neurology and/or Psychiatric texts and the places where Neurology was initially developed by the main founders: Hospício Nacional de Alienados, Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro and Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro.

  8. Considerations on occupational therapy in a custody and psychiatric treatment hospital: The psychosocial field versus the forensic psychiatry field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH is ambivalent and ambiguous in its essence, because it gathers not only the characteristics of a mental institution, but also those of a prison – epitomized by the security system. By analyzing this context, one can perceive the importance of implementing some knowhow able to attend the real needs of the individuals hospitalized in this type of institution. This interpretation of their needs must be done in association with a work in mental health based on the principles of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and Psychosocial Field Practice. The objective of this study is to reflect on the real possibilities of implementing mental health work based on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, inserted in the Psychosocial Field, in institutions such as CPTHs. This reflection occurs from the conflicts arisen in the beginning of Occupational Therapy service in a CPTH located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, as well as through the analysis of the reality in which this Custody Hospital is inserted. When studying the Psychiatric Reform Law, ordinance 28.195/1988, which deliberates on the functions of Occupational Therapy in the CPTHs of the state of Sao Paulo, and the Penal Execution Law, the reality was analyzed from its dimensions, to conclude that the institutional forces ruled the work process of occupational therapists. Therefore, the structural, particular, singular dimensions that rule the CPTH were understood and, after that, the “nodes” that hinder the implementation of mental health work in the Psychosocial Field in this type of institution were revealed.

  9. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhottová, D; Szili-Kovács, T; Tríska, J

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation of sandy grassland soils from two different stages of secondary succession on abandoned fields (4 and 8 years old fallow) was carried out as a part of research focused on restoration of semi-natural vegetation communities in Kiskunság National Park in Hungary. There was an apparent total N and organic C enrichment, stimulation of microbial growth and microbial community structure change on fields abandoned by agricultural practice (small family farm) in comparison with native undisturbed grassland. A successional trend of the microbial community was found after 4 and 8 years of fallow-lying soil. It consisted in a shift of r-survival strategy to more efficient C economy, in a decrease of specific respiration and metabolic activity, forced accumulation of storage bacterial compounds and increased fungal distribution. The composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids mixture of soils abandoned at various times was significantly different.

  10. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  11. Mechanisms and Reduction in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Marie

    2016-01-01

    The view that psychiatry should be elucidating the mechanisms behind mental phenomena is gaining momentum. This view, coupled with an intuition that such mechanisms must, by nature, be biological, has inspired the field to look to cognitive neuroscience for classification of mental illnesses. One...... of causation and mechanism to bridge the gab between mechanistic explanations and multilevel models of mental disorders....

  12. TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The situation of present day psychiatry is described as being dominated by an empiricist perspective. The limitations of this perspective are analyzed and a rough sketch of the hermeneutical approach in psychiatry is offered. It is argued that a fully developed hermeneutical psychiatry implies a ref

  13. Computational neurology and psychiatry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta; Cochran, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in computational methods for modeling and simulating brain disorders. In particular, it shows how mathematical models can be used to study the relationship between a given disorder and the specific brain structure associated with that disorder. It also describes the emerging field of computational psychiatry, including the study of pathological behavior due to impaired functional connectivity, pathophysiological activity, and/or aberrant decision-making. Further, it discusses the data analysis techniques that will be required to analyze the increasing amount of data being generated about the brain. Lastly, the book offers some tips on the application of computational models in the field of quantitative systems pharmacology. Mainly written for computational scientists eager to discover new application fields for their model, this book also benefits neurologists and psychiatrists wanting to learn about new methods.

  14. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  15. Structure and process of university teaching in psychiatry: a field for methods of quality assurance and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkmann, Claus

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Given the exceptional workload at a university psychiatric hospital and the current emphasis on clinical medicine and science, teaching is systematically being neglected.Methods: With the help of evaluation methods involving the completion of a questionnaire, lectures and seminars held during one semester at the Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf were assessed separately by students and lecturers in terms of form, content, lecturers, and overall assessment.Results: Despite organizational shortcomings, the lectures and seminars were rated on average as good in all four assessment areas. Using a bivariate prediction model, it was possible to explain 46% of the variance in overall assessment. A surprisingly high concordance was found between the assessments by students and lecturers.Conclusion: Continuous and systematic evaluation of lectures and seminars ensures and improves the quality of current and future teaching methods.

  16. 基于 ESI 的精神病与心理学领域科技论文分析%Analysis on Literatures in Psychiatry and Psychology Field Based on ESI Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹引; 靳彬

    2015-01-01

    基于ESI数据库对2004-2014年全球精神病与心理学领域科技论文进行计量分析,通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊等各项指标的比较,明确我国在精神病与心理学领域的学术地位及不足,为我国精神病与心理学的科研发展提供参考。%Based on ESI database, the paper carries out bibliometric analysis on international psychiatry and psychology literatures during 2004-2014, through comparison of country/region, institutions and journal distribution, it demonstrates the academic status and weakness of our country in psychiatry and psychology field, providing references psychiatry and psychology scientific research development in our country.

  17. Preventive psychiatry: Current status in contemporary psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive psychiatry is one of the most ignored subdiscipline of psychiatry, which has got important role to play in the contemporary psychiatry. Mental disorders are very common with lifetime prevalence of about 25%, and tend to be chronic. Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, lack of awareness, and also lack of adequate mental health resources, nearly 60%–80% of the persons suffering from mental disorders do not access mental health care services. Mental and substance use disorders have been identified as one of the major contributors to the disease-related burden and disability-adjusted life years. In this background, preventive psychiatry has an important role to play in public health sector. Since etiology of most of the mental disorders is not known, it is not possible to follow here the standard model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of public health. A concept of universal, selective, and indicated prevention has been proposed in primary prevention. Preventive approaches in psychiatry focus on evidence-based risk and protective factors, promoting quality of life, reducing stressors, and improving resilience. Such interventions, when planned targeting at specific mental disorders, have a potential to prevent mental disorders. Thus, preventive psychiatry has a crucial role to play in mental health, considering the high prevalence of mental disorders, the associated disability and burden, and a great drain on human resources.

  18. The Persistence of Neighboring as a Determinant of Community Attachment: A Community Field Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Daniel R.; Sapp, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the community field perspective as a complement to the linear-development and systemic models of community attachment, wherein community attachment is defined as a social bond to the community of place. We empirically evaluated indicators of the actor's interaction within the social field, such as the perceived quality of neighboring…

  19. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  20. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American ...

  2. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  3. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Mental Health Disorders A – Z Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2017 American Psychiatric ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2017 ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2017 American Psychiatric ...

  6. Lobotomy in Norwegian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranøy, Joar; Blomberg, Wenche

    2005-03-01

    Lobotomy is still a hidden chapter in the history of Norwegian psychiatry. The main reasons, which are discussed here, may have been the role of Ørnulv Ødegård at Gaustad Hospital in Oslo and the links between health authorities and the power élite in Norwegian psychiatry.

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2017 ...

  8. The integrative approach to psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Z J

    1990-12-01

    From the early days of psychiatry as a distinct field of knowledge and clinical practice two competing approaches to the etiology and treatment of mental disorders have vied for dominance: the somatic and the psychic ("moral"). We are witnessing the same struggle today. To speak metaphorically, we can opt for either brainless or mindless psychiatry, as Szasz proposed. He failed to consider a third option, however, one that may be called an integrative approach. The latter is neither mindless nor brainless but rather encompasses both the mind and the brain in its theoretical and practical consideration. I will formulate the integrative approach in this paper and argue that it has a distinct advantage for both the study and treatment of mental disorders.

  9. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge.

  10. What Psychiatry Means to Me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Herrman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving in early career from public health physician to psychiatrist gives me a public health view of psychiatry and an interest in pursuing the goals of widening access to community-based services for people with mental disorders and promoting mental health in communities. Training in social medicine in the UK and psychiatry in Australia lead to studies of homelessness in people living with psychotic disorders, the health of family caregivers, assessing quality of life and mental health promotion. Work with the World Health Organization (WHO in the Western Pacific Region and the World Psychiatric Association (WPA worldwide has given me opportunities to work with psychiatrists, mental health workers, service users and others in governments and non-government organisations implementing the recommendations of the World Health Report 2001 in countries with limited resources. My work as WPA Secretary for Publications seeks to improve information exchange in countries irrespective of their wealth. This is an exciting time to be working in a global village with technical capacity to reach into its furthest corners. Psychiatrists supported by WPA can help ensure that vulnerable people and communities and people living with mental disorders are well served in this new environment and no longer left out and left behind.

  11. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  12. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Psychiatric medications can help correct imbalances in brain chemistry that are thought to be involved in some ... additional specialized training after their four years of general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Annual Meeting Advocacy & APAPAC APA ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical ...

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association ...

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections What Is Psychiatry? ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorders with psychotherapy and some specialize in psychological testing and evaluation. More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist ... Coping After Disaster, Trauma Share Your Story Suicide Prevention Warning Signs of Mental Illness What is Psychiatry? ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & Families ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections What Is Psychiatry? Back ...

  3. Community Monitoring for REDD+: International Promises and Field Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Danielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Will community monitoring assist in delivering just and equitable REDD+? We assessed whether local communities can effectively estimate carbon stocks in some of the world's most carbon rich forests, using simple field protocols, and we reviewed whether community monitoring exists in current REDD+ pilots. We obtained similar results for forest carbon when measured by communities and professional foresters in 289 vegetation plots in Southeast Asia. Most REDD+ monitoring schemes, however, contain no community involvement. To close the gulf between United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change texts on involving communities and field implementation realities, we propose greater embedding of community monitoring within national REDD+ pilot schemes, which we argue will lead to a more just REDD+.

  4. Genetics in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Nizamie, Shamshul Haque

    2014-04-01

    Today, psychiatrists are focusing on genetics aspects of various psychiatric disorders not only for a future classification of psychiatric disorders but also a notion that genetics would aid in the development of new medications to treat these disabling illnesses. This review therefore emphasizes on the basics of genetics in psychiatry as well as focuses on the emerging picture of genetics in psychiatry and their future implications.

  5. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  6. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krener, P

    1994-03-01

    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market.

  7. Assisting Undergraduate Physician Assistant Training in Psychiatry: The Role of Academic Psychiatry Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Ferguson, Britnay A

    2015-12-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are medical professionals who practice medicine with the supervision of a physician through delegated autonomy. PA school accreditation standards provide limited guidance for training PAs in psychiatry. As a result, PA students may receive inconsistent and possibly inadequate exposure to psychiatry. Providing broad and in-depth exposure to the field of psychiatry is important to attract PA students to pursue careers in psychiatry and provide a possible solution to the shortage of psychiatrists nationwide. Additionally, this level of exposure will prepare PA students who pursue careers in other fields of medicine to recognize and address their patient's psychiatric symptoms in an appropriate manner. This training can be provided by an academic department of psychiatry invested in the education of PA students. We describe a training model implemented at our university that emphasizes psychiatrist involvement in the preclinical year of PA school and full integration of PA students into the medical student psychiatry clerkship during the clinical years. The benefits and challenges to implementing this model are discussed as well.

  8. The application of MRI and MRS in psychiatry and performance evaluation of magnetic field homogeneity in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Hsuan

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a safe non-invasive tool to study the physiological mechanisms of the human brain. MRS has the capability to provide the information regarding neurochemicals in brains of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, to produce measurable and interpretable information in MRI and MRS, a quality control (QC) program is required. Magnetic field homogeneity (MFH) is an important factor for QC when the volume sizes and neurochemical levels are quantified. Poor main (B0) MFH leads to artifacts, signal losses and broadened line widths. The American College of Radiology's (ACR) MRI QC manual mandates annual checks of MFH, suggesting tests using spectral line widths (FWHM) and phase-difference (Deltaϕ) maps. A new method, dubbed the bandwidth-difference (DeltaBW) method, is proposed along with a prototype phantom for determining MFH. The DeltaBW method is compared with standard methods and has also been tested in different model MRI systems from various manufacturers. Direct comparisons of the data obtained using the DeltaBW method demonstrated good agreement with data obtained using the linewidth method and the frequency map data provided by one MRI system manufacturer. As a result, the DeltaBW method produces measurements of MFH at various Diameter Sphere Volume (DSV) values that can be obtained from a single set of phantom images. The conclusion of the study is that the accuracy of DeltaBW B0 homogeneity measurements of MFH is comparable to the other methods tested while the ease of measurement in practical clinical setting is considerably improved.

  9. Some gestalt contributions to psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Kathleen A

    2010-07-01

    Gestalt theory and methods support significant behavioral change and personal growth, yet they have not been widely incorporated into modern psychiatric practice. Challenges to employing Gestalt principles in psychiatric practice exist, such as focus on diagnosis to guide treatment planning, key elements of psychiatric training, primacy of medication management in psychiatric practice, and financial pressures. However, the concepts of the co-created relational field in the here and now, the paradoxical theory of change, the cycle of experience, and the use of experiment are Gestalt concepts and methods that can be effectively applied in the modern practice of clinical psychiatry and psychiatric education.

  10. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide.

  11. Undergraduate Child Psychiatry Teaching in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Jenny K.; McCallum, Zoe; Bevan, Catherine; Vance, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The teaching of child psychiatry in Australian medical schools is under review: the content, the placement of the field within medical curricula, and the appropriate teaching and learning methods are all contested. The authors developed a 1-day program in the 9-week child and adolescent health course conducted in the final two semesters…

  12. [Challenges for the future of psychiatry and psychiatric medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the prolonged economic recession and global financial crisis, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 has caused great fear and devastation in Japan. In the midst of these, Japanese people have felt to lose the traditional values and common sense they used to share, and it has become necessary to build a new consciousness. Engaged in psychiatry and psychiatric care under these circumstances, we have to analyze the challenges we face and to brainstorm on appropriate prescriptions that can be applied to solve the problems. Five points in particular were brought up: [1] The persistently high number of suicides. [2] The increase in depression and overflowing numbers of patients visiting clinics and outpatient departments at hospitals. [3] The absolute shortage of child psychiatrists. [4] Little progress with the transition from hospitalization-centered to community-centered medical care. [5] The disappearance of beds for psychiatry patients from general hospitals. The situations surrounding these five issues were briefly analyzed and problems were pointed out. The following are five problems that psychiatry is facing: 1) A lack of large clinical trials compared to the rest of the world. 2) The drug lag and handling of global trials. 3) The lack of staff involved in education and research (in the field of psychiatry). 4) Following the DSM diagnostic criteria dogmatically, without differentiating therapeutics. 5) Other medical departments, the industry, patients, and their families are demanding objective diagnostic techniques. After analyzing the problems, and discussing to some extent what kind of prescription may be considered to solve the problems, I gave my opinion. (1) The first problem is the deep-rooted prejudice and discrimination against psychiatric disorders that continue to be present among Japanese people. The second problem is the government's policy of low remuneration (fees) for psychiatric services. The third problem, symbolic of the

  13. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  14. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brittlebank, A.; Hermans, M.; Bhugra, D.; Costa, M.; Rojnic-Kuzman, M.; Fiorillo, A.; Kurimay, T.; Hanon, C.; Wasserman, D.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Europeenne des Medecins Specialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an

  15. Student career choice in psychiatry: findings from 18 UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Neel; Hadjidemetriou, Christiana; Pearson, Rachel; Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Psychiatry recruitment continues to be a problem in the UK and large-scale studies are required to understand the factors surrounding this. A quantitative, cross-sectional online survey, incorporating demographics, career choices, teaching exposure, attitudes to psychiatry and personality factors, was administered to final-year UK medical students. A total of 484 students from 18 medical schools responded (66% women). Sixteen (16%) had chosen psychiatry at medical school entry. By final year, 15 respondents (3%) had decided to pursue a career in psychiatry, while another 78 (17%) were seriously considering it. There was little difference in the quality ratings of lectures and small group teaching between those interested in psychiatry and those not. Experience of 'enrichment activities' (psychiatry special study modules or components, psychiatric research, university psychiatry clubs, and psychiatry electives) were significantly more likely to take up psychiatry. Causality cannot, however, be determined in this study. The study identified several distinct groups of UK students: those deciding on psychiatry before medical school and maintaining that career choice, those deciding on psychiatry during medical school, and those interested in other fields. Addressing psychiatry teaching and exposure may improve recruitment into the speciality.

  16. Epistemology of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2012-01-01

    In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry.

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International ... an M.D. or D.O.) who specializes in mental health, including substance use disorders. Psychiatrists are ...

  18. Psychiatrie en reclassering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, Walter

    1967-01-01

    Het doel van dit onderzoek is geweest de bestudering van de bijdrage die de hedendaagse psychiatrie aan de reclassering van met de justitie in aanraking gekomen delinquenten kan leveren. In de inleiding wordt erop gewezen hoe de reclassering zich in ons land heeft ontwikkeld van een persoonlijk init

  19. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  20. Can Interoception Improve the Pragmatic Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; Lapidus, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted interoception is a prominent feature of the diagnostic classification of several psychiatric disorders. However, progress in understanding the interoceptive basis of these disorders has been incremental, and the application of interoception in clinical treatment is currently limited to panic disorder. To examine the degree to which the scientific community has recognized interoception as a construct of interest, we identified and individually screened all articles published in the English language on interoception and associated root terms in Pubmed, Psychinfo, and ISI Web of Knowledge. This search revealed that interoception is a multifaceted process that is being increasingly studied within the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, and biomedical science. To illustrate the multifaceted nature of interoception, we provide a focused review of one of the most commonly studied interoceptive channels, the cardiovascular system, and give a detailed comparison of the most popular methods used to study cardiac interoception. We subsequently review evidence of interoceptive dysfunction in panic disorder, depression, somatic symptom disorders, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. For each disorder, we suggest how interoceptive predictions constructed by the brain may erroneously bias individuals to express key symptoms and behaviors, and outline questions that are suitable for the development of neuroscience-based mental health interventions. We conclude that interoception represents a viable avenue for clinical and translational research in psychiatry, with a well-established conceptual framework, a neural basis, measurable biomarkers, interdisciplinary appeal, and transdiagnostic targets for understanding and improving mental health outcomes. PMID:27504098

  1. Can interoception improve the pragmatic search for biomarkers in psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahib S Khalsa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted interoception is a prominent feature of the diagnostic classification of several psychiatric disorders. However, progress in understanding the interoceptive basis of these disorders has been incremental and the application of interoception in clinical treatment is currently limited to panic disorder. To examine the degree to which the scientific community has recognized interoception as a construct of interest, we identified and individually screened all articles published in the English language on interoception and associated root terms in Pubmed, Psychinfo and ISI Web of Knowledge. This search revealed that interoception is a multifaceted process that is being increasingly studied within the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience and biomedical science. To illustrate the multifaceted nature of interoception we provide a focused review of one of the most commonly studied interoceptive channels, the cardiovascular system, and give a detailed comparison of the most popular methods used to study cardiac interoception. We subsequently review evidence of interoceptive dysfunction in panic disorder, depression, somatic symptom disorders, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. For each disorder, we suggest how interoceptive predictions constructed by the brain may erroneously bias individuals to express key symptoms and behaviors, and outline questions that are suitable for the development of neuroscience-based mental health interventions. We conclude that interoception represents a viable avenue for clinical and translational research in psychiatry, with a well-established conceptual framework, a neural basis, measurable biomarkers, interdisciplinary appeal, and transdiagnostic targets for understanding and improving mental health outcomes.

  2. Random field Ising model and community structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-W.; Jeong, H.; Noh, J. D.

    2006-04-01

    We propose a method to determine the community structure of a complex network. In this method the ground state problem of a ferromagnetic random field Ising model is considered on the network with the magnetic field Bs = +∞, Bt = -∞, and Bi≠s,t=0 for a node pair s and t. The ground state problem is equivalent to the so-called maximum flow problem, which can be solved exactly numerically with the help of a combinatorial optimization algorithm. The community structure is then identified from the ground state Ising spin domains for all pairs of s and t. Our method provides a criterion for the existence of the community structure, and is applicable equally well to unweighted and weighted networks. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to the Barabási-Albert network, Zachary karate club network, the scientific collaboration network, and the stock price correlation network. (Ising, Potts, etc.)

  3. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay V Bagadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address.

  4. Confidentiality principles in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasevici, B

    2015-01-01

    Confidentiality stands out in psychiatry through its multiple connotations as an intrinsic necessity in the ethics of professional relationships. Thus it represents an important characteristic of this profession and at the same time a stringent request which, through its specificity, implies a direct contact with persons in need for help. Despite being inserted in professional codes and legislative systems, confidentiality in psychiatry is far from being considered a clarified matter and does not stand aside from ethical controversy. Keeping the professional secret is often a hard task due to the pressure of the law or of other professional groups who can bring multiple justifications, including that of action for the benefit of society. The therapist is often sub- mitted to a tension caused on the one hand by the promise of keeping the professional secret and on the other hand by multiple requests of breaking the confidentiality. So the problem of confidentiality in Psychiatry deserves special attention because in this profession, more than in other branches of medicine, the gain of the patient's trust is essential in the psychotherapeutic relationship.

  5. What psychiatry means to us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Trivedi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other.

  6. Family Therapy in the Black Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, John Lewis

    The field of family therapy is a relatively new one, growing and gaining wider acceptance in the areas of social work, psychiatry, psychology, and community mental health. It has influenced the shift from individually oriented theory and techniques to a social systems approach, emphasizing the relationship between family members. While research…

  7. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  8. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  9. Measuring the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2011-01-01

    to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists...

  10. The new philosophy of psychiatry: its (recent) past, present and future: a review of the Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.

  11. Impact of a psychiatry clerkship on stigma, attitudes towards psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Zaza; Janca, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses are a major public health problem around the world and the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders is growing. Psychiatry is an unpopular career choice for many medical students and this impacts negatively on the supply of psychiatrists to the workforce. The psychiatry clerkship can play an important role in influencing students’ attitudes towards psychiatry, either positively or negatively. However, stigma towards mental illness detracts students from con...

  12. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  13. European psychiatry: needs, challenges and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höschl, Cyril

    2009-11-01

    European psychiatry stays now on the crossroad due to conceptual challenges, drifts of political power from the national to the European level, the current economical situation, arising ethical concerns and an emphasis on patients rights. The latter challenge mainly the structure of mental health care demanding a more important role of patients and families. The needs of harmonisation of research, educational, legislative, and political activities in the field of mental health on the European level are briefly discussed.

  14. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    psychiatrist to come to possess a specialized field of knowledge. The Internet also enables psychiatrists, while being at their residence and from their offices and homes in remote areas of a country, or from developing countries to be able to take part relatively easily in continuing medical education programs that are under development in advanced educational centers, eliminating in this way the barrier of distance. Furthermore, telemedicine allows access in health-care to people living in geographically isolated areas with poor medical facilities. The electronic filing systems on the other hand, are also expected in the near future to provide the essential foundation of sharing and managing information material in health care. Apart from the uses of technology in the practice of psychiatry, technology has many uses in Psychiatric Education, providing valuable assistance to both trainees and trainers. Today the educational community has at its disposal a range of devices, operating systems, and web applications useful in medical education. For example, we can mention the existence of technological tools for educational administration and management, evaluation of educational work, tools for creating educational content, and learning outside the confines of the classroom. Developments arising from the use of technology are rapid, and its use brings new applications that have the potential to alter the framework of practicing medicine. However, in many cases, these applications do not go along with the guidelines and principles available to doctors in order to practice their profession in a manner not inconsistent with moral imperatives. The challenge of this new environment is to establish guidelines consistent with the principles of medical ethics.

  15. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  16. A social paradigm in psychiatry - themes and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, S

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatry as science is underpinned by paradigms. Considering whether a social paradigm may help to advance the current state of psychiatry, the review provides a reference to the rich, but fragmented past of related initiatives in the history of psychiatry and a personal view of themes, challenges and perspectives of using a social paradigm in psychiatry. Major themes are the evidence on social determinants of mental health; the value-based importance of integrating people with mental disorders in society; options to overcome the social isolation and improve the networks of psychiatric patients; utilising a systemic approach for interventions in families and communities; and understanding group and one-to-one treatments in psychiatry primarily as social interactions. Whilst all these themes open up perspectives for future action and/or research, there are also conceptual challenges through the limitations of the current construct of mental disorders and the dominating terminology. Initiatives for using a social paradigm in psychiatry may refer to important achievements in the past, but need to go beyond this and consider on-going societal changes. Innovation may benefit from close collaboration with social sciences and humanities.

  17. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  18. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  19. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  20. Old-field Community, Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimee Classen

    2009-11-01

    We are in the process of finishing a number of laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse projects, analyzing data, and writing papers. The projects reported addressed these subjects: How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground plant biomass and community structure; Effects of multiple climate changes factors on plant community composition and diversity: what did we learn from a 5-year open-top chamber experiment using constructed old-field communities; Do atmospheric and climatic change factors interact to alter woody seedling emergence, establishment and productivity; Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground root and fungal biomass; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter soil microarthropod and microbial communities; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground microbial function; Linking root litter diversity and microbial functioning at a micro scale under current and projected CO{sub 2} concentrations; Multifactor climate change effects on soil ecosystem functioning depend on concurrent changes in plant community composition; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground insect populations; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter festuca endophyte infection; How do climate and atmospheric changes soil carbon stabilization.

  1. German wine in an American bottle: the spread of modern psychiatry in China, 1898-1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Schmiedebach, Heinz-Peter

    2015-09-01

    Modern psychiatry was first introduced to mainland China around 1900 by Western missionaries. By 1949 the field had developed gradually as a result of contact with Western psychiatry and especially its American practitioners. This paper analyses the role played by key individuals and events in this process in the years prior to 1949. It argues that modern psychiatry was introduced to China through a process of cultural adaptation in which the USA served as a bridge for German thought.

  2. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  3. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots.

  4. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  5. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  6. ["I do the right thing only against payment": A critique of pay for performance in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, G

    2015-11-01

    This paper takes a critical look at pay for performance (P4P) as a model for introducing new incentives in psychiatry. This model is to be seen as a tool of commercialism, and such a restructuring of psychiatry represents a wide-reaching political maneuver which actively introduces economical parameters into the field and will have a great impact on psychiatry. P4P starts with the false premise that medicine has to be structured like industry. This premise is false because psychiatry has to do with relationships to patients, and not with the production of a product. Therefore, it is essential to reflect critically upon the premises and consequences of P4P for psychiatry. Only this critical reflection can help psychiatry to keep its identity as a humane service for suffering people.

  7. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  8. Why a career in psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    To reflect upon the factors that might motivate one to undertake a career in psychiatry from the personal perspective of a current registrar in training. The reasons for choosing a career path in psychiatry are complex, and relate to an individual doctor's life experience, training experiences and own value system. Dissatisfaction with the traditional "medical model" of illness may be a contributing factor, with a perception that psychiatry may embrace the biopsychosocial model of illness more fully. Beyond this, a particular interest in the poetry inherent to an individual's story and appreciation of the artistic underpinnings of medicine may also contribute. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  9. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  10. Personalized medicine in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient's unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. Personalized medicine in psychiatry is challenged by the current taxonomy, where the diagnostic categories are broad and great biological heterogeneity exists within each category. There is, thus, a gap between the current advanced research prospects and clinical practice, and the current taxonomy is, thus, a poor basis for biological research. The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine.

  11. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  12. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  13. A frame of mind from psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintiadis, Elly

    2015-11-01

    A distinctive characteristic of psychiatry is that it is a discipline that deals with both the physical and the mental lives of individuals. Largely because of this characteristic, different models are used for different disorders, however, there is still a remnant tendency towards reductionist views in the field. In this paper I argue that the available empirical evidence from psychiatry gives us reasons to question biological reductionism and that, in its place, we should adopt a pluralistic explanatory model that is more suited to the needs of the discipline and to the needs of the patients it is meant to help. This will allow us to retain psychiatry as an autonomous science that can productively co-exist with neuroscience while also giving patients the kind of attention they need. I further argue that this same evidence supports a view of the mind that is anti-reductive and that allows that causation can be both bottom-up and top-down and that such a view is available in emergentism coupled with an interventionist model of causation.

  14. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  15. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  16. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  17. [The transfer of psychiatry-narratives, termini and cross-cultural psychiatry in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on German and Japanese sources and shows how around 1900 European psychiatric concepts and practices embedded themselves into emerging scientific Japanese discourses. The article argues that now forgotten German-Japanese exchanges in the field of psychiatric pathology, together with the historical development of psychiatric care, were central mechanisms for the establishment of a distinctly psychiatric discourse in Japan priot to its broad institutionalization. Three discursive strategies were key: Japanese and German experts from a range of medical fields reinvented a body of traditions loosely related to actual pre-modern cultural practices; they engaged in comparative evaluations of psychiatric conditions; and, through the simple but effective transformation of specific concepts and termini at the margins of European psychiatry, these experts contributed to the transfer not only of a psychiatric discourse but also affected the power relations on a national and international scale as European psychiatry permeated into new territory, namely the Japanese landscape of emerging modern scientific disciplines.

  18. Neuropsychiatry and neuroscience education of psychiatry trainees: attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon; Travis, Michael J; Cooper, Joseph J; Dickey, Chandlee C; Reardon, Claudia L

    2014-04-01

    The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) Task Force on Neuropsychiatry and Neuroscience Education of Psychiatry Residents was established in 2011 with the charge to seek information about what the field of psychiatry considers the core topics in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience to which psychiatry residents should be exposed; whether there are any "competencies" in this area on which the field agrees; whether psychiatry departments have the internal capacity to teach these topics if they are desirable; and what the reception would be for "portable curricula" in neuroscience. The task force reviewed the literature and developed a survey instrument to be administered nationwide to all psychiatry residency program directors. The AADPRT Executive Committee assisted with the survey review, and their feedback was incorporated into the final instrument. In 2011-2012, 226 adult and child and adolescent psychiatry residency program directors responded to the survey, representing over half of all US adult and child psychiatry training directors. About three quarters indicated that faculty resources were available in their departments but 39% felt the lack of neuropsychiatry faculty and 36% felt the absence of neuroscience faculty to be significant barriers. Respectively, 64 and 60% felt that neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience knowledge were very important or critically important to the provision of excellent care. Ninety-two percent were interested in access to portable neuroscience curricula. There is widespread agreement among training directors on the importance of neuropsychiatry and neuroscience knowledge to general psychiatrists but barriers to training exist, including some programs that lack faculty resources and a dearth of portable curricula in these areas.

  19. State of psychiatry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-01-01

    of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part...... to the somatic specialities, handicapping development in psychiatry. Action has been taken to increase research activity in psychiatry. This is facilitated by an increasing interest among medical students and young graduate physicians attracted by the neuropsychiatric paradigm, rapidly implemented in Danish...

  20. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  1. Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H; Wilson, James V Kinnier

    2014-09-01

    We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry. They had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. stroke or facial palsy, had a physical basis requiring the attention of a physician or asû, using a plant and mineral based pharmacology; some disorders such as epilepsy, psychoses, depression and anxiety were regarded as supernatural due to evil demons or spirits, or the anger of personal gods, and thus required the intervention of the priest or ašipu; other disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour were regarded as a mystery. The Babylonians were the first to describe the clinical foundations of neurology and psychiatry. We discuss these accounts in relation to subsequent and more modern clinical descriptions.

  2. A new ethics of psychiatry: neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Erick H

    2009-09-01

    Neuroethics is a new subset of bioethics that addresses ethical issues pertaining to the brain, primarily in the fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and neuroradiology. Research in brain science is progressing at a phenomenal rate and, as a result, the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology raises ethical questions of a practical and philosophical nature. While neuroethics is developing as a distinct field of study, one area that should be addressed in greater depth is the relevance and potential impact of neurotechnology in psychiatry. New knowledge in the mind-brain conundrum and increasingly sophisticated techniques for imaging and intervening in human cognition, emotion, and behavior pose ethical issues at the intersection of technology and psychiatry. This article presents a broad survey of the new directions in neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology and considers the implications of technological advances for the practice of psychiatry in the new millennium. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2009;15:391-401).

  3. Incorporating active learning in psychiatry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith

    2017-06-01

    We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.

  4. [A role of Russian psychiatrists in the formation of forensic psychiatry in Russia in the beginning of XIX century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchasniy, K V

    2016-01-01

    The formation of forensic psychiatry knowledge as a special area of concern was due to fundamental changes in the social, economic and political life of Russia society. It reflected public awareness of the urgent need in solving the problem of support, preserve and maintain the mental health of the people. Forensic psychiatry was based on the development of psychiatry, public health and community medicine. Author describes of the role of Russian psychiatrists in the formation of forensic psychiatry, their active particitpation in internation professional meetings and in the development of the problem of responsibility.

  5. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain?

  6. On the history of cultural psychiatry: Georges Devereux, Henri Ellenberger, and the psychological treatment of Native Americans in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Henri Ellenberger (1905-1993) wrote the first French-language synthesis of transcultural psychiatry ("Ethno-psychiatrie") for the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale in 1965. His work casts new light on the early development of transcultural psychiatry in relation to scientific communities and networks, particularly on the role of Georges Devereux (1908-1985). The Ellenberger archives offer the possibility of comparing published texts with archival ones to create a more nuanced account of the history of transcultural psychiatry, and notably of the psychological treatment of Native Americans. This paper examines some key moments in the intellectual trajectories of Devereux and Ellenberger, including Devereux's dispute with Ackerknecht, the careers of Devereux and Ellenberger as therapists at the Menninger Foundation (Topeka, Kansas) in the 1950s, and their respective positions in the research network developed by McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) with the newsletter Transcultural Research in Mental Health Problems Finally, I consider their ties to other important figures in this field as it transitioned from colonial medicine to academic medicine, including Roger Bastide (France), Henri Collomb and the Ortigues (France and Africa), as well as Eric Wittkower and Brian Murphy (Canada) and Alexander Leighton (United States and Canada).

  7. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members of AACAP. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities More... ... More... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement ...

  8. Forensic psychiatry in Africa: prospects and challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health care has always had an important interface with the law.1 Nevertheless, .... protection of the mentally ill user's human rights. According to the South .... Njenga F. Forensic psychiatry:The African experience. World. Psychiatry 2006 ...

  9. [Human dignity as foundation of an ethics in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Johannes; Knoepffler, Nikolaus

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatry is distinguished from other fields of medical expertise and bears a particular kind of responsibility, namely the treatment of persons incapable of informed consent per se. The History of psychiatry shows that much too often inhuman abuse was happening in psychiatric facilities. An ethics of psychiatry therefore requires a reliable and stable foundation for values that allow justifying normative claims embracing both characteristics. Such a basic foundation already exists in form of the pluralistic and international recognition of human dignity. We argue that human dignity does and has to go beyond "respect for autonomy" and by that it can function as highest authority on questions concerning value judgments on critical cases in psychiatric bioethics.

  10. Communication skills in psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel

    2015-08-01

    Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Field Evidence for Magnetite Formation by a Methanogenic Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, S.; Beaver, C. L.; Williams, A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lund, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aged, subsurface petroleum spill in Bemidji, Minnesota, has been surveyed with magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements. High MS values were found in the free-product phase around the fluctuating water table. Although we had hypothesized that high MS values are related to the occurrence of the mineral magnetite resulting from the activity of iron-reducing bacteria, our microbial analysis pointed to the presence of a methanogenic microbial community at the locations and depths of the highest MS values. Here, we report on a more detailed microbial analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of sediment samples from four consecutive years. In addition, we provide geochemical data (FeII/FeIII concentrations) to refine our conceptual model of methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation at aged petroleum spills and demonstrate that the microbial induced changes of sediment properties can be monitored with MS. The methanogenic microbial community at the Bemidji site consisted mainly of the syntrophic, hydrocarbon-degrading Smithella and the hydrogenotrophic, methane-generating Methanoregula. There is growing evidence in the literature that not only Bacteria, but also some methanogenic Archaea are able to reduce iron. In fact, a recent study reported that the methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila produced magnetite during the reduction of ferrihydrite in a laboratory experiment when hydrogen was present. Therefore, our finding of high MS values and the presence of magnetite in the methanogenic zone of an aged, subsurface petroleum spill could very well be the first field evidence for magnetite formation during methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation.

  12. Internet resources for psychiatry and neuropsychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, J.; Sharpe, M

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most useful internet resources relevant to psychiatry and neuropsychiatry are summarised. Web sites recommended for professionals and patients are detailed, including where to find evidence based psychiatry, psychiatry news, and professional organisations. Some thoughts on "cyberchondria" and the opportunities that the internet offers for illness transmission are also considered.

  13. Internet resources for psychiatry and neuropsychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J; Sharpe, M

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most useful internet resources relevant to psychiatry and neuropsychiatry are summarised. Web sites recommended for professionals and patients are detailed, including where to find evidence based psychiatry, psychiatry news, and professional organisations. Some thoughts on "cyberchondria" and the opportunities that the internet offers for illness transmission are also considered. PMID:12486258

  14. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... APA's Vision, Mission, Values, and Goals Meet Our Organization Read APA Organization Documents and Policies Work at APA Contact Us ... centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, military settings, rehabilitation programs, emergency rooms, hospice ...

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including private practices, clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing ... Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Personality Disorders Postpartum ... (PTSD) Schizophrenia Sleep Disorders Somatic Symptom Disorder ...

  17. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... year of residency training is typically in a hospital working with patients with a wide range of ... settings, including private practices, clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychiatric medications can help correct imbalances in brain chemistry that are thought to be involved in some ... centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, military settings, rehabilitation programs, emergency rooms, hospice ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practices, clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, military settings, rehabilitation programs, emergency rooms, hospice programs, and many other ...

  20. The structure of mental health research: networks of influence among psychiatry and clinical psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, N; Lusher, D

    2011-12-01

    Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.

  1. The state of psychiatry in the Netherlands: strength by quality, influence by capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel, Maarten A; Gerrits, Wieneke L J; Niesink, Peter; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2012-08-01

    Psychiatry and mental healthcare in the Netherlands has a long history of institutional care, slowly more adapted to the community, but differentiated from mainstream healthcare in terms of organization and remuneration. It is in a crucial phase of reconsideration. Along with harsh cuts on the budgets in healthcare, the field is in transition where training is concerned. The good news is that in fruitful cooperation the government and all spcialist parties involved in mental healthcare are on the verge of reaching an important agreement that should make mental healthcare more patient centred, affordable and accessible for those who need it. The bad news that needs serious consideration and ongoing action is that mental health problems are still highly stigmatized and that as a result the government could impose an unjust and unfair own financial contribution for users in mental care as a means of lowering the costs in the field.

  2. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  3. Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors: A Missed Opportunity for Psychiatry Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Krystal, John H

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points. For each major, the authors determined rates of specialty choice of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and, for comparison, internal medicine. This study employed Chi-square statistic to compare odds of various specialty choices among different majors. Among medical students with an undergraduate neuroscience major (3.5% of all medical students), only 2.3% preferred psychiatry at matriculation, compared to 21.5% who chose neurology, 13.1% neurosurgery, and 11% internal medicine. By graduation, psychiatry specialty choice increased to 5.1% among neuroscience majors while choice of neurology and neurosurgery declined. Psychology majors (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.60-4.47) but not neuroscience majors (OR 1.28, 0.92-1.77) were more likely than their peers to choose psychiatry. Psychiatry struggles to attract neuroscience majors to the specialty. This missed opportunity is an obstacle to developing the neuroscience literacy of the workforce and jeopardizes the neuroscientific future of our field. Several potential strategies to address the recruitment challenges exist.

  4. Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations.

  5. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  6. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  7. Recommendations from the Field: Creating an LGBTQ Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Kathryn S.

    2015-01-01

    This article details the creation of a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) learning community. Created because of research that indicates chilly campus climates (Rankin, 2005), as well as particular needs of LGBTQ students in the classroom, this learning community focused upon LGBTQ topics in and out of the classroom. While…

  8. [Development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Srdjan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Ilanković, Nikola; Dunjić, Dusan; Lakić, Aneta; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Nenadović, Milutin; Randjelović, Dragisa; Milovanović, Dimitrije

    2013-01-01

    The development of legislation in the field of mental health in our region is linked with the emergence and development of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in Serbia.The principle that the mentally ill who committed a criminal offense need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital instead of a prison was introduced at the same time as in the most developed European countries. The founders of the Serbian forensic psychiatry, Dr. Jovan Danić, Dr.Vojislav Subotić Jr. and Dr. Dusan Subotić, were all trained at the first Serbian Psychiatric Hospital ("Home for the Unsound of Mind") that was founded in 1861 in the part of Belgrade called Guberevac. Their successors were psychiatric enthusiasts Prof. Dr.Vladimir F.Vujić and Prof. Dr. Laza Stanojević. A formal establishment of the School of Medicine of Belgrade, with acquirement of new experience and positive shifts within this field, based on the general act of the University in 1932, led to the formation of the Council of the School of Medicine, which, as a collective body passed expert opinions. Thus, the first Forensic Medicine Committee of the School of Medicine was formed and started its activities in 1931 when Forensic Medicine Committee Regulations were accepted. After the World War II prominent educators in the field of mental health, and who particularly contributed to further development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia were Prof. Dr. Uros Jekić, Prof Dr. Dusan Jevtić, Dr. Stevan Jovanović, Prof. Dr. Borislav Kapamadzija, Prof. Dr. Maksim Sternić, Prof. Dr. Josif Vesel and Prof. Dr. Dimitrije Milovanović.

  9. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  10. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  11. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  12. Trends in cultural psychiatry in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry in the United Kingdom exhibits unique characteristics closely related to its history as a colonial power, its relationship with Commonwealth countries and the changing socio-demographic characteristics of its diverse population throughout the centuries. It is not surprising, therefore, that the emergence of this discipline was centred around issues of race and religion. After a brief historical review of the development of cultural psychiatry and the mention of pioneering intellectual and academic figures, as well as the evolvement of the field in organizations such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists, this chapter examines the need of a critical cultural psychiatry, more than a narrative social science distanced from the realities of clinical practice. In such context, issues such as policies and experience with efforts to delivering race equality, and address inequities in a renewed public health approach seem to confer British cultural psychiatry with a defined socially active role aimed at the pragmatic management, understanding and improvement of diverse and alternative systems of care and care practices.

  13. Spatial and Height Distribution of Harvested Rupestrian Field Species in Preserved and Cultivated Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare the spatial and the height distribution of three plant species between two rupestrian field communities, one preserved (A and the other cultivated (B. One 50 × 100 m plot was delimited in each community and the populations of Eremanthus incanus, Lychnophora pinaster and Vellozia caruncularis were assessed for height and spatial distribution (using the Ripleys’s L-function. In community A, 4,098 individuals were counted, mostly L. pinaster, against 220 individuals in community B, prevailing E. incanus. An inverted-J pattern was observed for height distribution in both communities, however, with lower frequencies in B. Regular spatial distribution was found for E. incanus and V. caruncularis in community A, whereas the pattern for L. pinaster depended on the scale of analysis. The spatial distribution of all species differed between communities. The Ecological Park Quedas do Rio Bonito contributes to the conservation of these rupestrian field species.

  14. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...

  15. Factors Affecting the Choice of Psychiatry as a Specialty and Satisfaction among Turkish Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Urun; Ceri, Veysi; Carpar, Elif; Sancak, Baris; Yildirim, Fatma

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the choice of psychiatry among psychiatry residents, identify the fulfillment of expectations, and assess their satisfaction level. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 98 psychiatry residents, and sociodemographic and professional data were collected. Among the reasons for choosing psychiatry, the opportunity to cultivate interest in humanities, importance of social and relational issues, and intellectual challenge were most frequently selected. The opportunity for complete use of medical training, salary, and opportunity to practice psychotherapy were the expectations least met. The largest group of participants was satisfied to have chosen psychiatry (41.5%), decided on psychiatry training after medical school (35.4%), and attached importance to becoming a clinician (70.7%). Although the satisfaction level was high in this study, addressing the areas in which expectations were not met may increase the satisfaction of psychiatry residents and the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.

  16. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  17. Use of Telepsychiatry in Psychodynamic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Anand, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the organization, infrastructure basics, applications, effectiveness, outreach, and implementation barriers related to telepsychiatry. We highlight the tremendous potential and promise that this technology holds and also discuss the importance that telepsychiatry may play in the field of psychodynamic psychiatry. Given the growing effectiveness evidence base for therapy delivered over the Internet, telepsychiatry holds a large unexplored territory to help psychodynamically minded patients connect with psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists. This economically advantageous medium can be utilized to deliver psychodynamically guided approaches to the patient, alone or in combination with pharmacological and other psychosocial interventions. We hope, this article will help psychodynamically trained psychiatrists to consider bridging the gap with the remotely located, chronically mentally ill population which oftentimes has scarcity of resources.

  18. [Hungarian psychiatry in the light of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimay, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    In order to get an accurate picture of mental health and psychiatric care, the article reviews the relevant structures and functioning of the European Union. It examines a few, important professional events that reflect the gaining significance of the issue of mental health within the EU; the 2005 World Health Organization's European Ministerial Conference, the 2008 European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being, and the results of the so-called Thematic Conferences. For the future of the European Union, the articles stresses the crucial need for the continuing research and development, and highlights the benefits of the European Research Region an its framework programmes especially in the fields of brain research and mental health research. The issue of mental health, its care providing system, and the atmosphere of the work place, as the surveying of the Eurobarometer underscored, should be treated as priorities for the EU and during the Hungarian presidency. The programme of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union provides priority to the presentation of the European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being to the Council Conclusion, as well as to the organization of a priority research presidential conference on the regions R and D, entitled "Discovery research in neuropsychiatry: depression, anxiety and schizophrenia in focus." The articles emphasizes the challenges of Hungarian psychiatry, first and foremost the difficulties of human resources, the theoretical context and determined perspectives for the establishment of the new National Psychiatry and Addictology Institute, the need of the move towards GP's and community care, and the importance of the cooperation with civil organizations, and scientific information gathering. The given tasks can only be achieved along with the professional development of psychiatry, with a change of perspectives towards EU since a concentrated multi level allocation of resources is only possible in the

  19. Field visit placements: An integrated and community approach to learning in children's nursing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cummins, Ann

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new initiative, field visit placements towards and integrated and community approach to learning for nursing students. To date, limited literature exists on the potential of community field visits as meaningful learning opportunities for nursing students. Drawing on our experiences, the structure and processes involved in implementing field visits are described in this paper. Students evaluated the field visits positively indicating that they provided a wealth of learning opportunities that enhanced their knowledge and awareness of services available to children and their families in the community. The potential of field visits to promote an integrated and community approach to placements in children\\'s nursing is discussed.

  20. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  1. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  2. The troubled relationship between psychiatry and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David; Rogers, Anne

    2005-09-01

    The alienated relationship between psychiatry and sociology is explored. The two disciplines largely took divergent paths after 1970. On the one side, psychiatry manifested a pre-occupation with methodological questions and sought greater medical respectability, with a biomedical approach returning to the fore. Social psychiatry and its underpinning biopsychosocial model became increasingly marginalised and weakened. On the other side, many sociologists turned away from psychiatry and the epidemiological study of mental health problems and increasingly restricted their interest to social theory and qualitative research. An interdisciplinary void ensued, to the detriment of the investigation of social aspects of mental health.

  3. Ethics in psychiatry: a view from the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenfeld, I N; Silver, R J

    1984-01-01

    Decisions and interventions made in the course of psychiatric practice often have important ethical dimensions. Issues such as confidentiality, freedom of information, the duty to warn, double agentry, the patient's rights to treatment, and to refuse treatment are often identified in the context of inpatient psychiatry. In the practice of ambulatory psychiatry these issues are more easily ignored and therefore less frequently considered. The authors present six cases seen in an outpatient clinic of a community mental health program which illustrate ethical dilemmas in the six areas listed above. Questions raised by the cases and the clinic's interventions are discussed. Consequences for the patients and the clinic of the ethical decisions made in these are explored.

  4. [Logopedia and pediatric psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorák, J

    1990-12-01

    The author presents some methods of special logopaedic examinations of children hospitalized in a psychiatric sanatorium for children. This diagnosis is part of a multidimensional evaluation of the child and the basis for the special development of verbal performance. The author mentions therapeutic methods some diagnostic groups and emphasizes that this work is irreplaceable in the comprehensive concept of paedopsychiatric treatment. Effective logopaedic assistance depends on professional skill which is not taught to teachers at present. In the conclusion the author submits the demand that specialists in this field should be according to norms on the staff of these institutions and should not be engaged only on an optional basis.

  5. Impact of the psychiatry clerkship on medical student attitudes towards psychiatry and to psychiatry as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza

    2014-02-01

    The psychiatry clerkship forms part of the core curriculum of medical schools worldwide and provides psychiatric educators with an ideal opportunity to positively influence students. The aim of this paper is to systematically review literature on the impact of the psychiatry clerkship to determine the effect on attitudes towards psychiatry and to psychiatry as a career. A systematic review was undertaken. The following key search words were used to search a number of electronic databases: medical student/s, attitude/s, psychiatry and clerkship. Studies published in the English language from 1990 to the present were included. Studies were included if they were based on a pre-/post-design, i.e. the same students must have participated in the study both before and after the clerkship. Twenty-six studies from 19 countries were identified for the review. Sixteen studies reported an overall improvement in attitudes towards psychiatry post-clerkship, and ten found no change in attitudes. In terms of career choice, nine studies reported an increase in the number of students interested in psychiatry as a career post-clerkship, nine found no impact on career choice and, in eight studies, it was not assessed. A number of positive and negative factors regarding the clerkship were identified. Overall, the psychiatry clerkship has a positive impact on students' attitudes towards psychiatry, but does not improve interest in psychiatry as a career option. For those students particularly interested in psychiatry, the challenge is to maintain their enthusiasm post-clerkship. Charismatic teachers, mentorship and stigma reduction may be effective strategies. Future research needs to more clearly identify specific components of the clerkship that are viewed favorably by students.

  6. [Future Psychiatry: a "Think Tank" for the Italian Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Future Psychiatry Project was founded with the goal to address the critical ratio of research/training / clinic. Ina series of regular meetings, each devoted to a specific clinical topic, data and more advanced models for the clinical area in questionwill be analyzed in an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and the real possibility of extension of development andprospects of scientific advances to the clinic and therapy will be evaluated.The primary methodological objective of the FuturePsychiatry meetings is the training method to overcome the common type of teacher/learner classroom teaching, albeit dividedinto the various possibilities offered by different types of educational meetings.The structure is informal, with features of intensiveseminars and suggested modes for better interaction.The objective is the "Think Tank", a common space for study and exchangeof knowledge, experiences, opinions and expectations, aimed at producing an integrated and shared dynamic result, thatcan provide a real reference point for participants and for all researchers and clinicians engaged in improving their level of updatingand best clinical activity.The first Future Psychiatry meeting was held in Sermoneta (Latina) in the halls of the Castello Caetanion September 16th to 18th 2010.The chosen topic was "The Future of Depression: the development of knowledge, the evolutionof therapies". The currently most advanced data of research were discussed and developed in their potential to reach ashared model taking into account the etiological complexity of Depression and to be a real reference to the possibility of applicationto real clinical experience.The main guidelines of the current research and major prospects for development of this in thefield Depression have been outlined, also in relation to the ongoing evolution and the future outlook of the models and tools oftherapy. Psychiatrists' clinical needs and expectations in front of the development of scientific

  7. Higher Education Research Community in Taiwan: An Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Chan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the evolution and characteristics of the higher education research community in Taiwan. In echoing the development of the East Asian region, Taiwan has made substantial progress during the past two decades. The massification of higher education itself has played a major role in promoting the academic differentiation or…

  8. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry. Kraniale Computertomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkai, P. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)); Bogerts, B. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatry. Kernspintomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K. (Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Diagnosis and research in psychiatry are increasingly availing themselves of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In comparison to computed tomography (CT), this offers the combined benefits of no exposure to radiation, high resolution, artefact-free display of structures near bone, and a sharp contrast between the grey and white brain matter, with freedom to select the section. With the exception of very anxious patients, MRI will gradually replace CT scans for a wide range of differential diagnostic investigations. Its superiority in systematic studies of psychiatric patients with discrete cerebral parenchyma lesions is already considered proven. This is illustrated on the basis of research into schizophrenia and alcoholism. (orig.)

  10. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  11. Reaching rural Ohio with intellectual disability psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P; Cowan, Allison E; Harper, Beth; Mast, Ryan; Merrill, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability experience higher rates of mental illness when compared with the general population, and there is a lack of medical and mental health professionals in rural and under-served areas. With the increase in discharge of individuals from institutional settings back to their home communities into the least restrictive environments, there are more patients with complex needs being added to the schedules of physicians in the outpatient delivery care system. Patients with disabilities may not travel well or tolerate changes in routine so may not have access to psychiatry. Utilization of telepsychiatry is well suited to this specialized patient population because it allows a highly traumatized group to meet with a psychiatrist and other mental health professionals from a location of their choice. Ohio's Telepsychiatry Project for Intellectual Disability was initiated in 2012 to serve outlying communities with a lack of infrastructure and resources, to provide specialized mental health services to individuals with co-occurring mental illness and intellectual disability. After five years, over 900 patients with intellectual disability from 64 of Ohio's 88 counties receive specialized mental health treatment through this statewide grant-funded project.

  12. Managerial Competences in the Field of University Curriculum for Virtual Learning Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Marian BUNĂIAŞU; Ștefan VLĂDUŢESCU; Alexandru Constantin STRUNGĂ

    2014-01-01

    Virtual communities are learning environments that facilitate effective learning, in attractive and flexible ways, facilitated by information and communication technologies. If in traditional instruction, teacher training is focused on developing scientific and didactic skills, in the digital curriculum the emphasis is on managerial skills of facilitating learning and networking within virtual communities. Analysis of managerial skills in the field of digital curriculum involves multidimensio...

  13. Polypharmacy in psychiatry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kukreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric polypharmacy refers to the prescription of two or more psychiatric medications concurrently to a patient. It can be categorised as same-class, multi-class, adjunctive, augmentation and total polypharmacy. Despite advances in psychopharmacology and a better understanding of the principles of therapeutics, its practice is increasing rapidly. The prevalence of polypharmacy in psychiatry varies between 13%-90%. There are various clinical and pharmaco-economic factors associated with it. Dealing with polypharmacy requires an understanding of its associated factors. Education, guidelines and algorithms for the appropriate management of various conditions are effective ways to avoid irrational polypharmacy.

  14. Polypharmacy In Psychiatry: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sanjay; Kalra, Gurvinder; Shah, Nilesh; Shrivastava, Amresh

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric polypharmacy refers to the prescription of two or more psychiatric medications concurrently to a patient. It can be categorised as same-class, multi-class, adjunctive, augmentation and total polypharmacy. Despite advances in psychopharmacology and a better understanding of the principles of therapeutics, its practice is increasing rapidly. The prevalence of polypharmacy in psychiatry varies between 13%-90%. There are various clinical and pharmaco-economic factors associated with it. Dealing with polypharmacy requires an understanding of its associated factors. Education, guidelines and algorithms for the appropriate management of various conditions are effective ways to avoid irrational polypharmacy. PMID:23678240

  15. [Towards European psychiatry based around shared values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Yvan; Müller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In September 2005, the French and German national conferences of the presidents of specialised hospitals' medical committees co-signed a text relatingto the fundamental values and principles of psychiatry. Since then, several countries, such as Italy and Spain, have joined the movement. Among these values, the district is reaffirmed as the base unit, for the construction of psychiatry in Europe.

  16. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  17. The uncertain future of clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesse, S

    1986-01-01

    Clinical psychiatry is in a crisis state and might not survive in its present form. Health-care costs, in general, have escalated tenfold over a period of twenty years. The various factors that are threatening the existence of clinical psychiatry in its current form are reviewed and suggestions for change are offered.

  18. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  19. A genome probe survey of the microbial community in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voordouw, G.; Telang, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2000-07-01

    Reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) was conducted in water injected oil fields in Western Canada in order to analyze the microbial community in the fields to identify different bacteria responsible for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) or souring. Oil fields of moderate temperature and salinity have an anaerobic microbial community consisting of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. The RSGP revealed that selected SRB are enhanced at metal surfaces and can therefore contribute to corrosion. Some of the SRB were found to be insensitive to biocides that are used in the field. RSGP also showed that injection of nitrate, instead of sulfate, leads to a marked increase of Campylobacter sp., which gets its energy from the oxidation of sulfide by nitrate. It was concluded that RSGP is a useful tool to monitor the effects of chemical stresses on the oil field microbial community. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  20. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  1. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  2. A Bibliometric Study of Scientific Literature of Psychiatry in Scopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghadami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Due to the large proportion of mental health problems and psychiatric disorders, research in the field of mental health is of great significance. The main objective of this study was to investigate the scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry in the Scopus database (2000-2012. Material and Methods : In this study, we tried to examine 27,516 records of articles which were published in Scopus databases during 2000-2012. Then, by using scientometric method, we surveyed authors, active institutes and leading countries in this field and along side, core journals were studied in journal citation report by using impact factor. Results : The results showed that the United States of America, England and Germany are the top countries in the field of psychiatry. Also, there are 40 core journals in this field which have an impact factor higher than 3. London Kings College with 565 articles, VA Medical Center with a total of 534 articles and Harvard Medical School with 289 articles are on the top of active institutions in the field of psychiatry. In Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with 37 articles, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with 16 articles and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with 9 articles were the most active universities in Iran in publishing articles. Among international authors, Biederman with13% of the articles, Birmaher with12% and Vitiello with11% have a considerable role in publishing in this field. In Iran Mohammadi with  9 articles, Akhundzade with 8 articles and Amini and Qanizadeh with 7 articles were active researchers. In comparison with other countries, Iran has a light portion of the research in this field but it has shown a growing trend in publishing in recent years. Conclusion : The results of this research can be used as evidence for researchers to determine the path ahead in research and as a tool for strategic planning used in the mental health sector.

  3. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  4. Classroom to Community: Field Studies for Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa K.

    2017-01-01

    The field of kinesiology has seen growth in terms of the number of highly specialized subdisciplines, such as exercise physiology, motor learning, biomechanics, sport and exercise psychology, and fitness management. While some undergraduate students may be comfortable with a chosen concentration, others may enter the kinesiology curriculum lacking…

  5. CASASTART Field Guide: A Proven Youth Development Strategy That Prevents Substance Abuse and Builds Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The CASASTART Field Guide is the result of 9 years of research, experience, and evaluation in cities where the program has enhanced the capacity of communities to serve high-risk youth through formal partnerships that reduce their use of drugs and alcohol and promote their positive development. The Field Guide is a practical "how to" manual on…

  6. psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'People have sought comfort for their miseries and a cure for ... and into the 20th century a medical, organic approach to mental ... tries differ widely from North America and Western Europe. Yet ... beliefs regarding human nature, and in many cultures this means ... The term implies that the responsibility for treatment is not.

  7. Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but was only identified in 19589-4 In humans, melatonin is ... It acutely inhibits neuronal firing in the SCN ... and stimulates a number of antioxidative enzymes.1 This might ... secretion and white cell count peak during the transition from ... irregular sleep-wake pattern (ISWP) and non-24-hour sleep- .... same time every year.

  8. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongbo, E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Chao [Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380 (China); Quan, Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Junsheng, E-mail: lijsh@creas.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  9. Salem witchcraft and lessons for contemporary forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Howie, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 1692 and 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts, more than 150 colonists were accused of witchcraft, resulting in 19 being hanged and one man being crushed to death. Contributions to these events included: historical, religious and cultural belief systems; social and community concerns; economic, gender, and political factors; and local family grievances. Child witnessing, certainty of physician diagnosis, use of special evidence in the absence of scholarly and legal scrutiny, and tautological reasoning were important factors, as well. For forensic psychiatry, the events at Salem in 1692 still hold contemporary implications. These events of three centuries ago call to mind more recent daycare sexual abuse scandals.

  10. Psychiatry beyond the asylum: the origins of German military psychiatry before World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengwiler, Martin

    2003-03-01

    This study examines the co-operation between psychiatry and the army in Germany between 1870 and 1914, leading to the establishment of military psychiatry as an independent discipline. Arguing that military psychiatry played a key role in the history of modern clinical psychiatry, the paper points out how the first generation of military psychiatrists developed innovative diagnostic technologies, such as the intelligence test, and established crucial institutional alliances between psychiatric clinics, military authorities, and local and national administrations. The early history of military psychiatry marks the transition of psychiatry from a medical sub-discipline to a more generally applicable "social technology" assessing the borderline between normality and abnormality in multiple social contexts.

  11. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  12. Psychiatry outside the framework of empiricism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2017-01-01

    Science is interested in whatever that is empirical and objective. Any claim that cannot be objectively demonstrated has no place in science, because the subject does not deviate from the role, which it has set out to play in the life of mankind. Psychiatry, as a scientific discipline, plays along these basic principles. In the etiology, symptomatology, and management of psychiatric disorders, the biopsychosocial model recognizes the role of biological, psychological, and social factors. This essay views psychiatry from the biopsychosocial perspective and asserts that certain elements, which may not be readily and empirically verifiable, are important in the practice of psychiatry.

  13. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends.

  14. The state of psychiatry in the Netherlands: Strength by quality, influence by capabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, M.A. van; Gerrits, W.L.; Niesink, P.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatry and mental healthcare in the Netherlands has a long history of institutional care, slowly more adapted to the community, but differentiated from mainstream healthcare in terms of organization and remuneration. It is in a crucial phase of reconsideration. Along with harsh cuts on

  15. The state of psychiatry in the Netherlands: Strength by quality, influence by capabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, M.A. van; Gerrits, W.L.; Niesink, P.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatry and mental healthcare in the Netherlands has a long history of institutional care, slowly more adapted to the community, but differentiated from mainstream healthcare in terms of organization and remuneration. It is in a crucial phase of reconsideration. Along with harsh cuts on

  16. Bright Light Treatment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bright light treatment is a treatment modality that leads elevation of mood due to attenuation in depressive symptoms, regulation in circadian rhythm activity, increase the effect of antidepressants and amelioration in sleep quality. Bright light treatment is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder because of high response rates. Additionally, bright light treatment being extended to other conditions, including non-seasonal mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral syndromes is likely to have a far reached use. Side effects are often temporary and can generally be overcome by reducing exposure time. The central focus on this paper is to review the action mechanisms, efficacy, usage areas, the ways of administration and side effects of the light treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 177-188

  17. Biological Psychiatry, Research And Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this section, we look at how the biological paradigm shift in psychiatry has been aided and abetted by industry for serving its own needs; which stymies other promising approaches; but which, nonetheless, can serve to advance biomedicine if checks and balances are in place. Industry, Biological Psychiatry And Non-pharmacological Advance The larger issue of benefit to society also concerns us when we realize that industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. …a lack of balance in research activities, with a focus mainly on potential medications, is likely to divert talented researchers from the pursuit of profound scientific questions or divert them from the pursuit of questions without market relevance but with an aspect of public good. A company has little incentive to support trials evaluating whether inexpensive, off-patent drugs or whether non-pharmaceutical interventions, could replace their profitable patented drug (Baird, 2003 This is the reason why methods like yoga, psychotherapy, meditation, non-medicated non-mechanised relaxation will not find industry sponsors readily and may never be proved useful apart from anecdotal reporting.In which case to expect industry sponsorship to develop a larger therapeutic armamentarium, especially non-drug based, is wishful thinking. Moreover, non-pharmacological treatment procedures may not get desirable funding. This may not be as much of a problem in other branches of medicine as in psychiatry, wherein non-pharmacological interventions like psychotherapy still hold promise of therapeutic relief.If we do not see rigorous experimental research in psychotherapy or other non-drug modalities to the extent that we should, let us be careful before blaming the researchers for it. Where are the funds? Also, let us note that behind the great thrust towards Biological

  18. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism.

  19. Intraspecific trait variation drives functional responses of old-field plant communities to nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Andrew; Ritchie, Mark E

    2016-05-01

    Environmental changes are expected to shift the distribution of functional trait values in plant communities through a combination of species turnover and intraspecific variation. The strength of these shifts may depend on the availability of individuals with trait values adapted to new environmental conditions, represented by the functional diversity (FD) of existing community residents or dispersal from the regional species pool. We conducted a 3-year nutrient- and seed-addition experiment in old-field plant communities to examine the contributions of species turnover and intraspecific variation to community trait shifts, focusing on four key plant functional traits: vegetative height, leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). We further examined the influence of initial FD and seed availability on the strength of these shifts. Community mean height, leaf area, and SLA increased in response to fertilization, and these shifts were driven almost entirely by intraspecific variation. The strength of intraspecific shifts in height and leaf area was positively related to initial intraspecific FD in these traits. Intraspecific trait responses to fertilization varied among species, with species of short stature displaying stronger shifts in SLA and LDMC but weaker shifts in leaf area. Trait shifts due to species turnover were generally weak and opposed intraspecific responses. Seed addition altered community taxonomic composition but had little effect on community trait shifts. These results highlight the importance of intraspecific variation for short-term community functional responses and demonstrate that the strength of these responses may be mediated by community FD.

  20. Physician impairment: is it relevant to academic psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of physician impairment to the discipline of academic psychiatry. The author reviews the scientific literature, the proceedings of previous International Conferences on Physician Health, and held discussions with experts in the physician health movement, department chairs, program directors, and residents. Psychiatric illness and impairment in physicians impact academic psychiatry in several ways. Mental illnesses in physicians are being studied by some researchers, but the subject requires more scholarly attention. Training directors are interested in resident well-being and illness and how to reach out to symptomatic residents in a more timely way. Leaders in psychiatry are eager to learn the first steps in identifying colleagues at risk and the route to assessment and care. They are especially concerned about disruptive behavior in the workplace, including harassment and boundary transgressions in doctor-patient and supervisor-supervisee relationships. Academic psychiatrists wish to be more responsive to nonpsychiatrists appealing to them for guidance with impaired members of their departments. Physician impairment is an emerging field of study and interest to psychiatrists in academic settings.

  1. Mapping field-scale spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifier community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Laurent; Cuhel, Jiri; Saby, Nicolas P A; Chèneby, Dominique; Chronáková, Alicia; Bru, David; Arrouays, Dominique; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Simek, Miloslav

    2009-06-01

    There is ample evidence that microbial processes can exhibit large variations in activity on a field scale. However, very little is known about the spatial distribution of the microbial communities mediating these processes. Here we used geostatistical modelling to explore spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifying community, a functional guild involved in N-cycling, in a grassland field subjected to different cattle grazing regimes. We observed a non-random distribution pattern of the size of the denitrifier community estimated by quantification of the denitrification genes copy numbers with a macro-scale spatial dependence (6-16 m) and mapped the distribution of this functional guild in the field. The spatial patterns of soil properties, which were strongly affected by presence of cattle, imposed significant control on potential denitrification activity, potential N(2)O production and relative abundance of some denitrification genes but not on the size of the denitrifier community. Absolute abundance of most denitrification genes was not correlated with the distribution patterns of potential denitrification activity or potential N(2)O production. However, the relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene encoding the N(2)O reductase in the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N(2)O/(N(2) + N(2)O) ratio, which provides evidence for a relationship between bacterial community composition based on the relative abundance of denitrifiers in the total bacterial community and ecosystem processes. More generally, the presented geostatistical approach allows integrated mapping of microbial communities, and hence can facilitate our understanding of relationships between the ecology of microbial communities and microbial processes along environmental gradients.

  2. Syphilis, sex and psychiatry, 1789-1925: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2010-02-01

    Syphilis has changed the course of history, shaped the path of medicine and had more influence on psychiatry than any other illness. This paper, part one of a two-part series, investigates the historical, social and cultural aspects of the interaction of syphilis and psychiatry. Syphilis did not manifest as a psychiatric illness until the French Revolution. At the time, the Pinel School was focussing on the environment and moral therapy. Bayle, who made the first discovery of the cause of a psychiatric disease - chronic arachnoiditis - paid the price for his discovery by being driven from psychiatry. The 19th century led to the rise of a new medical polymath: the syphilologist - a specialist in every aspect of a disease that showed a remarkable capacity to affect every organ and tissue in the body and produce symptoms resembling other illnesses. The field was dominated by Frenchmen, Philippe Ricord and Alfred Fournier, and Englishman Jonathan Hutchinson. A middle-class illness, neurosyphilis struck at the heart of the class interests - property. This reeked havoc with the family business or finances, causing considerable distress to their relatives. General paresis of the insane became associated in the public eye with creative, intellectual or philosophical activity. It affected a long list of artists, writers and musicians, including Oscar Wilde, Robert Schumann, Baudelaire, Schubert and Ivan the Terrible. While the features of syphilis were delineated, confirmation remained elusive and neurosyphilis continued to hide its secrets. It remained the grand cause that defined psychiatry and it was not until the middle of the 20th century that it ceased to play a part in the daily life of doctors in psychiatric wards.

  3. Plant communities of field boundaries in Finnish farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TARMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the importance of field boundary habitats for farmland biodiversity, we surveyed a total of 193 boundaries from four climatically and agriculturally dissimilar regions in Finland. We measured the current plant species richness and composition of the boundaries, and based on the differences in vegetation characteristics, we describe six boundary types. The observed plant species were mainly indicators of fresh to wet soils and moderate to rich mineral nitrogen content. The most frequent species were tall, perennial monocots and dicots indicating the high productivity of thevegetation. Moreove, herbicide-tolerant species were common. No species rare for Finland were found.In animal husbandry regions, the most frequent species were sown grassland species and typical grassland weeds. In cereal production regions, fast-spreading root weeds tolerant of herbicides were the most frequent. Mean species richness was highest in the cluster Ca-lamagrostis-Phalaris (24 species (s/boundary (b, which we considered as representative of moist sites with some disturbance by agricultural practices. Most species-poor were the clusters Elymus-Anthriscus (14 s/band Elymus-Cirsium (16 s/b,both found predominantly in cereal production regions in southern Finland. Our results suggest that the biodiversity value of boundaries is lowest in the most intensive cereal production areas and highest in areas of mixed farming.;

  4. Why is psychiatry prone to fads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2013-10-01

    Psychiatry has long been prone to fads. The main reason is that mental illness is poorly understood and can be difficult to treat. Most diagnostic fads have involved the extension of well-known categories into broader spectra. The most prominent treatment fads have involved the overuse of pharmacological interventions and a proliferation of methods for psychotherapy. The best antidote to fads is a commitment to evidence-based psychiatry.

  5. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure.

  6. Italian social psychiatry research: what gets published in peer reviewed journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Priebe, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    To explore the current state of Italian social psychiatry research as evidenced by original papers published in peer-reviewed journals 2004-2006. Electronic databases and hand searches of leading peer-reviewed journals were used to identify original research papers published in 2004-2006, addressing a social psychiatric issue, having at least one Italian author, and reporting data from Italian samples. A total of 174 papers were identified. A substantial proportion reported findings of international collaborative research. Quantitative methods dominated, with 86 papers on cross-sectional surveys. Only 18 papers showed results of intervention trials with pre and post measures. Most common target group were psychiatric patients in community mental health services which featured in 93 papers. There is a critical mass of Italian social psychiatry research, dominated by a few research centres and with considerable amount of international collaboration. The findings of this survey might reflect the relative shortage of national funding for social psychiatry research.

  7. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  8. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-10-30

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology.

  9. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  10. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  11. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  12. Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

  13. Biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from different oil-contaminated fields in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuting; Li, Guanghe [School of Environment, Tsinghua University (China); Zhou, Ji zhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma (United States)], email: jzhou@ou.edu

    2011-07-01

    Some striking biological challenges of the 21st century include linking biodiversity to ecosystem functions, information scaling, and linking genomics to ecology. This paper discusses the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from various oil-contaminated fields in China. Two kinds of high throughput approaches are used, open format and closed format. Key differences between them are outlined. The GeoChip, or functional gene array (FGA) approach is presented. This is a high throughput tool for linking community structure to functions. Its main advantages are its high resolution and detecting functions. This approach was applied to soils, bioreactors and ground waters, among others. Issues related to specificity, sensitivity and quantification are listed. An overview of the microarray analysis is given. This is applied to the BP oil spill. 100 samples were chosen from representative oil fields to study the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities in China. The complete study is presented with the results.

  14. Participation in different fields of practice: using social theory to understand participation in community health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine

    2007-11-01

    'Participation' by community members in health-related programmes is an appealing concept that has not always been easy to achieve. Such programmes are often directed towards communities defined on the basis of neighbourhood or group identity. This article aims to develop an account of participation and identity by drawing on Bourdieu's theory of practice to understand participation as the practice of social identities structured by habitus, capital and field. Examples from interviews with members of one deprived neighbourhood illustrate the theory by showing that people may identify with their neighbourhood for certain social purposes, but have different identity practices in different fields of practice. Implications for community-based health programmes are briefly outlined.

  15. Knowledge from the Fields: A Migrant Farmworker Student's Community Cultural Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Blanca E.

    2012-01-01

    Migrant farmworker students bring with them to schools a significant knowledge base that they acquire working in the fields alongside their families. These experiences can be valuable influences in their enrollment and completion of college. Using "community cultural wealth", this article examines how a Latino migrant farmworker student used his…

  16. Navigating Community College Transfer in Science, Technical, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Gagnon, Janelle L.; Senas, Arleen J.

    2012-01-01

    Given financial barriers facing community college students today, and workforce projections in science, technical, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, the costs of unnecessary delays while navigating transfer pathways are high. In this phenomenological study, we analyzed the delay experiences of 172 students (65% female) navigating community…

  17. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents.

  18. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  19. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  20. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  1. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Florian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students.

  2. [General systems theory, a mental frame for geriatric psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, A C

    1984-12-01

    Though psychogeriatrics is becoming a word of common usage, it is not a word of common meaning. This is a consequence of the lack of a generally accepted theoretical model regarding the complex and multiple pathology of the psychiatric disturbances of older people. On epistemological grounds the author stresses the necessity of a common theoretical concept and as such introduces the General System Theory. The systems approach then shows that the word 'psychogeriatrics' is rooted in a reductionistic concept of man. In order to avoid this the author prefers 'psychiatry of old age' to cover the broad field of the psychiatric disturbances of the elderly.

  3. [Neuroimaging in psychiatry: multivariate analysis techniques for diagnosis and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, J; Koutsouleris, N

    2014-06-01

    Multiple studies successfully applied multivariate analysis to neuroimaging data demonstrating the potential utility of neuroimaging for clinical diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Summary of the current state of research regarding the application of neuroimaging in the field of psychiatry. Literature review of current studies. Results of current studies indicate the potential application of neuroimaging data across various diagnoses, such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and dementia. Potential applications include disease classification, differential diagnosis and prediction of disease course. The results of the studies are heterogeneous although some studies report promising findings. Further multicentre studies are needed with clearly specified patient populations to systematically investigate the potential utility of neuroimaging for the clinical routine.

  4. Community Action-Based Field Work: Training Counselors to Become Social Agents in Schools and Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonay Antonio Montes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to complete field work hours as “action based pedagogy” allowed candidates in a school counseling program to broaden their cultural perceptions of diverse groups by engaging in action research projects of their own choosing, led by their interest in and commitment to becoming familiar with diverse populations of K-12 students. This assignment allowed candidates to immerse themselves in culturally rich schools as researchers to understand better the experiences of diverse students. In the planning and implementation of these projects, the school counseling trainees deconstructed cultural barriers, changed their perceptions and preconceived stereotypical notions about diverse groups and gained social advocacy skills for use in their work as professional counselors supporting the academic and aspirational growth of minority students. Candidates also became familiar with multicultural literature and resources available concerning diverse populations.

  5. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Pearsons

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  6. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsons, Kirsten A; Tooker, John F

    2017-08-05

    The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  7. Cross-Sector Problems of Collaboration in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Petersen, Anne; Lyager Kaae, Anne Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Some mental health service users need support from both hospital-based and community-based services. Treatment requires well-functioning collaboration practices between different mental health organizations and professions. However, serious cross-sector problems of collaboration have......- and community-based services. Results: Staff and management experiencing cross-sector problems of collaboration point to ineffective coordination of services between systems and lack of mutual understanding of how systems other than the staffs’ own systems work. Solutions include specific procedural changes...... during service users’ admission to and discharge from hospital and during hospitalization and measures to increase cross-sector know­ledge about each system’s practices and methods. Conclusion: Improvement of cross-sector collaboration in psychiatry should take the form of a multi-faceted approach...

  8. [Effects of different rice farming systems on paddy field weed community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Min, Qing-Wen; Cheng, Sheng-Kui; Yang, Hai-Long; He, Lu; Jiao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Shan

    2010-06-01

    Taking the paddy fields planted with glutinous rice and hybrid rice in the traditional agricultural region in Congjiang County of Guizhou Province as the case, and by using semi-experiment combined with random sampling investigation, this paper studied the characteristics of weed community in the paddy fields under rice monoculture (R), rice-fish culture (R-F), and rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Under the three rice farming systems, glutinous rice had higher capability in inhibiting weeds, compared with hybrid rice. Farming system R-F-D decreased the weed density significantly, with the control effect on Monochoia vaginalis and Rotala indica being 100%. The overall weed-inhibiting effect of R-F-D was significantly higher than that of the other farming systems. Under R-F-D, the species richness and Shannon diversity index of weed community decreased markedly, while the Pielou evenness index increased, indicating that the species composition of weed community changed greatly, and the occurrence of native dominant weed species decreased. It was concluded that R-F-D was a feasible farming system for the control of paddy field weed community.

  9. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  10. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  11. The Third Revolution: Philosophy into Practice in Twenty-first Century Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KWM (Bill Fulford

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three revolutions in psychiatry characterised the closing decade of the twentieth century: 1 in the neurosciences, 2 in patient-centred models of service delivery, and 3 in the emergence of a rapidly expanding new cross-disciplinary field of philosophy and psychiatry. Starting with a case history, the paper illustrates the impact of this third revolution - the new philosophy of psychiatry - on day-to-day clinical practice through training programmes and policy developments in what has become known as values-based practice. Derived from philosophical value theory and phenomenology, values-based practice is a partner to evidence-based practice in supporting clinical decision-making in the highly complex environment of mental health care. The paper concludes by setting values-based practice in context with other potentially practical important areas of the new philosophy of psychiatry arguing that all three revolutions need to be brought together if psychiatry is to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.

  12. From Kraepelin to a modern and integrative scientific discipline: the development of transcultural psychiatry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, Wielant; Sieberer, Marcel

    2013-12-01

    The roots of transcultural psychiatry in Germany can be traced back to Emil Kraepelin, who made the first culturally comparative observations on mental disorders in Southeast Asia at the start of the 20th century. Since the beginning of the 1970s, contributors to the literature of transcultural psychiatry in Germany have been predominantly concerned with the mental health of migrant workers from Mediterranean countries, particularly the practical difficulties and therapeutic implications of inpatient psychiatric treatment of these migrant groups. The inauguration of the Section on Transcultural Psychiatry of the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 20 years ago reflected an increasing scientific interest in this topic. In addition to the psychic impact of migration, research into transcultural care is currently focused on disparities in the utilization of health care and conjectured barriers to access to health and mental health care among migrants. Furthermore, studies based on epidemiological approaches have been carried out in order to resolve the question of whether migrants are as affected by mental disorders as the ethnic German population, and which issues contribute to the so-called "healthy migrant" effect. Other topics that have been explored in the last 10 years are the particular psychosocial situation of asylum seekers and refugees in Germany, and the effects of inadequate integration and discrimination on their mental health. In summary, after a short historical and theoretical overview, this article reviews the current major themes in transcultural research in German contemporary psychiatry, and concludes with an overview of future developments in this field.

  13. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  14. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; CHEUNG Siu Gin; SHIN Paul K.S

    2011-01-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution,a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam,which is a non-polluted,shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island.The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution,and one site in the outside-harbor area,which was relatively clean.In addition,sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control.Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites,placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam.Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-,3-,and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics.The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods,while it took three and eight weeks,respectively,for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control.These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  15. NAGT-GER: A Community of Practice to Support the Emerging Field of Geoscience Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, L.; LaDue, N.; Cheek, K.; Ryker, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the National Research Council noted in its 2012 report on discipline-based education research (DBER) in undergraduate science and engineering, in order to advance DBER as a field of inquiry, "a robust infrastructure is required to recognize and support [DBER] within professional societies." One way to develop such an infrastructure around geoscience education research is to create a community of practice within the broader geoscience education community. In recent years, the members of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) have created two divisions to support the geoscience education needs of specific subpopulations of the geoscience community: the 2YC division, focusing on community college issues, and TED, focusing on teacher education. This year marks the first year of a new division within the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) focused on geoscience education research. The Geoscience Education Research division (GER) is committed to the promotion of high quality, scholarly research in geoscience education that improves teaching and learning in K-12, higher education, and informal learning environments. High quality DBER in geoscience requires the ability to connect current theories of teaching and learning with deep content-specific conceptual understanding. A community of practice like NAGT GER, has the potential to improve the quality of scholarly efforts in geoscience education by providing a forum for improving the collective knowledge and expertise of the geoscience education research community. Current division initiatives and efforts will be highlighted and time for dialogue on future directions will be included.

  16. Epistemological issues in the history of Italian psychiatry: the contribution of Gaetano Perusini (1879-1915).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passione, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Italian psychiatry was characterized by its emphasis on an organic explanation of mental illness. 'Cerebral mythology' was a major influence in Italy, at least until the second half of the twentieth century, often at the expense of the development of psychology. In this context, a few psychiatrists adopted a different epistemological perspective, based on a more 'integrative' view of their discipline. In particular, Gaetano Perusini stands out. He promoted the concept of psychiatry as a science which embraced many different fields, thus emphasizing the theme of pluralism, which is still debated today in the philosophy of science and psychiatric practice.

  17. Mapping Arctic Tundra Vegetation Communities Using Field Spectroscopy and Multispectral Satellite Data in North Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Davidson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is currently undergoing intense changes in climate; vegetation composition and productivity are expected to respond to such changes. To understand the impacts of climate change on the function of Arctic tundra ecosystems within the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to improve the understanding of vegetation distribution and heterogeneity at multiple scales. Information detailing the fine-scale spatial distribution of tundra communities provided by high resolution vegetation mapping, is needed to understand the relative contributions of and relationships between single vegetation community measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes (e.g., ~1 m chamber flux and those encompassing multiple vegetation communities (e.g., ~300 m eddy covariance measurements. The objectives of this study were: (1 to determine whether dominant Arctic tundra vegetation communities found in different locations are spectrally distinct and distinguishable using field spectroscopy methods; and (2 to test which combination of raw reflectance and vegetation indices retrieved from field and satellite data resulted in accurate vegetation maps and whether these were transferable across locations to develop a systematic method to map dominant vegetation communities within larger eddy covariance tower footprints distributed along a 300 km transect in northern Alaska. We showed vegetation community separability primarily in the 450–510 nm, 630–690 nm and 705–745 nm regions of the spectrum with the field spectroscopy data. This is line with the different traits of these arctic tundra communities, with the drier, often non-vascular plant dominated communities having much higher reflectance in the 450–510 nm and 630–690 nm regions due to the lack of photosynthetic material, whereas the low reflectance values of the vascular plant dominated communities highlight the strong light absorption found here. High classification accuracies of 92% to 96% were achieved using

  18. Border to Beltway: A Formative Field Exchange Program between Two Community Colleges for Non-Traditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Bentley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Community College students account for over 40% of all undergraduates in the US as well as the majority of minority students attending undergraduate courses. With issues in the geosciences such as; being the least diverse of all major STEM fields, an increasing number of retiring geoscientists, and a projected geoscience job growth not matching the number of geoscience graduates, the geoscience community needs to look at community colleges as a solution to these issues. A key factor for students entering and excelling in the geoscience is the opportunity for formative undergraduate field experiences. Formative field experiences go beyond one-day field excursions by incorporating field projects, interactive learning, and community building between participants in regions students are unfamiliar with. Unfortunately, these types of formative experiences often require logistics and resources that are not available or known to community college faculty. In order to build a framework for implementing formative field experiences by community colleges a two-week "field exchange" between two community colleges with different geological, social, and cultural settings was conducted. Supported with a supplemental grant from NSF, the "Border to Beltway" program provided 11 students from El Paso Community College and another 13 from Northern Virginia Community College with two one-week regional geology field trips: First, to West Texas in March 2014, and second, to the mid-Atlantic region in May 2014. Students were selected based on academic standing, non-traditional (minority, female, over 35, veteran) status, and interest in geology. Qualitative data collected from participants regarding the implementation of the field exchange include; student perception of geology before and after exchange, challenges students faced in the field or traveling for the first time, quantity and quality of projects given, and working with others from different backgrounds. Data regarding planning

  19. Entrevista al Dr. Juan Marconi, Creador de la Psiquiatría Intracomunitaria: Reflexiones Acerca de su Legado Para la Psicología Comunitaria Chilena Interview With Dr. Juan Marconi, Intracommunity Psychiatry Program Creator: Reflections About his Legacy for Chilean Psychology Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendive

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende rescatar el programa Psiquiatría Intracomunitaria desarrollado durante 1968 y 1973 en Santiago de Chile. Este programa fue un modelo de intervención con participación de la comunidad en alcoholismo, neurosis y privación sensorial. Una figura central en el diseño e implementación del mismo fue el psiquiatra Juan Marconi. Con la finalidad de rescatar aspectos no conocidos y reflexiones del programa es que este artículo se centra en el testimonio de quien encabezó esta iniciativa. Adicionalmente, considerando la dimensión histórica que adopta la publicación de este testimonio para la psicología comunitaria, en la segunda parte se incluye la percepción de dos destacados psicólogos comunitarios chilenos respecto a la contribución del programa a la disciplina, en su etapa de nacimiento.The present article has the pretence of rescuing the Intracommunity Psychiatry program developed between 1968 and 1973 in Santiago de Chile. This program became a model of interventions based on community participation in alcoholism, neurosis and sensorial deprivation situations. A central figure in its design and implementation was the psychiatrist Juan Marconi. With the aim of rescuing unknown topics and reflections based on this program, the present article focuses on the testimony of the person that lead this initiative. Additionally, considering the historical dimension that the publication of this testimony has for community psychology, the second part of this article includes the perception of two well known community psychologists about the contribution of this program to the discipline, in its initial phase.

  20. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Morise

    Full Text Available Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples and 48 (field samples isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs, indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  1. Rehabilitation : New term for or further development of social psychiatry? A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Social psychiatry as an academic discipline and field of clinical practice seems to have lost its prominence and is being incorporated in regular clinical services of mental healthcare and also in various branches of social, genetic, psychiatric or clinical epidemiology. However, the central debate

  2. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  3. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning TB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  4. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

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    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.

  5. NASA Astrophysics EPO Community: Serving Groups Historically Underrepresented in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Lawton, B.; Bartolone, L.; Schultz, G.; Manning, J.; NASA Astrophysics EPO Community

    2015-11-01

    Four Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support and coordinate the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community. The mission- and grant-based EPO programs of this EPO community are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. The Forums engage underserved audiences through coordinated efforts such as NASAScience4Girls and Their Families, which partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed, hands-on education activities for girls and their families, along with training for librarians. We present examples of how the NASA EPO community and Forums serve groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields via the NASAScience4Girls and Their Families initiative, including associated metrics and evaluation findings.

  6. Challenges in conducting psychiatry studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Kharawala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of psychiatry studies are conducted in India. Psychiatry studies are complex and present unique challenges in the Indian setting. Ethical issues pertaining to the risk of worsening of illness, use of placebo and validity of informed consents are commonly faced. Site selection can be difficult due to the relative paucity of ICH-GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation - Good Clinical Practice trained psychiatry investigators in India. Recruitment can be challenging due to issues such as strict eligibility criteria, (lack of availability of caregiver, illness-related considerations, etc. Assessment of the consent capacity of patients is not simple, while structured assessments are not commonly employed. As the illness fluctuates, the consent capacity may change, thus requiring continued assessment of consent capacity. Study patients run the risk of worsening of illness and suicide due to exposure to inactive treatments; this risk is counterbalanced by use of appropriate study designs, as well as the indirect psychotherapeutic support received. Psychiatry studies are associated with a high placebo response. This necessitates conduct of placebo-controlled studies despite the attendant difficulties. Also, the high placebo response is often the cause of failed trials. Rating scales are essential for assessment of drug response. Some rating instruments as well as some rater training procedures may not be suitable for the Indian setting. Technological advancements may increase the procedural complexity but improve the quality of ratings. Psychiatry studies present monitors and auditors with unique scenarios too. Utilization of psychiatry specific training and expertise is recommended to ensure successful conduct of these studies in India.

  7. Markov dynamics as a zooming lens for multiscale community detection: non clique-like communities and the field-of-view limit

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael T; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in community detection algorithms for complex networks. The proposed algorithms are based on a variety of heuristics, some with a long history, for the identification of communities or, alternatively, of good graph partitions. In most cases, the algorithms proceed by maximizing a particular objective function, thereby finding the `right' split into communities. Although a thorough comparative analysis of these algorithms is still lacking, there has also been an effort to design random graph models with known community structure against which the performance of different algorithms can be benchmarked. However, such benchmarks normally impose not only a known community structure but also a clique-like random structure for the communities which may differ significantly from those found in real networks. We show here that popular community detection methods are affected by a restricted `field-of-view' limit, an intrinsic upper scale that does not allow them to detect c...

  8. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  9. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  10. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  11. TOLERANCE AS A PROFESSIONALIZATION FACTOR OF NURSES IN PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vyacheslavovna Klimentova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nurses in psychiatric service are a special group of nursing professionals. Their individualization is due to the specific needs of their patients who have increased level of aggressiveness, behavioral and communicative deviations and problems in self-service. These patients’ quality factors increase the risks of medical staff intolerance. As mechanisms of intolerance decrease some specific mechanisms of tolerance are developed in professional nursing practices. These include specific corporative standards, religious practices and forms of group action.Staff members can approve, ignore or condemn intolerance towards patients, the regulatory basis for this position at the level of subcultural organizational standards meaning the application of moral sanctions to an offender. Active inclusion of religious affiliations in the life of psychiatric healthcare institutions allows external moral arbitrator to enter professional space influencing both the behavior of professionals and the system of moral standards. Specificity of nursing profession in psychiatry requires additional means of inprofessionalization and professional improvement which are spontaneous practices of mentoring (guidance in psychiatric hospital. All the mechanisms of tolerance increase hold professional community of nurses in psychiatry together.

  12. Disease mongering in psychiatry: fact or fiction?

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    S Saddichha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. Keywords: disease mongeringpharmaceutical companies, psychiatry.

  13. Why do we need a social psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gupta, Susham; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-07-01

    Human beings are social animals, and familial or social relationships can cause a variety of difficulties as well as providing support in our social functioning. The traditional way of looking at mental illness has focused on abnormal thoughts, actions and behaviours in response to internal causes (such as biological factors) as well as external ones such as social determinants and social stressors. We contend that psychiatry is social. Mental illness and interventions in psychiatry should be considered in the framework of social context where patients live and factors they face on a daily basis.

  14. Computational Psychiatry and the Challenge of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, John H; Murray, John D; Chekroud, Adam M; Corlett, Philip R; Yang, Genevieve; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  15. Frontier Fields: A Cost-Effective Approach to Bringing Authentic Science to the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B.; Summers, F.; Ryer, H.

    2015-11-01

    For more than two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community and the public, and to engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based, curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, and professional development workshops. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. The Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community in a cost-effective way. Frontier Fields observations and results have been, and will continue to be, embedded into existing product lines and professional development offerings. We also are leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog.

  16. Markov dynamics as a zooming lens for multiscale community detection: non clique-like communities and the field-of-view limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael T; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in community detection algorithms for complex networks. A variety of computational heuristics, some with a long history, have been proposed for the identification of communities or, alternatively, of good graph partitions. In most cases, the algorithms maximize a particular objective function, thereby finding the 'right' split into communities. Although a thorough comparison of algorithms is still lacking, there has been an effort to design benchmarks, i.e., random graph models with known community structure against which algorithms can be evaluated. However, popular community detection methods and benchmarks normally assume an implicit notion of community based on clique-like subgraphs, a form of community structure that is not always characteristic of real networks. Specifically, networks that emerge from geometric constraints can have natural non clique-like substructures with large effective diameters, which can be interpreted as long-range communities. In this work, we show that long-range communities escape detection by popular methods, which are blinded by a restricted 'field-of-view' limit, an intrinsic upper scale on the communities they can detect. The field-of-view limit means that long-range communities tend to be overpartitioned. We show how by adopting a dynamical perspective towards community detection [1], [2], in which the evolution of a Markov process on the graph is used as a zooming lens over the structure of the network at all scales, one can detect both clique- or non clique-like communities without imposing an upper scale to the detection. Consequently, the performance of algorithms on inherently low-diameter, clique-like benchmarks may not always be indicative of equally good results in real networks with local, sparser connectivity. We illustrate our ideas with constructive examples and through the analysis of real-world networks from imaging, protein structures and the power grid, where a

  17. Senior medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry as a career choice before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to the medical school psychiatry rotation in the United States, but mandatory in Iran) in three major medical schools in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Sixth- and seventh-year medical students (locally called interns, N=347) at Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences were consecutively invited to complete anonymous self-report questionnaires designed to assess their perceptions of careers in psychiatry before and after internship in psychiatry wards. Also, students evaluated psychiatry in terms of the factors that reflected the degree of attractiveness of this specialty. Positive responses toward choosing psychiatry as a career were seen in 18.8% before and 20.0% after psychiatry rotation. No significant differences were observed in the positive responses before and after psychiatry internship. The students' opinions changed to a more attractive degree in terms of only 3 out of the 13 defined aspects. There was also no significant difference in the total score on attractiveness of psychiatry before and after the psychiatry internship. The study indicated that undergraduate psychiatry internship might not induce more students to consider psychiatry as a possible career. The present pattern of psychiatry education in Iran seems not to positively affect most aspects of medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry.

  18. Small mammal communities in agricultural landscapes in Germany: review of field data over the last decade

    OpenAIRE

    Von Blanckenhagen, F.; Städtler, T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about general composition of small mammal communities in agricultural land in Germany. Most published data represent only a few months’ data in a specific habitat type focussing on a small region. This presentation will review data from several studies performed in the last decade of almost every year in agricultural land across different regions in Germany. Data on the distribution of small mammal species in landscapes dominated by agricultural land including cropped fields, ...

  19. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  20. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Eugene Arnold

    2008-01-01

    do with the improvement. The healing power of nature is truly a marvel to behold. Even more marvelous is being allowed to be a party to it, to enjoy the privilege of assisting that mysterious healing power. The experience is doubly gratifying, because in child psychiatry we have the privilege of helping two (or more people in tandem: the child and the parent who was suffering with his/her child. It is almost as much pleasure to watch the parents' spirits soar as the child improves, as it is to watch the child improve. I have often said that in ADHD stimulant studies I can break the blind by looking at the mother's face at a return appointment: if she looks tired and discouraged, it's placebo; if she smiles and looks happy, it's active drug.Child psychiatry has offered a constant learning experience, not only from the rapid expansion of knowledge in the field, but from contact with children, parents, students, residents, colleagues, interdisciplinary clinical teams, multi-site research teams and most recently, from email questions from the public about an article I had not previously seen.However, I soon learned that there are many useful things no one will teach me because no one yet knows. In trying to find new answers to unanswered questions, I was seduced into research and now enjoy child psychiatry even more. In clinical treatment research, I can enjoy all the advantages of clinical practice (without the need for insurance paperwork and in addition experience the thrill of data analysis. Analyzing the data is like opening a surprise package, like unwrapping a Christmas present: you don't know what you're getting; you may be hoping for a certain thing, but have no assurance that's what you will get. Sometimes it's a lump of coal, but even that you can use to light the fire for the next study.The fact that we are dealing with growing, developing organisms should direct our attention to the building blocks for that growth/development: nutrients. One of my pleasures

  1. Impact of duration of psychiatry rotation on medical interns’ attitude towards psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Council of India allowed the interns to take up an extra 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry along with the mandatory posting of 15 days. The study was planned to assess the effect of the additional period of psychiatry internship on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry. Material and methods: The consenting interns were given a semi structured proforma enquiring about their age and gender and were asked to fill up Attitude Towards Psychiatry (ATP scale. The assessment was done at the beginning and then after 15 days of mandatory posting. Those participants who were willing to do an additional 15 days of elective posting in psychiatry were assessed again on the 30th day of the training. Results: Mean age of the participating interns (n=47 was 25.44±1.52 and the male female ratio was 0.8. Twenty six interns did only the 15 days mandatory psychiatry internship posting (Group 1 and the remaining 21 interns took up the additional elective 15 days posting (Group 2. At the end of the 15 days posting, Mean ATP score of the group 1 increased from 88.34±6.07 to 88.46±6.19 (p=0.80 whereas the same increased from 88.04±7.06 to 88.19±7.65 (p=0.7 in the group 2 and further increased to 91.09±8.3 at the end of the additional 15 days of elective posting (p<0.05. Conclusion: A thirty days exposure of psychiatry during internship had more favourable impact on the attitude of interns towards psychiatry.

  2. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  3. Old age psychiatry in the modern age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James P

    2015-11-01

    Old age psychiatry services globally are under threat. The discipline enjoyed its heyday in the two decades bridging the millennium. More recently there has been a move to integrate old age services with those of working age adults, to create 'ageless' services. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that this is a bad idea.

  4. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  5. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... latest Policy Statement on Psychologists Prescribing. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP Latest News AACAP Statement on DACA Rescission More... AACAP Applauds Oregon Governor’s Veto of Psychology Prescribing Bill More... In Response to "13 Reasons ...

  6. Neurology is psychiatry--and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between neurology and psychiatry. It marshals evidence that disorders of the brain typically have neurological and psychological-cognitive, affective, behavioural-manifestations, while disorders of the psyche are based in the brain. Given the inseparability of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their disease classifications should eventually fuse, and joint initiatives in training, service and research should be strongly encouraged.

  7. [Shall psychiatry change its target? Reflections on the evolving role of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; De Rosa, Corrado; Ferrari, Silvia; Pingani, Luca; Tarricone, Ilaria; Volpe, Umberto; Carrà, Giuseppe; Roncone, Rita; Catapano, Francesco; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will describe cultural, social and scientific changes occurred in psychiatry in the last years, identifying the new target for mental health professionals. Groups of young psychiatrists from the Italian Psychiatric Association, the European Psychiatric Association and the World Psychiatric Association have established an international network that launched a debate on the future role of psychiatry. In a rapidly changing world, there is the need to: 1) adapt training in psychiatry to the modern world; 2) identify the new target of mental health professionals; 3) enhance the image of psychiatry in the society; 4) overcome stigma towards people with mental disorders. In recent years, socio-cultural and scientific changes have had a significant impact on the psychiatrists' clinical practice. Mental health professionals should deal with these changes appropriately in order to overcome the current "crisis" of psychiatry, which should be considered as a developmental phase rather than a conceptual one. From time to time psychiatry is criticized both from inside and outside the profession. The current crisis was unavoidable due to the recent socio-cultural changes, but it should be considered an opportunity to adapt the profession to modern times.

  8. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  9. Natural substances in psychiatry (Ginkgo biloba in dementia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T; Martorano, D

    1995-01-01

    Natural substances and/or their synthetically developed active ingredients are frequently used in medicine. In psychiatry, two of the most well known natural compounds are reserpine and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb). EGb is among the most popular over-the-counter medicines in Europe and is also available in the United States, primarily in health food stores. Already the European medical community has recognized EGb as an effective compound in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency. In a pilot bioequivalency study, the effects of three different commercially available EGb products were examined. Findings indicated significant quantitative central nervous system (CNS) effects in, at least, one of the three. Furthermore, the CNS effects of Ginkgold were similar to other psychoactive compounds classified as cognitive activators. Recent studies in which EGb 761 demonstrated therapeutic effects in the treatment of dementia have earned EGb the approval of the German BGA (Bundesgesundheit Amt) for use in the treatment of dementia.

  10. Cultural norms, cooperation, and communication: Taking experiments to the field in indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Ghate

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental research has been devoted to the study of behaviour in laboratory settings related to public goods, common-pool resources, and other social dilemmas.  When subjects are anonymous and not allowed to communicate, they tend not to cooperate.  To the surprise of game theorists, however, simply allowing subjects to communicate in a laboratory setting enables them to achieve far more cooperative outcomes.  This finding has now been replicated in many laboratory experiments in multiple countries and in some initial field experiments.  Carefully conducted laboratory experiments do have strong internal validity.  External validity, however, requires further research beyond the initial field experiments that have already been conducted.  In this paper, we report on a series of common-pool resource field experiments conducted in eight indigenous communities in India that have very long traditions of shared norms and mutual trust.  Two experimental designs were used in all eight villages: a “no-communication” game that was repeated in ten rounds where no one was allowed verbal or written communication and a “communication game” in which the same five participants were allowed to communicate with each other at the beginning of each round before making their decisions.  The findings from these field experiments are substantially different from the findings of similar experiments conducted in experimental laboratories.  Subjects tended to cooperate in the first design even in the absence of communication.  The shared norms in these indigenous communities are so deeply embedded that communication is not needed to adopt cooperative decisions.  Communication does, however, tend to homogenize group and individual outcomes so that communities that are overly cooperative tend to reduce cooperation slightly and those with small deviations in the other direction tend to move toward the optimal solution.

  11. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daebeler, Anne; Gansen, Martina; Frenzel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH(3)F) caused surprisingly little differences in community composition of active methanogenic archaea from a rice field soil. By measuring the natural abundances of carbon isotopes we found that the effective dose for a 90% inhibition of aceticlastic methanogenesis in anoxic paddy soil incubations was <0.75% CH(3)F (v/v). The construction of clone libraries as well as t-RFLP analysis revealed that the active community, as indicated by mcrA transcripts (encoding the α subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, a key enzyme for methanogenesis), remained stable over a wide range of CH(3)F concentrations and represented only a subset of the methanogenic community. More precisely, Methanocellaceae were of minor importance, but Methanosarcinaceae dominated the active population, even when CH(3)F inhibition only allowed for aceticlastic methanogenesis. In addition, we detected mcrA gene fragments of a so far unrecognised phylogenetic cluster. Transcription of this phylotype at methyl fluoride concentrations suppressing aceticlastic methanogenesis suggests that the respective organisms perform hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Hence, the application of CH(3)F combined with transcript analysis is not only a useful tool to measure and assign in situ acetate usage, but also to explore substrate usage by as yet uncultivated methanogens.

  12. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Daebeler

    Full Text Available The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH(3F caused surprisingly little differences in community composition of active methanogenic archaea from a rice field soil. By measuring the natural abundances of carbon isotopes we found that the effective dose for a 90% inhibition of aceticlastic methanogenesis in anoxic paddy soil incubations was <0.75% CH(3F (v/v. The construction of clone libraries as well as t-RFLP analysis revealed that the active community, as indicated by mcrA transcripts (encoding the α subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, a key enzyme for methanogenesis, remained stable over a wide range of CH(3F concentrations and represented only a subset of the methanogenic community. More precisely, Methanocellaceae were of minor importance, but Methanosarcinaceae dominated the active population, even when CH(3F inhibition only allowed for aceticlastic methanogenesis. In addition, we detected mcrA gene fragments of a so far unrecognised phylogenetic cluster. Transcription of this phylotype at methyl fluoride concentrations suppressing aceticlastic methanogenesis suggests that the respective organisms perform hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Hence, the application of CH(3F combined with transcript analysis is not only a useful tool to measure and assign in situ acetate usage, but also to explore substrate usage by as yet uncultivated methanogens.

  13. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  14. [The role of psychiatry in the Brazilian psychiatric reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Junior, Octavio Domont de

    2011-12-01

    Psychiatry emerged just over two hundred years ago as a special branch of medicine offering institutional care for the insane, since it encompassed the fields of medicine, natural history (biology) and philosophy (humanities). It appeared at a time marked by the transition with the exclusion apparatus of the marginalized people of the Old Regime and by epistemic pluralism. In this article, the contribution that psychiatry can make today - just over two centuries and some important conceptual and institutional rearrangements later - is discussed. It is well established in the academic world and socially legitimized, albeit at another moment of transition, in which new paradigms of care are established placing importance on the contextual and intersubjective situation of psychic distress. Redefining Pinelian intuition using contemporary vocabulary regarding the epistemological and ethical challenge of an area of knowledge and practice of care the scope of which is psychic distress, the thesis will be proposed that it is also necessary to articulate the planes of body, experience and narrative in an ongoing dialogue.

  15. Entrenched reductionisms: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Allen

    2016-02-01

    Like Hannah Decker, I too deplore the destructive battle of psychosocial and biological reductionisms that has bedeviled psychiatry. When I started my psychiatric training almost 50 years ago, the prevailing model for understanding mental disorders was broadly bio/psycho/social in the grand tradition of Pinel and Freud, brought to and adapted in America by Adolph Meyer. When psychiatry is practiced well, it integrates insights from all the different ways of understanding human nature. Unfortunately, the mental health field has since degenerated into a civil war between the biomedical and psychosocial models with little room for compromise or finding middle ground. The inflexible biological reductionists assume that genes are destiny and that there is a pill for every problem: they take a "mindless" position. The inflexible psychosocial reductionists assume that mental health problems all arise from unpleasant experience: They take a "brainless" position. I have spent a good deal of frustrating time trying to open the minds of extremists at both ends, though rarely making much headway. In my view, however, and where I differ from Decker, the reductionisms do not sort so neatly into alternating historical periods.

  16. Effect of slow-release urea on soil nematode community structure in a Chinese soybean field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuekun HOU; Ruichang ZHAI

    2009-01-01

    The effect of slow-release urea on soil nematode community structure was investigated in a soybean field in northeast China.Three treatments,no urea (CK),conventional urea (U) and slow-release urea (SRU),were arranged in a completely random design.The results show that the abundance of total nematodes was significantly higher in SRU than in CK and U.Significant differences in the abundance of bacterivores with colonizer-persister (cp) values 2-3,fungivores with cp 2 and herbivores with cp 3 were found among different treatments.Forty-one genera were identified,of which Acrobeloides,Aphelenchus and Heterodera were dominant.Soil nematode guilds and genera exhibited different responses to slow-release urea.The most trophic groups and genera had greater abundances in SRU than in CK and U.Slow-release urea had a positive effect on soil nematode community structure.

  17. [Species, Damage and Community Structure of Weeds in Scrophularia ningpoensis Fields in Nanchuan, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Xiao, Jie-yi; Cao, Hou-qiang; Luo, Chuan; Yang, Tian-jian; Lin, Mao-xiang

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the damage and community structure of weeds in Scrophularia ningpoensis fields in Nanchuan, Chongqing. From 2013 to 2014, an investigation was carried out by inverted W-9 point sampling method to study the weed species. 96 weed species belonged to 75 genera of 30 families were observed, including 18 species of Asteraceae weeds (accounted for 18.75%), 10 species of Poaceae weeds (accounted for 10.42%). Moreover, there were 57 species of annual weeds (accounted for 59.38%) and 39 species of perennial weeds (accounted for 40.63%). The overall abundance of Erigeron annuus, Digitaria adscendens, Torilis scabra, Polygonum nepalense, Ranunculus japonicas, Stellaria media and Commelina communis were relatively higher than that of the others. The difference of weed species and community structure might result from the physical and chemical characteristics of soil, moisture content, cropping system, tillage type, environmental and climatic conditions, crop distribution and weed control.

  18. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6], first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of 'Common Morality', 'Specific Morality', 'Specification', 'Balancing' and 'Double Effects'. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts.

  19. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of ‘Common Morality’, ‘Specific Morality’, ‘Specification’, ‘Balancing’ and ‘Double Effects’. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts. PMID:28031624

  20. Field Guide to the Plant Community Types of Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Langendoen, Don; Aaseng, Norman; Hop, Kevin; Lew-Smith, Michael

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program is to classify, describe, and map vegetation for most of the park units within the National Park Service (NPS). The program was created in response to the NPS Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring Guidelines issued in 1992. Products for each park include digital files of the vegetation map and field data, keys and descriptions to the plant communities, reports, metadata, map accuracy verification summaries, and aerial photographs. Interagency teams work in each park and, following standardized mapping and field sampling protocols, develop products and vegetation classification standards that document the various vegetation types found in a given park. The use of a standard national vegetation classification system and mapping protocol facilitate effective resource stewardship by ensuring compatibility and widespread use of the information throughout the NPS as well as by other Federal and state agencies. These vegetation classifications and maps and associated information support a wide variety of resource assessment, park management, and planning needs, and provide a structure for framing and answering critical scientific questions about plant communities and their relation to environmental processes across the landscape. This field guide is intended to make the classification accessible to park visitors and researchers at Voyageurs National Park, allowing them to identify any stand of natural vegetation and showing how the classification can be used in conjunction with the vegetation map (Hop and others, 2001).

  1. Field degradation of aminopyralid and clopyralid and microbial community response to application in Alaskan soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomco, Patrick L; Duddleston, Khrystyne N; Schultz, Emily Jo; Hagedorn, Birgit; Stevenson, Timothy J; Seefeldt, Steven S

    2016-02-01

    High-latitude regions experience unique conditions that affect the degradation rate of agrochemicals in the environment. In the present study, data collected from 2 field sites in Alaska, USA (Palmer and Delta) were used to generate a kinetic model for aminopyralid and clopyralid degradation and to describe the microbial community response to herbicide exposure. Field plots were sprayed with herbicides and sampled over the summer of 2013. Quantification was performed via liquid chromatrography/tandem mass spectrometry, and microbial diversity was assessed via next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes. Both compounds degraded rapidly via pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics between 0 d and 28 d (t1/2  = 9.1-23.0 d), and then degradation slowed thereafter through 90 d. Aminopyralid concentration was 0.048 μg/g to 0.120 μg/g at 90 d post application, whereas clopyralid degraded rapidly at the Palmer site but was recovered in Delta soil at a concentraction of 0.046 μg/g. Microbial community diversity was moderately impacted by herbicide treatment, with the effect more pronounced at Delta. These data predict reductions in crop yield when sensitive plants (potatoes, tomatoes, marigolds, etc.) are rotated onto treated fields. Agricultural operations in high-latitude regions, both commercial and residential, rely heavily on cultivation of such crops and care must be taken when rotating.

  2. Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-10-01

    The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009-2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 10(5) and 10(6) per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial 'core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment.

  3. Cultural psychiatry. Theoretical, clinical, and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, R; Kleinman, A

    1995-09-01

    As a discipline, cultural psychiatry has matured considerably in recent years and the ongoing quality of its theoretical, clinical, and research development holds great promise. The contemporary emphasis on culture as process permits a deeper analysis of the complexities of sociosomatics--the translation of meanings and social relations into bodily experience--and, thus, of the social course of illness. We also are learning a great deal more about cultural processes that affect therapy, including ethnopharmacologic and culturally valid family interventions that are directly relevant to patient care and mental health policy. And an important set of studies is examining the trauma experienced by refugees and immigrants. But at the same time many disquieting findings still point to the limited impact of cultural psychiatry on knowledge creation and clinical application in psychiatry. The failure of the cultural validation of DSM-IV is only the most dismaying. The persistent misdiagnosis of minority patients and the continued presence of racial bias in some treatment recommendations are also disheartening, as is the seeming contempt of many mainstream psychiatrists for culturally defined syndromes and folk healing systems. Widespread inattention to ethnic issues in medical ethics is another source of dismay. It is for these reasons that the culture of psychiatry itself becomes as important as the culture of patients as a topic for research and intervention. Most of the world still suffers from a terrible lack of basic mental health services, including life-saving medications and hospital beds. In the face of these limitations, and because of the increasing multicultural and pluralistic reality of contemporary life, the growing interpretive bridges linking indigenous systems of illness classification and healing to Western nosologies and therapeutic modalities become even more essential and the reluctance of mainstream clinicians to explore folk healing methods more

  4. [Contribution of the Polish-German Mental Health Society to changes in Polish psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to give a profile of the history and work of the Polish-German Mental Health Society (PNTZP). Founded in 1990, the PNTZP's supreme objective is to develop and reinforce partnership between Polish and German psychiatry on a range of levels. The methods it uses to further this aim include bilateral meetings, seminars, and annual symposia. In view of its historical roots, the PNTZP is constantly mindful of the excesses perpetrated on the mentally ill during the National Socialist period, and believes it has an obligation to promote a brand of psychiatry founded on the person, respect for human dignity, and the will and individuality of every man. For this reason, ethics are an essential element of discussion, including discussions with patients and their families. The society advocates the implementation of the National Programme of Mental Health Care and the development of community psychiatry in Poland. It supports the development of various structures for the treatment and assistance of people with mental illness, as well as scientific and academic reflection on the social and cultural implications of psychiatric thought and action. It is committed to facilitating the exchange of experiences between different professional groups, patients, and their families in order to promote mutual inspiration and support in the challenging task of developing psychiatry. A record of these years of meetings may be found in the twenty issues of the periodical Dialog. This example of cooperation across official state borders may be held up as a benchmark for the development of European psychiatry, and the joint work and discussions may offer help and inspiration in day-to-day therapeutic practice. The PNTZP is open to new people and initiatives, and is always looking for people willing to get involved in its work.

  5. [Psychiatry and mental health in the Institutp de Seguridad Social para los Trabajadores del Estado. Philosophy of its development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal y Castillo, E

    1977-01-01

    In 1972, prepaid medical care for government employees provided by their social security institute, ISSSTE, was reorganized. A division of planning and technical standards was established, within which a Department of Psychiatry was included. Psychiatric care was restructured at three levels: psychiatric hospital, psychiatric OPD at clinic and hospital level and a pilot program in community psychiatry. A three-year psychiatric residency program was established, in addition to participation in other postgraduate, in-service training and monographic courses. Systematic research was started, as well as a publications program, working relationship with other institutions and societies were enhanced. A descriptive example is Child Psychiatry. Most frequent diagnoses are reviewed, and development of services is followed in relation to pediatric departments.

  6. Forensic psychiatry determination of mental capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic psychiatry determination is, ordered by a court, the analysis and interpretation of medical facts with important legal implications. In that sense, psychiatrists (or neuropsychiatrists, apart from their professional expertise, must be familiar with legal, economical and social significance of medical data, so that their forensic reports are clear and useful in the context of legal procedure. This review deals with forensic psychiatry aspects of mental capacity. In the introduction of the article, the explanation of relevant concepts such as mental capacity, contractual and testamentary capacity, informed consent, undue influence and forensic determination in light of Serbian statutory law is presented. Further, the authors present basic principles of making forensic reports on mental capacity as well as contractual and testamentary capacity, and informed consent for eventual medical examination and treatment.

  7. Advances in IT and social psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese P Punnoose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the way individuals carry on with their lives and has been harnessed for varied applications like business management, classroom teaching, online sales and ticketing, and so forth.[1],[2] IT itself has seen development over the course of the last few decades and has seen greater access to the population, increase in computing power and speed, and enrichment in terms of content. The scope of IT has been appropriately recognized for health-care delivery and has led to the emergence of offshoot disciplines of eHealth and mHealth. Consequently, social psychiatry has also been favorably impacted, either directly or indirectly, by the ever expanding horizons of IT. This editorial discusses the application of IT in the realm of social psychiatry

  8. Logical and conceptual problems of existential psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, C

    1985-05-01

    The author has argued that existential psychology and psychiatry are not consistent with existential philosophy, from which they derive their basic concepts. Existential philosophy treats consciousness as an epistemic and ontological absolute while existential psychology and psychiatry acknowledge the existence of unconscious mental processes. It is not possible to base a viable concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, the nature of transference, or the efficacy of interpretation upon the radical concept of freedom, which is basic to existential philosophy. If psychiatrists wish to experiment with nonpsychoanalytic dynamic psychologies, then it is the author's opinion that the advancement of knowledge would be better served either by using existentialist concepts and principles consistently or by explicitly altering them in clearly defined ways for stated reasons, or by formulating psychodynamic hypotheses that do not lay claim to any foundation in existential philosophy.

  9. Computational Psychiatry in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Sarah K; Stahl, Dylan; Corlett, Philip

    2017-03-01

    We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification. Methods that test learning and memory in social contexts, collect data from real-world settings, and relate behavior to molecular and circuit networks are yielding data of particular interest. Research in BPD should focus on collaborative efforts to design and interpret experiments with direct relevance to core BPD symptoms and potential for translation to the clinic.

  10. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  11. The Many Faces of Dissociation: Opportunities for Innovative Research in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that the progress of psychiatry has lagged behind that of other medical disciplines over the last few decades. This may suggest the need for innovative thinking and research in psychiatry, which should consider neglected areas as topics of interest in light of the potential progress which might be made in this regard. This review is concerned with one such field of psychiatry: dissociation and dissociative disorders. Dissociation is the ultimate form of human response to chronic developmental stress, because patients with dissociative disorders report the highest frequency of childhood abuse and/or neglect among all psychiatric disorders. The cardinal feature of dissociation is a disruption in one or more mental functions. Dissociative amnesia, depersonalization, derealization, identity confusion, and identity alterations are core phenomena of dissociative psychopathology which constitute a single dimension characterized by a spectrum of severity. While dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the most pervasive condition of all dissociative disorders, partial representations of this spectrum may be diagnosed as dissociative amnesia (with or without fugue), depersonalization disorder, and other specified dissociative disorders such as subthreshold DID, dissociative trance disorder, acute dissociative disorders, and identity disturbances due to exposure to oppression. In addition to constituting disorders in their own right, dissociation may accompany almost every psychiatric disorder and operate as a confounding factor in general psychiatry, including neurobiological and psycho-pharmacological research. While an anti- dissociative drug does not yet exist, appropriate psychotherapy leads to considerable improvement for many patients with dissociative disorders. PMID:25598819

  12. Moving Toward Integrative, Multidimensional Research in Modern Psychiatry: Lessons Learned From Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-07-15

    The field of psychiatry is approaching a major inflection point. The basic science behind cognition, emotion, behavior, and social processes has been advancing rapidly in the past 20 years. However, clinical research supporting the classification system in psychiatry has not kept up with these scientific advances. To begin organizing the basic science of psychiatry in a comprehensive manner, we begin by selecting fragile X syndrome, a neurogenetic disease with cognitive-behavioral manifestations, to illustrate key concepts in an integrative, multidimensional model. Specifically, we describe key genetic and molecular mechanisms (e.g., gamma-aminobutyric acidergic dysfunction and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-associated long-term depression) relevant to the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome as well as neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral symptoms. We then describe what we have learned from fragile X syndrome that may be applicable to other psychiatric disorders. We conclude this review by discussing current and future opportunities in diagnosing and treating psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Artiss Symposium 2013: Psychiatry and Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Saturdays. They increase caffeine con- sumption. They use over the counter or even prescription sleep aids in a chronic fashion. They become over-focused on...cognitive side effects. Your ability to do a 46 Artiss Symposium 2013—Psychiatry and Sleep Disorders neurological exam may be impaired if a patient is...Patient education includes talking to your patients about caffeine use, alcohol use, exercise, and stimulus control. Stimulus control addresses what you

  14. Ecological Characterization of White Grubs (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) Community in Cultivated and Noncultivated Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherman, M A; Morón, M A; Dal Prá, E; Valmorbida, I; Guedes, J V C

    2014-06-01

    Comparative studies on the density and diversity of white grubs community (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) occurring in cultivated and noncultivated fields of the Planalto region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are presented. Sampling was carried out in 23 municipalities during the 2009 and 2010 winter seasons. Cultivated and noncultivated fields were chosen in each locality. Melolontid larvae were collected for identification and counted to determine the population density. A mean of 12.9 larvae m(-2) were collected in cultivated areas against 10.5 larvae m(-2) in noncultivated areas. The latter were more diverse (H' = 2.52) than cultivated areas (H' = 2.26). Despite the high evenness index (J = 0.75 noncultivated and J = 0.74 cultivated), faunistic parameters indicated Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow and Diloboderus abderus Sturm as an extremely dominant species in cultivated areas. These results showed that the population density of white grubs increases, and their community composition is affected in cultivated areas.

  15. The Third Wave of Biological Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eWalter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we are witnessing at this moment the third wave of biological psychiatry. This framework conceptualizes mental disorders as brain disorders of a special kind that requires a multilevel approach ranging from genes to psychosocial mechanisms. In contrast to earlier biological psychiatry approaches the mental plays a more prominent role in the third wave. This will become apparent by discussing the recent controversy evolving around the recently published DSM-5 and the competing transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria approach of the National Institute of Mental Health that is build on concepts of cognitive neuroscience. A look at current conceptualizations in biological psychiatry as well as at some discussions in current philosophy of mind on situated cognition, reveals that the thesis, that mental brain disorders are brain disorders has to be qualified with respect to how mental states are constituted and with respect to multilevel explanations of which factors contribute to stable patterns of psychopathological signs and symptoms.

  16. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry.

  17. Neuropsychiatrie of biologische psychiatrie; een toekomstvisie in historisch perspectief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, W M; Tuinier, S

    1999-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry or Biological Psychiatry There is an urgent need to reconsider the position of psychiatry within the neurosciences because of the exploding knowledge about the relationship between brain and behaviour and the delay in implementation of new findings due to the separation of neurology and psychiatry. Biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology originate from the discovery by chance of psycho-active compounds in the early fifties and have contributed to the scientification of psychiatry. The impact of biological psychiatry for the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, however, is limited as a result of its biased orientation on neurotransmitters and receptors. The neuropsychiatric paradigm integrates knowledge from several domains, such as functional neuroanatomy, genetics and endocrinology and opens new vistas for the involvement of neuronal circuits in the initiation and maintenance of behavioural disturbances. In addition, novel and more specific treatment modalities may emerge.

  18. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Bayona, Josep M; Albaiges, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

    2007-12-01

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of alpha-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of gamma-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C(36). Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering.

  19. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Doležal, Jiří; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30 %. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

  20. Editorial: Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-09-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field.

  1. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new College special interest group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Riadh; St John-Smith, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research.

  2. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new College special interest group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Riadh; St John-Smith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research.

  3. The application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in psychiatry: possible reasons for the lack of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarezz, Ana Sabela

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) in the field of psychiatry in the last 10 yrs since the ICF was launched. The hypothesis is that the application of the ICF in the field of psychiatry has not been yet much explored. Therefore, the objective of this article was to provide reasons to explain the difficult implementation of the ICF in this field, which in turn, might account for the lack of studies. A literature search was conducted using the terms ICF AND mental illness OR mental disorders OR psychiatry in titles, abstracts, and key words of articles collected in the databases ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect and Medline from 2001 to 2010. A total of 64 full-length articles were retrieved and reviewed, and among them, 13 were eventually included in this review because they were related to the ICF in psychiatry. Of the 13 studies identified concerning the ICF and mental disorders, 7 focus on the implementation of the ICF in the clinical practice, and 6 are theoretical papers discussing the potential benefits of the ICF for the field of psychiatry. A number of reasons can be suggested to explain the paucity of studies on the use of the ICF in psychiatry in the last 10 yrs: (1) the novelty of the ICF and the dominance of the medical model, (2) the belief that disability is just about physical conditions, (3) the influence of medication on capacity and performance, (4) the complex structure of the ICF, (5) the intrinsic limitations of the ICF, and (6) limitations in the accessibility of the ICF to some medical professionals.

  4. Psychiatry in the U.S. Army: Lessons for Community Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Considerations. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1952. 29. Jones FD. Psychiatric lessons of low-intensity wars. Annales Medicinae Militaris Fenniae...Review of the Army, Navy, and Air Force Medical Services. 1982;55:247-254. 21. Jones FD. Psychiatric lessons of low-intensity wars. Annales Medicinae ...McGraw Hill; 1969: 76. 41. Froede, RC, Stahl CJ. Fatal narcotism in military personnel. J Forensic Sciences. 1971;16(2):199-218. 42. Baker SL. Drug

  5. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  6. Putting the community back in community ecology and education: the role of field schools and private reserves in the ethical training of primatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, P A; Molina, A; Molina, R L

    2010-09-01

    In 1993 and 1999, with the assistance of a Nicaraguan family, we founded La Suerte Biological Research Station in northeastern Costa Rica and Ometepe Biological Research Station in southern Nicaragua as a privately owned conservation-oriented business. Our goal was to develop a program of sustainable community ecology focused on education, research, and the conservation of primates and tropical forests. In order to accomplish this we developed field courses in which undergraduate and graduate students conduct scientific research, experience local cultures, and learn about conservation. Over 120 of these students have received doctoral degrees or are currently in graduate programs. Four doctoral dissertations, several MA theses, and some 20 scientific articles have been published based on research conducted at our field stations. In order to achieve our long-term goals of preserving the environment, we also needed to engage directly with local communities to address their needs and concerns. To this end, we developed a series of community-based initiatives related to health care, bilingual education, and conservation education using traditional and on-line teaching tools. In this article, we describe our efforts in Costa Rica and Nicaragua teaching conservation-oriented field courses and working with the local human communities. Building upon these experiences, we outline a set of ethical considerations and responsibilities for private reserves, conservation-oriented businesses, NGOs, and conservancies that help integrate members of the local community as stakeholders in conservation.

  7. 'Missing persons': technical terminology as a barrier in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2012-02-01

    Several fields contributing to psychiatric advances, such as psychology, biology, and the humanities, have not yet met to produce a cohesive and integrated picture of human function and dysfunction, strength and vulnerability, etc., despite advances in their own areas. The failure may have its roots in a disagreement on what we mean by the human person and his or her relationship with the world, for which the incommensurate language of these disciplines may be partly to blame. Turns taken by western philosophy over the past 400 years may help to explain this. Language is such an important tool for psychiatrists, that examination of it may afford an insight into the reasons for divisions in the field. This paper aims to examine and compare psychologies (and hence psychiatries) derived from modern western philosophy, with similar concepts in other cultures, through the study of developments in terminology, in terms of the simplest facts about what it means to be human. Terminology used in mental health in western cultures is examined, with particular consideration of the term "self" as it has come to be used in a technical sense. Analogous terms from non-English speaking European languages, and some non-western cultures are studied. Western philosophy and psychology have evolved a meaning for the term "self" which is quite different from equivalent terms in non-western cultures. It is a moot point whether or not the development in western psychiatry of what are now technical terms to describe normal human experience has become needlessly obscure and ambiguous. It is not evident that this "new" language represents a genuine advance in understanding; it distances mental health professionals from those who are not familiar with it; and it makes transcultural dialogue difficult.

  8. In India, Psychiatry Has Come a Long Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This Presidential Address of the Bombay Psychiatry Society covers the state of psychiatry in India in 1997. It posits that with the advent of newer brain imaging technologies in India such as computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computerised tomography and brain electrical activity mapping, an era of evidence-based psychiatry in India has arrived. The Address cautions against the dehumanising potential of excessive reliance on technology. The need for a greater emphasis on psychiatry during undergraduate medical education is discussed along with the need to destigmatise psychiatric disorders. Finally, the need to encourage quality research in psychiatric disorders is stressed.

  9. Nutritional Psychiatry: Where to Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice N. Jacka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nascent field of ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’ offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD. Finally, new studies focused on understanding the biological pathways that mediate the observed relationships between diet, nutrition and mental health are pointing to the immune system, oxidative biology, brain plasticity and the microbiome-gut-brain axis as key targets for nutritional interventions. On the other hand, the field is currently limited by a lack of data and methodological issues such as heterogeneity, residual confounding, measurement error, and challenges in measuring and ensuring dietary adherence in intervention studies. Key challenges for the field are to now: replicate, refine and scale up promising clinical and population level dietary strategies; identify a clear set of biological pathways and targets that mediate the identified associations; conduct scientifically rigorous nutraceutical and ‘psychobiotic’ interventions that also examine predictors of treatment response; conduct observational and experimental studies in psychosis focused on dietary and related risk factors and treatments; and continue to advocate for policy change to improve the food environment at the population level.

  10. [Self-regulation and virtual reality in forensic psychiatry: An emphasis on theoretical underpinnings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouriche, M; Renaud, P; Pelletier, J-F; De Loor, P

    2016-12-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the field whose expertise is the assessment and treatment of offending behaviours, in particular when offenses are related to mental illness. An underlying question for all etiological models concerns the manner in which an individual's behaviours are organized. Specifically, it becomes crucial to understand how certain individuals come to display maladaptive behaviours in a given environment, especially when considering issues such as offenders' responsibility and their ability to change their behaviours. Thanks to its ability to generate specific environments, associated with a high experimental control on generated simulations, virtual reality is gaining recognition in forensic psychiatry. Virtual reality has generated promising research data and may turn out to be a remarkable clinical tool in the near future. While research has increased, a conceptual work about its theoretical underpinnings is still lacking. However, no important benefit should be expected from the introduction of a new tool (as innovative as virtual reality) without an explicit and heuristic theoretical framework capable of clarifying its benefits in forensic psychiatry. Our paper introduces self-regulation perspective as the most suitable theoretical framework for virtual reality in forensic psychiatry. It will be argued that virtual reality does not solely help to increase ecological validity. However, it does allow one to grant access to an improved understanding of violent offending behaviours by probing into the underlying mechanisms involved in the self-regulation of behaviours in a dynamical environment. Illustrations are given as well as a discussion regarding perspectives in the use of virtual reality in forensic psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under rice-wheat cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Li, Yong; Li, Fen-hua; Sun, Guo-jun; Han, Min; Zhang, Hai-yan; Ji, Zhong; Wu, Chen-yu

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under a rice-wheat rotation system, a survey was conducted before wheat harvest in 2014 after a 4-year long-term recurrent fertilization scheme. Weed species types, density, height and diversity index under different fertilization and straw-returning schemes in wheat fields were studied and complemented with a canonical correspondence analysis on weed community distribution and soil nutrient factors. Twenty weed species were recorded among 36 wheat fields belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Beckmannia syzigachne, Hemistepta lyrata, Malachium aquaticum and Cnidium monnieri were widely distributed throughout the sampled area. Long-term fertilization appeared to reduce weed species richness and density, particularly for broadleaf weeds, but increased weed height. Diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were lower and dominance indices were higher in fields where chemical fertilizers were applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers, especially, where organic-inorganic compound fertilizer was used, in which it readily caused the outbreak of a dominant species and severe damage. Conversely, diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were higher and dominance indices were lower when the straw was returned to the field combined with chemical or organic fertilizers, in which weed community structures were complex and stable with lower weed density. Under these conditions weeds only caused slight reduction of wheat growth.

  12. Comparative analysis of bacterial communities in a potato field as determined by pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgül Inceoğlu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants selectively attract particular soil microorganisms, in particular consumers of root-excreted compounds. It is unclear to what extent cultivar type and/or growth stage affect this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA-based pyrosequencing was used to characterize the structure of bacterial communities in a field cropped with potato. The rhizospheres of six cultivars denoted Aveka, Aventra, Karnico, Modena, Premiere and Desiree, at three growth stages (young, flowering and senescence were examined, in addition to corresponding bulk soils. Around 350,000 sequences were obtained (5,700 to 38,000 per sample. Across all samples, rank abundance distributions best fitted the power law model, which indicates a community composed of a few highly dominant species next to numerous rare species. Grouping of the sequences showed that members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, next to as-yet-unclassified bacteria, dominated. Other groups that were consistently found, albeit at lower abundance, were Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Principal components analyses revealed that rhizosphere samples were significantly different from corresponding bulk soil in each growth stage. Furthermore, cultivar effects were found in the young plant stage, whereas these became insignificant in the flowering and senescence stages. Besides, an effect of time of season was observed for both rhizosphere and bulk soils. The analyzed rhizosphere samples of the potato cultivars were grouped into two groups, in accordance with the allocation of carbon to starch in their tubers, i.e. Aveka, Aventra and Karnico (high versus Premiere and Desiree (low and thus replicates per group were established. CONCLUSIONS: Across all potato cultivars, the young plant stages revealed cultivar-dependent bacterial community structures, which disappeared in the flowering and senescence stages. Furthermore, Pseudomonas, Beta-, Alpha- and

  13. Impact of exploratory offshore drilling on benthic communities in the Minerva gas field, Port Campbell, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, D.R.; Isaacs, L.R. [Central Queensland Univ., Gladstone (Australia). Centre for Environmental Management

    2005-04-01

    Changes to benthic infauna caused by exploratory gas drilling operations in the Minerva field were examined experimentally using a BACI (before, after, control, impact) design. Analysis of 72 x 0.1 m{sup 2} Smith-McIntyre grab samples obtained from one pre-drilling and three post-drilling periods yielded a diverse fauna consisting of 196 invertebrate species and 5035 individuals. Changes to benthic community structure were assessed using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The abundances of two common species (Apseudes sp. 1 and Prionospio coorilla) decreased significantly at the well-head site immediately after drilling. The size of these reductions in abundance ranged between 71% and 88%, and persisted for less than 4 months after drilling. A third common species (Katlysia sp. 1) increased in abundance 200 m east of the well-head following drilling. Most species occurred at densities too low to be analysed individually and so were pooled at higher taxonomic levels. Changes in the abundance of species aggregated by phylum varied, but significant declines in the most abundant phyla (Crustaceans and Polychaetes) of 45-73% were observed at all sites within a 100 m radius of the well-head following drilling. In most cases these changes became undetectable four months after drilling following species recruitments. MDS ordinations confirm that drilling related changes to benthic community structure are most pronounced at stations located closest to the well-head. Additionally, the ordinations indicate that modified communities persist at the well-head for more than 11 months following exploratory drilling. (author)

  14. Use of Portfolio-based Learning and Assessment in Community-based Field Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Swaroop Kumar; Soudarssanane, Mb; Roy, Gautam; Premrajan, Kc; Sarkar, Sonali

    2008-04-01

    Portfolio-based learning is recognized in medical education. It helps students to assess themselves as per the key learning objectives and outcomes expected out of them. The faculty could also get feedback regarding individual student's progress toward learning outcomes and facilitate the students achieve the same. This article addresses the process of portfolio development and assesses from students feedbacks, if portfolio-based learning is an improvement over record-based study in community-based field studies. The results of this study shows that involving students in framing objectives, developing a mechanism for self-introspection and self-assessment by the students and a mechanism by which faculty can monitor each student's progress toward the defined objectives can significantly enhance the learnability of the students.

  15. Use of portfolio-based learning and assessment in community-based field curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Swaroop

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio-based learning is recognized in medical education. It helps students to assess themselves as per the key learning objectives and outcomes expected out of them. The faculty could also get feedback regarding individual student′s progress toward learning outcomes and facilitate the students achieve the same. This article addresses the process of portfolio development and assesses from students feedbacks, if portfolio-based learning is an improvement over record-based study in community-based field studies. The results of this study shows that involving students in framing objectives, developing a mechanism for self-introspection and self-assessment by the students and a mechanism by which faculty can monitor each student′s progress toward the defined objectives can significantly enhance the learnability of the students.

  16. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  17. Response of Bacteria Community to Long-Term Inorganic Nitrogen Application in Mulberry Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingming; Deng, Wen; Li, Yong; Han, Guangming; Xiong, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community and diversity in mulberry field soils with different application ages of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (4Y, 4-year-old; 17Y, 17-year-old; 32Y, 32-year- old) were investigated using next-generation sequencing. The results demonstrated that the application ages of nitrogen fertilizer significantly altered soil bacterial community and diversity. Soil bacterial Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 index decreased with the consecutive application of nitrogen fertilizer, and the 4Y soil exhibited the highest bacterial relative abundance and diversity. Of 45 bacterial genera (relative abundance ratio of genera greater than 0.3%), 18 were significantly affected by the plant age, and seven belong to Acidobacteria. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria Gp 1, Gp4 and Gp6 in the 4Y soil were significantly lower than that of in the 17Y and 32Y soils. However, the relative abundance of Pseudononas sp. in the 4Y soil was significantly higher than that of in the 17Y and 32Y soils. Most microbial parameters were significantly affected by soil pH and organic matter content which were significantly changed by long-term application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. PMID:27977728

  18. [Forensic medical examinations and teaching: disagreements and discussions within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ede

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the influence wielded by forensic medicine in the development of the field of psychiatry in Brazil, this research note analyzes the debates that took place from May to July 1918 within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine over the use of forensic medical examinations as course material in the study of Public Medicine at the Rio de Janeiro School of Medicine. The focus is on how the controversy unfolded within the Society and how this scientific organization influenced the institution of the theoretical and practical training of medical experts.

  19. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  20. The Psychiatry Major: A Curricular Innovation to Improve Undergraduate Psychiatry Education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ling; Chang, Wing Chung; Rohrbaugh, Robert; Ouyang, Xuan; Chen, Eric; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Xinran

    2017-06-02

    In China, a psychiatry major curriculum (PMC) has been implemented in select medical schools to improve the quality of undergraduate psychiatry education (UPE). Our aim was to describe this PMC and compare it with UPE in the standard Chinese clinical medicine curriculum (CMC). We also benchmarked PMC to UPE programs in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China and the United States of America (USA) to determine how well it met standards of well-established programs and to highlight areas for improvement. Based on archival information, relevant literature, and communication with key informants, we described PMC and CMC in a Chinese school with both curriculums. We then compared PMC to UPE curriculums in Hong Kong and the USA. PMC provides substantially more comprehensive exposure to psychiatry than CMC, with more preclinical experiences and psychiatry clerkship course hours, greater diversity of clinical sites, and exploration of subspecialties. PMC employs a variety of teaching methods and offers mentoring for students. PMC has similar UPE preclinical content and course hours as programs in Hong Kong and the USA. PMC also provides more clinical exposure than programs in Hong Kong or the USA, although there is less variety in clinical settings. We recommend implementation of concrete measures to improve UPE in Chinese medical schools, using the PMC curriculum as a model that has been successfully implemented in China. We also recommend improvements to PMC based on comparisons with existing programs outside Mainland China.

  1. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  2. Co-opting psychiatry: the alliance between academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The editorial presents the arguments that an alliance between academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry is harmful through a critical review of the academic literature and media coverage of activities of the pharmaceutical industry. The industry and the psychiatric profession both gain advantages from promoting biomedical models of psychiatric disturbance and pharmacological treatment. This confluence of interests has lead to the exaggeration of the efficacy of psychiatric drugs and neglect of their adverse effects and has distorted psychiatric knowledge and practice. Academic psychiatry has helped the industry to colonise more and more areas of modern life in order to expand the market for psychotropic drugs. Persuading people to understand their problems as biological deficiencies obscures the social origin and context of distress and prevents people from seeking social or political solutions. Psychiatry has the power to challenge the dominance of the pharmaceutical industry and should put its efforts into developing alternatives to routine drug treatment. Psychiatry needs to disengage from the industry if it wants to make genuine advances in understanding psychiatric disorder and help reverse the harmful social consequences of the widening med-icalisation of human experience.

  3. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  4. If Ethics in Psychiatry is the Answer - What was the Question? Exploring Social Space and the Role of Clinical Chaplaincy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kohlen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, ethics has been expanding in health care and chaplains comprise one of the key groups that provide ethics consultation services in the German arena of psychiatry. Like all professional actors in the practical arena, chaplains perform their role. Performance happens in relation to others who occupy positions that allow more or less exercise of power. This architecture of relational positioning and territory constitutes the social space. The question is, whether ethics in psychiatry can overcome the determination of positioning within the social space, and if yes: what is the scope of ethics? This article investigates into the role of chaplaincy as ethical agents (in Germany on the basis of theoretical and empirical studies over the last 10 years. The meaning of social space in the field of psychiatry is explored by taking Pierre Bourdieu’s work into account. For illustration, a case study is given.

  5. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  6. Psychosomatic medicine : A new psychiatric subspecialty in the US focused on the interface between psychiatry and medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Huyse, Frits J.; Gitlin, David F.; Levenson, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the past, Psychosomatic Medicine (PM) has had ambiguous connotations, and there have been many other names for this specialized fields, including Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. The objective of this report is to briefly review the background, the history and current s

  7. Evolutionary Psychiatry and Nosology: Prospects and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Faucher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explain why evolutionary psychiatry is not where the next revolution in psychiatry will come from. I will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will review some of the problems commonly attributed to current nosologies, more specifically to the DSM. One of these problems is the lack of a clear and consensual definition of mental disorder; I will then examine specific attempts to spell out such a definition that use the evolutionary framework. One definition that deserves particular attention (for a number of reasons that I will mention later, is one put forward by Jerome Wakefield. Despite my sympathy for his position, I must indicate a few reasons why I think his attempt might not be able to resolve the problems related to current nosologies. I suggest that it might be wiser for an evolutionary psychiatrist to adopt the more integrative framework of “treatable conditions” (Cosmides and Tooby, 1999. As it is thought that an evolutionary approach can contribute to transforming the way we look at mental disorders, I will provide the reader with a brief sketch of the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. The picture of the architecture of the human mind that emerges from evolutionary psychology is thought by some to be the crucial backdrop to identifying specific mental disorders and distinguishing them from normal conditions. I will also provide two examples of how evolutionary thinking is supposed to change our thinking about some disorders. Using the case of depression, I will then show what kind of problems evolutionary explanations of particular psychopathologies encounter. In conclusion, I will evaluate where evolutionary thinking leaves us in regard to what I identify as the main problems of our current nosologies. I’ll then argue that the prospects of evolutionary psychiatry are not good.

  8. NGO collaboration in community post-disaster reconstruction: field research following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-04-01

    The number of communities affected by disasters has been rising. As a result, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that attend community post-disaster reconstruction are often unable to deliver all requirements and have to develop cooperative approaches. However, this collaboration can cause problems because of the complex environments, the fight for limited resources and uncoordinated management, all of which result in poor service delivery to the communities, adding to their woes. From extensive field research and case studies conducted in the post-Wenchuan earthquake-stricken communities, this paper introduces an integrated collaboration framework for community post-disaster reconstruction with the focus on three types of NGOs: international, government organised and civil. The proposed collaboration framework examines the three interrelated components of organisational structure, operational processes and reconstruction goals/implementation areas. Of great significance in better promoting collaborative participation between NGOs are the crucial concepts of participatory reconstruction, double-layer collaborative networks, and circular review and revision.

  9. Optogenetics in psychiatry: The light ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexities of the human mind have been beyond the scope of understanding because a intricate neuronal network and difficulty in specific localization and assessment of area responsible for a specific behavior; more so in a freely moving living being. Optogenetics off late has been able to address this issue to great extent and holds promises for future. Relevant literatures in this direction were looked into and the salient aspects of this science is being discussed here with specific relevance to psychiatry.

  10. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  11. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  12. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  13. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  14. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  15. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  16. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  17. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  18. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  19. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  20. The Triple Jump: Assessing Problem Solving in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ethna C.; Trimble, Peter; Smyth, Joe

    1998-01-01

    Describes an attempt to assess a final-year course in psychiatry using the Triple Jump. In this course, students on placement in psychiatric units perfect psychiatry skills that were acquired during the previous year by direct contact with patients. The Triple Jump is used to assess problem-solving skills in management strategy on cases. (PVD)

  1. Research in child and adolescent psychiatry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyavadan Chandrakant; Shastri, Jay P.; Shastri, Dimple

    2010-01-01

    The primary source for this annotation on child and adolescent psychiatry is Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Articles covering various dimensions of child and adolescent mental health were searched from its electronic data base to discuss relevant articles. Literature was mainly in the form of original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, orations and presidential address. PMID:21836681

  2. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  3. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  4. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  5. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength.

  6. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  7. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields.

  8. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d how are mind and brain related; (e what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b issues in psychiatric ethics; (c social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a antipsychiatry revisited; (b basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  9. Psychiatry Resident Training in Cultural Competence: An Educator's Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Irma; Johnson, Toni L; Shelton, Pheston G; Glass, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Resident physicians training in psychiatry in the U.S. are required to master a body of knowledge related to cultural psychiatry; are expected to adopt attitudes that endorse the principles of cultural competence; and finally are expected to acquire specific cultural competence skills that facilitate working effectively with diverse patients. This article first provides an overview of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies related to cultural competence, as well as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's (AACAP) recommendations for the cultural competence training of child/adolescent fellows. Next, numerous print and electronic resources that can be used in cultural competence education in psychiatry are reviewed and discussed. Finally, we conclude by providing recommendations for psychiatry residency programs that we culled from model cultural competence curricula.

  10. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

    2008-12-01

    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  11. Perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of a longitudinal biomedical research project on their sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Christabelle S; Francis, Joseph; Bessong, Pascal O

    2017-03-17

    Researchers involved in biomedical community-based projects rarely seek the perspectives of community fieldworkers, who are the 'foot soldiers' in such projects. Understanding the effect of biomedical research on community-based field workers could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of community-based studies. The present study explored the perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project" (MAL-ED) South Africa on their tangible and intangible capital which together comprise sustainable livelihoods. The study was conducted in Dzimauli community in Limpopo Province of South Africa between January-February 2016. The sustainable livelihoods framework was used to query community-based field workers' perspectives of both tangible assets such as income and physical assets and intangible assets such as social capital, confidence, and skills. Data were collected through twenty one individual in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion. Data were analysed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach supported by ATLAS.ti, version 7.5.10 software. All the field workers indicated that they benefitted from the MAL-ED South Africa project. The benefits included intangible assets such as acquisition of knowledge and skills, stronger social capital and personal development. Additionally, all indicated that MAL-ED South Africa provided them with the tangible assets of increased income and physical assets. Observations obtained from the focus group discussion and the community-based leaders concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. Additionally, some field workers expressed the desire for training in public relations, communication, problem solving and confidence building. The MAL-ED South Africa, biomedical research project, had positive effects on tangible and

  12. Psychoactive substance use in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, E J; Castaneda, R

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the interface between judicial discipline and behavioral science in the context of substance-related disorders. We review the epidemiology of psychoactive drug use and crime and discuss the courts' decisions on relevant landmark cases, particularly as they influence the practice of psychiatry. (1) The phenomenology of addiction and crime is of great epidemiological import. (2) Our legal system inclines toward the view that the use of alcohol or other substances involves an element of choice and therefore would not amount to a legal insanity defense if the substance abuser commits a crime while intoxicated. (3) A state can confine an addict or alcoholic for compulsory treatment if that individual presents a danger to self or others. (4) The law has found that alcoholism and drug abuse are both "willful misconduct" and a disabling condition; the former definition contains the end in view of punitive action. The latter is aimed toward treatment and rehabilitation. (5) The law gives the right to the employer to test a suspected employee for drug abuse. The addicted or alcoholic employee has the choice to either go for treatment or face job termination. (6) Our judicial system gives serious consideration to the welfare of a child whose parents are alcoholic or drug addicted. The two disciplines of psychiatry and law follow their own modes in resolving issues in alcoholism and other substance abuse. We need research and new approaches to build a bridge between the two.

  13. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J Kirmayer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobhavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery.

  14. Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, S

    1978-09-01

    This paper was given as a talk at the Venice Biennale on 9 December 1977. It was part of a symposium on "The Freedom of Science--Problems of Science of Scientists in Eastern Europe". Dr Bloch details some of the problems of psychiatry and its vulnerability to improper use and thus the dilemmas which must ensue in day to day practice. He looks at psychiatry in the USSR and the system within which Soviet psychiatrists must work. The Communist Party and career advancement for psychiatrists would appear to be closely related and it is suggested that, in all probability, the majority of psychiatrists are as perturbed at the misuse of their profession as their Western colleagues, but act compliantly out of fear. Severe punishments have been imposed on those psychiatrists who have dared to speak out against the régime and the system as operated. Dr Bloch concludes by urging Western psychiatrists to do all they can to help their Soviet colleagues to initiate a return to an independent and automous psychiatric profession.

  15. The historical development of psychiatry in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Srdan; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Pantović, Mihailo; Dukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Ravanić, Dragan

    2009-06-01

    The authors present the development of the concept of mental disease and treatment in Serbian medicine. Serbian medieval medicine did not acknowledge fortune telling, sorcery, the use of amulets and magical rituals and formulas. These progressive concepts were confirmed by the Church and the Serbian state in what is known as Dusan's Code. The Historical data on the establishment of the first psychiatric hospital in the Balkans "Home for the Unsound of Mind" at Guberevac, Belgrade, in 1861 and its founders is reviewed. After World War I, in 1923, the Faculty of Medicine was established in Belgrade to which the coryphaei of Serbian medicine educated in Europe, mostly in France and Germany, flocked and that same year the Psychiatry Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade was set up. Its first seat was on the premises of the Mental Hospital in Belgrade, and it became a training base and laid the foundations of the future Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Belgrade, which in time evolved into the nursery of psychiatric professionals for all of Serbia. The most important data on the further development of psychiatry up to date are presented.

  16. [Psychiatry periodicals in Spain up to 1931].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolín Guillén, J M

    1992-01-01

    The development of psychiatry, as it happens with other medical specialties, has been linked to that of the journals dedicated to it. They are a good exponent of its state of growing or consolidation. The first psychiatric journal in Spain appeared in 1865 and 27 years later the next one was founded. None of the three journals which existed in the 19th century continued at the beginning of the 20th century. During the first three decades of this century, nine specialized journals were founded, among which the "Revista Frenopática Española" in the first place, and the "Archivos de Neurobiología" afterwards, were the most outstanding in our country and the "Revista Frenopática Española" was that of the greatest international projection. Although the importance of a constellation of prestigious journals which were not dedicated to psychiatry was decisive for the development of this discipline in our country, the professionals organized themselves in the monographic journals about this subject, linked to mental hospitals.

  17. Diagnosis and causal explanation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Hane Htut

    2016-12-01

    In clinical medicine, a diagnosis can offer an explanation of a patient's symptoms by specifying the pathology that is causing them. Diagnoses in psychiatry are also sometimes presented in clinical texts as if they pick out pathological processes that cause sets of symptoms. However, current evidence suggests the possibility that many diagnostic categories in psychiatry are highly causally heterogeneous. For example, major depressive disorder may not be associated with a single type of underlying pathological process, but with a range of different causal pathways, each involving complex interactions of various biological, psychological, and social factors. This paper explores the implications of causal heterogeneity for whether psychiatric diagnoses can be said to serve causal explanatory roles in clinical practice. I argue that while they may fall short of picking out a specific cause of the patient's symptoms, they can nonetheless supply different sorts of clinically relevant causal information. In particular, I suggest that some psychiatric diagnoses provide negative information that rules out certain causes, some provide approximate or disjunctive information about the range of possible causal processes, and some provide causal information about the relations between the symptoms themselves.

  18. Assessing competencies during education in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Holly J; Marcangelo, Michael; Rodriguez, Elizabeth R; Spitz, Deborah

    2013-06-01

    The utilization of competencies in medical education is relatively recent. In 1999 the United States Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) established six main competencies. Since then, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology have approved a specific list of competencies for their specialities in each of the ACGME's core competency areas. Assessment of competencies in both medical students and residents can be achieved through such methods as structured case discussion, direct observation, simulation, standardized patients, and 360-degree assessments, etc. Each assessment methodology has specific applications in the discipline of psychiatry. This paper reviews the different methods for assessing competencies with specific examples in psychiatric education. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of all assessment methods, but to provide examples and strategies to guide psychiatric educators in their practice. Students and residents were intentionally separated because there are differences in the teaching goals and objectives, and thus in the assessment purposes and design. Students are general, undifferentiated physicians-in-training who need to learn about psychiatric nosology, examinations, and treatment. Residents are mental health professionals who need more in-depth supervision in order to hone skills in all the specialized areas that arise in psychiatric practices, making supervision a vital part of residency programs.

  19. Root exudate is allelopathic in invaded community but not in native community: Field evidence for the novel weapons hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea S. Thorpe; Giles C. Thelen; Alecu Diaconu; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by exotic species threatens natural ecosystems (Wilcove et al. 1998) and has severe economic ramifications (Pimentel et al. 2000). In many cases, exotic species that form near monocultures in their invaded range are much rarer in their native communities (Lonsdale & Segura 1987; Braithwaite et al. 1989; Malecki et al. 1993; Eckert et al. 1996; Meyer...

  20. Field released transgenic papaya effect on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiang-dong; ZOU Hui-ling; CHU Lee-min; LIAO Bin; YE Chang-min; LAN Chong-yu

    2006-01-01

    Soil properties, microbial communities and enzyme activities were studied in soil amended with replicase (RP)-transgenic or non-transgenic papaya under field conditions. Compared with non-transgenic papaya, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in total nitrogen in soils grown with transgenic papaya. There were also significant differences (P<0.05) in the total number of colony forming units (CFUs) of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi between soils amended with RP-transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants. Compared with non-transgenic papaya, the total CFUs of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soil with transgenic papaya increased by 0.43-1.1, 0.21-0.80 and 0.46-0.73 times respectively. Significantly higher (P<0.05) CFUs of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi resistant to kanamycin (Km) were obtained in soils with RP-transgenic papaya than those with non-transgenic papaya in all concentrations of Km. Higher resistance quotients for Kmr (kanam ycin resistant) bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were found in soil planted with RP-transgenic papaya, and the resistance quotients for KTr bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soils with transgenic papaya increased 1.6-4.46, 0.63-2.5 and 0.75-2.30 times. RP-transgenic papaya and non-transgenic papaya produced significantly different enzyme activities in arylsulfatase (5.4-5.9x), polyphenol oxidase (0.7-1.4x), invertase (0.5-0.79x), cellulase (0.23-0.35x) and phosphodiesterase (0.16-0.2x). The former three soil enzymes appeared to be more sensitive to the transgenic papaya than the others, and could be useful parameters in assessing the effects of transgenic papaya.Transgenic papaya could alter soil chemical properties, enzyme activities and microbial communities.

  1. Annual Research Review: Threats to the validity of child psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Suggestions have been made that many claims concern false-positive findings in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. The literature was searched for concepts and findings on the validity of child psychiatry and psychology. Substantial progress has been made in some, but not all, areas and considerable challenges remain in all. The two major threats to validity concern the inability to examine brain tissues in life and the evidence that there is a high overlap among disorders. We emphasize the need to follow published guidelines on preplanned analyses and we note the dangers associated with unregulated flexibility in data analysis. We note the very important clinical and developmental findings that have been ignored, perhaps partly because of an excessive focus on technologies. Nevertheless, we are positive about both the accomplishments and the ways in which challenges are being met. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Healing psychiatry: a pragmatic approach to bridging the science/humanism divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, David

    2004-01-01

    Competing urges to think of human mental suffering as comprehensible and susceptible to scientific formulation, or as deeply complex and beyond the reach of scientific analysis, have torn at the fabric of psychiatry for many years and have left the field conceptually divided between science and humanism. Conceptual reparation of psychiatry is now a core mission of a field that is trying to heal itself so that it is equipped to heal the patients it serves. To formulate their cases comprehensively and provide patients with cutting-edge care, psychiatrists must heal the conceptual wounds that have resulted from dividing the human individual into an object of scientific scrutiny and a subject of personal experience. They must synthesize science and humanism in order to generate new understanding of mental disorders and to train future clinicians and researchers. Principles of classical American pragmatism, I argue in this article, can help to transcend the science/humanism divide in psychiatry. Clinical pragmatism focuses on favorable treatment outcomes by respecting the practical, pluralistic, participatory, and provisional aspects of psychiatric care. It demands that psychiatrists have the skill and flexibility to use multiple explanatory concepts in a collaborative, open-ended process with their patients. These themes are explored from the perspectives of contemporary psychiatric treatment, training, and research.

  3. Saúde mental na atenção básica como processo histórico de evolução da psiquitria comunitária Salud mental en la atención básica como porceso histórico de evolución de la psiquiatría comunitaria Mental health in the basic attention as historical process of community psychiatry evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Márcia dos Santos Reinaldo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se propõe a analisar aspectos teóricos sobre a saúde mental na atenção básica e sua interface com a psiquiatria comunitária a partir de uma reflexão sobre a produção científica relacionada ao tema. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica no período de maio a julho de 2005, quando foram consultadas as bases de dados (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Bireme, Scielo, Lilacs e fontes primárias que versam sobre o tema, utilizando as palavras-chave: saúde mental, atenção primária, psiquiatria, comunidade, atenção básica. Foram encontradas 142 ocorrências e, destas, utilizadas 20 de acordo com o objetivo do estudo. A análise do material compilado subsidia a discussão de que efetivamente há uma interface entre a saúde mental na atenção básica e a psiquiatria comunitária que se reflete na atual política de saúde mental.La finalidad del artículo es analizar aspectos teóricos sobre la salud mental en la atención básica y su interfaz con la psiquiatría comunitaria a partir de una reflexión sobre la producción científica relacionada al tema. Para tanto fue realizada una revisión bibliográfica en el período de mayo a julio de 2005, donde fueron consultadas las bases de datos (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Bireme, Scielo, Lilacs y fuentes primarias sobre el tema, utilizando las palabras-clave: salud mental, atención primaria, psiquiatría, comunidad, atención básica. Fueron encontradas 142 ocurrencias y, de estas, utilizadas 20 de acuerdo con el objetivo del estudio. El análisis del material compilado subsidia la discusión de que efectivamente existe una interfaz entre la salud mental en la atención básica y la psiquiatría comunitaria que se refleja en la actual política de salud mental.This article aims to analyze theoretical aspects of mental health in basic care and its interface with community psychiatry, based on a reflection about scientific production related to the theme. Therefore

  4. Attitudes toward neuroscience education in psychiatry: a national multi-stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes of chairs of psychiatry departments, psychiatrists, and psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in residency programs and beyond in order to inform future neuroscience education approaches. This multi-stakeholder survey captured data on demographics, self-assessments of neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interests in specific neuroscience topics. In 2012, the authors distributed the surveys: by paper to 133 US psychiatry department chairs and electronically through the American Psychiatric Association to 3,563 of its members (1,000 psychiatrists and 2,563 trainees). The response rates for the chair, psychiatrist, and trainee surveys were 53, 9, and 18 %, respectively. A large majority of respondents agreed with the need for more neuroscience education in general and with respect to their own training. Most respondents believed that neuroscience will help destigmatize mental illness and begin producing new treatments or personalized medicines in 5-10 years. Only a small proportion of trainees and psychiatrists, however, reported a strong knowledge base in neuroscience. Respondents also reported broad enthusiasm for transdiagnostic topics in neuroscience (such as emotion regulation and attention/cognition) and description at the level of neural circuits. This study demonstrates the opportunity and enthusiasm for teaching more neuroscience in psychiatry among a broad range of stakeholder groups. A high level of interest was also found for transdiagnostic topics and approaches. We suggest that a transdiagnostic framework may be an effective way to deliver neuroscience education to the psychiatric community and illustrate this through a case example, drawing the similarity between this neuroscience approach and problem-based formulations familiar to clinicians.

  5. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination on China’s arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg-1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  6. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yi-Bing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Copper contamination on China's arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg(-1) in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values) characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  7. Knowledge and attitude of nurses to Community Psychiatry services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Knowledge and attitude .... psychiatric nursing evolved rapidly, and .... Procedure. Population from which sample was chosen. Sex. N. Marital status. N.

  8. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  9. "Dreams Are Born on Places Like This": The Process of Interpretive Community Formation at the "Field of Dreams" Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the narratives of 113 visitors to the site of the film "Field of Dreams." Develops a theory that explains how interpretive communities are formed despite theoretical writings that argue for individualized interpretations of text. Demonstrates that individuals can at once converge and diverge symbolically within the confines of…

  10. Comparison of intact polar lipid with microbial community composition of vent deposits of the Rainbow and Lucky Strike hydrothermal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, R.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Reysenbach, A.-L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of twelve hydrothermal vent deposits from the Rainbow (RHF) and Lucky Strike hydrothermal fields (LSHF) has been investigated in order to assess its utility as a proxy for microbial community composition associated with deep-sea hydrothermal locations. Gene-b

  11. Analysis of Biostimulated Microbial Communities from Two Field Experiments Reveals Temporal and Spatial Differences in Proteome Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, Stephen J.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Banfield, Jillian F.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Hettich, Robert L.; N' Guessan, A. Lucie; Mouser, Paula; Elifantz, H.; Smith, Richard D.; Lovley, Derek R.; Lipton, Mary S.; Long, Philip E.

    2010-12-01

    Stimulated by acetate-amendment field experiments conducted in 2007 and 2008, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this period, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points and used to quantitatively evaluate proteomes, both spatially and temporally to study the dynamics of the microbial community proteome dynamics in relationship to geochemical measurements. As there were no comprehensive genome sequence data available at the time, we systematically evaluated different organisms to generate a "pseudo-metagenome" for proteomics analyses. Proteomics results supported the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation and revealed a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction, evidenced by changes in community membership. Because U(VI) is reduced at a lower rate during sulfate reduction, detecting this shift is important to maintaining the maximum rate of U(VI) reduction. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made at the end of the 2007 field experiment to the 2008 field experiment revealed a modified community structure. Importantly, the failure of a community to rebound following the cessation of biostimulation needs to be included in long-term remediation strategies.

  12. Modelling the effect of fertiliser, mowing, disturbance and width on the biodiversity of plant communities of field boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Joenje, W.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of nitrogen, disturbance, mowing and boundary width on the composition of plant communities of field boundaries a spatial plant competition model was developed that incorporates competition for nitrogen and light as well as mineralisation and population dynamical processes. T

  13. Comparison of intact polar lipid with microbial community composition of vent deposits of the Rainbow and Lucky Strike hydrothermal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, R.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Reysenbach, A.-L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of twelve hydrothermal vent deposits from the Rainbow (RHF) and Lucky Strike hydrothermal fields (LSHF) has been investigated in order to assess its utility as a proxy for microbial community composition associated with deep-sea hydrothermal locations.

  14. Community variations in population exposure to near-field tsunami hazards as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize population exposure to near-field tsunami threats typically focus on quantifying the number and type of people in tsunami-hazard zones. To develop and prioritize effective risk-reduction strategies, emergency managers also need information on the potential for successful evacuations and how this evacuation potential varies among communities. To improve efforts to properly characterize and differentiate near-field tsunami threats among multiple communities, we assess community variations in population exposure to tsunamis as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety. We focus our efforts on the multiple coastal communities in Grays Harbor and Pacific Counties (State of Washington, USA), where a substantial resident and visitor population is threatened by near-field tsunamis related to a potential Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Anisotropic, path-distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety and results are merged with various population data, including residents, employees, public venues, and dependent-care facilities. Results suggest that there is substantial variability among communities in the number of people that may have insufficient time to evacuate. Successful evacuations may be possible in some communities assuming slow-walking speeds, are plausible in others if travel speeds are increased, and are unlikely in another set of communities given the large distances and short time horizon. Emergency managers can use these results to prioritize the location and determine the most appropriate type of tsunami risk-reduction strategies, such as education and training in areas where evacuations are plausible and vertical-evacuation structures in areas where they are not.

  15. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with

  16. International Action to Prevent Discrimination: The Situation of the Roma Community in the Field of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judtih Gimenez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses why recent discriminatory incidents against the Roma community, one of the biggest minorities in Europe, rise in racism and anti-Roma hate speech in public discourse concerns international organizations. The first part of this article briefly outlines human rights bodies’ definition and regulation on the principle of equality and non-discrimination generally and in particular with regard to Roma education. The second part compares recent international human rights’ conclusions on Croatia, the Czech Republic, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Slovakia with regard to the human rights developments of the Roma minority, and to the implementation of their national anti-discrimination legislation. In addition, the latter traces the debate on the access of Roma children to education in those countries, as well as reviews the European Court of Human Rights' case law, in particular with regard to two cases of Roma segregated education in Croatia and the Czech Republic. Finally, some conclusions are drawn as to how overcome the vicious circle of poverty and discrimination faced by the Roma population, in particular in the field of Roma education.

  17. Communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in soil-like bodies of soccer fields in Moscow oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Belobrov, V. P.

    2014-11-01

    Artificially created soil-like technogenic formations (STFs) of soccer fields are developed under combined action of intense technogenic and natural factors and processes, which cannot but affect the structure and biological activity of their microbial communities and mesofauna. The microflora of the STFs is very similar to the microflora of the background soddy-podzolic soils of Moscow oblast with respect to the composition of the physiological groups of microorganisms. However, they are drastically different in their quantitative characteristics. The numbers of all the trophic groups of microorganisms, except for the microscopic fungi, in the STFs are much higher than those in the zonal soils. An increased biological activity of the STFs is due to regular watering, heating, application of sand and mineral fertilizers, and technogenic turbation processes. The mesofauna of the STFs is represented by several ecological groups of earthworms, including soildwelling (endogeic) earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa), epigeic earthworms dwelling at the soil-litter interface ( Lumbricus rubellus), and litter-dwelling earthworms ( Eisenia foetida).

  18. [Some reflections on evidence based psychiatry and its impact on contemporary psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Norberto A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the proposal of evidence based psychiatry (EBP) is presented together with a critical reflection about its paradigmatic perspective, taking into account Thomas S. Khun's epistemological lineaments. It is also shown how blurring of language in its approximation to the human behavioral disorders is EBP point of major inconsistency, as demonstrates a marked epistemological reductionism. Finally, consequences of its restrictive employment both to psychiatrists teaching and to the treatments they provide to their patients are also discussed.

  19. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology; Funktionelle MRT in Psychiatrie und Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Fink, G.R. (eds.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-07-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives.

  20. [Interdisciplinarity and psychiatry: is it time not to know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Mardônio Parente; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with interdisciplinarity as well as psychiatric and psychosocial care. Throughout the text, a historical account of the constitution and the crisis of scientific knowledge is presented and organized into disciplines. The theoretical difficulty of conceptualizing interdisciplinarity is analyzed and, in the concluding remarks, psychiatry and its relationship to psychosocial care is discussed. The argument is that, because of its history, psychiatry has singularities that differentiate it from other medical specialties and these singularities could initially cause psychiatry to go in the opposite direction in relation to interdisciplinarity. The conclusion is that because of their inherent characteristics psychosocial care services are privileged places for psychiatric training with interdisciplinary characteristics.

  1. [The making of madness: counterculture and anti-psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, William Vaz de

    2011-03-01

    The 1950s and especially the 1960s saw constant revisions of social values and customs, with young people's movements playing a major role, above all the so-called counter-culture. The powers-that-be categorized the behavior and attitudes of the movement's followers as constituting madness. This making of madness gave rise to a stream of thought known as anti-psychiatry, which calls into question the very essence of psychiatry. The present article criticizes the psychiatric models of that era and draws links between counter-culture movements and anti-psychiatry.

  2. The genomic psychiatry cohort: partners in discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Michele T; Sobell, Janet L; Medeiros, Helena; Abbott, Colony; Sklar, Brooke M; Buckley, Peter F; Bromet, Evelyn J; Escamilla, Michael A; Fanous, Ayman H; Lehrer, Douglas S; Macciardi, Fabio; Malaspina, Dolores; McCarroll, Steve A; Marder, Stephen R; Moran, Jennifer; Morley, Christopher P; Nicolini, Humberto; Perkins, Diana O; Purcell, Shaun M; Rapaport, Mark H; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Knowles, James A; Pato, Carlos N

    2013-06-01

    The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC) is a longitudinal resource designed to provide the necessary population-based sample for large-scale genomic studies, studies focusing on Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) and/or other alternate phenotype constructs, clinical and interventional studies, nested case-control studies, long-term disease course studies, and genomic variant-to-phenotype studies. We provide and will continue to encourage access to the GPC as an international resource. DNA and other biological samples and diagnostic data are available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Repository. After appropriate review and approval by an advisory board, investigators are able to collaborate in, propose, and co-lead studies involving cohort participants. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Biologism controversy: ethical implications for psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, M; Muders, S; Rüther, M; Schöne-Seifert, B

    2013-10-01

    Current biological psychiatry, it is frequently claimed by its opponents, is "biologistic" and unduly narrows psychological disorders to neurobiology and molecular biology. They deem a complete neuroscientific reduction of the mental phenomena to be impossible because of the impossibility of reducing certain phenomena, such as the individual subjective experience. If such a reduction is nevertheless undertaken it is ultimately to the disadvantage of the patients. We argue in this article that the very term "biologism" has to be put under scrutiny in the first place. As a result it becomes obvious that "biologism", as a subclass of "philosophical naturalism", is ultimately quite unproblematic. Biologism is dangerous only if it implies an eliminative rejection or an inappropriate underestimation of the relevance of the psyche. On closer examination it gets evident that such implications do not follow necessarily from biologism but cannot be precluded either. To better identify and possibly prevent such dangers, a more differentiated terminology seems helpful.

  4. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  5. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  6. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones.

  7. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatrie in meervoud. De wetenschappelijke oriëntaties van de Nederlandse psychiatrie in het interbellum (1918-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Vijselaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry in multiplicity According to a widespread interpretation, the history of psychiatry is characterized by a strong opposition between biological and psychological paradigms, which would dominate consecutive periods in history. The image of a swinging pendulum is a popular metaphor to describe this idea. The culture of Dutch psychiatry in the interwar years (1918-1940 seems to gainsay this image. Psychological, biological and socials models of explanation and therapy were used alongside each other without apparent debate and conflict. Influential professors of psychiatry like H.C. Rümke (Utrecht University even pleaded for a conscious integration of these approaches. Some historians have interpreted this stance as a sign of scientific ‘vagueness’ and ‘anarchy’. Analyzing the work of three major representatives of Dutch psychiatry in the Interbellum (Leendert Bouman, Han Rümke and Lammert van der Horst, the authors (former students of the master Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities shed light on the psychiatric climate of this era, dealing with themes like the openness of psychiatry to other sciences, the interactions of psychiatry and literature, and the relationship between theory and clinical practice. As a result a further qualification of the image of the pendulum is argued for.

  9. Daniel Stern's journey in infant psychiatry: interview by John A. Talbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This interview with Professor Daniel Stern, conducted on February 16, 2012 by Dr. John Talbott, reviews the field of infant psychiatry, the history of which goes back more than 100 years. Sigmund Freud, then Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, Donald Winnicott, and, finally, Margaret Mahler, all psychoanalysts, influenced its development. Direct observation of very young infants and their mothers began in the latter half of the 20th century, and the subsequent course shifted through the influence of developmental psychologists and ethologists. This review concludes with Dr. Stern's predictions and fears about future directions of the field.

  10. Assessment Methods of an Undergraduate Psychiatry Course at a Saudi University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Amr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Arab countries there are few studies on assessment methods in the field of psychiatry. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of different forms of psychiatric course assessment among fifth year medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We examined the performance of 110 fifth-year medical students through objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE, traditional oral clinical examinations (TOCE, portfolios, multiple choice questions (MCQ, and a written examination. Results: The score ranges in TOCE, OSCE, portfolio, and MCQ were 32–50, 7–15, 5–10 and 22–45, respectively. In regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between OSCE and all forms of psychiatry examinations, except for the MCQ marks. OSCE accounted for 65.1% of the variance in total clinical marks and 31.5% of the final marks (P = 0.001, while TOCE alone accounted for 74.5% of the variance in the clinical scores. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a consistency among the students’ assessment methods used in the psychiatry course, particularly the clinical component, in an integrated manner. This information would be useful for future developments in undergraduate teaching.

  11. [The meaning of bibliotherapy and expressive writing in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechinger, Tobias; Klosinski, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Child- and adolescent psychiatry is a good field for the application of creative and playful therapies. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are two examples of them. The effectiveness of both, for different types of disorders, has been proved in many studies. Up until today it was unknown just how prevalent these therapies are within child and adolescent psychiatry in the german speaking countries. The following article summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 122 child and adolescence psychiatric clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland to gain more information about their use. The survey takes into account the frequency of application of bibliotherapy and expressive writing therapies depending on age and type of disorder, preferences amongst patient groups, as well as specific approaches. More than half of the surveyed child and adolescent psychiatries are using at least one of the two therapies. They are used on an irregular and non-systematic basis and rather symptom- than diagnosis-orientated. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are dynamic therapies which can be used in manifold ways. Reading and writing are two of the main pillars of our educational system and can be utilized within a therapeutic setting. Provided that the patient is not suffering from severe cognitive or mental limitations, the spoken and written word can leave deep imprints within the patient's, but also the therapist's, soul.

  12. Paradigms lost and gained: has psychiatry in Australasia lost its voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of views about causes and management models in psychiatry is of keen interest to those who respect the field's history. The objective of this study was to identify international paradigm shifts since 1950 in psychiatric theorising and management models. Multiple methods were used, including citation analysis, qualitative judgments by highly cited researchers and obtaining the views of historians of psychiatry. The quantitative citation analysis was of low yield, seemingly reflecting limitations intrinsic to such an approach, but it did identify some 'signals' to broader domain shifts, such as the progressive loss of salience of psychoanalysis and a contrasting emphasis on a science-weighted model. Also, the highly cited researchers tend to nominate narrow exemplars. Nominations by the historians were more panoramic and, while capturing the domains identified by the two other strategies, went further in proposing a wide set of additional candidates for consideration. Of the three strategies employed, the qualitative approach (canvassing the views of historians and of highly cited authors) captured the paradigm changes, or at least theoretical or research trends, more accurately than the quantitative citation analysis. Changes in Australasian psychiatry would appear to generally mirror such international changes, rather than evidence a distinctive voice.

  13. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover.

  14. Assessment methods of an undergraduate psychiatry course at a saudi university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Amin, Tarek

    2012-05-01

    In Arab countries there are few studies on assessment methods in the field of psychiatry. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of different forms of psychiatric course assessment among fifth year medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. We examined the performance of 110 fifth-year medical students through objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE), traditional oral clinical examinations (TOCE), portfolios, multiple choice questions (MCQ), and a written examination. The score ranges in TOCE, OSCE, portfolio, and MCQ were 32-50, 7-15, 5-10 and 22-45, respectively. In regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between OSCE and all forms of psychiatry examinations, except for the MCQ marks. OSCE accounted for 65.1% of the variance in total clinical marks and 31.5% of the final marks (P = 0.001), while TOCE alone accounted for 74.5% of the variance in the clinical scores. This study demonstrates a consistency among the students' assessment methods used in the psychiatry course, particularly the clinical component, in an integrated manner. This information would be useful for future developments in undergraduate teaching.

  15. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN: infrastructure development and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breland-Noble Alfiee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of

  16. Live from the maize field - community radio news journalism in Homoine, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Eva Tommerup

    2006-01-01

    This thesis seeks to answer the question ”What characterises community radio news journalism in Homoine, Mozambique?” The concepts ”journalism” and ”community radio” do not usually go together in the research and practice that deal with community radios in Southern Africa from a developmental perspective. But if is not mainstream journalism that is produced in community radio news broadcasts, then what is it? The analysis shows that news journalism at Radio ARCO has clear traits of the pr...

  17. Field trials to evaluate the effects of transgenic cry1Ie maize on the community characteristics of arthropod natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingfei; He, Kanglai; Hellmich, Richard L; Bai, Shuxiong; Zhang, Tiantao; Liu, Yunjun; Ahmed, Tofael; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-02-26

    Possible non-target effect of transgenic cry1Ie maize exerts on natural enemy community biodiversity in the field is unresolved. In the present study, a 2-yr comparison of transgenic cry1Ie maize (Event IE09S034, Bt maize) and its near isoline (Zong 31, non-Bt maize) on natural enemy community biodiversity were compared with whole plant inspections, pitfall traps and suction sampler. Natural enemy diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener', Simpson's and Pielou's index) and abundance suggested there were no significant differences between the two types of maize. The only exceptions were the Pielou's index for whole plant inspections in 2013 and abundance for pitfall traps in 2012, which were significantly higher in Bt maize than those of non-Bt maize. The main species of natural enemies were identical in Bt and non-Bt maize plots for each method and the three methods combined. For whole plant inspections, Bt maize had no time-dependent effect on the entire arthropod natural enemy community, and also no effect on community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt maize plots. These results suggested that despite the presence of a relatively minor difference in natural enemy communities between Bt and non-Bt maize, transgenic cry1Ie maize had little, if any, effect on natural enemy community biodiversity.

  18. Editorial cognition, neurology, psychiatry: golden triangle or bermuda triangle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A D

    1996-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry occupies the comparatively neglected research region that lies between neurology, psychiatry, and cognitive psychology. Reasons for this neglect are discussed, together with arguments as to why it may be timely to focus on this intellectual no man's land.

  19. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The assessment of undergraduate psychiatry training: a paradigm shift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-24

    Oct 24, 2005 ... conduct assessments accountably and according to the latest ... Department of Neurosciences, Division of Psychiatry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South ... of view essays are easy to set but are notoriously time.

  1. Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gilberto E; Campbell, James H; Kirshtein, Julie D; Meneghin, Jennifer; Podar, Mircea; Steinberg, Joshua I; Seewald, Jeffrey S; Tivey, Margaret Kingston; Voytek, Mary A; Yang, Zamin K; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active hydrothermal vent deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different vent fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37°17'N, 32°16.3'W, depth 1600-1750 m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36°13'N, 33°54.1'W, depth 2270-2330 m) vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different vent fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing vent fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow vent field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this site. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of hydrothermal vent microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.

  2. Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Gilberto E [Portland State University; Campbell, James H [ORNL; Kirshtein, Julie D [United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Meneghin, Jennifer [Portland State University; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Steinberg, Joshua [Oregon Episcopal School, Portland, OR; Seewald, Jeffrey S [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Tivey, Margaret Kingston [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Voytek, Mary A [United States Geological Survey & National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise [Portland State University; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active hydrothermal vent deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different vent fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37 17'N, 32 16.3'W, depth 1600-1750 m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36 13'N, 33 54.1'W, depth 2270-2330 m) vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different vent fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing vent fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow vent field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this site. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of hydrothermal vent microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.

  3. Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gilberto E.; Campbell, James H.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Meneghin, Jennifer; Podar, Mircea; Steinberg, Joshua I.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Tivey, Margaret Kingston; Voytek, Mary A.; Yang, Zamin K.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active hydrothermal vent deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different vent fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37°17'N, 32°16.3'W, depth 1600-1750m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36°13'N, 33°54.1'W, depth 2270-2330m) vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different vent fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing vent fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow vent field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this site. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of hydrothermal vent microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.

  4. [Epistemologic perspectives for a nosography in child psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquez, G

    1988-01-01

    The author tries to question psychiatric nosography based on references. To do so, after defining nosography as well as psychiatric and medical nosography, he studies two ideas of thought. The first is a causal medical way dealing with child schizophrenia as developed in Eastern European psychiatry, whereas the second deals with the structural psychopathological way which describes the concept of child psychosis, the dominant way of dealing with child psychiatry in France.

  5. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    OpenAIRE

    L Eugene Arnold

    2008-01-01

    I have been a grandfather for only 12 years, but for 37 years I have lived a grandparent's dream: people pay me to tell them how to raise their children. This is only one of the many rewards child and adolescent psychiatry has offered me. Table 1 lists some more of them.Probably the greatest satisfaction in child psychiatry is the wide selection of options for specialization: psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, family therapy, parent guidance, custody and vis...

  6. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  7. Community Renewal. Experiences from the Field. An Adult Educator's Resource Kit. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Baron, Beth; And Others

    This kit suggests ideas and resources for adult educators and other community workers to use in assisting individuals, groups, and communities to respond effectively to a changing economy. Introductory materials provide the purpose, a note on content arrangement, and suggestions for program methods and program planning. The main portion of the kit…

  8. [Clinical ethics in psychiatry: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter-Theil, Stella; Schürmann, Jan; Schmeck, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Overview on Clinical Ethics Consultation in Psychiatry. Systematic literature search in data bases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SpringerLink, PubPsych, PsychSpider und PsycINFO) against the background of practical experiences with pilot model of implementation of Ethics Consultation in one psychiatric university hospital. Reports on Ethics Consultation in Psychiatry were published only sporadically. This is contrasted by recent experiences showing considerable needs for ethics support in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Adult as well as Forensic Psychiatry. This somewhat "late" development of Ethics Consultation in Psychiatry (compared with somatic medicine) might have structural reasons (lacking resources), be related to strong compensatory competencies of psychiatric staff, esp. regarding communication or legal knowledge, but could also relate to an under-estimation ("under-diagnostic") of ethical problems in psychiatric patient care - both, in the eyes of psychiatric insiders, as well as seen from the outside. Needs for model projects and accompanying research on Ethics Consultation in Psychiatry. Proved in practice: patient- as well as team-oriented ethics support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  10. Psychosocial first aid for refugees (an essay in social psychiatry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyhurst, L

    1977-01-01

    Post-war refugee resettlement schemes offer an opportunity for the study of contemporary social phenomena of compulsory mass migration. The process, set in motion by man-made disasters of war, oppression and persecution, deeply affects not only the victims but also the social institutions as they mobilize resources to accommodate the stateless and homeless new populations. The traditional focus on 'culture-change' is inadequate for the development of principles of aid to the refugees. In this paper, an operational definition of the structure and natural history of the social situation of resettlement is outlined, with reference to the working hypotheses of (1) the Social Displacement Syndrome and (2) the Psychosocial First Aid for Refugees Project. This has been derived from clinical and field studies of four successive refugee groups in Canada over the past 27 years, with specific focus on the social dynamics of the situation from immediately upon resettlement to one year after. In this early phase, the coexistence of personal and social disequilibrium in the refugees and among those who represent the institutions responsible for their management creates specific conditions, of which some enhance the disposition for recovery or 'repair' and some might reinforce the disposition for lasting 'social breakdown'. Some generalizations concerning practical and theoretical work in social psychiatry are made.

  11. Prevention in old age psychiatry in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bichitra Nanda Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the global population is aging as a result of demographic transition. The elderly are at a higher risk of developing mental illness. This could be due to many reasons including biological factors such as multiple physical illnesses and their treatments and psychosocial factors such as migration, social isolation, and changing family structure. At times, the psychiatric illnesses in the elderly present with atypical features and often go unnoticed. There is a huge treatment gap in addressing the mental health issues of older adults in low-resource countries like India. So far, the preventive aspects in psychiatry are less developed and the mental health care mainly focuses on sickness and treatment. As the number of trained mental health professionals and resources allocated to the field of mental health is meager in low-resource settings, prevention of psychiatric disorders in older adults seems to be a cost-effective option for these settings. In this article, various measures for prevention of psychiatric disorders in elderly low-resource settings have been discussed.

  12. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg......(-1) in an experiment under controlled conditions: i) Measurement of plant growth and P uptake in the presence or absence of the fungicide benomyl and ii) measurement of hyphal P transport from a root-free compartment labelled with P-32. Benomyl successfully prevented mycorrhizal function...

  13. #ClimateEdCommunity : Field Workshops Bring Together Teachers and Researchers to Make Meaning of Science and Classroom Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Wood, J. H.; Steiner, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Seeing Understanding and Teaching: Climate Change in Denali is a four-day immersive teacher professional development course held in Denali National Park. Developed through three partner organizations, the course aims to develop teachers' skills for integrating climate change content into their classrooms. This presentation aims to share tangible best practices for linking researchers and teachers in the field, through four years of experience in program delivery and reported through a published external evaluation. This presentation will examine the key aspects of a successful connection between teachers, researchers, science, and classrooms: (1) Inclusion of teacher leaders, (2) dedicated program staff, (3) workshop community culture, and will expose barriers to this type of collaboration including (1) differences in learning style, (2) prior teaching experience, (3) existing/scaffolding understanding of climate change science, and (4) accessibility of enrollment and accommodations for the extended learning experience. Presentation Content Examples:Participants overwhelmingly value the deep commitment this course has to linking their field experience to the classroom attributing to the role of a teacher-leader; an expert science teacher with first-hand field research experience in the polar regions. The goal of including a teacher-leader is to enhance translatability between fieldwork and the classroom. Additionally, qualitative aspects of the report touches on the intangible successes of the workshop such as: (1) the creation of a non-judgmental learning atmosphere, (2) addressing accessibility to science learning tools in rural and under-served communities, (3) defining successful collaboration as making meaning together through exploratory questioning while in the field (4) discussed the social and cultural implications of climate change, and the difficulty of navigating these topics in educational and/or multicultural spaces. Next Steps? Create a #ClimateEdCommunity

  14. The Effects of Home Computers on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from a Field Experiment with Community College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fairlie, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear theoretical prediction regarding whether home computers are an important input in the educational production function.  To investigate the hypothesis that access to a home computer affects educational outcomes, we conduct the first-ever field experiment involving the provision of free computers to students for home use.  Financial aid students attending a large community college in Northern California were randomly selected to receive free computers and were followed for two...

  15. The Effects of Home Computers on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from a Field Experiment with Community College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Robert W. Fairlie; Rebecca A. London

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear theoretical prediction regarding whether home computers are an important input in the educational production function. To investigate the hypothesis that access to a home computer affects educational outcomes, we conduct the first-ever field experiment involving the provision of free computers to students for home use. Financial aid students attending a large community college in Northern California were randomly selected to receive free computers and were followed for two y...

  16. Frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatry patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Korkmaz,1 Sevler Yildiz,1 Tuba Korucu,1 Burcu Gundogan,1 Zehra Emine Sunbul,1 Hasan Korkmaz,2 Murad Atmaca1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Purpose: Anemia could cause psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive function disorders and depression or could deteriorate an existing psychiatric condition when it is untreated. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatric patients and the clinical and sociodemographic factors that could affect this frequency.Methods: All inpatients in our clinic who satisfied the study criteria and received treatment between April 2014 and April 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data for 378 patients included in the study and hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit values observed during their admission to the hospital were recorded in the forms. Male patients with an Hb level of <13 g/dL and nonpregnant female patients with an Hb level of <12 g/dL were considered as anemic.Findings: Axis 1 diagnoses demonstrated that 172 patients had depressive disorder, 51 patients had bipolar disorder, 54 patients had psychotic disorder, 33 patients had conversion disorder, 19 patients had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 25 patients had generalized anxiety disorder, and 24 patients had other psychiatric conditions. It was also determined that 25.4% of the patients suffered from anemia. Thirty-five percent of females and 10% of males were considered as anemic. The frequency of anemia was the highest among psychotic disorder patients (35%, followed by generalized anxiety disorder patients (32%, and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (26%. Anemia was diagnosed in 22% of depressive disorder patients, 25% of bipolar disorder patients, and 24% of conversion disorder patients.Results: The prevalence of anemia among chronic psychiatry patients is more frequent than the general population

  17. Psychiatry and the military: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Benedek, David; Malone, Ricky; Carr-Malone, Rosemary

    2006-09-01

    The United States has historically been concerned about the successful adjustment of its military members returning from war. These concerns are based on the recognition that war-zone exposures may have considerable negative emotional or behavior consequences. As the global war on terror continues, the United States military medical system will be required to address issues at the interface of psychiatry and the law. Despite clinical advances within the theater of war and at tertiary facilities in the United States, some military members will develop chronic and disabling mental illness as a result of traumatic exposure and exacerbated by the demands of the austere and dangerous operational environment. The extent to which violent and aggressive behavior in the aftermath of deployment can be attributed to combat experience remains an area of debate and ongoing investigation. However, experience suggests that a very small subgroup of the hundreds of thousands of war veterans deployed in conjunction with the current conflict in Iraq has already been involved in violent crimes. For this group, military forensic psychiatrists will be called on to make determinations of competency and criminal responsibility and to inform the courts about the potential contributions of war-related distress or disorder to criminal behavior. Though the overwhelming majority of war veterans will not be involved in criminal proceedings, a minority will develop career-ending (and in rare instances, life-ending) disabilities as a result of mental illness. For those who are no longer fit for duty, the military Physical Disability Evaluation System must make determinations of the extent to which future military performance and future civilian social and occupational function have been compromised. For a small yet highly visible minority of returning veterans, questions about the cause, precipitants, and manner of death will necessitate psychological autopsies. This article highlighted recent

  18. Changing needs and new perspectives for psychiatry and mental health services in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ik; Kim, Yong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Although western psychiatry was introduced more than one hundred years ago, the history of Korean psychiatry actually began with the foundation of the Cho-sun Neuropsychiatric Association (formerly Korean Neuropsychiatric Association) in 1945. Since the initiation of Korean national economic development plan in 1960s, the number of mental institutions grew gradually but a large portion of patients suffering from psychosis and alcohol dependence still remained in the asylum. Rapid industrialization in the 80's brought about family disintegration and breakdown of the social support system, resulting in displacement of mentally ill persons outside of the family. In 1995, the Mental Health Law was enacted and with the introduction of the concept of community mental health, construction of many mental health centers commenced. Korea faces important tasks of further developing local community mental health and predicting and resolving the mental health problems related to the issues of rapid aging society, transformation in family structure, foreign laborers, and North Korean refugees. Such tasks must be met through refined mental health policy plans, effective allocation of mental health-related human resources and funding, and fostering of social concern and consensus about the issues of mental health.

  19. Development and field validation of a community-engaged particulate matter air quality monitoring network in imperial, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvlin, Graeme N; Lugo, Humberto; Olmedo, Luis; Bejarano, Ester; Wilkie, Alexa; Meltzer, Dan; Wong, Michelle; King, Galatea; Northcross, Amanda; Jerrett, Michael; English, Paul B; Hammond, Donald; Seto, Edmund

    2017-08-22

    The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network was developed as part of a community-engaged research study to provide real-time particulate matter (PM) air quality information at a high spatial resolution in Imperial County, California. The network augmented the few existing regulatory monitors and increased monitoring near susceptible populations. Monitors were both calibrated and field validated, a key component of evaluating the quality of the data produced by the community-monitoring network. This paper examines the performance of a customized version of the low-cost Dylos optical particle counter used in the community air monitors compared to both PM2.5 and PM10 federal equivalent method (FEM) beta-attenuation monitors (BAMs) and federal reference method (FRM) gravimetric filters at a collocation site in the study area. A conversion equation was developed that estimates particle mass concentrations from the native Dylos particle counts taking into account relative humidity. The R(2) for converted hourly averaged Dylos mass measurements and a PM2.5 BAM was 0.79 and PM10 BAM was 0.78. The performance of the conversion equation was evaluated at six other sites with collocated PM2.5 environmental beta-attenuation monitors (EBAMs) located throughout Imperial County. The agreement of the Dylos with the EBAMs was moderate to high (R(2) 0.35-0.81). Implications The performance of low-cost air quality sensors in community networks is currently not well documented. This paper provides a methodology for quantifying the performance of a next generation Dylos PM sensor used in the Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network. This air quality network provides data at a much finer spatial and temporal resolution than has previously been possible with government monitoring efforts. Once calibrated and validated, these high-resolution data may provide more information on susceptible populations, assist in the identification of air pollution hotspots, and increase

  20. [The "Psychiatrie-Enquete" - the German Report on the State of Psychiatry in 1975].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzen, Asmus

    2015-10-01

    Forty years ago an expert-commission submitted a report on the deplorable state of German psychiatric care, called the "Psychiatrie-Enquete" to the Bundestag, the German parliament. The Report initiated a substantial change of Psychiatric services in the country. Inhuman treatment and living conditions were superseded. Mental hospitals were not completely abolished. But they lost their importance in favour of decentralized psychiatric services including departments at general hospitals, day hospitals and outpatient services. Custodial care was largely successfully developed into therapeutic and rehabilitative care. This article attempts a mildly critical evaluation of the Enquête 40 years after.

  1. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  2. [Intercommunication psychiatry in a burn center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravella, P; Prallet, J P; Latarjet, J; Parizot, S; Bouchet, P

    1990-01-01

    The support of psychiatric disorders in a burn centre has been effected since three years, in Saint Luc Hospital (Lyon) thanks to a liaison group. One hour a week, several cases of patients are approached in this group which gathers two psychiatrists and the team dealing with burnt patients. Psychiatrists are attached to clarify the relation between people who attend and patients, to give a diagnosis and propose a strategy in front of difficulties they meet. The psychiatric care is reintegrated in the somatic support and assured by people who are daily effectively in contact with patients. This paper describes the advantages of the liaison psychiatry with regard to a direct intervention of the psychiatrist on the patient. It defines the targets these therapeutic weapon can aim and details the obtained results: for 3 years, the group has met 104 times for 241 "indirect consultations" concerning 99 different patients and count 50 good results on site and 5 specialized orientations; 10 deaths and 11 quick departures exclude 21 patients from the study; 17 cases have been stayed without continuation and 6 without any change.

  3. Morale is high in acute inpatient psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia; Whittington, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Morale on acute psychiatric wards has been considered to be problematic, and is reported to contribute to low quality patient care. To assess the relationship of staff morale to patient, service environment, physical environment, patient routines, conflict, containment, staff demographics, and staff group variables. A multivariate cross sectional study was undertaken collecting data on morale, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and other variables on 136 acute admission psychiatric wards in England. Morale was higher than published comparison samples. Length of time in post was correlated with low morale, and qualified nurses had higher emotional exhaustion but also higher personal accomplishment. The level of verbal abuse on a ward was associated with low morale, as was a higher level of social deprivation among patients. Higher levels of order and organisation correlated with better morale. Clear policies relating to the management of verbal abuse by patients, high levels of order and organisation, and staff rotation and education, may all support high morale. Acute inpatient psychiatry is generally a happy and rewarding work environment, and identified problems are likely to be due to other factors.

  4. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice.

  5. Contested boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  6. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background.

  7. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  8. [Qualitative research approaches in practical use in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J; Gerwert, U

    1993-10-01

    Experimental study designs and quantitative analysis are dominating the methodology of child psychiatric research. Sometimes the "box of tools" consisting of standardized software packages for statistical analysis seems to lead to a regrettable uniformity in research strategies. Elaborated sociological research concepts in the tradition of Max Weber and the "Chicago school" could close the scientific gap between quantitative studies on large samples and simple case-reports. They are excellent instruments for generating hypothesis on relatively rare clinical problems or in new fields of child psychiatric research. Based on a review of the literature potential applications of qualitative methodology in child psychiatry will be discussed.

  9. Editorial: Looking beyond the horizon--innovation in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco Fearon, R M

    2016-03-01

    As readers will no doubt be well aware, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry dedicates an entire issue, once a year, to state-of-the-art authoritative reviews of research on some of the central issues in our field.(1) I like to think that in doing so we have been quietly undertaking a giant Pavlovian conditioning experiment: every year, as the spring flowers start to blossom (in the northern hemisphere at least), the nucleus accumbens of child psychologists and psychiatrists around the world begin to glow in anticipation of intellectual reward. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. [Innovative healthcare strategies in geriatric psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthoff, V

    2015-04-01

    The development of efficacious treatment strategies in older adults with mental illnesses is necessary. The growing number of homebound patients and the incidence of physical comorbidities and impairment of activities of daily living are important factors for interdisciplinary treatment strategies in old age and there is a need for home-based services providing medical and psychosocial interventions. Recent studies have provided information on home-based and collaborative treatment strategies in mentally ill elderly patients. This article provides an overview on selected randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted with mentally ill older adults. Studies have shown promising effects when applying stepped care interventions, collaborative care and assertive community treatment in old patients suffering from mental diseases when compared to usual care. Long-standing home-based mental health programs have been designed and successfully implemented showing improved identification, treatment and ongoing care of mental health problems. In-home tele-psychotherapy has been shown to be efficacious in homebound older adults with limited access to evidence-based psychotherapy and showed a sustained effect in one study. Collaborative care models, stepped care interventions in primary care settings and an enhanced inter-professional approach to patient care in old age psychiatry is necessary to improve detection, treatment and ongoing care. Tele-mental health services may become important parts of the provision of mental health services and the effectiveness revealed for in-home tele-health problem solving therapy in old age depression may be an approach to make psychotherapy available to a large number of underserved elderly patients with mental illness.

  11. A correlation between characteristics and students’ perception with the last score of field experience study at community based medicine

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    Marisa Anggraini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experience study (FES is one of the Community Based Medicine Education Programs that has done in Faculty of Medicine University of Malahayati. The aims of this study were to identify several factors related to final FES score. The questionnaires were given for all field study participants. It consisted of students’ characteristics and perception on field study. This FES was conducted on 3 September 2007. Cox regression was used to analyze data using STATA version 9.0. Gender, previous GPA, time of taking FES was dominant risk factors related to risk of FES score. The students who had higher cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA had 72% higher on final FES score [adjusted relative risk (RRα = 1.72; 95% Confidence interval (CI = 1.22-2.43. Female than male students had 39% higher final FES score (RRα = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.93-2.09; P = 0.111, and the students who took than who did not take FES on recommended year of study had 29% higher final FES score (RR = 1.29; 95% CI = 0.96-1.73; P = 0.088. While conducting FES, special attention should be given to students who had previous GPA in order to increase their final FES score. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 64-7Keywords: community-based medicine, field experience study, student’s performance

  12. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  13. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  14. Mind in the Gap Between Neural and Social Networks - Cyberspace and Virtual Reality in Psychiatry and Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šendula-Jengić, Vesna; Šendula-Pavelić, Martina; Hodak, Jelena

    2016-06-01

    In terms of health and healthcare cyberspace and virtual reality can be used differently and for different purposes and consequently create different outcomes. The three main areas which we shall discuss here are: 1) cyberspace as provider of health information and self-help resources, since the anonymity cyberspace provides is particularly important in the highly stigmatized field of psychiatry where a large number of people never seek professional help, which in turn negatively affects not only the person in question, but the family and ultimately the society (work efficiency, disability-adjusted life year - DALY, etc.), 2) cyberspace and virtual reality (VR) as cause of psychopathology, starting from violent behaviour, to addictive behaviour and other, 3) and finally cyberspace and VR as providers of efficient professional therapy in the field of psychiatry.

  15. [History of the department of Psychiatry at the University of Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    In its current form, the Département de psychiatrie at the Université de Montréal (UdeM) was created in 1964. The first person to have headed was Dr. Gerard Beaudoin… Between 1948 and 1964, several others psychiatrists were heading the Département without necessary bearing a particular title.The directors of the Département from 1951 to now were: Drs. Fernand Côté, Camille Laurin, Gerard Beaudoin, Yvon Gauthier, Arthur Amyot, Francis Borgeat, Hugues Cormier, Sylvain Palardy, Jean Hébert, and Emmanuel Stip.When the Département opened, it was the second institution in Montréal that was training psychiatrists. During the first year, there were 3 psychiatric residents, but within 20 years this number had increased to 63. From the early years, teaching psychiatry to residents, and subsequently to all UdeM medical students, has been a priority in the Département, and over the years many psychiatrists trained at UdeM have attained leadership positions elsewhere. The Département attained an early reputation for excellence in both clinical and basic research.The strengths the Département developed in its early years in clinical psychopharmacology, in basic research in neurotransmitters, sleep, cognition, forensic, and in community psychiatry have been augmented more recently with active programs in psychotherapy research, substance abuse research, psychoneuroendocrinology, developmental aspects of behavior, genetics, epigenetics as well as the study of the brain through a variety of brain scanning techniques.The history of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal is largely dependent on that of each of the institutions affiliated to the Université: the Pavillon Albert-Prévost de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal (HSCM), the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) and the CHU Sainte-Justine. We must also remember that the discovery of the potentiating of lithium by antidepressants was made by Dr. Demontigny

  16. The Introduction of Western Psychiatry into Korea (II Psychiatric Education in Korea during the Forced Japanese Annexation of Korea (1910-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG Wonyong,

    2006-12-01

    training for the psychiatrists was carried out according to the tutorial system under the supervision of professors and staff. In regard to a wide range of references discovered in the library of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Keijo Imperial University the trainees seem to have had opportunity to contact with diverse subspecialties of psychiatry and also to exercise specific laboratory examinations in the setting of the German "Klinik". Comparisons of psychiatry in Korea and Japan during Japanese occupation suggest the following conclusions: 1. Extreme discrimination against Korean trainees in their academic careersprobably due to colonial policy. After 35 years of Japanese occupation of Korea only ten Korean neuro-psychiatrists and neurologists were left; 2. Somewhat narrow academic interests of psychiatrists in Korea in research fields focusing on neuropathology and opium addiction etc and the lackness of the interest in social psychiatric issues: for example, the rights of the mentally ill patient or non-restraining care systems as seen in Japanese psychiatry in Japan. 3. Extremely limited number of psychiatry teaching staffs in Korea. For a long time Keijo Imperial University's Department of Neurology and Psychiatry was the only center for training psychiatrists in Korea.

  17. [The introduction of Western psychiatry into Korea (II). Psychiatric education in Korea during the forced Japanese annexation of Korea (1910-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonyong; Lee, Nami; Rhi, Bou-Yong

    2006-12-01

    psychiatrists was carried out according to the tutorial system under the supervision of professors and staff. In regard to a wide range of references discovered in the library of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Keijo Imperial University the trainees seem to have had opportunity to contact with diverse subspecialties of psychiatry and also to exercise specific laboratory examinations in the setting of the German linik". Comparisons of psychiatry in Korea and Japan during Japanese occupation suggest the following conclusions: 1. Extreme discrimination against Korean trainees in their academic careersprobably due to colonial policy. After 35 years of Japanese occupation of Korea only ten Korean neuro-psychiatrists and neurologists were left; 2. Somewhat narrow academic interests of psychiatrists in Korea in research fields focusing on neuropathology and opium addiction etc and the lackness of the interest in social psychiatric issues: for example, the rights of the mentally ill patient or non-restraining care systems as seen in Japanese psychiatry in Japan. 3. Extremely limited number of psychiatry teaching staffs in Korea. For a long time Keijo Imperial University's Department of Neurology and Psychiatry was the only center for training psychiatrists in Korea.

  18. GigaPan Technology to Enhance In-Class and In-Field Learning in Community College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Bentley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Community college students account for over 40% of all undergraduates in the United States as well as the majority of minority and non-traditional students attending undergraduate courses. Implementing innovative, cost effective, and formative pedagogies to the diverse backgrounds of students that typically enroll at a community is often a challenge. Interactive pedagogies in geology pose a unique challenge considering that students gain the most long-term knowledge when topics covered in a course are exposed to them in outdoor settings where they are allowed to explore and make connections. The ability to expose students to real world examples is challenging to many community college faculty considering that that many; lack funds or means for transportation of students, do not have administrative support on such endeavors, teach evening or night classes, or have a high percentage of students who are physically limited or have obligations to work and family. A joint collaborative between El Paso Community College (EPCC) and Northern Virginia Community College (NOVA) has explored the usage of GigaPan technology to create multi-layered online material to minimize these issues faced by many community college faculty and students. The primary layer of the online material is GigaPans of local geological sites that highlight large-scale structures in the El Paso, Texas region that are commonly used in local field trips and lab book material. The second layer is of Macro-GigaPans of hand samples of key outcrops from the primarily GigaPans which facilitate student learning, exploration, and ability to make connections by exploring smaller scale features of the primary layer. A third layer of online material, GigaPans of thin sections of hand samples (from secondary layers), and curriculum based on the GigaPans was then created to assist students in evaluating proposed hypotheses on the primary layers' geological origin. GigaPan cirriculum was utilized in introductory

  19. Environmental factors shaping the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in sugarcane field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Kanako; Okubo, Takashi; Shimomura, Yumi; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Tomoyuki; Nagayama, Atsushi; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors such as pH and nutrient content on the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in soil has been extensively studied using experimental fields. However, how these environmental factors intricately influence the community structure of AOB and AOA in soil from farmers' fields is unclear. In the present study, the abundance and diversity of AOB and AOA in soils collected from farmers' sugarcane fields were investigated using quantitative PCR and barcoded pyrosequencing targeting the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) gene. The abundances of AOB and AOA amoA genes were estimated to be in the range of 1.8 × 10(5)-9.2 × 10(6) and 1.7 × 10(6)-5.3 × 10(7) gene copies g dry soil(-1), respectively. The abundance of both AOB and AOA positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The dominant sequence reads of AOB and AOA were placed in Nitrosospira-related and Nitrososphaera-related clusters in all soils, respectively, which varied at the level of their sub-clusters in each soil. The relationship between these ammonia-oxidizing community structures and soil pH was shown to be significant by the Mantel test. The relative abundances of the OTU1 of Nitrosospira cluster 3 and Nitrososphaera subcluster 7.1 negatively correlated with soil pH. These results indicated that soil pH was the most important factor shaping the AOB and AOA community structures, and that certain subclusters of AOB and AOA adapted to and dominated the acidic soil of agricultural sugarcane fields.

  20. The Development of the Interface between Law, Medicine and Psychiatry: Medico-Legal Perspectives in History

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    M Swanepoel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicine and law were related from early times. This relation resulted as a necessity of protecting communities from the irresponsible acts of impostors. Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. Over the course of the past 30 years, interest in the history of psychiatry has boomed. Much of this proliferation of interest has taken place under the broad influence of postmodernism and has resulted in multiple and diverse histories that no longer seek to provide a linear narrative of constant evolutionary progress. Rather, these new histories explore and disrupt taken for granted assumptions about the past and provide a starting point for discussion and debate about the some of the very foundations of mental health care in South Africa. As a matter of practical importance knowledge of how knowledge accrues and knowledge of the mistakes of the past is of prime importance in preventing similar mistakes in present and future work. An important reason for specifically understanding historical psychiatry is the fact that many of the uncertainties experienced in the present are a direct result of decisions made in the past. The key issue is that while it is tempting to experience current psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered as natural and permanent, an understanding of the past helps mental health and legal practitioners to see things in a different perspective. Psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered have changed over time and can undoubtedly also be changed in future. Therefore, the research conducted in this article focuses on the history and development of law and psychiatry including prehistoric times, the Arabian countries, the Nile Valley as well as Greece and Rome.

  1. [Effects of different multiple cropping systems on paddy field weed community under long term paddy-upland rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Xu, Ning; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Based on a long term field experiment, this paper studied the effects of different multiple cropping systems on the weed community composition and species diversity under paddy-upland rotation. The multiple cropping rotation systems could significantly decrease weed density and inhibited weed growth. Among the rotation systems, the milk vetch-early rice-late maize --> milk vetchearly maize intercropped with early soybean-late rice (CCSR) had the lowest weed species dominance, which inhibited the dominant weeds and decreased their damage. Under different multiple cropping systems, the main weed community was all composed of Monochoia vaginalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Sagittaria pygmae, and the similarity of weed community was higher, with the highest similarity appeared in milk vetch-early rice-late maize intercropped with late soybean --> milk vetch-early maize-late rice (CSCR) and in CCSR. In sum, the multiple cropping rotations in paddy field could inhibit weeds to a certain extent, but attentions should be paid to the damage of some less important weeds.

  2. Field-scale tracking of active methane-oxidizing communities in a landfill cover soil reveals spatial and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Ruth; Chiri, Eleonora; Bodelier, Paul E L; Frenzel, Peter; Lüke, Claudia; Schroth, Martin H

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soils mitigate methane (CH4 ) emissions. We assessed spatial and seasonal differences in active MOB communities in a landfill cover soil characterized by highly variable environmental conditions. Field-based measurements of CH4 oxidation activity and stable-isotope probing of polar lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA-SIP) were complemented by microarray analysis of pmoA genes and transcripts, linking diversity and function at the field scale. In situ CH4 oxidation rates varied between sites and were generally one order of magnitude lower in winter compared with summer. Results from PLFA-SIP and pmoA transcripts were largely congruent, revealing distinct spatial and seasonal clustering. Overall, active MOB communities were highly diverse. Type Ia MOB, specifically Methylomonas and Methylobacter, were key drivers for CH4 oxidation, particularly at a high-activity site. Type II MOB were mainly active at a site showing substantial fluctuations in CH4 loading and soil moisture content. Notably, Upland Soil Cluster-gamma-related pmoA transcripts were also detected, indicating concurrent oxidation of atmospheric CH4 . Spatial separation was less distinct in winter, with Methylobacter and uncultured MOB mediating CH4 oxidation. We propose that high diversity of active MOB communities in this soil is promoted by high variability in environmental conditions, facilitating substantial removal of CH4 generated in the waste body.

  3. Triclosan affects the microbial community in simulated sewage-drain-field soil and slows down xenobiotic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningsen, Hanne [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Solvgade 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Henriksen, Trine [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Prieme, Anders [Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Solvgade 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg{sup -1} of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate substrate profiling) and the general profile (T-RFLP) of the microbial community. Triclosan degradation was slow at all concentrations tested (0.33-81 mg kg{sup -1}) during 50-days of incubation. Mineralization experiments ({sup 14}C-tracers) and chemical analyses (LC-MS/MS) showed that the persistence of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a common analgesic (ibuprofen) increased with increasing triclosan concentrations (0.16-100 mg kg{sup -1}). The largest effect was seen for LAS mineralization which was severely reduced by 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} of triclosan. Our findings indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of triclosan may affect the efficiency of biodegradation in percolation systems. - Highlights: > Triclosan may enter the soil environment through sewage. > Triclosan impacts the microbial community in sewage-drain-field soil. > Triclosan-resistant pseudomonads are strongly enriched. > Degradation of co-occurring LAS and ibuprofen is reduced. - Environmentally realistic triclosan concentrations in percolation systems may reduce the biodegradation of other xenobiotics and select for triclosan-resistant bacteria.

  4. Dynamics of bacterial communities in rice field soils as affected by different long-term fertilization practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Myung-Sook; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-11-01

    Fertilization and the response of the soil microbial community to the process significantly affect crop yield and the environment. In this study, the seasonal variation in the bacterial communities in rice field soil subjected to different fertilization treatments for more than 50 years was investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The simultaneous application of inorganic fertilizers and rice straw compost (CAPK) maintained the species richness of the bacterial communities at levels higher than that in the case of non-fertilization (NF) and application of inorganic fertilizers only (APK) in the initial period of rice growth. The seasonal variation in the bacterial community structure in the NF and APK plots showed cyclic behavior, suggesting that the effect of season was important; however, no such trend was observed in the CAPK plot. In the CAPK plot, the relative abundances of putative copiotrophs such as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were higher and those of putative oligotrophs such as Acidobacteria and Plactomycetes were lower than those in the other plots. The relative abundances of organotrophs with respiratory metabolism, such as Actinobacteria, were lower and those of chemoautotrophs that oxidize reduced iron and sulfur compounds were higher in the CAPK plot, suggesting greater carbon storage in this plot. Increased methane emission and nitrogen deficiency, which were inferred from the higher abundances of Methylocystis and Bradyrhizobium in the CAPK plot, may be a negative effect of rice straw application; thus, a solution for these should be considered to increase the use of renewable resources in agricultural lands.

  5. [Irrationality in psychiatry. I. Irrationality in analytical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, J

    1991-02-01

    In the author's opinion the contemporary western world is experiencing an offensive of irrationality which affects also psychiatry. When psychiatry got rid of irrational illusions of preceding centuries, analytical psychology contributed to the introduction of irrationality into psychiatry. In the first part of his paper he maintains that Freud's share was not substantial in this respect and that in particular Jung contributed towards the development of irrational trends in psychiatry by this concept of collective unconscious. In the second part of his paper the author deals with so-called transpersonal, psychology, in particular the contribution made by the Czech psychiatrist Grof who, based on his experiments with LSD, created the theory of three levels of experience from unconscious (psychodynamic, perinatal, and transpersonal). His interpretation is a relapse of neoplatonism and represents antirational agnostic spiritualism with utopic antipsychiatric elements. In the third part of his paper the author deals with Capro's ideology of the New Age Movement to the establishment of which Ghof contributed in an important way. The New Age ideology is an irrational conglomeration of anti-civilization trends which negate modern thinking. The chances of manking are fallaciously seen in alienation from science and an approach to mysticism and irrational Asian traditions. Contemporary popularity of irrational trends, incl. transpersonal psychology, is a reaction of the overationalized society. Consequential enforcement of transpersonal psychology would imply a negation of the entire arsenal of thinking in psychiatry as a medial discipline.

  6. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry.

  7. The political use of psychiatry: A comparison between totalitarian regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Giannuli, Aldo Sabino

    2017-03-01

    After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China. One of the features that are common to most of the dictatorships is that the use of psychiatry has become more prominent when the regimes have had the need to make more acceptable the imprisonment of enemies in the eyes of the world. This for example happened in the Nazi regime when sterilization and killing of psychiatric patients was explained as a kind of euthanasia, or in the Soviet Union after the formal closure of the corrective labor camps and the slow resumption of relations with the capitalistic world, or in China to justify persecution of religious minorities and preserve economic relations with Western countries. Psychiatry has been variously used by totalitarian regimes as a means of political persecution and especially when it was necessary to make acceptable to public opinion the imprisonment of political opponents.

  8. The relevance of medical sociology to psychiatry: a historical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Samuel W

    2005-02-01

    Collaboration between sociology and psychiatry is traced to the 1920s when, stimulated by Harry Stack Sullivan and Adolph Meyer, the relationship was activated by common theoretical and research interests. Immediately after World War II, this became a true partnership, stimulated by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, and the growing influence of psychoanalytic theory. The effects of a sociology that focused on issues of health and illness proceeded to grow in medical education, research, and the treatment of mental illness until 1980, when a distinct shift of emphasis in psychiatry occurred. In its role as educator of future physicians, postwar psychiatry developed a paradigm of biopsychosocial behavior but, after 3 decades, changed to a biopharmacological model. The definition of mental illness as a deviant extreme in developmental and interpersonal characteristics lost favor to nosological diagnoses of discrete or dichotomous models. Under a variety of intellectual, socioeconomic, and political pressures, psychiatry reduced its interest in and relationship with sociology, replacing it in part with bioethics and economics. In this article, the detailed underpinnings of these changes are described and interpreted.

  9. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  10. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers.

  11. How induced pluripotent stem cells are informing drug discovery in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yishan; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with other medical fields, psychiatry is particularly challenging for rational drug discovery. The therapeutic endpoints are abstract measures of cognitive and behavioral performance, for which we have a very limited understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Existing preclinical disease models are also limited in their translational fidelity. Recently, there have been active discussions on the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a catalyzing research tool in psychiatry, but very few review articles in the field have given specific considerations to their use at the interface between psychiatric research and drug discovery. Here, we discuss recent perspectives emerging from this interface. For physicians and researchers on the clinical side, we explain how iPSC-based experimental approaches are placed at the crossroads with psychiatric genetics and how representative studies in the field are addressing biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. For researchers who directly work with iPSCs and aspire to develop new research techniques, we direct their attention to the utility of this approach for unmet needs in drug discovery workflows.

  12. Surgical Approaches in Psychiatry: A Survey of the World Literature on Psychosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, Felix; Paterno, Mario; Alpdogan, Serdar; Tevoufouet, Etienne E; Schneider, Toni; Hescheler, Jürgen; Albanna, Walid

    2017-01-01

    Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort. This goal is accomplished by a detailed reassessment of numerous case reports and small-scale open or controlled trials in their historical and social context. The different surgical approaches, their rationale, and their scientific merit are discussed in a manner comprehensible to readers lacking extensive knowledge of neurosurgery or psychiatry, yet with sufficient documentation to provide a useful resource for practitioners in the field and those wishing to pursue the topic further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  14. What Role Should the Community College Play in the Field of Prison Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Davey L.; And Others

    To determine what is being done in a certain geographical area in providing educational services for prison inmates through the community colleges, education programs at the Federal Prison Camp, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, and the Federal Correctional Institution at Tallahassee, Florida, were studied. In addition, information about the…

  15. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod+ and Nod++) roots and less abundant in Nod− soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod−, Nod+, or Nod++). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod− soybeans was more similar to that in Nod++ soybeans than to that in Nod+ soybeans. PMID:18658280

  16. Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-09-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans.

  17. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daebeler, A.; Gansen, M.; Frenzel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH3F) caused surprisingly

  18. What Professionalism Skills Should Be Taught in Community College Health Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Kellee M.; Pretlow, Joshua, III.

    2015-01-01

    The United States Department of Labor predicts the demand in healthcare sector careers to soar as patient demographics continue to change with the aging population of adults (Henderson, 2012). To meet this demand, community colleges will continue to play a vital role in the education of healthcare occupations, as nearly 60% of all healthcare…

  19. Molecular, Spatial, and Field Epidemiology Suggesting TB Transmission in Community, Not Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surie, Diya; Fane, Othusitse; Finlay, Alyssa; Ogopotse, Matsiri; Tobias, James L; Click, Eleanor S; Modongo, Chawangwa; Zetola, Nicola M; Moonan, Patrick K; Oeltmann, John E

    2017-03-01

    During 2012-2015, 10 of 24 patients infected with matching genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis received care at the same hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Nosocomial transmission was initially suspected, but we discovered plausible sites of community transmission for 20 (95%) of 21 interviewed patients. Active case-finding at these sites could halt ongoing transmission.

  20. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daebeler, A.; Gansen, M.; Frenzel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH3F) caused surprisingly

  1. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  2. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  3. Alkyl polyglucoside compound influences freshwater plankton community structure in floating field mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Steven F; Cohen, Risa A

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic surfactants in cleaners and detergents commonly contaminate freshwater systems, therefore use of low-toxicity alternatives is becoming increasingly important. Alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) derived from natural products are less toxic than synthetic surfactants, and degrade rapidly reducing chemical exposure time. However, single species toxicity tests showed APGs have toxic effects on aquatic primary producers and zooplankton, and that species demonstrate different sensitivities to APGs. Furthermore, species unaffected by APGs directly may be indirectly affected by removal of a food source or changes in predator densities, thereby changing plankton community structure. To determine the effects of APGs on plankton communities under environmental conditions, floating mesocosms were deployed in a shallow pond in southeast Georgia, USA and dosed with 0, 0.01, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg L(-1) APG. Zooplankton community composition and abundance, phytoplankton abundance (as chlorophyll a), and water column dissolved oxygen concentration were determined weekly for 1 month. Zooplankton abundance decreased primarily due to loss of copepods, and community composition shifted toward small-bodied cladocerans (Bosmina sp.), and chlorophyll a concentrations declined by up to 81 % following exposure to APG concentrations of 2.5 mg L(-1) or greater. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen never dropped below 5.70 mg L(-1), but the observed declines of ~2 mg L(-1) could become stressful during periods of high water temperatures. Nevertheless, the APG-induced shift from copepod to cladoceran dominated communities and decrease in autochthonous carbon availability has important implications for food availability and quality to higher trophic levels such as planktivorous fishes.

  4. Time-based distribution of Staphylococcus saprophyticus pulsed field gel-electrophoresis clusters in community-acquired urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos de Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of urinary tract infections (UTI by Staphylococcus saprophyticus has not been fully characterised and strain typing methods have not been validated for this agent. To evaluate whether epidemiological relationships exist between clusters of pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE genotypes of S. saprophyticus from community-acquired UTI, a cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 32 (16% female patients attending two walk-in clinics were culture-positive for S. saprophyticus. Five PFGE clusters were defined and evaluated against epidemiological data. The PFGE clusters were grouped in time, suggesting the existence of community point sources of S. saprophyticus. From these point sources, S. saprophyticus strains may spread among individuals.

  5. Time-based distribution of Staphylococcus saprophyticus pulsed field gel-electrophoresis clusters in community-acquired urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Viviane Santos de; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Martins, Ianick Souto; Santos, Luisa Barbosa Gomes da Silva dos; Alves, Elisabeth Mendes; Riley, Lee Woodford; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2013-02-01

    The epidemiology of urinary tract infections (UTI) by Staphylococcus saprophyticus has not been fully characterised and strain typing methods have not been validated for this agent. To evaluate whether epidemiological relationships exist between clusters of pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes of S. saprophyticus from community-acquired UTI, a cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 32 (16%) female patients attending two walk-in clinics were culture-positive for S. saprophyticus. Five PFGE clusters were defined and evaluated against epidemiological data. The PFGE clusters were grouped in time, suggesting the existence of community point sources of S. saprophyticus. From these point sources, S. saprophyticus strains may spread among individuals.

  6. Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in Virtual School Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Christian; Eckdahl, Kelli; Morone, Mike; Cook, Vicki; Giblin, Thomas; Coon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State. The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week online field experience. Pre-service teachers…

  7. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Yang

    Full Text Available As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping

  8. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  9. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders.

  10. A Thorn in the Flesh? Forensic Inpatients in General Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerhøj, Jette; Stølan, Liv Os; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    of staff identify the care of mentally disordered offenders in general psychiatric units as either "a parking space" or a very difficult or frightening course, where staff members tend to behave like pleasers in order to avoid risks of conflict or physical violence. Either way, it seems hard to provide......PURPOSE: To illuminate whether and how taking care of forensic inpatients is experienced as a burden among staff and managers in general psychiatry. DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative analytical strategies based on interviews and questionnaires. FINDINGS: The interplay between physical environment...... sufficient mental health care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nationwide training and teaching as well as knowledge exchange between specialized forensic psychiatry and general psychiatry are recommended. Further exploration is needed on patient perspectives and on avenues to increase efficiency and decrease...

  11. Link prediction boosted psychiatry disorder classification for functional connectivity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Jiashuang

    2017-02-01

    Functional connectivity network (FCN) is an effective tool in psychiatry disorders classification, and represents cross-correlation of the regional blood oxygenation level dependent signal. However, FCN is often incomplete for suffering from missing and spurious edges. To accurate classify psychiatry disorders and health control with the incomplete FCN, we first `repair' the FCN with link prediction, and then exact the clustering coefficients as features to build a weak classifier for every FCN. Finally, we apply a boosting algorithm to combine these weak classifiers for improving classification accuracy. Our method tested by three datasets of psychiatry disorder, including Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The experimental results show our method not only significantly improves the classification accuracy, but also efficiently reconstructs the incomplete FCN.

  12. Cultural psychiatry in the French-speaking world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    For the last five centuries, France's international influence has been constant. This has been particularly evident in the areas of general culture, history and science. In psychiatry, the role of Pinel during the French Revolution, and the discovery of the first psychotropic agent, chlorpromazine, by Delay and Deniker are two outstanding historical facts. This chapter examines the contributions of French social scientists in the understanding of the sequelae of colonial exploitation, racism and political oppression. The establishment of a multi-ethnic society in France and Francophile regions of the world has led to the gradual creation of a cultural psychiatry rich in terminological influences, clinical understanding, training programs and research. Closer connections between French psychiatric thought and Anglophile psychiatry is likely to produce beneficial effects.

  13. What's Life Got to Do with It? The Role of Life Experiences in Shaping Female Community College Students' Transfer Intent in STEM Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Kelly; Wang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    Transfer in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields from community colleges to 4-year institutions holds great policy significance in alleviating the female underrepresentation in the STEM pipeline, with proportionately more female students attending community colleges. Considering the knowledge gap on this often overlooked topic,…

  14. The gut bacterial communities associated with lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis (Formicidae: Formicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Wei, Cong; Wheeler, Diana E

    2014-09-01

    Camponotus is the second largest ant genus and known to harbor the primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia. However, little is known about the effect of diet and environment changes on the gut bacterial communities of these ants. We investigated the intestinal bacterial communities in the lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis which is found in the southwestern United States and northern reaches of Mexico. We determined the difference of gut bacterial composition and distribution among the crop, midgut, and hindgut of the two types of colonies. Number of bacterial species varied with the methods of detection and the source of the ants. Lab-raised ants yielded 12 and 11 species using classical microbial culture methods and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rRNAs) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Field-collected ants yielded just 4 and 1-3 species using the same methods. Most gut bacterial species from the lab-raised ants were unevenly distributed among the crop, midgut, and hindgut, and each section had its own dominant bacterial species. Acetobacter was the prominent bacteria group in crop, accounting for about 55 % of the crop clone library. Blochmannia was the dominant species in midgut, nearly reaching 90 % of the midgut clone library. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated the hindgut, accounting for over 98 % of the hindgut clone library. P. aeruginosa was the only species common to all three sections. A comparison between lab-raised and field-collected ants, and comparison with other species, shows that gut bacterial communities vary with local environment and diet. The bacterial species identified here were most likely commensals with little effect on their hosts or mild pathogens deleterious to colony health.

  15. Quantitative Description of Medical Student Interest in Neurology and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Cuoco, Joshua A; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Given the well-documented shortage of physicians in primary care and several other specialties, quantitative understanding of residency application and matching data among osteopathic and allopathic medical students has implications for predicting trends in the physician workforce. To estimate medical student interest in neurology and psychiatry based on numbers of applicants and matches to neurology and psychiatry osteopathic and allopathic residency programs. Also, to gauge students' previous academic experience with brain and cognitive sciences. The number of available postgraduate year 1 positions, applicants, and matches from graduating years 2011 through 2015 were collected from the National Matching Services Inc and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine for osteopathic programs and the National Resident Matching Program and the Association of American Medical Colleges for allopathic programs. To determine and compare osteopathic and allopathic medical students' interest in neurology and psychiatry, the number of positions, applicants, and matches were analyzed considering the number of total osteopathic and allopathic graduates in the given year using 2-tailed χ2 analyses with Yates correction. In addition, osteopathic and allopathic medical schools' websites were reviewed to determine whether neurology and psychiatry rotations were required. Osteopathic medical students' reported undergraduate majors were also gathered. Compared with allopathic medical students, osteopathic medical students had significantly greater interest (as measured by applicants) in neurology (χ21=11.85, Pneurology and psychiatry residency programs. Approximately 6% of osteopathic vs nearly 85% of allopathic medical schools had required neurology rotations. Nearly 10% of osteopathic applicants and matriculants had undergraduate coursework in brain and cognitive sciences. Osteopathic medical students demonstrated greater interest than allopathic medical

  16. Pediatric bipolar disorder in an era of "mindless psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Peter I; Levin, Edmund C

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) reflects shifts in conceptualizing bipolar disorder among children and adolescents since the mid-1990s. Since then, PBD diagnoses, predominantly in the United States, have increased dramatically, and the diagnosis has attracted significant controversy. During the same period, psychiatric theory and practice has become increasingly biological. The aim of this paper is to examine the rise of PBD in terms of wider systemic influences. In the context of literature referring to paradigm shifts in psychiatry, we reviewed the psychiatric literature, media cases, and information made available by investigative committees and journalists. Social historians and prominent psychiatrists describe a paradigm shift in psychiatry over recent decades: from an era of "brainless psychiatry," when an emphasis on psychodynamic and family factors predominated to the exclusion of biological factors, to a current era of "mindless psychiatry" that emphasizes neurobiological explanations for emotional and behavioral problems with limited regard for contextual meaning. Associated with this has been a tendency within psychiatry and society to neglect trauma and attachment insecurity as etiological factors; the "atheoretical" (but by default biomedical) premise of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd and 4th eds.); the influence of the pharmaceutical industry in research, continuing medical education, and direct-to-consumer advertising; and inequality in the U.S. health system that favors "diagnostic upcoding." Harm from overmedicating children is now a cause of public concern. It can be argued that PBD as a widespread diagnosis, particularly in the United States, reflects multiple factors associated with a paradigm shift within psychiatry rather than recognition of a previously overlooked common disorder.

  17. Data synthesis in community health assessment: practical examples from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Knight, Margaret; Graham, Jennifer; Kalos, Alan V; Kent, Louise A; Glenn, Michael; Rayman, Rebecca J; Read, Erin; Welch, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    State and local health departments (LHDs) are increasingly conducting community health assessments, using models such as Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships. Within the peer-reviewed literature, relevant Web sites, and textbooks on health planning, there is limited practical guidance for bridging data collection and prioritization. The purpose of this article was to provide examples of how LHDs have bridged these steps through "data synthesis." We provide examples from 3 LHDs that have extensive experience with the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships model. The LHDs provide a detailed synopsis of data synthesis activities, including the setting, participants, processes, and outcomes. Commonalities between the LHDs' processes emerged, including daylong (or more) retreats, multiple nominal group-like techniques, and iterative approaches to reduce the number of strategic issues. These processes provide examples of data synthesis and are relevant to current practice, given the national voluntary accreditation process and the new nonprofit hospital requirements to conduct community health assessments.

  18. International Action to Prevent Discrimination: The Situation of the Roma Community in the Field of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Judtih Gimenez

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses why recent discriminatory incidents against the Roma community, one of the biggest minorities in Europe, rise in racism and anti-Roma hate speech in public discourse concerns international organizations. The first part of this article briefly outlines human rights bodies’ definition and regulation on the principle of equality and non-discrimination generally and in particular with regard to Roma education. The second part compares recent international human rights’ conc...

  19. Genus-specific primers for study of Fusarium communities in field samples

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium- specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+...

  20. Structural guarantees for the state aid field. The community's last best hope against national arbitrariness

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Angelica

    2011-01-01

    In line with current tendencies of ‘new modes of governance’, this essay introduces judicial tools, which strike a balance between the respect for national autonomy in individual assessments and the effective implementation of Community law. The balance is struck through the demands of structural guarantees; administrative safeguards, which weed out arbitrary national decision-making. These administrative safeguards are particularly needed in areas where the Member States of the EU have been ...