WorldWideScience

Sample records for community experiences revealed

  1. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.

    2010-07-15

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  2. Experience Learning and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of education, carried out in living and working environment, which has undergone so profound changes recently, is of extreme importance. In schools, courses and seminars, one cannot prepare him/herself for the changes as these are often so rapid that it is impossible to foresee them. Therefore, one can only learn by experience. In defining the term 'experience learning', the teoreticians vary greatly. In this paper, experience learning is understood as a process of learning taking part mainly outside the planned educational process and including an active and participative attitude towards environment and people. Original and direct experience can thus serve as a basis for gaining new comprehensions, for planning future activities as well as for a reinterpretation of the past experiences. Let us first mention the basic factors of successful experience learning, such as an individual's character features, possibilities for learning, learning atmosphere and positive stimulations. It has been estimated that local community can increase or decrease the possibilities for experience learning. However, the relation is active in other direction too: the more experience learning bas been asserted in a community, the greater its influence on social and cultural development of the community. On has to bear in mind that well-planned education for local community and stimulating sociocultural animation can facilitate the development of local community.

  3. Lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in a community empowerment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Horn

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The researcher explored the lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in two CEPs in Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal in order to develop recommendations for CEPs. Method: Data were explored using a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Ten participants who had been involved in HIV CEPs for more than six months were identified and individual interviews were held. Results: Three themes emerged, namely, giving of yourself, maintaining sustainability and assisting the CEPs and community workers. Each of these themes also contained a number of subthemes. Exploring the lived experience of the community workers revealed that there are a number of ways in which to promote the sustainability of CEPs. Conclusion: The community should be involved in all aspects of the CEP and community workers must respect the community and their knowledge, experience and value systems.

  4. Building Community through Arts Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that society is fragmented and there is a need for strong support networks. Describes a cooperative community building program in North Carolina involving East Carolina University's art education program, Greenville (NC) public schools, and the McDonalds corporation. (CFR)

  5. Ananke: temporal clustering reveals ecological dynamics of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene are widely used in microbial community analysis. A common first step in marker-gene analysis is grouping genes into clusters to reduce data sets to a more manageable size and potentially mitigate the effects of sequencing error. Instead of clustering based on sequence identity, marker-gene data sets collected over time can be clustered based on temporal correlation to reveal ecologically meaningful associations. We present Ananke, a free and open-source algorithm and software package that complements existing sequence-identity-based clustering approaches by clustering marker-gene data based on time-series profiles and provides interactive visualization of clusters, including highlighting of internal OTU inconsistencies. Ananke is able to cluster distinct temporal patterns from simulations of multiple ecological patterns, such as periodic seasonal dynamics and organism appearances/disappearances. We apply our algorithm to two longitudinal marker gene data sets: faecal communities from the human gut of an individual sampled over one year, and communities from a freshwater lake sampled over eleven years. Within the gut, the segregation of the bacterial community around a food-poisoning event was immediately clear. In the freshwater lake, we found that high sequence identity between marker genes does not guarantee similar temporal dynamics, and Ananke time-series clusters revealed patterns obscured by clustering based on sequence identity or taxonomy. Ananke is free and open-source software available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/ananke.

  6. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  7. Organizing a community advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-02-15

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site.

  8. Pharmacists' experience of conflict in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A M; Martin, J Craig

    2010-03-01

    Interpersonal conflict may be characterized as intellectual disagreement with emotional entanglement. While interpersonal conflict has been studied and described in different health care settings, there is little research that focuses on community pharmacists and the ways in which they experience conflict in professional practice. To describe and characterize the experience of interpersonal conflict within community pharmacy practice. A self-reporting narrative log was developed in which actively recruited pharmacists reported and reflected upon their day-to-day experiences of interpersonal conflict in professional practice. Focus groups of pharmacists were convened following data analysis to provide context and confirmation of identified themes. Based on this analysis, an explanatory model for interpersonal conflict in community pharmacy practice was generated. Participants were actively recruited from community pharmacy settings in the Toronto (Canada) area. A total of 41 community pharmacists participated. Interpersonal conflict in pharmacy practice is ubiquitous and results from diverse triggers. A conflict stance model was developed, based on the worldview and the communication style of the individual pharmacist. Specific conflict stances identified were: imposing, thwarting, settling, and avoiding. Further testing and refinement of this model is required. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, A.

    2011-12-01

    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic

  10. Experiences of community service environmental health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Karamchand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The community service initiative, a 1-year placement of health graduates, significantly improved human resource availability in the South African public health sector, even though the process was fraught with challenges. Although experiences in the curative health sector were assessed, the experiences of environmental health practitioners were yet to be studied. Research purpose: This study assessed the experiences of environmental health practitioners during their community service year. Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence suggested problems with the process. This study endeavoured to identify the challenges whilst taking cognisance of its effectiveness. Method: A total of n = 40 environmental health graduates from the Durban University of Technology who had concluded community service completed questionnaires in this crosssectional quantitative study. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations were used to analyse the data. Main findings: The timing of community service placements was critical as 58% of respondents had to repay study loans. The placement of married respondents (10% outside KwaZuluNatal, however, could have had impacts on family structures. Only 68% felt stimulated by their job functions, and there arose challenges with accommodation and overtime duties. Respondents felt that their tertiary education did equip them and that engagement with senior personnel helped in their professional development. Even though most of the review of the community service year appeared to be positive, a majority of respondents did not intend to continue working or recommending their workplaces. Future career pathing showed that 79% would prefer to be employed outside the public sector. Practical and managerial implications: The process needs to be reviewed to strengthen human resource management and enhance retention in the often overloaded and under-resourced South African public health sector. Contribution

  11. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon S Shange

    Full Text Available Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of

  12. Bioinformatic approaches reveal metagenomic characterization of soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofei Xu

    Full Text Available As is well known, soil is a complex ecosystem harboring the most prokaryotic biodiversity on the Earth. In recent years, the advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has greatly facilitated the progress of soil ecological studies. However, how to effectively understand the underlying biological features of large-scale sequencing data is a new challenge. In the present study, we used 33 publicly available metagenomes from diverse soil sites (i.e. grassland, forest soil, desert, Arctic soil, and mangrove sediment and integrated some state-of-the-art computational tools to explore the phylogenetic and functional characterizations of the microbial communities in soil. Microbial composition and metabolic potential in soils were comprehensively illustrated at the metagenomic level. A spectrum of metagenomic biomarkers containing 46 taxa and 33 metabolic modules were detected to be significantly differential that could be used as indicators to distinguish at least one of five soil communities. The co-occurrence associations between complex microbial compositions and functions were inferred by network-based approaches. Our results together with the established bioinformatic pipelines should provide a foundation for future research into the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function.

  13. Proteotyping of laboratory-scale biogas plants reveals multiple steady-states in community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, F; Heyer, R; Bissinger, T; Kottler, R; Schallert, K; Püttker, S; Behne, A; Rapp, E; Benndorf, D; Reichl, U

    2017-08-01

    Complex microbial communities are the functional core of anaerobic digestion processes taking place in biogas plants (BGP). So far, however, a comprehensive characterization of the microbiomes involved in methane formation is technically challenging. As an alternative, enriched communities from laboratory-scale experiments can be investigated that have a reduced number of organisms and are easier to characterize by state of the art mass spectrometric-based (MS) metaproteomic workflows. Six parallel laboratory digesters were inoculated with sludge from a full-scale BGP to study the development of enriched microbial communities under defined conditions. During the first three month of cultivation, all reactors (R1-R6) were functionally comparable regarding biogas productions (375-625 NL L reactor volume -1 d -1 ), methane yields (50-60%), pH values (7.1-7.3), and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 1 gNH 3 L -1 ) showed an increase to pH 7.5-8.0, accumulation of acetate (>10 mM), and decreasing biogas production (<125 NL L reactor volume -1 d -1 ). Tandem MS (MS/MS)-based proteotyping allowed the identification of taxonomic abundances and biological processes. Although all reactors showed similar performances, proteotyping and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) fingerprinting revealed significant differences in the composition of individual microbial communities, indicating multiple steady-states. Furthermore, cellulolytic enzymes and cellulosomal proteins of Clostridium thermocellum were identified to be specific markers for the thermophilic reactors (R3, R4). Metaproteins found in R3 indicated hydrogenothrophic methanogenesis, whereas metaproteins of acetoclastic methanogenesis were identified in R4. This suggests not only an individual evolution of microbial communities even for the case that BGPs are started at the same initial conditions under well controlled environmental conditions, but also a high compositional variance of microbiomes under

  14. Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A F Langer

    Full Text Available The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta. Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 μatm and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.

  15. Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Julia A F; Sharma, Rahul; Schmidt, Susanne I; Bahrdt, Sebastian; Horn, Henriette G; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Nam, Bora; Achterberg, Eric P; Riebesell, Ulf; Boersma, Maarten; Thines, Marco; Schwenk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta). Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 μatm) and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.

  16. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  17. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  18. Students' Experiences with Community in an Open Access Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Stephanie J.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Online open access courses have become regular offerings of many universities. Building community and connectedness is an important part of branding and success of such offerings. Our goal was to investigate students' experiences with community in an open access course. Therefore, in this study, we explored the sense of community of 342…

  19. Rural Colleges as Catalysts for Community Change: The RCCI Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    The Rural Community College Initiative challenges colleges in economically distressed regions to become catalysts for economic and community development and improved access to education. Led by college-community teams, the 24 sites have experimented with strategic approaches that include leadership development, entrepreneurship education, small…

  20. Initiation process of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Dotare, Tatsuya; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted 2D (cross-sectional) analog experiments with dry sand using a high resolution digital image correlation (DIC) technique to reveal initiation process of a thrust fault in detail, and identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the thrust initiation. The observations suggest that the process can be divided into three stages. Stage 1: characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will be generated later. Before initiation of the fault, the area to be the hanging wall starts to uplift. Stage 2: defined by the generation of the new thrust and its active displacement. The location of the new thrust seems to be constrained by its associated back-thrust, produced at the foot of the surface slope (by the previous thrust). The activity of the previous thrust turns to zero once the new thrust is generated, but the timing of these two events is not the same. Stage 3: characterized by a constant displacement along the (new) thrust. Similar minor shear bands can be seen in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan and we can correlate the along-strike variations in seismic profiles to the model results that show the characteristic features in each thrust development stage.

  1. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students' Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Bender, C. J. Gerda; Carvalho-Malekane, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we employed an instrumental case…

  2. Media advocacy: lessons from community experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Wright, P A

    1996-01-01

    Media advocacy is the strategic use of mass media and community organizing as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Across the United States, communities are using media advocacy to promote healthier public policies and environments. The U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention commissioned numerous case studies of media advocacy on alcohol and tobacco issues in a diverse array of communities, including efforts in African-American and Latino communities or using computer-based electronic communication systems. The paper describes these efforts briefly, and summarizes lessons learned, including: media advocacy can lead to larger victories when used as a complement to community organizing in the context of a larger strategic vision for policy change; like policy advocacy, media advocacy is best done in the context of clear long-term goals; conscious framing, guiding the choice of spokespeople, visuals, and messages, can alter media coverage and public debate of health policies; advocates need to respect the media but also remember that they have power in relation to the media; and media advocacy is often controversial and not suited to every situation. The case studies show that media advocacy is a potent tool for public health workers, making an important contribution to campaigns to promote healthier public policies.

  3. Myanmar: The Community Learning Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelborg, Jorn; Duvieusart, Baudouin, Ed.

    A community learning centre (CLC) is a local educational institution outside the formal education system, usually set up and managed by local people. CLCs were first introduced in Myanmar in 1994, and by 2001 there were 71 CLCs in 11 townships. The townships are characterized by remoteness, landlessness, unemployment, dependency on one cash crop,…

  4. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  5. Community energy auditing: experience with the comprehensive community energy management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.L.; Berger, D.A.; Rubin, C.B.; Hutchinson, P.A. Sr.; Griggs, H.M.

    1980-09-01

    The report provides local officials and staff with information on lessons from the audit, projection, and general planning experiences of the Comprehensive Community Energy Management Program (CCEMP) communities and provides ANL and US DOE with information useful to the further development of local energy management planning methods. In keeping with the objectives, the report is organized into the following sections: Section II presents the evaluation issues and key findings based on the communities' experiences from Spring of 1979 to approximately March of 1980; Section III gives an organized review of experience of communities in applying the detailed audit methodology for estimating current community energy consumption and projecting future consumption and supply; Section IV provides a preliminary assessment of how audit information is being used in other CCEMP tasks; Section V presents an organized review of preliminary lessons from development of the community planning processes; and Section VI provides preliminary conclusions on the audit and planning methodology. (MCW)

  6. Reconstructing community assembly in time and space reveals enemy escape in a Western Palearctic insect community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Sinclair, Frazer; Schönrogge, Karsten; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose-Luis; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Tavakoli, Majide; Askew, Richard R; Hickerson, Michael J

    2012-03-20

    How geographically widespread biological communities assemble remains a major question in ecology. Do parallel population histories allow sustained interactions (such as host-parasite or plant-pollinator) among species, or do discordant histories necessarily interrupt them? Though few empirical data exist, these issues are central to our understanding of multispecies evolutionary dynamics. Here we use hierarchical approximate Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data for 12 herbivores and 19 parasitoids to reconstruct the assembly of an insect community spanning the Western Palearctic and assess the support for alternative host tracking and ecological sorting hypotheses. We show that assembly occurred primarily by delayed host tracking from a shared eastern origin. Herbivores escaped their enemies for millennia before parasitoid pursuit restored initial associations, with generalist parasitoids no better able to track their hosts than specialists. In contrast, ecological sorting played only a minor role. Substantial turnover in host-parasitoid associations means that coevolution must have been diffuse, probably contributing to the parasitoid generalism seen in this and similar systems. Reintegration of parasitoids after host escape shows these communities to have been unsaturated throughout their history, arguing against major roles for parasitoid niche evolution or competition during community assembly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Art, Scholarship, Community: Experiences of Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This critical reflection originated in a visit to the ‘Artists and Academics’ exhibition held at Fargo Creative Village, Coventry, 26 November 2016. My thoughts about the exhibition have served as a springboard to consider ideas of scholarship, art and community more broadly. I use my research on British artists from the early twentieth century, their ideas about the processes of viewing art and the spiritual in art, to discuss examples in the exhibition. I conclude by considering how this collaborative event can bring academic ideas into conversation with artworks. I suggest that the resulting exchanges may enable viewers to think differently about art and scholarship as well as enrich academic practice.

  8. Traffic experiment reveals the nature of car-following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Zhang, H M; Gao, Zi-You; Jia, Bin; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Bing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    As a typical self-driven many-particle system far from equilibrium, traffic flow exhibits diverse fascinating non-equilibrium phenomena, most of which are closely related to traffic flow stability and specifically the growth/dissipation pattern of disturbances. However, the traffic theories have been controversial due to a lack of precise traffic data. We have studied traffic flow from a new perspective by carrying out large-scale car-following experiment on an open road section, which overcomes the intrinsic deficiency of empirical observations. The experiment has shown clearly the nature of car-following, which runs against the traditional traffic flow theory. Simulations show that by removing the fundamental notion in the traditional car-following models and allowing the traffic state to span a two-dimensional region in velocity-spacing plane, the growth pattern of disturbances has changed qualitatively and becomes qualitatively or even quantitatively in consistent with that observed in the experiment.

  9. Eigenspaces of networks reveal the overlapping and hierarchical community structure more precisely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoke; Gao, Lin; Yong, Xuerong

    2010-01-01

    Identifying community structure is fundamental for revealing the structure–functionality relationship in complex networks, and spectral algorithms have been shown to be powerful for this purpose. In a traditional spectral algorithm, each vertex of a network is embedded into a spectral space by making use of the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix or Laplacian matrix of the graph. In this paper, a novel spectral approach for revealing the overlapping and hierarchical community structure of complex networks is proposed by not only using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors but also the properties of eigenspaces of the networks involved. This gives us a better characterization of community. We first show that the communicability between a pair of vertices can be rewritten in term of eigenspaces of a network. An agglomerative clustering algorithm is then presented to discover the hierarchical communities using the communicability matrix. Finally, these overlapping vertices are discovered with the corresponding eigenspaces, based on the fact that the vertices more densely connected amongst one another are more likely to be linked through short cycles. Compared with the traditional spectral algorithms, our algorithm can identify both the overlapping and hierarchical community without increasing the time complexity O(n 3 ), where n is the size of the network. Furthermore, our algorithm can also distinguish the overlapping vertices from bridges. The method is tested by applying it to some computer-generated and real-world networks. The experimental results indicate that our algorithm can reveal community structure more precisely than the traditional spectral approaches

  10. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  11. Therapeutic experiences of community gardens: putting flow in its place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops the concept of therapeutic place experiences by considering the role of activity. Research of community gardening finds that particular tasks are therapeutic and exhibit the characteristics of flow, but those who lack influence over their community gardening are less likely to benefit from flow as their sense of control is reduced. The notion of emplaced flow is proposed to locate individual experiences amongst socio-spatial factors which limit self-determinacy and therefore affect wellbeing. Emplacing flow prompts critical reflection on who is excluded from therapeutic place experiences, and whether sites offering momentary escape have an enduring impact on wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Community ecology in 3D: Tensor decomposition reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of large ecological communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frelat, Romain; Lindegren, Martin; Dencker, Tim Spaanheden

    2017-01-01

    it to multiple dimensions. This extension allows for the synchronized study of multiple ecological variables measured repeatedly in time and space. We applied this comprehensive approach to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of 65 demersal fish species in the North Sea, a marine ecosystem strongly altered...... by human activities and climate change. Our case study demonstrates how tensor decomposition can successfully (i) characterize the main spatio-temporal patterns and trends in species abundances, (ii) identify sub-communities of species that share similar spatial distribution and temporal dynamics, and (iii...

  13. Quantitative isotope incorporation reveals substrate partitioning in a coastal microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayali, Xavier; Weber, Peter K

    2018-05-01

    To quantitatively link microbial identity with biogeochemical function, we carried out 14 simultaneous stable isotope probing experiments with organic and inorganic C and N substrates to measure the isotope incorporation by over one hundred co-occurring eukaryotic and prokaryotic populations in a coastal community. We found that nitrate was the most commonly incorporated substrate, and that light-driven carbon fixation was carried out by some bacterial taxa from the Flavobacteriales and OM60 (NOR5) clade, in addition to photoautotrophic phytoplankton. We found that organisms that incorporated starch, maltose, glucose, lactose and bicarbonate were phylogenetically clustered, suggesting that specific bacterial lineages specialized in the incorporation of these substrates. The data further revealed that coastal microorganisms spanned a range of resource utilization strategies from generalists to specialists and demonstrated a high level of substrate partitioning, with two thirds of taxa exhibiting unique substrate incorporation patterns and the remaining third shared by no more than three OTUs each. Specialists exhibited more extreme incorporation levels (high or low), whereas generalists displayed more intermediate activity levels. These results shed valuable insights into the bottom-up ecological strategies enabling the persistence of high microbial diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Adolescent maternity in a low income community: experiences revealed by oral history Maternidad en la adolescencia en una comunidad de bajos ingresos: experiencias a través de historia oral Maternidade na adolescência em uma comunidade de baixa renda: experiências reveladas pela história oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent maternity involves relevant factors associated with each family, culture and society. This research aimed to describe the experiences in the trajectory of adolescent maternity. The oral history method was used, obtaining the narratives of 21 adolescent mothers living in a low income community located in São Paulo City, Brazil. The following descriptive categories emerged from the narratives: Pregnancy: an event in the initial phase of the relationship; Insufficient knowledge and access to contraceptives, gender inferiority and God's will: the ways to look at pregnancy; To escape from family problems and define the life course: the personal meanings attributed to pregnancy; More gain than pain: the balance of adolescent maternity. Adolescent maternity in low income contexts involves very complex factors and requires an integral, integrated, personal and family centered care.La maternidad en la adolescencia está relacionada a factores asociados con la familia, cultura y sociedad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir experiencias durante la maternidad en la adolescencia. El método de historia oral fue realizado, recolectando las narrativas de 21 madres adolescentes que viven en una comunidad de bajos ingresos, ubicada en la Ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. Las categorías descriptivas fueron: Embarazo: consecuencia de una fase temprana en la relación; Conocimiento y acceso insuficientes sobre anticonceptivos, inferioridad relacionada al género y el sentir necesidad de Dios: significados personales sobre el embarazo; Escapar de los problemas familiares y definir su vida: los significados personales atribuidos al embarazo; Mayores beneficios que pérdidas: evaluando la maternidad en la adolescencia. La maternidad en la adolescencia en un contexto de pobreza involucra varios factores complejos; necesitando de cuidado integral e integrado, centrada en la persona y familia.A maternidade na adolescência envolve relevantes

  15. Aeolian comminution experiments revealing surprising sandball mineral aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Iversen, J. J.; Jensen, S. Knak; Merrison, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    We have undertaken a set of wind erosion experiments on a simple and well defined mineral, quartz. In these experiments wind action is simulated by end over end tumbling of quartz grains in a sealed quartz flask. The tumbling induces collisions among the quartz grains and the walls of the flask. This process simulates wind action impact speed of ∼1.2 m/s. After several months of tumbling we observed the formation of a large number of spherical sand aggregates, which resemble small snowballs under optical microscopy. Upon mechanical load the aggregates are seen to be more elastic than quartz and their mechanical strength is comparable, though slightly lower than that of sintered silica aerogels. Aggregates of this kind have not been reported from field sites or from closed circulation systems. However, sparse occurrence might explain this, or in nature the concentration of the aggregate building particles is so low that they never meet and just appear as the most fine grained tail of the sediment particle size distribution.

  16. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem.

  17. Can a Century Old Experiment Reveal Hidden Properties of Water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar C. Fuchs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1893 Sir William Armstrong placed a cotton thread between two wine glasses filled with chemically pure water. After applying a high voltage, a watery connection formed, and after some time, the cotton thread was pulled into one of the glasses, leaving a rope of water suspended between the two glasses. Although being a very simple experiment, it is of special interest since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science like electrolysis-less charge transport and nanobubbles. This work gives some background information about water research in general and describes the water bridge phenomenon from the viewpoint of different fields such as electrohydrodynamics and quantum field theory. It is shown that the investigation of the floating water bridge led to new discoveries about water, both in the macroscopic and microscopic realm – but these were merely “hidden” in that sense that they only become evident upon application of electric fields.

  18. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  19. Experiences from three community health promotion projects in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Olesen, Ingelise; Kjeldsen, Ann B

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Three community health promotion projects have been implemented in Greenland in the municipalities of Upernavik, Ittoqqortoormiit and Qasigiannguit. Based on project reports and other written material, this paper describes experiences from the three projects and discusses...... with strong leadership and a central organisation, whereas the Qasigiannguit project was designed as a community project with population participation in all phases of the project. The two former projects have probably had a greater direct change impact on the community, whereas the latter has strengthened...

  20. Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experiences from carbon markets and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X; Ravnkilde Moeller, L; Lopez, T De; Romero, M Z

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Carbon Market Perspectives on 'Pathways for implementing REDD+: Experience from carbon markets and communities' discusses the role of carbon markets in scaling up investments for REDD+ in developing countries. Nine articles authored by experienced negotiators on REDD+, carbon market actors, project developers and other leading experts share experiences and make suggestions on the key elements of a future international REDD+ regime: Architecture and underlying principles, measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), private-sector involvement, the rights of indigenous people and local communities, biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. The articles are grouped under three main topics: the lessons of existing REDD+ projects; the future REDD+ regime and the role of carbon markets; and experiences and ideas about the involvement of indigenous people and local communities. (LN)

  1. Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experiences from carbon markets and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Lopez, T. De; Romero, M.Z.

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Carbon Market Perspectives on 'Pathways for implementing REDD+: Experience from carbon markets and communities' discusses the role of carbon markets in scaling up investments for REDD+ in developing countries. Nine articles authored by experienced negotiators on REDD+, carbon market actors, project developers and other leading experts share experiences and make suggestions on the key elements of a future international REDD+ regime: Architecture and underlying principles, measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), private-sector involvement, the rights of indigenous people and local communities, biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. The articles are grouped under three main topics: the lessons of existing REDD+ projects; the future REDD+ regime and the role of carbon markets; and experiences and ideas about the involvement of indigenous people and local communities. (LN)

  2. Metabarcoding and metabolome analyses of copepod grazing reveal feeding preference and linkage to metabolite classes in dynamic microbial plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jessica L; Althammer, Julia; Skaar, Katrine S; Simonelli, Paolo; Larsen, Aud; Stoecker, Diane; Sazhin, Andrey; Ijaz, Umer Z; Quince, Christopher; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Frischer, Marc; Pohnert, Georg; Troedsson, Christofer

    2016-11-01

    In order to characterize copepod feeding in relation to microbial plankton community dynamics, we combined metabarcoding and metabolome analyses during a 22-day seawater mesocosm experiment. Nutrient amendment of mesocosms promoted the development of haptophyte (Phaeocystis pouchetii)- and diatom (Skeletonema marinoi)-dominated plankton communities in mesocosms, in which Calanus sp. copepods were incubated for 24 h in flow-through chambers to allow access to prey particles (<500 μm). Copepods and mesocosm water sampled six times spanning the experiment were analysed using metabarcoding, while intracellular metabolite profiles of mesocosm plankton communities were generated for all experimental days. Taxon-specific metabarcoding ratios (ratio of consumed prey to available prey in the surrounding seawater) revealed diverse and dynamic copepod feeding selection, with positive selection on large diatoms, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and fungi, while smaller phytoplankton, including P. pouchetii, were passively consumed or even negatively selected according to our indicator. Our analysis of the relationship between Calanus grazing ratios and intracellular metabolite profiles indicates the importance of carbohydrates and lipids in plankton succession and copepod-prey interactions. This molecular characterization of Calanus sp. grazing therefore provides new evidence for selective feeding in mixed plankton assemblages and corroborates previous findings that copepod grazing may be coupled to the developmental and metabolic stage of the entire prey community rather than to individual prey abundances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Community Health Warriors: Marshallese Community Health Workers' Perceptions and Experiences with CBPR and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2017-01-01

    Our manuscript highlights the viewpoints and reflections of the native Marshallese community health workers (CHWs) engaged in research with the local Marshallese community in Northwest Arkansas. In particular, this paper documents the vital role Marshallese CHWs play in the success of programs and research efforts. The negative health effects of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands has been passed down through many generations, along with unfavorable attitudes toward the U.S. government and researchers. However, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach used by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has allowed the native Marshallese CHWs to become advocates for the Marshallese community. The use of native CHWs has also leveled the power dynamics that can be a barrier to community-based research, and has strengthened trust with community stakeholders. Our paper shows how using Marshallese CHWs can produce positive health outcomes for the Marshallese community.

  4. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-05-06

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.

  5. Spatial and Species Variations in Bacterial Communities Associated with Corals from the Red Sea as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.; Yang, J.; Bougouffa, S.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Tian, R.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    -pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with three stony Scleractinea and two soft Octocorallia corals from three locations in the Red Sea. Our results revealed highly diverse bacterial communities in the Red Sea corals, with more than

  6. Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.

  7. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Design Community-based participatory research. Setting Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Participants Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25–64 years) across the four communities. Method PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Results Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. Conclusion This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants’ sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others. PMID:25973966

  8. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-01-01

    To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Community-based participatory research. Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25-64 years) across the four communities. PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants' sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others.

  9. Connecting Community Security and DDR: Experiences from Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Kleingeld, J.; van Leeuwen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The report is based on 10 weeks of field research in Burundi between April and June 2010, and looks at the linkages between community security and DDR. It opens with a discussion of local experiences with DDR programmes, analyzing the impact of its different components, and analyzing the local

  10. Women Engineering Transfer Students: The Community College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    An interpretative philosophical framework was applied to a case study to document the particular experiences and perspectives of ten women engineering transfer students who once attended a community college and are currently enrolled in one of two university professional engineering programs. This study is important because women still do not earn…

  11. Idle Hands: Community Employment Experiences of Formerly Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the facility-to-community transition experiences--focusing specifically on employment--of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system. They gathered data on the sample while these youth were still in custody and then every 6 months through phone interviews to…

  12. Integration of community structure data reveals observable effects below sediment guideline thresholds in a large estuary

    KAUST Repository

    Tremblay, Louis A.

    2017-04-07

    The sustainable management of estuarine and coastal ecosystems requires robust frameworks due to the presence of multiple physical and chemical stressors. In this study, we assessed whether ecological health decline, based on community structure composition changes along a pollution gradient, occurred at levels below guideline threshold values for copper, zinc and lead. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) was used to characterise benthic communities along a metal contamination gradient. The analysis revealed changes in benthic community distribution at levels below the individual guideline values for the three metals. These results suggest that field-based measures of ecological health analysed with multivariate tools can provide additional information to single metal guideline threshold values to monitor large systems exposed to multiple stressors.

  13. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabarcoding Reveals Seasonal and Temperature-Dependent Succession of Zooplankton Communities in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura; Pearman, John K.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about the composition and the annual cycle of zooplankton assemblages in the Red Sea, a confined water body characterized by a high biodiversity and endemism but at the same time one of the most understudied areas in the world in terms of marine biodiversity. This high diversity together with the lack of references for several of the groups poses a problem in obtaining basic information on zooplankton seasonal patterns. In the present work, we used high throughput sequencing to examine the temporal and spatial distribution of the zooplankton communities inhabiting the epipelagic zone in the central Red Sea. The analysis of zooplankton assemblages collected at two sites—coastal and offshore—twice a month at several depth strata by using MANTA, Bongo and WP2 nets provides baseline information of the seasonal patterns of the zooplankton community over 1 year. We show that the seasonal fluctuation of zooplankton communities living in the upper 100 m of the water column is driven mainly by the annual changes in seawater temperature. The 18S rRNA gene was used for metabarcoding of zooplankton assemblages revealing 630 metazoan OTUs (97% similarity) in five phyla, highlighting the richness of the Red Sea community. During colder months, communities were characterized by lower richness and higher biomass than communities found during the hot season. Throughout the year the zooplankton communities were dominated by the class Maxillopoda, mainly represented by copepods and class Hydrozoa. The rise in the water temperature favors the appearance of classes Malacostraca, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Saggitoidea. The present study provides essential baseline information for future monitoring and improves our knowledge of the marine ecosystem in the Red Sea while reporting the main environmental variable structuring zooplankton assemblages in this region.

  15. Metabarcoding Reveals Seasonal and Temperature-Dependent Succession of Zooplankton Communities in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura

    2017-08-02

    Very little is known about the composition and the annual cycle of zooplankton assemblages in the Red Sea, a confined water body characterized by a high biodiversity and endemism but at the same time one of the most understudied areas in the world in terms of marine biodiversity. This high diversity together with the lack of references for several of the groups poses a problem in obtaining basic information on zooplankton seasonal patterns. In the present work, we used high throughput sequencing to examine the temporal and spatial distribution of the zooplankton communities inhabiting the epipelagic zone in the central Red Sea. The analysis of zooplankton assemblages collected at two sites—coastal and offshore—twice a month at several depth strata by using MANTA, Bongo and WP2 nets provides baseline information of the seasonal patterns of the zooplankton community over 1 year. We show that the seasonal fluctuation of zooplankton communities living in the upper 100 m of the water column is driven mainly by the annual changes in seawater temperature. The 18S rRNA gene was used for metabarcoding of zooplankton assemblages revealing 630 metazoan OTUs (97% similarity) in five phyla, highlighting the richness of the Red Sea community. During colder months, communities were characterized by lower richness and higher biomass than communities found during the hot season. Throughout the year the zooplankton communities were dominated by the class Maxillopoda, mainly represented by copepods and class Hydrozoa. The rise in the water temperature favors the appearance of classes Malacostraca, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Saggitoidea. The present study provides essential baseline information for future monitoring and improves our knowledge of the marine ecosystem in the Red Sea while reporting the main environmental variable structuring zooplankton assemblages in this region.

  16. Metabarcoding Reveals Seasonal and Temperature-Dependent Succession of Zooplankton Communities in the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Casas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the composition and the annual cycle of zooplankton assemblages in the Red Sea, a confined water body characterized by a high biodiversity and endemism but at the same time one of the most understudied areas in the world in terms of marine biodiversity. This high diversity together with the lack of references for several of the groups poses a problem in obtaining basic information on zooplankton seasonal patterns. In the present work, we used high throughput sequencing to examine the temporal and spatial distribution of the zooplankton communities inhabiting the epipelagic zone in the central Red Sea. The analysis of zooplankton assemblages collected at two sites—coastal and offshore—twice a month at several depth strata by using MANTA, Bongo and WP2 nets provides baseline information of the seasonal patterns of the zooplankton community over 1 year. We show that the seasonal fluctuation of zooplankton communities living in the upper 100 m of the water column is driven mainly by the annual changes in seawater temperature. The 18S rRNA gene was used for metabarcoding of zooplankton assemblages revealing 630 metazoan OTUs (97% similarity in five phyla, highlighting the richness of the Red Sea community. During colder months, communities were characterized by lower richness and higher biomass than communities found during the hot season. Throughout the year the zooplankton communities were dominated by the class Maxillopoda, mainly represented by copepods and class Hydrozoa. The rise in the water temperature favors the appearance of classes Malacostraca, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Saggitoidea. The present study provides essential baseline information for future monitoring and improves our knowledge of the marine ecosystem in the Red Sea while reporting the main environmental variable structuring zooplankton assemblages in this region.

  17. Environmental Metabarcoding Reveals Contrasting Belowground and Aboveground Fungal Communities from Poplar at a Hg Phytomanagement Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Alexis; Maillard, François; Foulon, Julie; Gweon, Hyun S; Valot, Benoit; Chalot, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Characterization of microbial communities in stressful conditions at a field level is rather scarce, especially when considering fungal communities from aboveground habitats. We aimed at characterizing fungal communities from different poplar habitats at a Hg-contaminated phytomanagement site by using Illumina-based sequencing, network analysis approach, and direct isolation of Hg-resistant fungal strains. The highest diversity estimated by the Shannon index was found for soil communities, which was negatively affected by soil Hg concentration. Among the significant correlations between soil operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the co-occurrence network, 80% were negatively correlated revealing dominance of a pattern of mutual exclusion. The fungal communities associated with Populus roots mostly consisted of OTUs from the symbiotic guild, such as members of the Thelephoraceae, thus explaining the lowest diversity found for root communities. Additionally, root communities showed the highest network connectivity index, while rarely detected OTUs from the Glomeromycetes may have a central role in the root network. Unexpectedly high richness and diversity were found for aboveground habitats, compared to the root habitat. The aboveground habitats were dominated by yeasts from the Lalaria, Davidiella, and Bensingtonia genera, not detected in belowground habitats. Leaf and stem habitats were characterized by few dominant OTUs such as those from the Dothideomycete class producing mutual exclusion with other OTUs. Aureobasidium pullulans, one of the dominating OTUs, was further isolated from the leaf habitat, in addition to Nakazawaea populi species, which were found to be Hg resistant. Altogether, these findings will provide an improved point of reference for microbial research on inoculation-based programs of tailings dumps.

  18. Diversity and Structure of Diazotrophic Communities in Mangrove Rhizosphere, Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanying; Yang, Qingsong; Ling, Juan; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Shi, Zhou; Zhou, Jizhong; Dong, Junde

    2017-01-01

    Diazotrophic communities make an essential contribution to the productivity through providing new nitrogen. However, knowledge of the roles that both mangrove tree species and geochemical parameters play in shaping mangove rhizosphere diazotrophic communities is still elusive. Here, a comprehensive examination of the diversity and structure of microbial communities in the rhizospheres of three mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata , Avicennia marina , and Ceriops tagal , was undertaken using high - throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Our results revealed a great diversity of both the total microbial composition and the diazotrophic composition specifically in the mangrove rhizosphere. Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were both ubiquitous and dominant, comprising an average of 45.87 and 86.66% of total microbial and diazotrophic communities, respectively. Sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were the dominant diazotrophs. Community statistical analyses suggested that both mangrove tree species and additional environmental variables played important roles in shaping total microbial and potential diazotroph communities in mangrove rhizospheres. In contrast to the total microbial community investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, most of the dominant diazotrophic groups identified by nifH gene sequences were significantly different among mangrove species. The dominant diazotrophs of the family Desulfobacteraceae were positively correlated with total phosphorus, but negatively correlated with the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio. The Pseudomonadaceae were positively correlated with the concentration of available potassium, suggesting that diazotrophs potentially play an important role in biogeochemical cycles, such as those of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium, in the mangrove ecosystem.

  19. Diversity and Structure of Diazotrophic Communities in Mangrove Rhizosphere, Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic communities make an essential contribution to the productivity through providing new nitrogen. However, knowledge of the roles that both mangrove tree species and geochemical parameters play in shaping mangove rhizosphere diazotrophic communities is still elusive. Here, a comprehensive examination of the diversity and structure of microbial communities in the rhizospheres of three mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata, Avicennia marina, and Ceriops tagal, was undertaken using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Our results revealed a great diversity of both the total microbial composition and the diazotrophic composition specifically in the mangrove rhizosphere. Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were both ubiquitous and dominant, comprising an average of 45.87 and 86.66% of total microbial and diazotrophic communities, respectively. Sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were the dominant diazotrophs. Community statistical analyses suggested that both mangrove tree species and additional environmental variables played important roles in shaping total microbial and potential diazotroph communities in mangrove rhizospheres. In contrast to the total microbial community investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, most of the dominant diazotrophic groups identified by nifH gene sequences were significantly different among mangrove species. The dominant diazotrophs of the family Desulfobacteraceae were positively correlated with total phosphorus, but negatively correlated with the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio. The Pseudomonadaceae were positively correlated with the concentration of available potassium, suggesting that diazotrophs potentially play an important role in biogeochemical cycles, such as those of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium, in the mangrove ecosystem.

  20. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  1. The experience of collective trauma in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Anthea

    2009-08-01

    The concept of collective trauma has predominantly been applied in the context of natural and human disasters. This paper seeks to explore whether collective trauma offers a respectful way in which to explore and respond to mental health and wellbeing issues for Aboriginal families and communities. A review of the international literature was undertaken in order to determine the elements of collective and mass trauma studies which may have relevance for Indigenous communities in Australia. Findings support the proposition that the patterns of human responses to disasters, particularly in protracted traumas such as war-zones, shows strong parallels to the contemporary patterns of experience and responses articulated by Aboriginal people affected by colonization and its sequelae in Australia. Adopting evidence-informed principles of family and community healing developed internationally in disaster situations may provide helpful ways of conceptualizing and responding in a coordinated way to mental health and wellbeing issues for Indigenous people within Australia.

  2. How community environment shapes physical activity: perceptions revealed through the PhotoVoice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2014-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that community environment plays an important role in individuals' physical activity engagement. However, while attributes of the physical environment are widely investigated, sociocultural, political, and economic aspects of the environment are often neglected. This article helps to fill these knowledge gaps by providing a more comprehensive understanding of multiple dimensions of the community environment relative to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how people's experiences and perceptions of their community environments affect their abilities to engage in physical activity. A PhotoVoice method was used to identify barriers to and opportunities for physical activity among residents in four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2009. After taking pictures, the thirty-five participants shared their perceptions of those opportunities and barriers in their community environments during individual interviews. Using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, themes emerging from these photo-elicited interviews were organized in four environment types: physical, sociocultural, economic, and political. The data show that themes linked to the physical (56.6%) and sociocultural (31.4%) environments were discussed more frequently than the themes of the economic (5.9%) and political (6.1%) environments. Participants identified nuanced barriers and opportunities for physical activity, which are illustrated by their quotes and photographs. The findings suggest that a myriad of factors from physical, sociocultural, economic, and political environments influence people's abilities to be physically active in their communities. Therefore, adoption of a broad, ecological perspective is needed to address the barriers and build upon the opportunities described by participants to make communities more healthy and active. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Community Resilience Informed by Science and Experience (C-RISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Morse, R.; Peake, L.; Bowness, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Maine Research Institute is developing an interactive learning experience that engages participants in the interdependence of humans and the environment, the cycles of observation and experiment that advance science knowledge, and the changes we see now and that are predicted for sea level and storm frequency. These scientific concepts and principles will be brought to human scale through the connection to the challenge of city planning in our harbor communities. We are leveraging the ESRI Story Maps platform to build rich visualization-based narratives that feature NOAA maps, data and tools. Our program participants work in teams to navigate the content and participate in facilitated group discussions led by our educators. Based on the adult learning experience and in concert with new content being developed for the LabVenture program around the theme of Climate Change, we will develop a learning experience for 5th and 6th graders.Our goal is to immerse 1000+ adults from target communities in Greater Portland region as well as 8000+ middle school students from throughout the state in the experience.

  4. Community tourism experiences from brazilian, chilenas and costa rican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cioce Sampaio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CT is a strategy for traditional populations to lead their own lifestyles, independently of their degree of deculturalization in the face of the industrial urban societies hegemony and, therefore, it consists in an alternative to the consumer-materialistic lifestyle. Based on Latin American experiences, the objective of this article is to refine, or, even better, to justify the concept CT. Populations involved in these experiences, especially traditional ones, have a context of historical disadvantages. These experiences are not resumed to a new heterodox tourism alternative although they allow one to think about a new economy, the ecosocioeconomy, through a new rationality, which has been happening in domiciles, productive groups and communities, where problems and solutions occur and rarely are properly qualified. It is concluded that CT is a theory conceived from the experiences, the everyday complexities, the contradictions inherent to the pragmatic change pursued in the face of the economic utilitarianism limitations, although its implementation, many times, does not happen at the desired pace. The challenge is to preserve the communitarian logic of these experiences, without, at the same time, losing the communities' own dynamics as these get inserted into the market.

  5. Gastric microbial community profiling reveals a dysbiotic cancer-associated microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Marques, Joana; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Costa, Jose L; Carneiro, Fatima; Machado, Jose C

    2018-01-01

    Objective Gastric carcinoma development is triggered by Helicobacter pylori. Chronic H. pylori infection leads to reduced acid secretion, which may allow the growth of a different gastric bacterial community. This change in the microbiome may increase aggression to the gastric mucosa and contribute to malignancy. Our aim was to evaluate the composition of the gastric microbiota in chronic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma. Design The gastric microbiota was retrospectively investigated in 54 patients with gastric carcinoma and 81 patients with chronic gastritis by 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing. Differences in microbial composition of the two patient groups were assessed using linear discriminant analysis effect size. Associations between the most relevant taxa and clinical diagnosis were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities was obtained with PICRUSt. Results The gastric carcinoma microbiota was characterised by reduced microbial diversity, by decreased abundance of Helicobacter and by the enrichment of other bacterial genera, mostly represented by intestinal commensals. The combination of these taxa into a microbial dysbiosis index revealed that dysbiosis has excellent capacity to discriminate between gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Analysis of the functional features of the microbiota was compatible with the presence of a nitrosating microbial community in carcinoma. The major observations were confirmed in validation cohorts from different geographic origins. Conclusions Detailed analysis of the gastric microbiota revealed for the first time that patients with gastric carcinoma exhibit a dysbiotic microbial community with genotoxic potential, which is distinct from that of patients with chronic gastritis. PMID:29102920

  6. Living in an older adult community: a pharmacy student's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Emily; Estus, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Interacting with older adults is a daily practice for pharmacists. It is important to understand how medications affect their wellbeing, but there are many other factors that affect quality of life. To truly understand some of the challenges facing older adults, Emily Anastasia, a sixth-year pharmacy student at the University of Rhode Island, moved into South Bay Retirement Living, a senior living community, for an eight-day immersion experience as a special project within one of her advanced pharmacy practice experience rotations. During her stay, she did not attend classes nor leave the facility unless on the South Bay bus with the other assisted living residents. She lived with a 92-year-old roommate, developed close friendships with many of the residents, and kept a detailed journal of her experience. The purpose of this reflection is to share her experience and recognize lifestyle as well as social and physical environment as factors in understanding the aging process. Immersing a pharmacy student within an assisted living community provides a unique opportunity to observe and appreciate characteristics of older adults that cannot be learned within a classroom setting.

  7. Riverine Bacterial Communities Reveal Environmental Disturbance Signatures within the Betaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmonte, John Paul; Arnosti, Carol; Underwood, Sarah; McKee, Brent A; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Riverine bacterial communities play an essential role in the biogeochemical coupling of terrestrial and marine environments, transforming elements and organic matter in their journey from land to sea. However, precisely due to the fact that rivers receive significant terrestrial input, the distinction between resident freshwater taxa vs. land-derived microbes can often become ambiguous. Furthermore, ecosystem perturbations could introduce allochthonous microbial groups and reshape riverine bacterial communities. Using full- and partial-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we analyzed the composition of bacterial communities in the Tar River of North Carolina from November 2010 to November 2011, during which a natural perturbation occurred: the inundation of the lower reaches of an otherwise drought-stricken river associated with Hurricane Irene, which passed over eastern North Carolina in late August 2011. This event provided the opportunity to examine the microbiological, hydrological, and geochemical impacts of a disturbance, defined here as the large freshwater influx into the Tar River, superimposed on seasonal changes or other ecosystem variability independent of the hurricane. Our findings demonstrate that downstream communities are more taxonomically diverse and temporally variable than their upstream counterparts. More importantly, pre- vs. post-disturbance taxonomic comparison of the freshwater-dominant Betaproteobacteria class and the phylum Verrucomicrobia reveal a disturbance signature of previously undetected taxa of diverse origins. We use known traits of closely-related taxa to interpret the ecological function of disturbance-associated bacteria, and hypothesize that carbon cycling was enhanced post-disturbance in the Tar River, likely due to the flux of organic carbon into the system associated with the large freshwater pulse. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of geochemical and hydrological alterations in structuring bacterial communities

  8. Riverine bacterial communities reveal environmental disturbance signatures within the Betaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Balmonte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Riverine bacterial communities play an essential role in the biogeochemical coupling of terrestrial and marine environments, transforming elements and organic matter in their journey from land to sea. However, precisely due to the fact that rivers receive significant terrestrial input, the distinction between resident freshwater taxa versus land-derived microbes can often become ambiguous. Furthermore, ecosystem perturbations could introduce allochthonous microbial groups and reshape riverine bacterial communities. Using full- and partial-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we analyzed the composition of bacterial communities in the Tar River of North Carolina from November 2010 to November 2010, during which a natural perturbation occurred: the inundation of the lower reaches of an otherwise drought-stricken river associated with Hurricane Irene, which passed over eastern North Carolina in late August 2011. This event provided the opportunity to examine the microbiological, hydrological and geochemical impacts of a disturbance, defined here as the large freshwater influx into the Tar River, superimposed on seasonal changes or other ecosystem variability independent of the hurricane. Our findings demonstrate that downstream communities are more taxonomically diverse and temporally variable than their upstream counterparts. More importantly, pre- versus post-disturbance taxonomic comparison of the freshwater-dominant Betaproteobacteria class and the phylum Verrucomicrobia reveal a disturbance signature of previously undetected taxa of diverse origins. We use known traits of closely-related taxa to interpret the ecological function of disturbance-associated bacteria, and hypothesize that carbon cycling was enhanced post-disturbance in the Tar River, likely due to the flux of organic carbon into the system associated with the large freshwater pulse. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of geochemical and hydrological alterations in

  9. Understanding Community: thoughts and experiences of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Yerbury

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study of members of Generation X and Generation Y seeks to explore the ways they understand and experience community. Their comments and stories were gathered through interviews collected towards the end of 2006 and the early part of 2007. These provide richly textured evidence of their need to belong, to maintain everyday relationships and to collaborate with others at the same time as they commodify relationships or share information but not necessarily beliefs and values. Consequences of globalisation such as individualisation, transience in relationships, immediacy in communication, the blurring of boundaries between work and leisure, between public and private and the reliance on information and communication technologies are part of their everyday lives. Some study participants feel dis-embedded from their traditional social relationships and seek to establish new ones, whereas others feel comfortable joking with anonymous others. Their intellectualised constructs of community and descriptions of the lived reality of community find reflections in a range of theoretical constructs in the literature, both reinforcing and shifting scholarly understandings of the concept of community.

  10. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Metatranscriptomic analysis of diverse microbial communities reveals core metabolic pathways and microbiome-specific functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue; Xiong, Xuejian; Danska, Jayne; Parkinson, John

    2016-01-12

    Metatranscriptomics is emerging as a powerful technology for the functional characterization of complex microbial communities (microbiomes). Use of unbiased RNA-sequencing can reveal both the taxonomic composition and active biochemical functions of a complex microbial community. However, the lack of established reference genomes, computational tools and pipelines make analysis and interpretation of these datasets challenging. Systematic studies that compare data across microbiomes are needed to demonstrate the ability of such pipelines to deliver biologically meaningful insights on microbiome function. Here, we apply a standardized analytical pipeline to perform a comparative analysis of metatranscriptomic data from diverse microbial communities derived from mouse large intestine, cow rumen, kimchi culture, deep-sea thermal vent and permafrost. Sequence similarity searches allowed annotation of 19 to 76% of putative messenger RNA (mRNA) reads, with the highest frequency in the kimchi dataset due to its relatively low complexity and availability of closely related reference genomes. Metatranscriptomic datasets exhibited distinct taxonomic and functional signatures. From a metabolic perspective, we identified a common core of enzymes involved in amino acid, energy and nucleotide metabolism and also identified microbiome-specific pathways such as phosphonate metabolism (deep sea) and glycan degradation pathways (cow rumen). Integrating taxonomic and functional annotations within a novel visualization framework revealed the contribution of different taxa to metabolic pathways, allowing the identification of taxa that contribute unique functions. The application of a single, standard pipeline confirms that the rich taxonomic and functional diversity observed across microbiomes is not simply an artefact of different analysis pipelines but instead reflects distinct environmental influences. At the same time, our findings show how microbiome complexity and availability of

  12. Exploring the perceptions and experiences of community health workers using role identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Langelihle; Harris, Bronwyn; Schneider, Helen; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an integral resource in many health systems, particularly in resource-poor settings. Their identities--'who' they are--play an important role in their hiring, training, and retention. We explore the perceptions, experiences, and identities of CHWs as they adopt a CHW role in rural South Africa, using 'role identity theory'. From April to December 2010, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with CHWs volunteering in non-governmental home-based care (HBC) organisations in one rural sub-district in South Africa. The role identity theory framework was used to understand the work of CHWs within their communities, addressing themes, such as entry into, and nature of, caring roles, organisational support, state resourcing, and community acceptability. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. The study found that CHWs usually begin their 'caring work' before they formally join HBC organisations, by caring for children, neighbours, mothers, fathers, friends, and the community in some way. CHWs felt that becoming a health worker provided an elevated status within the community, but that it often led community members to believe they were able to control resources. The key role identities assumed by CHWs, as they sought to meet patients' and their own needs, were a complex mix of community 'insider', 'outsider', and 'broker'. Each of these role identities served as a unique way to position, from the CHW's perspective, themselves and the community, given the diversity of needs and expectations. These role identities reveal the tensions CHWs face as 'insider' members of the community and yet at times being treated as 'outsiders', who might be regarded with suspicion, and at the same time, appreciated for the resources that they might possess. Understanding role identities, and how best to support them, may contribute to strategies of retention and sustainability of CHW programmes, as their formalisation in

  13. A common-pool resource experiment in acequia communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejem Raheem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers and rural advocates in New Mexico assert that traditional irrigators are better adapted to water scarcity and variability than other communities. Data to actually test this are often scarce, but such information could be useful for planning the state’s water future, especially as climate change predictions tend toward less reliable supplies. This paper reports results from a common pool resource (CPR experiment that simulates irrigating behavior using two groups: rural irrigators and undergraduate students. Despite predictions to the opposite, there was no significant difference between mean withdrawals or predictions of other players’ behavior. On average, both groups withdrew above the social optimum but below the Nash equilibrium. This work appears to be the first example of a common pool resource experiment conducted with traditional New Mexican irrigators.

  14. Experiences of Visually Impaired Students in Community College Math Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S. Tomeka

    Blind and visually impaired students who attend community colleges face challenges in learning mathematics (Forrest, 2010). Scoy, McLaughlin, Walls, and Zuppuhaur (2006) claim these students are at a disadvantage in studying mathematics due to the visual and interactive nature of the subject, and by the way mathematics is taught. In this qualitative study six blind and visually impaired students attended three community colleges in one Mid-Atlantic state. They shared their experiences inside the mathematics classroom. Five of the students were enrolled in developmental level math, and one student was enrolled in college level math. The conceptual framework used to explore how blind and visually impaired students persist and succeed in math courses was Piaget's theory on constructivism. The data from this qualitative study was obtained through personal interviews. Based on the findings of this study, blind and visually impaired students need the following accommodations in order to succeed in community college math courses: Accommodating instructors who help to keep blind and visually impaired students motivated and facilitate their academic progress towards math completion, tutorial support, assistive technology, and a positive and inclusive learning environment.

  15. Changing students' perceptions of the homeless: A community service learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Janet; Emory, Jan

    2018-03-01

    The homeless are an underserved, local vulnerable population that can benefit from a service learning clinical practicum experience for baccalaureate prepared nursing students. Negative attitudes and disrespect among healthcare workers has been identified by the homeless as a barrier to healthcare. A service learning experience with a vulnerable population has been shown to change nursing students' attitudes and beliefs. A large university in a southern city partnered with a community based organization that provided services to the homeless to educate senior nursing students in a service learning experience. The goal of this project was to examine attitudes and perceptions of nursing students toward the homeless population before and after participation in a service learning clinical practicum experience. This case study utilized a pre and post experience questionnaire to collect qualitative data for the purposes of the project. The findings revealed students demonstrated a decrease in fear, an increase in empathy, and a deeper understanding of the advocacy role of nurses for people experiencing homelessness. Nurse educators are challenged to engage students with vulnerable populations to change the attitudes and perceptions for improvement in the overall health of communities served worldwide. Partnerships and service learning experiences can benefit all. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metagenomics reveals pervasive bacterial populations and reduced community diversity across the Alaska tundra ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Robert Johnston

    2016-04-01

    , our results revealed that Alaska tundra microbial communities are less diverse and more homogenous across spatial scales than previously anticipated, and provided DNA sequences of abundant populations and genes that would be relevant for future studies of the effects of environmental change on tundra ecosystems.

  17. A review of CARE's Community Score Card experience and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Sara; Galavotti, Christine; Altman, Lara

    2016-12-01

    The global community's growing enthusiasm for the potential of social accountability approaches to improve health system performance and accelerate health progress makes it imperative that we learn from social accountability intervention implementation experience and results. To this end, we carried out a review of Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE)'s experience with the Community Score Card© (CSC)-a social accountability approach CARE developed in Malawi. We reviewed projects that CARE implemented between 2002 and 2013 that employed the CSC and that had at least one evaluation in English. We systematically collected and synthesized information from evaluations on the projects' characteristics, CSC-related outcomes and challenges. Eight projects, spanning five countries, met our inclusion criteria. The projects applied the CSC to various focus areas, mostly health. We identified one to three evaluations, mostly qualitative, for each project. While the evaluations had many limitations, consistency of the results, as well as the range of outcomes, suggests that the CSC is contributing to significant changes. All projects reported CSC-related governance outcomes and service outcomes. There is promising evidence that the CSC can contribute to citizen empowerment, service provider and power-holder effectiveness, accountability and responsiveness and spaces for negotiation between the two that are expanded, effective and inclusive. There is also evidence that the CSC may contribute to improvements in service availability, access, utilization and quality. The CSC seems particularly suited to building trust and strengthening relationships between the community and service providers and to improving the user-centred dimension of quality. All of the projects reported challenges, with ensuring national responsiveness and inclusion of marginalized groups in the CSC process proving to be the most intractable. To improve health system performance and

  18. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  19. Shifting baselines in the Ems Dollard estuary: A comparison across three decades reveals changing benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Holthuijsen, Sander; Mulder, Maarten; van Arkel, Maarten; Schaars, Loran Kleine; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; ten Horn, Job; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; van der Meer, Jaap; Piersma, Theunis; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2017-09-01

    At a time when there is a growing discussion about the natural state of estuaries, a comparison of macrozoobenthos communities from two surveys conducted 30 years apart in the Ems Dollard estuary, in the eastern Wadden Sea, The Netherlands, provides a unique opportunity to compare changes over time. As expected, our comparison revealed a gradient in species composition from land (the Dollard) to sea (the Outer Ems) at both points in time, with brackish species in the Dollard and more marine species in the Outer Ems (Wadden Sea). Total richness increased over time; however, this mainly reflected the immigration of new species and sampling differences. In the Dollard, total biomass declined over time, most likely reflecting de-eutrophication in this area. Strikingly, at the meeting point between the sea and the brackish Dollard, i.e. the Inner Ems, the community composition changed from one dominated by bivalves (1970s) to one dominated by worms (since 2009). This change involved a reduction in total biomass, mainly of Mya arenaria, and immigration of polychaete worms (Marenzellaria viridis and Alitta succinea). In the Outer Ems, an increase in total biomass was observed, associated with the recent successful recruitment of Cerastoderma edule. This comparison highlights that historical data provides useful insights at large spatial scales. However, a full understanding of the complex dynamics of estuaries requires an analysis of continuous long-term monitoring series.

  20. Metagenomic analysis reveals symbiotic relationship among bacteria in Microcystis-dominated community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili eXie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis bloom, a cyanobacterial mass occurrence often found in eutrophicated water bodies, is one of the most serious threats to freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In nature, Microcystis forms aggregates or colonies that contain heterotrophic bacteria. The Microcystis-bacteria colonies were persistent even when they were maintained in lab culture for a long period. The relationship between Microcystis and the associated bacteria was investigated by a metagenomic approach in this study. We developed a visualization-guided method of binning for genome assembly after total colony DNA sequencing. We found that the method was effective in grouping sequences and it did not require reference genome sequence. Individual genomes of the colony bacteria were obtained and they provided valuable insights into microbial community structures. Analysis of metabolic pathways based on these genomes revealed that while all heterotrophic bacteria were dependent upon Microcystis for carbon and energy, Vitamin B12 biosynthesis, which is required for growth by Microcystis, was accomplished in a cooperative fashion among the bacteria. Our analysis also suggests that individual bacteria in the colony community contributed a complete pathway for degradation of benzoate, which is inhibitory to the cyanobacterial growth, and its ecological implication for Microcystis bloom is discussed.

  1. Neighbourhood as community: A qualitative descriptive study of nursing students' experiences of community health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Ferguson, Karen; Atthill, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    Explore the use of a neighbourhood practice placement with nursing students to gain insight into how the experience influenced their learning and how the reconceptualization of community can be a model for students' professional development. The integration of community health nursing competencies in undergraduate nursing education is a critical element of student development. Neighbourhood placements have been found to support development of such competencies by exposing students to issues such as culture, social justice, partnership, and community development. A qualitative design was used with a sample of 48 Year 3 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a community health nursing practice course. Students submitted reflective reviews where they responded to questions and subsequently participated in focus groups. Meaning making of narrative data took place using the descriptive qualitative analysis approach. Students became more self-directed learners and developed team process skills. Some found it challenging to adapt to a role outside of the traditional acute care context. Nursing practice in a neighbourhood context requires students to be innovative and creative in problem-solving and relationship building. The placement also requires neighbourhood liaison persons who are adept at helping students bridge the theory-practice gap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coupled cryoconite ecosystem structure-function relationships are revealed by comparing bacterial communities in alpine and Arctic glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Arwyn; Mur, Luis A. J.; Girdwood, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Cryoconite holes are known as foci of microbial diversity and activity on polar glacier surfaces, but are virtually unexplored microbial habitats in alpine regions. In addition, whether cryoconite community structure reflects ecosystem functionality is poorly understood. Terminal restriction...... revealed Proteobacteria were particularly abundant, with Cyanobacteria likely acting as ecosystem engineers in both alpine and Arctic cryoconite communities. However, despite these generalities, significant differences in bacterial community structures, compositions and metabolomes are found between alpine...... fragment length polymorphism and Fourier transform infrared metabolite fingerprinting of cryoconite from glaciers in Austria, Greenland and Svalbard demonstrated cryoconite bacterial communities are closely correlated with cognate metabolite fingerprints. The influence of bacterial-associated fatty acids...

  3. Community Student Service Online: The Experience of the ULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Beatriz Carrillo Mejia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the university education is in the middle of a transformation, as an answer to a Knowledge Society emerging from globalization, originated by Information and Communications Technology (ICT's. Backed  in those tools with the main objective of achieving a pertinent education to needs of the society, such as flexible in time and space, equitative, without frontiers,  new models of teaching; virtual education, interactive distance education, on line education,  among others have been included. The present article exhibits the results of a qualitative investigation, which allowed documenting the experience of designing, implementing and developing the first induction courses over the online community service, at the University of Los Andes-Trujillo. A virtual learning environment (VLE   was used, to instruct the students over their functions as community service providers. The study was based on a data narrative design, provided by the participants, and complemented with the observations of the investigator. Finally, the students' efficiency and the performance with reference to the results are shown. Thus, among other things, it was found that a good efficiency was obtained and that the course was assessed in a satisfactory manner, however, some findings are orientated to improve practices in the future.

  4. A Community Seismic Experiment in the ENAM Primary Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern North America (ENAM) was chosen as a GeoPRISMS Rift Initiation and Evolution primary site because it represents a mature continental margin with onshore and offshore rift basins in which the record of extension and continental break-up is preserved. The degree to which syn-rift magmatism and preexisting lithospheric weaknesses controlled the evolution of the margin can be further investigated if we image its 3-D structure at small and large length scales with active-source and earthquake seismic imaging. In the Summer of 2012 we submitted a proposal to the US National Science Foundation for an ambitious plan for data acquisition on a 400 km wide section of the mid-Atlantic East Coast margin around Cape Hatteras, from unextended continental lithosphere onshore to mature oceanic lithosphere offshore. This area includes an important along-strike transition in the morphology of the margin from the Carolina Trough to the Baltimore Canyon Trough, and two major fracture zones that are associated with significant offsets at the modern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The study area also covers several features representing the post-rift modification of the margin by slope instability and fluid flow. As the Earthscope Transportable Array reaches the East Coast of the US in 2013 and 2014, we will have an unprecedented opportunity to image the detailed structure of the rifted margin. To make effective use of the research infrastructure, including the seismic vessel R/V Marcus Langseth, the Earthscope seismic instrumentation, and US OBS Instrument Pool, we propose to collect a suite of seismic data at the mid-Atlantic margin in the context of a community-driven experiment with completely open data access. This multi-faceted seismic experiment offers an immense opportunity for education of young scientists. We propose an integrated education effort during and after acquisition. The science and field parties for data acquisition will largely consist of young scientists, who will be

  5. Individual-based analyses reveal limited functional overlap in a coral reef fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Simon J; Bellwood, David R

    2014-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of a species' functional niche is crucial for the study of ecological communities and processes. The extent of niche overlap, functional redundancy and functional complementarity is of particular importance if we are to understand ecosystem processes and their vulnerability to disturbances. Coral reefs are among the most threatened marine systems, and anthropogenic activity is changing the functional composition of reefs. The loss of herbivorous fishes is particularly concerning as the removal of algae is crucial for the growth and survival of corals. Yet, the foraging patterns of the various herbivorous fish species are poorly understood. Using a multidimensional framework, we present novel individual-based analyses of species' realized functional niches, which we apply to a herbivorous coral reef fish community. In calculating niche volumes for 21 species, based on their microhabitat utilization patterns during foraging, and computing functional overlaps, we provide a measurement of functional redundancy or complementarity. Complementarity is the inverse of redundancy and is defined as less than 50% overlap in niche volumes. The analyses reveal extensive complementarity with an average functional overlap of just 15.2%. Furthermore, the analyses divide herbivorous reef fishes into two broad groups. The first group (predominantly surgeonfishes and parrotfishes) comprises species feeding on exposed surfaces and predominantly open reef matrix or sandy substrata, resulting in small niche volumes and extensive complementarity. In contrast, the second group consists of species (predominantly rabbitfishes) that feed over a wider range of microhabitats, penetrating the reef matrix to exploit concealed surfaces of various substratum types. These species show high variation among individuals, leading to large niche volumes, more overlap and less complementarity. These results may have crucial consequences for our understanding of herbivorous processes on

  6. Personal Universes: revealing community college students' competences though their organization of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Bracey, Zoë

    2017-10-01

    In this article I present a study on learners' conceptions in cosmology by situating the results in the context of broader historical and sociocultural themes. Participants were community college students in California from non-dominant cultural and linguistic backgrounds finishing their first semester of astronomy. Data were collected through a drawing activity and card sort given during clinical-style interviews. This type of work is typically done from the perspective of conceptual change theory, using drawings to reveal student "misconceptions." I argue that in analyzing this kind of data, we need to come from the perspective that students are competent, and put their conceptions in context. I begin by presenting traditional frameworks for evaluating and describing learning, all of which rely on an outdated "banking" or "transmission" model of learning that puts an over-emphasis on the performance and attributes of individuals. Not only do these theories provide an incomplete picture of what learning looks like, they create and reify unnecessary divides between "scientific" and "unscientific" that can contribute to student alienation from the world of science. To illustrate this, I present my own results as a window into the logic of learners' assumptions within a sociocultural context, and suggest ways to support their learning trajectories, rather than figuring out how to unlearn their misconceptions. Through this analysis, I hope to show how taking student conceptions out of sociocultural context can potentially exclude students from non-dominant cultural and linguistic backgrounds from science.

  7. Community health workers in Lesotho: Experiences of health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Thato; Napoles, Lizeka; Bam, Nomonde

    2018-02-27

    Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho. The study was conducted in four health centres in Berea district, Lesotho. A qualitative study was conducted using an interviewer guide translated from English into Sesotho for four CHW focus group discussions, four individual interviews of key informants and four semi-structured interviews with the health centre nurses. The roles of CHWs in health promotion ranged from offering basic first aid and home-based care to increasing access to health care services by taking patients to the facilities and promoting behaviour change through health education. Their perceived successes included increased access to health care services and reduced mortality rates. CHW challenges involved their demotivation to carry out their work because of lack of or inconsistent financial incentives and supplies, work overload which compromises quality of their work and limited community involvement. This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other

  8. Building the Caring School Community: The James Hamblin School Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedo, Julie; Hindle, Douglas R.

    2000-01-01

    A rural Saskatchewan K-12 school developed a schoolwide sense of community and a solid relationship with the larger community by setting new directions, team building, and building bridges with parents and the community. Positive staff behaviors, school appearance, and cross-grade interactive projects were critical to the success of the plan. (TD)

  9. Developing accreditation for community based surgery: the Irish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Riain, Ailís; Collins, Claire; O'Sullivan, Tony

    2018-02-05

    Purpose Carrying out minor surgery procedures in the primary care setting is popular with patients, cost effective and delivers at least as good outcomes as those performed in the hospital setting. This paper aims to describe the central role of clinical leadership in developing an accreditation system for general practitioners (GPs) undertaking community-based surgery in the Irish national setting where no mandatory accreditation process currently exists. Design/methodology/approach In all, 24 GPs were recruited to the GP network. Ten pilot standards were developed addressing GPs' experience and training, clinical activity and practice supporting infrastructure and tested, using information and document review, prospective collection of clinical data and a practice inspection visit. Two additional components were incorporated into the project (patient satisfaction survey and self-audit). A multi-modal evaluation was undertaken. A majority of GPs was included at all stages of the project, in line with the principles of action learning. The steering group had a majority of GPs with relevant expertise and representation of all other actors in the minor surgery arena. The GP research network contributed to each stage of the project. The project lead was a GP with minor surgery experience. Quantitative data collected were analysed using Predictive Analytic SoftWare. Krueger's framework analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings A total of 9 GPs achieved all standards at initial review, 14 successfully completed corrective actions and 1 GP did not achieve the required standard. Standards were then amended to reflect findings and a supporting framework was developed. Originality/value The flexibility of the action-learning approach and the clinical leadership design allowed for the development of robust quality standards in a short timeframe.

  10. Learning from Experience. Project Work with Community Groups. A Report of the Communities in Crisis Programme. Occasional Papers Number 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Temple Foundation, Manchester (England).

    This publication reports on Communities in Crisis, a resource and adult education program designed to encourage local community leaders and volunteers to reflect critically upon their experiences and exchange ideas across different towns, cities, and regions in the United Kingdom. Part 1 describes the program and its three aims: sharing…

  11. Moving Into Communities: Developing Cultural Competence with Pre-service Educators through Community Service-Learning Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Coffey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in teacher education suggests that field experiences in community settings can offer pre-service teachers a context for understanding the link between theory and practice. This paper documents the experiences of pre-service educators who participated in service-learning partnerships for thirty hours in multiple community settings in the southeast United States. Pre-service teachers not only volunteered in the community, but they also engaged in critically reflective journal writing and participated in evaluative class discussions. Students praised the benefits of a service experience in both school and community placements and discussed how interactions with the community agencies gave them the insight into how community organizations often play a significant role in the lives of the underserved students they will eventually teach. The author argues that the inclusion of a service-learning component in early pre-service teacher education field experiences has the potential to facilitate the examination of the relationships between community organizations and schools and encourage development of cultural competence among pre-service teachers. KEYWORDSservice-learning, pre-service teacher preparation, community partnerships

  12. Exploring the perceptions and experiences of community health workers using role identity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langelihle Mlotshwa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are an integral resource in many health systems, particularly in resource-poor settings. Their identities – ‘who’ they are – play an important role in their hiring, training, and retention. We explore the perceptions, experiences, and identities of CHWs as they adopt a CHW role in rural South Africa, using ‘role identity theory’. Design: From April to December 2010, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with CHWs volunteering in non-governmental home-based care (HBC organisations in one rural sub-district in South Africa. The role identity theory framework was used to understand the work of CHWs within their communities, addressing themes, such as entry into, and nature of, caring roles, organisational support, state resourcing, and community acceptability. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. Results: The study found that CHWs usually begin their ‘caring work’ before they formally join HBC organisations, by caring for children, neighbours, mothers, fathers, friends, and the community in some way. CHWs felt that becoming a health worker provided an elevated status within the community, but that it often led community members to believe they were able to control resources. The key role identities assumed by CHWs, as they sought to meet patients’ and their own needs, were a complex mix of community ‘insider’, ‘outsider’, and ‘broker’. Each of these role identities served as a unique way to position, from the CHW's perspective, themselves and the community, given the diversity of needs and expectations. Conclusions: These role identities reveal the tensions CHWs face as ‘insider’ members of the community and yet at times being treated as ‘outsiders’, who might be regarded with suspicion, and at the same time, appreciated for the resources that they might possess. Understanding role identities, and how best to support them, may

  13. Diversity in a Polymicrobial Community Revealed by Analysis of Viromes, Endolysins and CRISPR Spacers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Davison

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial biofilm communities in Mushroom and Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP are well characterized, yet little is known about the phage populations. Dominant species, Synechococcus sp. JA-2-3B'a(2-13, Synechococcus sp. JA-3-3Ab, Chloroflexus sp. Y-400-fl, and Roseiflexus sp. RS-1, contain multiple CRISPR-Cas arrays, suggesting complex interactions with phage predators. To analyze phage populations from Octopus Spring biofilms, we sequenced a viral enriched fraction. To assemble and analyze phage metagenomic data, we developed a custom module, VIRITAS, implemented within the MetAMOS framework. This module bins contigs into groups based on tetranucleotide frequencies and CRISPR spacer-protospacer matching and ORF calling. Using this pipeline we were able to assemble phage sequences into contigs and bin them into three clusters that corroborated with their potential host range. The virome contained 52,348 predicted ORFs; some were clearly phage-like; 9319 ORFs had a recognizable Pfam domain while the rest were hypothetical. Of the recognized domains with CRISPR spacer matches, was the phage endolysin used by lytic phage to disrupt cells. Analysis of the endolysins present in the thermophilic cyanophage contigs revealed a subset of characterized endolysins as well as a Glyco_hydro_108 (PF05838 domain not previously associated with sequenced cyanophages. A search for CRISPR spacer matches to all identified phage endolysins demonstrated that a majority of endolysin domains were targets. This strategy provides a general way to link host and phage as endolysins are known to be widely distributed in bacteriophage. Endolysins can also provide information about host cell wall composition and have the additional potential to be used as targets for novel therapeutics.

  14. Arthropods in modern resins reveal if amber accurately recorded forest arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Delclòs, Xavier; Clapham, Matthew E; Arillo, Antonio; Peris, David; Jäger, Peter; Stebner, Frauke; Peñalver, Enrique

    2018-05-07

    Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record the composition of arthropod forest paleocommunities, due to crucial taphonomic biases. We evaluated the effects of taphonomic processes on arthropod entrapment by resin from the plant Hymenaea , one of the most important resin-producing trees and a producer of tropical Cenozoic ambers and Anthropocene (or subfossil) resins. We statistically compared natural entrapment by Hymenaea verrucosa tree resin with the ensemble of arthropods trapped by standardized entomological traps around the same tree species. Our results demonstrate that assemblages in resin are more similar to those from sticky traps than from malaise traps, providing an accurate representation of the arthropod fauna living in or near the resiniferous tree, but not of entire arthropod forest communities. Particularly, arthropod groups such as Lepidoptera, Collembola, and some Diptera are underrepresented in resins. However, resin assemblages differed slightly from sticky traps, perhaps because chemical compounds in the resins attract or repel specific insect groups. Ground-dwelling or flying arthropods that use the tree-trunk habitat for feeding or reproduction are also well represented in the resin assemblages, implying that fossil inclusions in amber can reveal fundamental information about biology of the past. These biases have implications for the paleoecological interpretation of the fossil record, principally of Cenozoic amber with angiosperm origin.

  15. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy in a South African Community: Reconciling Knowledge, Norms, and Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Dennis, Alexis C; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2016-01-01

    Due to high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in South Africa, reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore knowledge and attitudes about maternal alcohol consumption among women who reported alcohol use during pregnancy. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were pregnant or within 1 year postpartum and self-reported alcohol use during pregnancy. In-depth interviews explored personal experiences with drinking during pregnancy, community norms and attitudes towards maternal drinking, and knowledge about FASD. Transcripts were analyzed using a content analytic approach, including narrative memos and data display matrices. Interviews revealed competing attitudes. Women received anti-drinking messages from several sources, but these sources were not highly valued and the messages often contradicted social norms. Women were largely unfamiliar with FASD, and their knowledge of impacts of fetal alcohol exposure was often inaccurate. Participants' personal experiences influenced their attitudes about the effects of alcohol during pregnancy, which led to internalization of misinformation. The data revealed a moral conflict that confronted women in this setting, leaving women feeling judged, ambivalent, or defensive about their behaviors, and ultimately creating uncertainty about their alcohol use behaviors. Data revealed the need to deliver accurate information about the harms of fetal alcohol exposure through sources perceived as trusted and reliable. Individual-level interventions to help women reconcile competing attitudes and identify motivations for reducing alcohol use during pregnancy would be beneficial.

  16. Co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions reveal the mechanism of chalcopyrite bioleaching coupling with microbial community succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Xingjie; Feng, Xue; Liang, Yili; Xiao, Yunhua; Hao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan

    2017-01-01

    The effect of co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated. Communities were rebuilt by six typical strains isolated from the same habitat. The results indicated, by community with more sulfur oxidizers at both 30 and 40°C, the final copper extraction rate was 19.8% and 6.5% higher, respectively, than that with more ferrous oxidizers. The variations of pH, redox potential, ferrous and copper ions in leachate also provided evidences that community with more sulfur oxidizers was more efficient. Community succession of free and attached cells revealed that initial proportions played decisive roles on community dynamics at 30°C, while communities shared similar structures, not relevant to initial proportions at 40°C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed different microbial functions on mineral surface. A mechanism model for chalcopyrite bioleaching was established coupling with community succession. This will provide theoretical basis for reconstructing an efficient community in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Topographical Mapping of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Microbiome Reveals a Diverse Bacterial Community with Antifungal Properties in the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Liam; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Tacchi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of wild and farmed aquatic vertebrates face the threat of many aquatic pathogens, including fungi. These surfaces are colonized by diverse symbiotic bacterial communities that may contribute to fight infection. Whereas the gut microbiome of teleosts has been extensively studied using pyrosequencing, this tool has rarely been employed to study the compositions of the bacterial communities present on other teleost mucosal surfaces. Here we provide a topographical map of the mucosal microbiome of an aquatic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we revealed novel bacterial diversity at each of the five body sites sampled and showed that body site is a strong predictor of community composition. The skin exhibited the highest diversity, followed by the olfactory organ, gills, and gut. Flectobacillus was highly represented within skin and gill communities. Principal coordinate analysis and plots revealed clustering of external sites apart from internal sites. A highly diverse community was present within the epithelium, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy and pyrosequencing. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that two Arthrobacter sp. skin isolates, a Psychrobacter sp. strain, and a combined skin aerobic bacterial sample inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia australis and Mucor hiemalis, two important aquatic fungal pathogens. These results underscore the importance of symbiotic bacterial communities of fish and their potential role for the control of aquatic fungal diseases. PMID:26209676

  18. Analysis of metagenomic data reveals common features of halophilic viral communities across continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Ravet, Viviane; Colombet, Jonathan; Bettarel, Yvan; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Bouvier, Thierry; Lucas-Staat, Soizick; Vellet, Agnès; Prangishvili, David; Forterre, Patrick; Debroas, Didier; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

    2016-03-01

    Microbial communities from hypersaline ponds, dominated by halophilic archaea, are considered specific of such extreme conditions. The associated viral communities have accordingly been shown to display specific features, such as similar morphologies among different sites. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of these halophilic viral communities across the Earth. Here, we studied viral communities in hypersaline ponds sampled on the coast of Senegal (8-36% of salinity) using metagenomics approach, and compared them with hypersaline viromes from Australia and Spain. The specificity of hyperhalophilic viruses could first be demonstrated at a community scale, salinity being a strong discriminating factor between communities. For the major viral group detected in all samples (Caudovirales), only a limited number of halophilic Caudovirales clades were highlighted. These clades gather viruses from different continents and display consistent genetic composition, indicating that they represent related lineages with a worldwide distribution. Non-tailed hyperhalophilic viruses display a greater rate of gene transfer and recombination, with uncharacterized genes conserved across different kind of viruses and plasmids. Thus, hypersaline viral communities around the world appear to form a genetically consistent community that are likely to harbour new genes coding for enzymes specifically adapted to these environments. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  20. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  1. Community-based conservation of critical sites: Uganda's experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of natural resources, first and foremost for their own good, and then for national and global benefit. Ecotourism and adding value to locally produced materials in communities can translate into support for conservation. This paper highlights the importance of community-based conservation for important biodiversity sites.

  2. Community College Trustees in Michigan: The Experiences of Four Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges continue to employ more women and provide education to more women than men, and although women are becoming more prevalent than they used to be in many executive roles at these institutions, there are still fewer women who are board of trustee members than men. Trustees at community colleges in leadership positions in these…

  3. Feminist Education and Feminist Community Psychology: Experiences from an Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moane, Geraldine; Quilty, Aideen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes experiences in an Irish context of education programs delivered in 2 communities, 1 based on class (a working class urban community) and 1 based on sexual orientation (an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community). It aims to illustrate how feminist education can play an important role in feminist community…

  4. Voices of Experience: Understanding and Enhancing Successful Conflict Management by Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Mellissia M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to enhance understanding of successful conflict management by community college Presidents through highlighting and describing conflict experiences with the faculty union or the board of trustees in a community college context. The following questions guided the research: (a) How do community college…

  5. Spearfishing data reveals the littoral fish communities' association to coastal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Jordi; Sagué, Oscar; Gordoa, Ana

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the knowledge about littoral fish communities is important for ecological sciences, fisheries and the sustainability of human communities. The scarcity of baseline data at large spatial scales in a fast-changing world makes it necessary to implement special programs to monitor natural ecosystems. In the present study, we evaluate littoral fish communities using data from spearfishing contests. The Catalan Federation of Underwater Activities (FECDAS) regularly organizes fishing contests across ca. 600 km of coast. Catch records made over the last sixteen years were used to study the fish communities along the coastline. We found two different communities that are closely related to the habitat configuration at a regional level. Interestingly, contests held on the northern coast were mainly grouped together and were characterized by species that inhabit complex rocky habitats, and contests held on the southern coast were grouped together and were mainly determined by soft bottoms species (i.e. mugilids and Sarpa salpa). In the south group the white sea bream was also very abundant compared to the north group. No significant changes in the community composition were found in the studied period and we successfully set descriptive baselines. Finally, based on these results we propose that studying the data from fishing contest records can be used to complement the available tools for monitoring fish communities.

  6. Metatranscriptomes reveal functional variation in diatom communities from the Antarctic Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Pearson, Gareth A

    2015-04-14

    Functional genomics of diatom-dominated communities fromthe Antarctic Peninsula was studied using comparative metatranscriptomics. Samples obtained from diatom-rich communities in the Bransfield Strait, the western Weddell Sea and sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea/Wilkins Ice Shelf yielded more than 500K pyrosequencing reads that were combined to produce a global metatranscriptome assembly. Multi-gene phylogenies recovered three distinct communities, and diatom-assigned contigs further indicated little read-sharing between communities, validating an assembly-based annotation and analysis approach. Although functional analysis recovered a core of abundant shared annotations that were expressed across the three diatom communities, over 40% of annotations (but accounting for <10% of sequences) were community-specific. The two pelagic communities differed in their expression of N-metabolism and acquisition genes, which was almost absent in post-bloom conditions in the Weddell Sea community, while enrichment of transporters for ammonia and urea in Bransfield Strait diatoms suggests a physiological stance towards acquisition of reduced N-sources. The depletion of carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways in sea ice relative to pelagic communities, together with increased light energy dissipation (via LHCSR proteins), photorespiration, and NO3 - uptake and utilization all pointed to irradiance stress and/or inorganic carbon limitation within sea ice. Ice-binding proteins and cold-shock transcription factors were also enriched in sea ice diatoms. Surprisingly, the abundance of gene transcripts for the translational machinery tracked decreasing environmental temperature across only a 4 °C range, possibly reflecting constraints on translational efficiency and protein production in cold environments. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  7. Metatranscriptomes reveal functional variation in diatom communities from the Antarctic Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Pearson, Gareth A; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Cá novas, Fernando; Cox, Cymon J; Verret, Frederic; Lasternas, Sebastian; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana; Serrã o, Ester A

    2015-01-01

    Functional genomics of diatom-dominated communities fromthe Antarctic Peninsula was studied using comparative metatranscriptomics. Samples obtained from diatom-rich communities in the Bransfield Strait, the western Weddell Sea and sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea/Wilkins Ice Shelf yielded more than 500K pyrosequencing reads that were combined to produce a global metatranscriptome assembly. Multi-gene phylogenies recovered three distinct communities, and diatom-assigned contigs further indicated little read-sharing between communities, validating an assembly-based annotation and analysis approach. Although functional analysis recovered a core of abundant shared annotations that were expressed across the three diatom communities, over 40% of annotations (but accounting for <10% of sequences) were community-specific. The two pelagic communities differed in their expression of N-metabolism and acquisition genes, which was almost absent in post-bloom conditions in the Weddell Sea community, while enrichment of transporters for ammonia and urea in Bransfield Strait diatoms suggests a physiological stance towards acquisition of reduced N-sources. The depletion of carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways in sea ice relative to pelagic communities, together with increased light energy dissipation (via LHCSR proteins), photorespiration, and NO3 - uptake and utilization all pointed to irradiance stress and/or inorganic carbon limitation within sea ice. Ice-binding proteins and cold-shock transcription factors were also enriched in sea ice diatoms. Surprisingly, the abundance of gene transcripts for the translational machinery tracked decreasing environmental temperature across only a 4 °C range, possibly reflecting constraints on translational efficiency and protein production in cold environments. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  8. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  9. Molecular Techniques Revealed Highly Diverse Microbial Communities in Natural Marine Biofilms on Polystyrene Dishes for Invertebrate Larval Settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, On On

    2014-01-09

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members in the communities using traditional 16S rRNA gene-based molecular methods and in identifying the chemical signals involved. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to characterize the bacterial communities in intertidal and subtidal marine biofilms developed during two seasons. We revealed highly diverse biofilm bacterial communities that varied with season and tidal level. Over 3,000 operational taxonomic units with estimates of up to 8,000 species were recovered in a biofilm sample, which is by far the highest number recorded in subtropical marine biofilms. Nineteen phyla were found, of which Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant one in the intertidal and subtidal biofilms, respectively. Apart from these, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes were the major groups recovered in both intertidal and subtidal biofilms, although their relative abundance varied among samples. Full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed for the four biofilm samples and showed similar bacterial compositions at the phylum level to those revealed by pyrosequencing. Laboratory assays confirmed that cyrids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite preferred to settle on the intertidal rather than subtidal biofilms. This preference was independent of the biofilm bacterial density or biomass but was probably related to the biofilm community structure, particularly, the Proteobacterial and Cyanobacterial groups. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  10. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  11. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus

  12. Integration of community structure data reveals observable effects below sediment guideline thresholds in a large estuary

    KAUST Repository

    Tremblay, Louis A.; Clark, Dana; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    The sustainable management of estuarine and coastal ecosystems requires robust frameworks due to the presence of multiple physical and chemical stressors. In this study, we assessed whether ecological health decline, based on community structure

  13. Temporal Sampling of White Band Disease Infected Corals Reveals Complex and Dynamic Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S.; Vollmer, S. V.; Aronson, F. M.

    2016-02-01

    White band disease (WBD) is a coral disease that is currently decimating populations of the endangered staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis and elkhorn coral, A. palmata across the Caribbean. Since it was first reported in 1979, WBD has killed 95% of these critical reef-building Caribbean corals. WBD is infectious; it can be transmitted through the water column or by a corallivorous snail. While previous research shows that WBD is likely caused by bacteria, identification of a specific pathogen or pathogens has remained elusive. Much of the difficulty of understanding the etiology of the disease comes from a lack of information about how existing bacterial communities respond to disease and separating initial from secondary colonizers. In order to address this lack of information, we performed a fully-crossed tank infection experiment. We exposed healthy corals from two different sites to disease and healthy (control) homogenates from both sites, replicating genotype across tanks. We sampled every coral at three time points: before inoculation with the homogenate, after inoculation, and when the coral showed signs of disease. We then performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We saw significant differences between time points and disease state. Interestingly, at the first time point (time one) we observed differences between genotypes: every fragment from some genotypes was dominated by Endozoicomonas, while other genotypes were not dominated by one family. At time two we saw an increase in abundance of Alteromonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae in all corals, and a larger increase in disease-exposed corals. At time three, we saw another increase in Flavobacteriaceae abundance in diseased corals, as well as an introduction of Francisella to diseased corals. While Flavobacteriaceae and Francisella were proposed as potential pathogens, their increase at time three suggests they may be secondary colonizers or opportunists. In genotypes that were

  14. Temporal dynamics of hot desert microbial communities reveal structural and functional responses to water input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alacia; Valverde, Angel; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Jansson, Janet K; Hopkins, David W; Aspray, Thomas J; Seely, Mary; Trindade, Marla I; Cowan, Don A

    2016-09-29

    The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability). Community composition remained essentially unchanged across the first 10 months, indicating that spatial sampling might be more important than temporal sampling when assessing β-diversity patterns in desert soils. However, a major shift in microbial community composition was found following a single precipitation event. This shift in composition was associated with a rapid increase in CO 2 respiration and productivity, supporting the view that desert soil microbial communities respond rapidly to re-wetting and that this response may be the result of both taxon-specific selection and changes in the availability or accessibility of organic substrates. Recovery to quasi pre-disturbance community composition was achieved within one month after rainfall.

  15. Temporal dynamics of hot desert microbial communities reveal structural and functional responses to water input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Alacia; Valverde, Angel; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Jansson, Janet K.; Hopkins, David W.; Aspray, Thomas J.; Seely, Mary; Trindade, Marla I.; Cowan, Don A.

    2016-09-29

    The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability). Community composition remained essentially unchanged across the first 10 months, indicating that spatial sampling might be more important than temporal sampling when assessing β-diversity patterns in desert soils. However, a major shift in microbial community composition was found following a single precipitation event. This shift in composition was associated with a rapid increase in CO2 respiration and productivity, supporting the view that desert soil microbial communities respond rapidly to re-wetting and that this response may be the result of both taxon-specific selection and changes in the availability or accessibility of organic substrates. Recovery to quasi pre-disturbance community composition was achieved within one month after rainfall.

  16. Microbial community diversity of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveals geographic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the eubacterial communities in three different water layers: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. In order to describe the dynamics of the eubacterial assemblages in relation to depth, associated environmental properties, and Longhurstian ecological provinces community DNA was extracted from 16 samples, from which the V6 region of 16s rDNA was PCR-amplified with eubacteria-specific primers, and the PCR amplicons were pyrosequenced. A total of 352 029 sequences were generated; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Comparisons of the phylogenetic affiliation of those 2871 OTUs show more than 54% of them were assigned to the Proteobacteria, with the Alphaproteobacteria representing 4% of the total Proteobacteria OTUs, and the Gammaproteobacteria representing 22%. Within the Alphaproteobacteria-affiliated OTUs, 44% of the OTUs were associated with the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The phylum Cyanobacteria represent 10% of the reads, with the majority of those reads among the GpIIa family including Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Among the Gammaproteobacteria, a single OTU affiliated to Alteromonas comprises ~3% of the abundance. The phyla Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represent approximately 7%, 0.8%, 2%, and 0.05% of the read abundance, respectively. Community ecology statistical analyses and a novel implementation of Bayesian inference suggests that eastern Atlantic Ocean eubacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers

  17. Revealing the Universe to Our Community: NMSU's Society of Astronomy Students' Dedication to Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Mercedes; Rees, S.; Medina, A.; Beasley, D.; Campos, A.; Chanover, N. J.; Uckert, K.; McKeever, J.

    2014-01-01

    The New Mexico State University (NMSU) Society of Astronomy Students (SAS) is an undergraduate organization centered on students’ passions for learning and sharing knowledge about the field of astronomy. The SAS strives to become one of the most active clubs on the NMSU campus by their involvement in both astronomy and non-astronomy related public outreach and community service events. NMSU is located in Las Cruces, NM, where Clyde Tombaugh made great contributions both to the field of astronomy and to our local community. He was able to spark the community's interest in astronomy and science in general; this is an aspect of his career that the SAS strives to emulate. To do this, the SAS participates in community outreach events with the goal of stimulating curiosity and providing opportunities for the public to observe and understand exciting phenomenon occurring in our universe. With help from the NMSU Astronomy Department, the SAS is able to volunteer alongside the Astronomy Graduate Student Organization (AGSO) at events for people of all ages. Working jointly with the AGSO allows us to be mentored by the very students who were in our shoes not long ago; they educate us about the wonders of the universe, just as we wish to educate the community. This provides an enlightening and enriching environment for both club and community members. The NMSU Astronomy Department hosts events for the entire community, such as observing nights held at Tombaugh Observatory — which SAS members attend and help advertise — where community members learn about and view objects in the night sky through telescopes. SAS members assist with field trips where local middle and elementary school students attend presentations and participate in astronomy-related activities on the NMSU campus. These hands-on activities are presented in an understandable way, and are meant to increase appreciation for all of the exciting subjects our universe has to offer. Other outreach events include

  18. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  19. Spatial and Species Variations in Bacterial Communities Associated with Corals from the Red Sea as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2012-08-03

    Microbial associations with corals are common and are most likely symbiotic, although their diversity and relationships with environmental factors and host species remain unclear. In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with three stony Scleractinea and two soft Octocorallia corals from three locations in the Red Sea. Our results revealed highly diverse bacterial communities in the Red Sea corals, with more than 600 ribotypes detected and up to 1,000 species estimated from a single coral species. Altogether, 21 bacterial phyla were recovered from the corals, of which Gammaproteobacteria was the most dominant group, and Chloroflexi, Chlamydiae, and the candidate phylum WS3 were reported in corals for the first time. The associated bacterial communities varied greatly with location, where environmental conditions differed significantly. Corals from disturbed areas appeared to share more similar bacterial communities, but larger variations in community structures were observed between different coral species from pristine waters. Ordination methods identified salinity and depth as the most influential parameters affecting the abundance of Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Achromobacter in the corals. On the other hand, bacteria such as Chloracidobacterium and Endozoicomonas were more sensitive to the coral species, suggesting that the host species type may be influential in the associated bacterial community, as well. The combined influences of the coral host and environmental factors on the associated microbial communities are discussed. This study represents the first comparative study using tag-pyrosequencing technology to investigate the bacterial communities in Red Sea corals.

  20. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  1. Not all are free-living: high-throughput DNA metabarcoding reveals a diverse community of protists parasitizing soil metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, S; Laros, I; Vizcaíno, A; Bonkowski, M; de Groot, G A

    2015-09-01

    Protists, the most diverse eukaryotes, are largely considered to be free-living bacterivores, but vast numbers of taxa are known to parasitize plants or animals. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches now commonly replace cultivation-based approaches in studying soil protists, but insights into common biases associated with this method are limited to aquatic taxa and samples. We created a mock community of common free-living soil protists (amoebae, flagellates, ciliates), extracted DNA and amplified it in the presence of metazoan DNA using 454 HTS. We aimed at evaluating whether HTS quantitatively reveals true relative abundances of soil protists and at investigating whether the expected protist community structure is altered by the co-amplification of metazoan-associated protist taxa. Indeed, HTS revealed fundamentally different protist communities from those expected. Ciliate sequences were highly over-represented, while those of most amoebae and flagellates were under-represented or totally absent. These results underpin the biases introduced by HTS that prevent reliable quantitative estimations of free-living protist communities. Furthermore, we detected a wide range of nonadded protist taxa probably introduced along with metazoan DNA, which altered the protist community structure. Among those, 20 taxa most closely resembled parasitic, often pathogenic taxa. Therewith, we provide the first HTS data in support of classical observational studies that showed that potential protist parasites are hosted by soil metazoa. Taken together, profound differences in amplification success between protist taxa and an inevitable co-extraction of protist taxa parasitizing soil metazoa obscure the true diversity of free-living soil protist communities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1992-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  3. Mesoscopic Community Structure of Financial Markets Revealed by Price and Sign Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Assaf; Besamusca, Ferry; MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The mesoscopic organization of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, is an intermediate between the microscopic dynamics of individual units (stocks or neurons, in the mentioned cases), and the macroscopic dynamics of the system as a whole. The organization is determined by "communities" of units whose dynamics, represented by time series of activity, is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. Recent studies have shown that the binary projections of various financial and neural time series exhibit nontrivial dynamical features that resemble those of the original data. This implies that a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. Here, we explore whether the binary signatures of multiple time series can replicate the same complex community organization of the financial market, as the original weighted time series. We adopt a method that has been specifically designed to detect communities from cross-correlation matrices of time series data. Our analysis shows that the simpler binary representation leads to a community structure that is almost identical with that obtained using the full weighted representation. These results confirm that binary projections of financial time series contain significant structural information.

  4. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Scott, Nicole M.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of similar to 4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities...

  5. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on

  6. Mesoscopic Community Structure of Financial Markets Revealed by Price and Sign Fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Almog

    Full Text Available The mesoscopic organization of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, is an intermediate between the microscopic dynamics of individual units (stocks or neurons, in the mentioned cases, and the macroscopic dynamics of the system as a whole. The organization is determined by "communities" of units whose dynamics, represented by time series of activity, is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. Recent studies have shown that the binary projections of various financial and neural time series exhibit nontrivial dynamical features that resemble those of the original data. This implies that a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign of such increments. Here, we explore whether the binary signatures of multiple time series can replicate the same complex community organization of the financial market, as the original weighted time series. We adopt a method that has been specifically designed to detect communities from cross-correlation matrices of time series data. Our analysis shows that the simpler binary representation leads to a community structure that is almost identical with that obtained using the full weighted representation. These results confirm that binary projections of financial time series contain significant structural information.

  7. Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rdna sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots and are found in most ecosystems. In this study the community structure of AMF in a clade of the genus Glomus was examined in undisturbed costal grassland using LSU rDNA sequences amplified from roots of Hieracium...

  8. Ocean Acidification Experiments in Large-Scale Mesocosms Reveal Similar Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter Production and Biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Zark

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM represents a major reservoir of carbon in the oceans. Environmental stressors such as ocean acidification (OA potentially affect DOM production and degradation processes, e.g., phytoplankton exudation or microbial uptake and biotransformation of molecules. Resulting changes in carbon storage capacity of the ocean, thus, may cause feedbacks on the global carbon cycle. Previous experiments studying OA effects on the DOM pool under natural conditions, however, were mostly conducted in temperate and coastal eutrophic areas. Here, we report on OA effects on the existing and newly produced DOM pool during an experiment in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean at the Canary Islands during an (1 oligotrophic phase and (2 after simulated deep water upwelling. The last is a frequently occurring event in this region controlling nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics. We manipulated nine large-scale mesocosms with a gradient of pCO2 ranging from ~350 up to ~1,030 μatm and monitored the DOM molecular composition using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry via Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS. An increase of 37 μmol L−1 DOC was observed in all mesocosms during a phytoplankton bloom induced by simulated upwelling. Indications for enhanced DOC accumulation under elevated CO2 became apparent during a phase of nutrient recycling toward the end of the experiment. The production of DOM was reflected in changes of the molecular DOM composition. Out of the 7,212 molecular formulae, which were detected throughout the experiment, ~50% correlated significantly in mass spectrometric signal intensity with cumulative bacterial protein production (BPP and are likely a product of microbial transformation. However, no differences in the produced compounds were found with respect to CO2 levels. Comparing the results of this experiment with a comparable OA experiment in the Swedish Gullmar Fjord, reveals

  9. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  10. Pyrosequencing reveals changes in soil bacterial communities after conversion of Yungas forests to agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S Montecchia

    Full Text Available The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%, while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands.

  11. Lived Experience and Community Sport Coaching: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Colum; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching in the participation domain is the act of coaching participants that are less intensely engaged in sport than performance orientated athletes. This form of coaching is a popular activity occurring in community settings such as schools or sport clubs, and it is often undertaken with a broad range of social and health outcomes in mind. The…

  12. Narrative and Experience of Community as Philosophy of Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the distinctive feature of African philosophising is a communitarian outlook expressed through various forms of narrative. The paper first illustrates the close relationship between narrative and community in the African cultural milieu. It then goes on to examine the way in which African academics in ...

  13. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  14. Fostering Multi-Functional Urban Agriculture: Experiences from the Champions in a Revitalized Farm Pond Community in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Jiun Chou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture (UA with its multi-functional roles has recently become a globally important topic, as it is considered as an approach to address the emerging challenges to societies seeking greater sustainability. In Taiwan, the Hakka community of Gaoyuan in Taoyuan City, where a traditional farm pond was recently transformed into a public, multi-functional UA resource, is widely regarded as the first successful bottom-up, community-led, farm-pond-based UA in Taiwan, yet its actual performance is rarely explored in any depth. Little work has been done to provide details on the socio-ecological benefits of UA in the community redevelopment process. Through in-depth interviews, fieldwork, and participant observation, this specific qualitative study aims to explore the community champions’ experiences in the transformation leading to a revitalized community. First, by linking nearby nature to people, a green network of diverse spaces, low-impact landscaping, and an agricultural-community-like pondscape, the specific landscape character that makes UA in Gaoyuan distinctive is formed. Second, through active engagement, participation, and the agency of local people, the UA implementation process features cooperative working, mutual learning, and experience-sharing. Third, UA plays a crucial role in building social cohesion that promotes people’s participation in community affairs, and strengthens the community’s social network, which involves agricultural life, crop production, the ecological environment, and community care. It is revealed that the farm-pond-based UA with its multi-functional roles acts as a catalyst for the Gaoyuan community’s progress toward sustainability. The desired end-state of the agricultural landscape, as a synthesis of natural features and human interventions, is a more sustainable, characteristic, well-maintained and united place to fulfill people’s needs and enhance people’s overall health and well-being.

  15. Organic matter processing by microbial communities throughout the Atlantic water column as revealed by metaproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergauer, Kristin; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Garcia, Juan A L

    2018-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition of the heterotrophic microbial community is depth stratified in the oceanic water column down to abyssopelagic layers. In the layers below the euphotic zone, it has been suggested that heterotrophic microbes rely largely on solubilized particulate organic matter...... as a carbon and energy source rather than on dissolved organic matter. To decipher whether changes in the phylogenetic composition with depth are reflected in changes in the bacterial and archaeal transporter proteins, we generated an extensive metaproteomic and metagenomic dataset of microbial communities...... collected from 100- to 5,000-m depth in the Atlantic Ocean. By identifying which compounds of the organic matter pool are absorbed, transported, and incorporated into microbial cells, intriguing insights into organic matter transformation in the deep ocean emerged. On average, solute transporters accounted...

  16. Non-parametric Bayesian graph models reveal community structure in resting state fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data using network models is of increasing interest. It is often desirable to group nodes into clusters to interpret the communication patterns between nodes. In this study we consider three different nonparametric Bayesian...... models for node clustering in complex networks. In particular, we test their ability to predict unseen data and their ability to reproduce clustering across datasets. The three generative models considered are the Infinite Relational Model (IRM), Bayesian Community Detection (BCD), and the Infinite...... between clusters. BCD restricts the between-cluster link probabilities to be strictly lower than within-cluster link probabilities to conform to the community structure typically seen in social networks. IDM only models a single between-cluster link probability, which can be interpreted as a background...

  17. Differential recolonization of Atlantic intertidal habitats after disturbance reveals potential bottom-up community regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Willy; Scrosati, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, abundant sea ice that drifted out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence caused extensive disturbance in rocky intertidal habitats on the northern Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada. To monitor recovery of intertidal communities, we surveyed two wave-exposed locations in the early summer of 2014. Barnacle recruitment and the abundance of predatory dogwhelks were low at one location (Tor Bay Provincial Park) but more than 20 times higher at the other location (Whitehead). Satellite data indicated that the abundance of coastal phytoplankton (the main food source for barnacle larvae) was consistently higher at Whitehead just before the barnacle recruitment season, when barnacle larvae were in the water column. These observations suggest bottom-up forcing of intertidal communities. The underlying mechanisms and their intensity along the NW Atlantic coast could be investigated through studies done at local and regional scales.

  18. Older persons' views and experience of elder abuse in South Western Nigeria: a community-based qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Eniola Olubukola; Owoaje, Eme Theodora; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo

    2015-06-01

    Conventionally, existing information on elder abuse has been institution based, professionally driven, and in high-income countries. This study addresses the prevailing gap in knowledge through direct consultation of older persons in the community about their perceptions of elder abuse. Eight focus group discussions were carried out among males and females aged 60 years and above in a rural and an urban community in south western Nigeria. Data were transcribed and analyzed based on emergent themes. Findings from the study show that the perception of abuse by the respondents included the standard typologies except sexual abuse as well as societal issues such as disrespect and lack of recognition. Our study revealed a high level of awareness and experience of elder abuse among the participants in both communities. Effective social welfare and health services aided by targeted government policies are needed to improve the quality of life of the elderly. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Decoupling phylogenetic and functional diversity to reveal hidden signals in community assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Bello, Francesco; Šmilauer, P.; Diniz-Filho, J. A. F.; Carmona, C. P.; Lososová, Z.; Herben, Tomáš; Götzenberger, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2017), s. 1200-1211 ISSN 2041-210X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15012S; GA ČR GB14-36079G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 267243 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : community ecology * phylogenetic diversity * functional diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 5.708, year: 2016

  20. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1993-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by Kernkraftwerke RWE Bayernwerk GmbH (KRB) and the CEC at Gundremmingen-Guenzburg (D), where the former KRB-A BWR is presently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, the results and conclusions on techniques and procedures presently applied in the dismantling of large-scale nuclear installations in the European Community. Besides the four pilot dismantling projects of the presently running third R and D programme (1989-93) of the European Community on decommissioning of nuclear installations (WAGR, BR-3 PWR, KRB-A BWR and AT-1 FBR fuel reprocessing), the organizers selected the presentation of topics on the following facilities which have a significant scale and/or representative features and are presently being dismantled: the Magnox reprocessing pilot plant at Sellafield, the HWGCR EL4 at Monts d'Arree, the operation of an on-site melting furnace for G2/G3 GCR dismantling waste at Marcoule, an EdF confinement conception of shut-down LWRs for deferred dismantling, and the technical aspects of the Greifswald WWER type NPPs decommissioning. This was completed by a presentation on the decommissioning of material testing reactors in the United Kingdom and by an overview on the conception and implementation of two EC databases on tools, costs and job doses. The seminar concluded with a guided visit of the KRB-A dismantling site. This meeting was attended by managers concerned by the decommissioning of nuclear installations within the European Community, either by practical dismantling work or by decision-making functions. Thereby, the organizers expect to have contributed to the achievement of decommissioning tasks under optimal conditions - with respect to safety and economics - by making available a complete and updated insight into on-going dismantling projects and by

  1. District heating from a community perspective : the Aboriginal experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wapachee, L. [Ouje-Bougoumou First Nation, Ouje-Bougoumou, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed an alternative energy system that was incorporated into the planning and development of a new permanent village for the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree. The history of the Ouje-Bougoumou Cree people and its involvement with industry and governmental bodies were described at length. To provide for the long-term financial requirements of the community in a manner in harmony with Cree environmental philosophy, an appropriate alternative energy system was incorporated into the village architecture. Biomass district heating is an alternative energy system that uses a single source of energy to heat the community's houses and buildings. In this case, sawdust fuel is used to heat water, which is pumped through underground pipes to heat buildings before it cycles back to the plant for reheating. This system converts a waste product into usable energy, capturing and recycling energy while replacing conventional sources, such as oil, gas, or hydroelectricity, and creating local employment. Heat is the largest portion of the community's energy requirement. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Leadership in community partnerships: South African study and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the influence of leadership in multi-stakeholder partnerships. Four W. K. Kellogg-funded community partnerships in South Africa were evaluated. Participants included community, academic and health service partners. The partnerships aimed to achieve interprofessional community-sensitive health professions education. We undertook: (1) quantitative assessment (survey, N=529) of whether leadership skills were systematically associated with three partnership factors (satisfaction, sense of ownership and commitment); and the individual contributions of these factors to the partnerships' outcomes; and (2) qualitative assessment (semi structured interviews, N=46) of the extent of coalition members' ratings of their leadership, the likelihood of concerns about their leaders; and the nature of these concerns. Quantitatively, partner's positive ratings of their leadership were consistently and significantly attended by better sense of ownership, commitment to and satisfaction with the partnerships. Variance in partnership outcomes was accounted for by leadership skills (26%), ownership (21%), commitment (20%) and satisfaction (11%). Partnership members who rated their leadership highly expressed fewer concerns (qualitatively) about their leaders. These concerns were: leadership visibility, openness and legitimacy; leadership features, styles and characteristics; the consequences of lack of appropriate leadership; and management procedures that were lacking. Coalition efforts would benefit from focusing on factors that are conducive to effective leadership.

  3. MODIS-Aqua Reveals Evolving Phytoplankton Community Structure During the Arabian Sea Northeast Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a bio-optical model designed to identify the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris to MODIS-Aqua revealed (1) patterns in its spatial distribution not previously seen (including its appearance in places not previously sampled), and (2) the surprising disassociation of total chlorophyll biomass with the presence of N. miliaris.

  4. Cultivation of seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis enhanced biodiversity in a eukaryotic plankton community as revealed via metagenomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhao Yang; He, Zhi Li; Deng, Yun Yan; Yang, Yu Feng; Tang, Ying Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Plankton diversity reflects the quality and health of waters and should be monitored as a critical feature of marine ecosystems. This study applied a pair of 28S rRNA gene-specific primers and pyrosequencing to assess the effects of large-scale cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis on the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton community in the coastal water of Guangdong, China. With 1 million sequences (2,221 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) obtained from 51 samples, we found that the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton community was significantly higher in the seaweed cultivation area than that in the nearby control area as reflected in OTU richness, evenness (Shannon-Wiener index) and dominance (Simpson index) for total plankton community and its four subcategories when Gracilaria biomass reached the maximum, while no such a significant difference was observed before seaweed inoculation. Our laboratory experiment using an artificial phytoplankton community of nine species observed the same effects of Gracilaria exposure. Principal component analysis and principal coordinates analysis showed the plankton community structure in cultivation area markedly differed from the control area when Gracilaria biomass reached its maximum. Redundancy analysis showed that G. lemaneiformis was the critical factor in controlling the dynamics of eukaryotic plankton communities in the studied coastal ecosystem. Our results explicitly demonstrated G. lemaneiformis cultivation could enhance biodiversity of plankton community via allelopathy, which prevents one or several plankton species from blooming and consequently maintains a relatively higher biodiversity. Our study provided further support for using large-scale G. lemaneiformis cultivation as an effective approach for improving costal ecosystem health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Community action research track: Community-based participatory research and service-learning experiences for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Nora; Kindratt, Tiffany; Dawson, Alvin; Pagels, Patti

    2018-04-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and service-learning are unique experiential approaches designed to train medical students how to provide individualized patient care from a population perspective. Medical schools in the US are required to provide support for service-learning and community projects. Despite this requirement, few medical schools offer structured service-learning. We developed the Community Action Research Track (CART) to integrate population medicine, health promotion/disease prevention and the social determinants of health into the medical school curriculum through CBPR and service-learning experiences. This article provides an overview of CART and reports the program impact based on students' participation, preliminary evaluations and accomplishments. CART is an optional 4‑year service-learning experience for medical students interested in community health. The curriculum includes a coordinated longitudinal program of electives, community service-learning and lecture-based instruction. From 2009-2015, 146 CART students participated. Interests in public health (93%), community service (73%), primary care (73%), CBPR (60%) and community medicine (60%) were the top reasons for enrolment. Significant improvements in mean knowledge were found when measuring the principles of CBPR, levels of prevention, determining health literacy and patient communication strategies (all p's Projects were disseminated by at least 65 posters and four oral presentations at local, national and international professional meetings. Six manuscripts were published in peer-reviewed journals. CART is an innovative curriculum for training future physicians to be community-responsive physicians. CART can be replicated by other medical schools interested in offering a longitudinal CBPR and service-learning track in an urban metropolitan setting.

  6. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals the microbial communities in the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and their impressive shifts in abnormal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum," were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  8. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Armougom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of the bacterial communities of the gut microbiota have revealed a shift in the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in obese patients. Determining the variations of microbial communities in feces may be beneficial for the identification of specific profiles in patients with abnormal weights. The roles of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii and Lactobacillus species have not been described in these studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed an efficient and robust real-time PCR tool that includes a plasmid-based internal control and allows for quantification of the bacterial divisions Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus as well as the methanogen M. smithii. We applied this technique to the feces of 20 obese subjects, 9 patients with anorexia nervosa, and 20 normal-weight healthy controls. Our results confirmed a reduction in the Bacteroidetes community in obese patients (p<0.01. We found a significantly higher Lactobacillus species concentration in obese patients than in lean controls (p=0.0197 or anorexic patients (p=0.0332. The M. smithii concentration was much higher in anorexic patients than in the lean population (p=0.0171. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus species are widely used as growth promoters in the farm industry and are now linked to obesity in humans. The study of the bacterial flora in anorexic patients revealed an increase in M. smithii. This increase might represent an adaptive use of nutrients in this population.

  9. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Microbial Communities in the Red Sea Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and Their Impressive Shifts in Abnormal Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhaoming

    2014-04-24

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum,” were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  10. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  11. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lladó, S., E-mail: llado@biomed.cas.cz [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Covino, S., E-mail: covino@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Solanas, A.M., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Petruccioli, M., E-mail: petrucci@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); D’annibale, A., E-mail: dannib@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Viñas, M., E-mail: marc.vinas@irta.cat [GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Institute of Research and Technology Food and Agriculture [IRTA], Torre Marimon, E-08140 Caldes de Montbui (Spain)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success.

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladó, S.; Covino, S.; Solanas, A.M.; Petruccioli, M.; D’annibale, A.; Viñas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success

  13. Bacterial Preferences for Specific Soil Particle Size Fractions Revealed by Community Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemkemeyer, Michael; Dohrmann, Anja B.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2018-01-01

    Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated in previous studies that differently sized soil particle fractions (PSFs; clay, silt, and sand with particulate organic matter (POM)) harbor microbial communities that differ in structure, functional potentials and sensitivity to environmental conditions....... To elucidate whether specific bacterial or archaeal taxa exhibit preference for specific PSFs, we examined the diversity of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes by high-throughput sequencing using total DNA extracted from three long-term fertilization variants (unfertilized, fertilized with minerals, and fertilized...

  14. Joint Ventures: An Experiment in Community/Professional Co-Framing in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda, 2014

    2014-01-01

    What happens when local school leaders sit down to talk with teachers, parents, and other members of the community about the ends and means of local education? Can people bringing different perspectives and experiences to the issue agree on top goals for their communities? Can they settle on needed changes and decide what signifies genuine…

  15. Broadening the Learning Community Experience: An Outdoor Orientation Program's Impact on Engagement, Persistence, and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christy David

    2013-01-01

    The Keystone Learning Community was implemented by the Department of Campus Recreation to address retention at the institution. This learning community for incoming freshmen consists of two phases. Phase I is as an outdoor orientation program that includes a three day, two night canoeing and camping experience lead by upperclassmen leaders.…

  16. Rethinking Environmental Science Education from Indigenous Knowledge Perspectives: An Experience with a Dene First Nation Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ranjan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This auto-ethnographic article explores how land-based education might challenge Western environmental science education (ESE) in an Indigenous community. This learning experience was developed from two perspectives: first, land-based educational stories from Dene First Nation community Elders, knowledge holders, teachers, and students; and…

  17. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  18. Comparative Assessment of Mediterranean Gorgonian-Associated Microbial Communities Reveals Conserved Core and Locally Variant Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M

    2016-10-10

    Gorgonians are key habitat-forming species of Mediterranean benthic communities, but their populations have suffered from mass mortality events linked to high summer seawater temperatures and microbial disease. However, our knowledge on the diversity, dynamics and function of gorgonian-associated microbial communities is limited. Here, we analysed the spatial variability of the microbiomes of five sympatric gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa, Leptogorgia sarmentosa and Paramuricea clavata), collected from the Mediterranean Sea over a scale of ∼1100 km, using next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all gorgonian species were generally dominated by members of the genus Endozoicomonas, which were at very low abundance in the surrounding seawater. Although the composition of the core microbiome (operational taxonomic units consistently present in a species) was found to be unique for each host species, significant overlap was observed. These spatially consistent associations between gorgonians and their core bacteria suggest intricate symbiotic relationships and regulation of the microbiome composition by the host. At the same time, local variations in microbiome composition were observed. Functional predictive profiling indicated that these differences could be attributed to seawater pollution. Taken together, our data indicate that gorgonian-associated microbiomes are composed of spatially conserved bacteria (core microbiome members) and locally variant members, and that local pollution may influence these local associations, potentially impacting gorgonian health.

  19. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of metacognitive self on confirmation bias revealed in relation to community and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brycz Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of our study was to investigate the role of insight into one’s own biases (metacognitive self in the process of hypothesis validation in accordance to the two fundamental social perception domains (community and competence on the example of confirmation bias. The study was conducted on a group of 593 participants with the use of a confirmation bias procedure, a free recall procedure and the Metacognitive Self scale. We manipulated with the domain and the value of information given to the respondents. We suspected that individuals with a high metacognitive self, in opposition to low metacognitive self ones, would not process the given information according to the two fundamental social perception domains. The results verified the existence of an interaction effect of the metacognitive self (MCS and the domain of the information given about a perceived person on the susceptibility to follow the confirmation bias. Contrary to the low metacognitive self individuals, who show a higher tendency for the confirmation bias within the competence than the community domain, persons with a high insight into their own biases express the same level of confirmation bias in no respect to the domain of the information. The value of the information has no significant influence.

  1. Population Screening Using Sewage Reveals Pan-Resistant Bacteria in Hospital and Community Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir-Gruber, Lital; Manor, Yossi; Gefen-Halevi, Shiraz; Hindiyeh, Musa Y; Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage.

  2. Diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in the Fildes Region (maritime Antarctica as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Fei eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in four different soils (human-, penguin-, seal-colony impacted soils and pristine soil in the Fildes Region (King George Island, Antarctica using 454 pyrosequencing with bacterial-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were abundant phyla in almost all the soil samples. The four types of soils were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community structure. Thermotogae, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Chlorobi obviously varied in their abundance among the 4 soil types. Considering all the samples together, members of the genera Gaiella, Chloracidobacterium, Nitrospira, Polaromonas, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas and Chthoniobacter were found to predominate, whereas members of the genera Chamaesiphon, Herbaspirillum, Hirschia, Nevskia, Nitrosococcus, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, and Xanthomonas varied obviously in their abundance among the four soil types. Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.01, phosphate phosphorus (p < 0.01, organic carbon (p < 0.05, and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05 were the most significant factors that correlated with the community distribution of soil bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the soil bacterial communities in human-, penguin-, and seal- colony impacted soils from ice-free areas in maritime Antarctica using high-throughput pyrosequencing.

  3. Bacterial community compositions of coking wastewater treatment plants in steel industry revealed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiao; Qu, Yuanyuan; Shen, Wenli; Zhang, Zhaojing; Wang, Jingwei; Liu, Ziyan; Li, Duanxing; Li, Huijie; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-03-01

    In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the community structures of nine coking wastewater treatment plants (CWWTPs) in China for the first time. The sludge systems exhibited a similar community composition at each taxonomic level. Compared to previous studies, some of the core genera in municipal wastewater treatment plants such as Zoogloea, Prosthecobacter and Gp6 were detected as minor species. Thiobacillus (20.83%), Comamonas (6.58%), Thauera (4.02%), Azoarcus (7.78%) and Rhodoplanes (1.42%) were the dominant genera shared by at least six CWWTPs. The percentages of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were unexpectedly low, which were verified by both real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that operation mode, flow rate and temperature might be the key factors in community formation. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial community compositions and structures of CWWTPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogeographic Comparison of Lophelia-Associated Bacterial Communities in the Western Atlantic Reveals Conserved Core Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Kellogg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, publications on deep-sea corals have tripled. Most attention has been paid to Lophelia pertusa, a globally distributed scleractinian coral that creates critical three-dimensional habitat in the deep ocean. The bacterial community associated with L. pertusa has been previously described by a number of studies at sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Norwegian fjords, off Great Britain, and in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM. However, use of different methodologies prevents direct comparisons in most cases. Our objectives were to address intra-regional variation and to identify any conserved bacterial core community. We collected samples from three distinct colonies of L. pertusa at each of four locations within the western Atlantic: three sites within the GOM and one off the east coast of the United States. Amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes were generated using primers targeting the V4–V5 hypervariable region and 454 pyrosequencing. The dominant phylum was Proteobacteria (75–96%. At the family level, 80–95% of each sample was comprised of five groups: Pirellulaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and unclassified Oceanospirillales. Principal coordinate analysis based on weighted UniFrac distances showed a clear distinction between the GOM and Atlantic samples. Interestingly, the replicate samples from each location did not always cluster together, indicating there is not a strong site-specific influence. The core bacterial community, conserved in 100% of the samples, was dominated by the operational taxonomic units of genera Novosphingobium and Pseudonocardia, both known degraders of aromatic hydrocarbons. The sequence of another core member, Propionibacterium, was also found in prior studies of L. pertusa from Norway and Great Britain, suggesting a role as a conserved symbiont. By examining more than 40,000 sequences per sample, we found that GOM samples were dominated by the identified conserved core

  5. Pyrosequencing Reveals Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities Impacted by Graphene and Its Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yan; Wang, Yi; Guan, Yina; Ma, Jiangtao; Cai, Zhiqiang; Yang, Guanghua; Zhao, Xiyue

    2017-10-25

    Graphene (GN) and graphene oxides (GOs) are novel carbon nanomaterial; they have been attracting much attention because of their excellent properties and are widely applied in many areas, including energy, electronics, biomedicine, environmental science, etc. With industrial production and consumption of GN/GO, they will inevitably enter the soil and water environments. GN/GO may directly cause certain harm to microorganisms and lead to ecological and environmental risks. GOs are GN derivatives with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups in their graphitic backbone. The structure and chemistry of GN show obvious differences compared to those of GO, which lead to the different environmental behaviors. In this study, four different types of soil (S1-S4) were employed to investigate the effect of GN and GO on soil enzymatic activity, microbial population, and bacterial community through pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The results showed that soil enzyme activity (invertase, protease, catalase, and urease) and microbial population (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi) changed after GN/GO release into soils. Soil microbial community species are more rich, and the diversity also increases after GO/GN application. The phylum of Proteobacteria increased at 90 days after treatment (DAT) after GN/GO application. The phylum of Chloroflexi occurred after GN application at 90 DAT in S1 soil and reached 4.6%. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in S2, S3, and S4 soils; it ranged from 43.6 to 71.4% in S2 soil, from 45.6 to 73.7% in S3 soil, and from 38.1 to 56.7% in S4 soil. The most abundant genera were Bacillus (37.5-47.0%) and Lactococcus (28.0-39.0%) in S1 soil, Lysobacter and Flavobacterium in S2 soil, Pedobacter in S3 soil, and Massilia in S4 soil. The effect of GN and GO on the soil microbial community is time-dependent, and there are no significant differences between the samples at 10 and 90 DAT.

  6. Repeated Structural Imaging Reveals Nonlinear Progression of Experience-Dependent Volume Changes in Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Elisabeth; Kühn, Simone; Verrel, Julius; Mårtensson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Evidence for experience-dependent structural brain change in adult humans is accumulating. However, its time course is not well understood, as intervention studies typically consist of only 2 imaging sessions (before vs. after training). We acquired up to 18 structural magnetic resonance images over a 7-week period while 15 right-handed participants practiced left-hand writing and drawing. After 4 weeks, we observed increases in gray matter of both left and right primary motor cortices relative to a control group; 3 weeks later, these differences were no longer reliable. Time-series analyses revealed that gray matter in the primary motor cortices expanded during the first 4 weeks and then partially renormalized, in particular in the right hemisphere, despite continued practice and increasing task proficiency. Similar patterns of expansion followed by partial renormalization are also found in synaptogenesis, cortical map plasticity, and maturation, and may qualify as a general principle of structural plasticity. Research on human brain plasticity needs to encompass more than 2 measurement occasions to capture expansion and potential renormalization processes over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-12-01

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  8. Microbial community response during the iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thiele, S.; Fuchs, B.M.; Ramaiah, N.; Amanna, R.

    of the experiment. The globe and the inset map were generated with the M_Map package for Matlab (version 7.12.0.635; MathWorks, Natick, MA). The chlorophyll a data were downloaded from the NASA website http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Thiele et al. 8804 aem...

  9. The Experiences and Needs of Transgender Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2012-01-01

    The experiences and needs of college students who identify on the transgender spectrum (androgynous, gender nonconforming, genderqueer, transfeminine, transmaculine, transgender, etc.) have begun to be explored in recent years, but this work has largely been limited to four-year colleges and universities. Virtually no research has considered the…

  10. A Psychodynamic Psychologist in Community Psychiatry: 14 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Roquette

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review the role of a psychodynamic psychologist integrated in a community outpatient clinic of a Psychiatric Department. It describes the characteristics of a psychodynamic intervention that is complementary to the psychiatric approach while sharing a common goal –the suffering patient – and enhancing the knowledge and understanding of several domains like psychopathology, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and integration. Furthermore it describes how the use of Psychological Assessment led to the formulation of specific individual psychotherapies, spanning 14 years of clinical practice. The paper concludes with some considerations regarding the integration of Psychodynamic Psychology in a multidisciplinary mental health team, addressing issues such as the boundaries between technical characteristics, the appropriateness of language to other disciplines and psychodynamic implications of the different features of this clinical setting.

  11. Young women's perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Gatny, Heather H; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Farris, Karen B

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States.Correct contraceptive use can reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. Community pharmacies are well positioned to provide contraceptives and advice about contraception. To determine young women's perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies and to identify whether pharmacy characteristics predicted very positive experiences. This study comprised two cross-sectional surveys including an online women's pharmacy perceptions and experiences (PPE) survey and a faxed/observed survey of community pharmacies. One county in Michigan. Young women and community pharmacies. The two surveys were merged to explore pharmacy characteristics that may impact women's perceptions and experiences with community pharmacies. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between pharmacy characteristics and positive outcomes. The response rate for the PPE survey was 54% (n = 343/637). Data from all community pharmacies in the county was retrieved via fax (n = 41/94, 43.6%) or observation (n = 53/94, 56.4%). Women were included in this analysis if they indicated a regular pharmacy (one they go to most often) in the county of interest (n = 210). More than 50% of women (n = 125/210) visited a pharmacy more than once per month. Sixty percent of women were currently using something to prevent pregnancy (n = 124/210, 60.8%). Thirty-five percent of women had a positive experience (n = 73/210, 34.8%). In the multiple logistic regression, women who visited a chain pharmacy had almost 65% lower odds of an overall positive experience with their regular pharmacy compared with women who visited a grocery or mass merchandise pharmacy (odds ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.16], P = 0.75). Young women visit community pharmacies and use contraceptives frequently. Interventions need to be developed and implemented to improve young women's perceptions and experiences with

  12. Using neutral theory to reveal the contribution of meta-community processes to assembly in complex landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gravel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The metacommunity perspective appears as an appropriate conceptual framework to make ecology more predictive. It is particularly relevant to limnology, where exchanges of organisms and nutrients affect community and ecosystem properties from the local to the regional scales. The recent development of neutral theory appears as a step back in that direction because of the assumption of ecological equivalence and the absence of any effect of the environment on community organization. A remarkable strength of neutral theory is nonetheless to provide a general theory of diversity that accounts for a wide range of empirical observations. In this paper, we argue that neutral theory can be useful to understand the impact of dispersal on community assembly in landscapes of various complexities. Our analysis focus on spatially explicit landscapes conceptualized as networks of local communities (e.g., lakes connected to each other by dispersal channels (e.g., rivers. The main objective of the paper is to use neutral theory to stress the importance of landscape structure on the distribution of diversity. We refer to the landscape organization as a spatial contingency that could potentially affect the coexistence mechanisms at play. We briefly review the main approaches to describe spatial networks and describe three simple toy models of metacommunity dynamics. We take this opportunity to review their assumptions and main predictions. We then conduct simulations of these models to reveal with simple examples the impact of spatial network structure on diversity distribution. The simulation results show that competitive interactions buffer the potential impact of landscape structure. The strongest relationship between node position in the landscape and species richness was observed for the patch dynamics model without any interactions. On the other hand, strong and unequal competitive interactions minimized the effect of node position. We conclude that the

  13. The experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice: a collaborative reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighide M. Lynch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010 a community of practice was set up for and by doctoral students engaged in person-centred and practitioner research. After three years, this community became part of a larger international community of practice. Aims and objectives: Captured under the stanzas of a poem and supported by the literature, this paper uses member narratives and creative expressions in a critical reflection on the experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice. Conclusions: Membership in the community of practice was experienced as beneficial, providing both support and challenge to enrich the doctoral students’ development as person-centred researchers. Retaining connectivity across an international landscape and finding effective ways to integrate new members into the community presented the greatest challenges. Implications for practice development: • The theoretical foundation and experiential knowledge could assist others considering support structures for the development of person-centred practices • Shared learning and co-creation of knowledge add value to the experience of being a doctoral researcher • Membership fluctuations present challenges to continuity of learning and the maintenance of a safe space with communities of practice. Such fluctuations, however, create chances for community members to experience diverse roles within the group and encourage explicit attention to person-centredness

  14. Community Involvement of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Experiences and Perspectives on Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A

    2017-09-01

    Inclusion in the community is essential to enhancing a person's quality of life. Although people with intellectual disabilities have a desire to be more involved in activities, they experience barriers that limit their inclusion. The purpose of this study was to describe the community involvement of young adults with intellectual disability. I interviewed fourteen young adults with intellectual disability to explore their involvement in work, recreation and leisure activities. Four themes emerged from the data: vocational endeavours, leisure pursuits, social inclusion and supports. The contexts of their experiences either facilitated or hindered their community involvement. The community involvement of young adults with intellectual disability varies depending on the opportunities and supports available to them. Their inclusion in the community may be enhanced by additional transportation options, continuing education in vocational and social skills, personalized guidance from group members and environments that are welcoming to people with disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Exploring competing experiences and expectations of the revitalized community health worker programme in Mozambique: an equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give, Celso Soares; Sidat, Mohsin; Ormel, Hermen; Ndima, Sozinho; McCollum, Rosalind; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Mozambique launched its revitalized community health programme in 2010 in response to inequitable coverage and quality of health services. The programme is focused on health promotion and disease prevention, with 20 % of community health workers' (known in Mozambique as Agentes Polivalentes Elementares (APEs)) time spent on curative services and 80 % on activities promoting health and preventing illness. We set out to conduct a health system and equity analysis, exploring experiences and expectations of APEs, community members and healthcare workers supervising APEs. This exploratory qualitative study captured the perspectives of a range of participants including women caring for children under 5 years (service clients), community leaders, service providers (APEs) and their supervisors. Participants in the Moamba and Manhiça districts, located in Maputo Province (Mozambique), were selected purposively. In total, 29 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted in the local language and/or Portuguese. A framework approach was used for analysis, assisted by NVivo10 software. Our analysis revealed that health equity is viewed as linked to the quality and coverage of the APE programme. Demand and supply factors interplay to shape health equity. The availability of responsive and appropriate services led to tensions between community expectations for curative services (and APEs' willingness to perform them) and official policy focusing APE efforts mainly on preventive services and health promotion. The demand for more curative services by community members is a result of having limited access to healthcare services other than those offered by APEs. This study highlights the need to pay attention to the determinants of demand and supply of community interventions in health, to understand the opportunities and challenges of the difficult interface role played by APEs and to create communication among stakeholders in order to build a stronger, more

  16. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions.

  17. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    better understanding wind energy potential through resource assessments and new tools for detailed feasibility and project planning, need for comprehensive monitoring and data analysis, and state funding requirements and opportunity costs. The energy policy choices ahead for Alaska will have important implications for Arctic population health, especially for those villages whose relatively small size and remote locations make energy a key component of subsistence lifestyles and community sustainability. Wind generation can contribute to meeting renewable energy goals and is a particularly important resource for rural and remote Alaskan communities currently dependent on diesel fuel for generating electricity and heat.

  18. Bridging Learning Communities Through Experiential Learning with GIST: 2Y College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorey, N.; Phillips, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    This study reviews successes of community engagement through experiential learning with GIST across academic disciplines that leverage topics with technology and community relationships throughout a two-year campus and the community at large. This approach allowed for a diversification of populations reached through college student engagement and community outreach efforts. Technological frameworks and development of best practice resources to support students and faculty were shown to increase the capacity for undergraduate research experiences, K12 short course offerings during the summer, and the formation of a STEM-focused student organization. The RSO has participated in activities that include educational technology development, participating in the growth and development of the area's maker movement community, and geoscience outreach and education. Development of the program thus far and lessons learned have resulted in a proposal for an areal-based informal pathway linking the K12 community to area colleges by integrating geoscience outreach with GIST through the maker movement.

  19. European Community initiatives and experience in scientific and technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, G [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    1990-05-01

    Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs.

  20. European Community initiatives and experience in scientific and technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven, G.

    1990-05-01

    Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs

  1. Fungi Sailing the Arctic Ocean: Speciose Communities in North Atlantic Driftwood as Revealed by High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämä, Teppo; Davey, Marie L; Nordén, Jenni; Halvorsen, Rune; Blaalid, Rakel; Mathiassen, Geir H; Alsos, Inger G; Kauserud, Håvard

    2016-08-01

    High amounts of driftwood sail across the oceans and provide habitat for organisms tolerating the rough and saline environment. Fungi have adapted to the extremely cold and saline conditions which driftwood faces in the high north. For the first time, we applied high-throughput sequencing to fungi residing in driftwood to reveal their taxonomic richness, community composition, and ecology in the North Atlantic. Using pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons obtained from 49 marine logs, we found 807 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97 % sequence similarity cut-off level. The phylum Ascomycota comprised 74 % of the OTUs and 20 % belonged to Basidiomycota. The richness of basidiomycetes decreased with prolonged submersion in the sea, supporting the general view of ascomycetes being more extremotolerant. However, more than one fourth of the fungal OTUs remained unassigned to any fungal class, emphasising the need for better DNA reference data from the marine habitat. Different fungal communities were detected in coniferous and deciduous logs. Our results highlight that driftwood hosts a considerably higher fungal diversity than currently known. The driftwood fungal community is not a terrestrial relic but a speciose assemblage of fungi adapted to the stressful marine environment and different kinds of wooden substrates found in it.

  2. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yu; Xie, Wenfang; Pang, Yue; Li, Tiesong; Li, Qingwei; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  3. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zuo

    Full Text Available The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  4. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Nissen, Silke [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Pffifner, Susan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  5. The Lived Experiences of Asian Americans Who Became Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramones, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of Asian Americans who became chief executive officers (CEOs) of a California Community College District. This study discussed the experiences, the influence of Asian culture, the perception of Asian Americans, and the challenges encountered by Asian American CEOs. To…

  6. Shared Communities and Shared Understandings: The Experiences of Asian Women in a British University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2008-01-01

    This article examines Asian women's experiences of belonging to communities of practice within higher education in Britain. The research explores the ways in which women engage in friendship and support networks, how they negotiate their identities and their experiences of being marginalised and "different". The research argues that…

  7. Oyster Reef Communities in the Chesapeake Bay: A Brief Primer. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experience supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  8. Dangerous Practices: The Practicum Experiences of Non-Indigenous Pre-Service Teachers in Remote Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Glenn; Dyer, Julie; Charles, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the risks of providing preservice teachers with professional experiences in remote communities. In particular this paper focuses on the risks associated with this kind of professional experience. Twelve pre-service teachers were interviewed whilst on a three-week practicum around Katherine and in Maningrida in the…

  9. Experiences of Adult Students in Multi-Generational Community College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Kathleen Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study is a basic interpretative inquiry studying the experiences of fourteen adult students 45 years of age or older in a multi-generational community college classroom. The study is informed by social constructivism, social constructionism and andragogy. It focused on how students viewed their experiences in the…

  10. Community based adaptations to climate change: experiences of the Mijikenda Community in Coastal Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Groh, Maxie Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in Africa are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Macro level climate change policies are having little positive impacts on their livelihoods. However, at the local level, communities are innovating and adapting to climate change. While these innovations are not enough to guarantee extensive adaptation to climate change, they are an important element for the survival of agrarian societies and botanical diversity. It is therefore importan...

  11. Audiologia em comunidade: relato de experiência Audiology in the community: experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Freitas de Barros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar queixas, sintomas e fatores de risco relacionados à perda auditiva em crianças com suspeita de perda auditiva no Distrito Sanitário I do Recife/Brasil. MÉTODOS: relato de experiência de atuação fonoaudiológica em parceria com Agentes Comunitários de Saúde - ACS que foram capacitados sobre saúde auditiva para identificar crianças com queixas de audição. Foram realizadas visitas aos domicílios indicados e ao posto de saúde e entrevistadas 80 mães obtendo-se informações a respeito de 117 crianças de 0 a 7 anos. Para as análises dos dados foram privilegiadas informações sobre: queixas otológicas, audiológicas e fatores de risco para a audição. RESULTADOS: 35 crianças (29% apresentaram uma ou mais queixas otológicas e/ou auditivas. Os dois principais sintomas otológicos referidos foram: otalgia (74,2% e otorréia (34,2%. Os sintomas auditivos mais freqüentes foram: dificuldade de compreender o que os outros falam (25,7% e diminuição da audição (20%. Com relação aos fatores de risco, verificou-se que 57 (48,7% crianças possuíam um ou mais fatores, sendo eles: uso materno de álcool (59,6% durante a gestação, antecedentes hereditários para a surdez (43,8% e uso materno de drogas ilícitas (39,8% durante a gestação. CONCLUSÃO: a otalgia foi o principal sintoma referido e a dificuldade de compreensão foi a queixa mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco mais importantes foram o uso materno de álcool e de drogas ilícitas como maconha e craque durante a gestação.PURPOSE: To characterize complaints, symptoms and risk factors related to hearing loss in children with hearing loss suspicion in the Health I District in Recife/Brazil. METHODS: experience report on the participation of Community Health Agents-CHA, having being trained on hearing health, in order identify children with hearing complaints. Visits were made at the indicated homes and to the health center and 80 mothers were

  12. Simulation of Deepwater Horizon oil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  13. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on a free living marine nematode community: Results from microcosm experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, E.; Essid, N.; Beyrem, H.; Hedfi, A.; Boufahja, F.; Aissa, P. [Laboratoire de Biosurveillance de l' Environnement, Zarzouna (Tunisia). Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte; Vitiello, P. [Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille (France)

    2005-11-15

    Anthropogenic inputs of crude and refined petroleum hydrocarbons into the sea require knowledge of the effects of these contaminants on the receiving assemblages of organisms. A microcosm experiment was carried out to study the influence of diesel on a free living nematode community of a Tunisian lagoon. Sediments were contaminated by diesel that ranged in concentration from 0.5 to 20 mg diesel kg{sup -1} dry weight (dw), and effects were examined after 90 days. Gradual changes in community structure were revealed depending on the quantity of diesel administrated. In the medium (1 mg diesel kg{sup -1} and 5 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw)) and high (10 mg diesel kg{sup -1}, 15 mg diesel kg{sup -1} and 20 mg kg{sup -1} (dw)) treated microcosms, most univariate measures, including diversity and species richness, decreased significantly with increasing level of diesel contamination whereas nematode assemblage from the low treated microcosm (0.5 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw)) remained unaffected. Results from multivariate analyses of the species abundance data demonstrated that responses of nematode species to the diesel treatments were varied: Chaetonema sp. was eliminated at all doses tested and seemed to be intolerant species to diesel contamination; Pomponema sp. and Oncholaimus campylocercoides were significantly affected at all diesel contamination levels but they were not eliminated, these species were categorized as 'diesel-sensitive'; Hypodontolaimus colesi, Daptonema trabeculosum and Daptonema fallax which significantly increased respectively at 0.5, 1 and 5 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw) concentrations and appeared to be 'opportunistic' species at these doses whereas Marylynnia stekhoveni which increased at all high doses (10, 15 and 20 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw)) seemed to be a 'diesel-resistant' species. (author)

  14. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Giaquinto, Carlo; Gothefors, Leif; Huelsse, Christel; Huet, Frédéric; Littmann, Martina; Maxwell, Melanie; Talayero, José M P; Todd, Peter; Vila, Miguel T; Cantarutti, Luigi; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, > or = 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  15. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Illeghems

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni. Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  17. "Nursing Students Assaulted": Considering Student Safety in Community-Focused Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Kurz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Community nursing experiences for undergraduate students have progressed beyond community-based home visits to a wide array of community-focused experiences in neighborhood-based centers, clinics, shelters, and schools. Our Bachelor of Science in Nursing program chose to use sites situated within neighborhoods close to campus in order to promote student and faculty engagement in the local community. These neighborhood sites provide opportunities for students to deliver nursing services to underserved and vulnerable populations experiencing poverty and health disparities. Some of these neighborhoods are designated as high crime areas that may potentially increase the risk of harm to students and faculty. There is a need to acknowledge the risk to personal safety and to proactively create policies and guidelines to reduce potential harm to students engaged in community-focused experiences. When a group of baccalaureate nursing students was assaulted while walking to a neighborhood clinic, the faculty was challenged as how to respond given the lack of policies and guidelines. Through our experience, we share strategies to promote personal safety for students and recommend transparency by administrators regarding potential safety risks to students engaged in community-focused fieldwork activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community Nurses' Experiences Regarding the Meaning and Promotion of Healthy Aging in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Choowattanapakorn, Tassana; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-03-01

    Describe community nurses' experiences regarding the meaning and promotion of healthy aging in northeastern Thailand. Data were collected through five focus group interviews with 36 community nurses in northeastern Thailand. Latent content analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Healthy aging was characterized by the interconnection of older persons, older persons' family members, and the community. Healthy aging was associated with two themes: "being strong" and "being a supporter and feeling supported." The nurses' experiences in promoting healthy aging were described by the themes "providing health assessment," "sharing knowledge," and "having limited resources." The findings of this study provide a deeper understanding of the meaning of healthy aging from a holistic viewpoint. Community nurses must pay attention to older persons and their surroundings when planning how to promote healthy aging. Person-centeredness should be applied in practice to promote healthy aging. The current findings contribute useful information that should help policy makers develop healthy aging strategies in Thailand.

  19. Ocean acidification of a coastal Antarctic marine microbial community reveals a critical threshold for CO2 tolerance in phytoplankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppeler, Stacy; Petrou, Katherina; Schulz, Kai G.; Westwood, Karen; Pearce, Imojen; McKinlay, John; Davidson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    High-latitude oceans are anticipated to be some of the first regions affected by ocean acidification. Despite this, the effect of ocean acidification on natural communities of Antarctic marine microbes is still not well understood. In this study we exposed an early spring, coastal marine microbial community in Prydz Bay to CO2 levels ranging from ambient (343 µatm) to 1641 µatm in six 650 L minicosms. Productivity assays were performed to identify whether a CO2 threshold existed that led to a change in primary productivity, bacterial productivity, and the accumulation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in the minicosms. In addition, photophysiological measurements were performed to identify possible mechanisms driving changes in the phytoplankton community. A critical threshold for tolerance to ocean acidification was identified in the phytoplankton community between 953 and 1140 µatm. CO2 levels ≥ 1140 µatm negatively affected photosynthetic performance and Chl a-normalised primary productivity (csGPP14C), causing significant reductions in gross primary production (GPP14C), Chl a accumulation, nutrient uptake, and POM production. However, there was no effect of CO2 on C : N ratios. Over time, the phytoplankton community acclimated to high CO2 conditions, showing a down-regulation of carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and likely adjusting other intracellular processes. Bacterial abundance initially increased in CO2 treatments ≥ 953 µatm (days 3-5), yet gross bacterial production (GBP14C) remained unchanged and cell-specific bacterial productivity (csBP14C) was reduced. Towards the end of the experiment, GBP14C and csBP14C markedly increased across all treatments regardless of CO2 availability. This coincided with increased organic matter availability (POC and PON) combined with improved efficiency of carbon uptake. Changes in phytoplankton community production could have negative effects on the Antarctic food web and the

  20. Ocean acidification of a coastal Antarctic marine microbial community reveals a critical threshold for CO2 tolerance in phytoplankton productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deppeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude oceans are anticipated to be some of the first regions affected by ocean acidification. Despite this, the effect of ocean acidification on natural communities of Antarctic marine microbes is still not well understood. In this study we exposed an early spring, coastal marine microbial community in Prydz Bay to CO2 levels ranging from ambient (343 µatm to 1641 µatm in six 650 L minicosms. Productivity assays were performed to identify whether a CO2 threshold existed that led to a change in primary productivity, bacterial productivity, and the accumulation of chlorophyll a (Chl a and particulate organic matter (POM in the minicosms. In addition, photophysiological measurements were performed to identify possible mechanisms driving changes in the phytoplankton community. A critical threshold for tolerance to ocean acidification was identified in the phytoplankton community between 953 and 1140 µatm. CO2 levels  ≥ 1140 µatm negatively affected photosynthetic performance and Chl a-normalised primary productivity (csGPP14C, causing significant reductions in gross primary production (GPP14C, Chl a accumulation, nutrient uptake, and POM production. However, there was no effect of CO2 on C : N ratios. Over time, the phytoplankton community acclimated to high CO2 conditions, showing a down-regulation of carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs and likely adjusting other intracellular processes. Bacterial abundance initially increased in CO2 treatments  ≥ 953 µatm (days 3–5, yet gross bacterial production (GBP14C remained unchanged and cell-specific bacterial productivity (csBP14C was reduced. Towards the end of the experiment, GBP14C and csBP14C markedly increased across all treatments regardless of CO2 availability. This coincided with increased organic matter availability (POC and PON combined with improved efficiency of carbon uptake. Changes in phytoplankton community production could have negative

  1. A conceptualisation of the relationship between virtual experience and cybernauts' satisfaction with virtual communities

    OpenAIRE

    Bouattour , Dorra; Debos , Franck; Abdellatif , Tarek

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this research, we developed and tested an integrated model relating individuals' satisfaction with their experiential values in virtual communities. Using a realised factorial analysis and regression, we identified the factors that influence member satisfaction in virtual communities. Adopting Mathwick et al.'s (2001) concept of experiential value, we proposed a conceptualisation of a virtual experience that fits closely with the original nomological framework advoc...

  2. Developing Structured-Learning Exercises for a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee Ahrens

    2006-01-01

    The recent growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the nation has resulted in the need for high-quality community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. A vital part of a student's education, these APPEs should be structured and formalized to provide an environment conducive to student learning. This paper discusses how to use a calendar, structured-learning activities, and scheduled evaluations to develop students' knowledge, skills, and abilities in a community pharmacy...

  3. Developing structured-learning exercises for a community advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee Ahrens

    2006-02-15

    The recent growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the nation has resulted in the need for high-quality community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. A vital part of a student's education, these APPEs should be structured and formalized to provide an environment conducive to student learning. This paper discusses how to use a calendar, structured-learning activities, and scheduled evaluations to develop students' knowledge, skills, and abilities in a community pharmacy setting.

  4. What a Decade of Experiments Reveals about Factors that Influence the Sense of Presence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youngblut, Christine

    2006-01-01

    ...? Will behavior learned in a virtual-world transfer to a corresponding real scenario? This document reviews what experimental results reveal about technical factors and task characteristics that may influence the sense of presence...

  5. Metagenome Sequence Analysis of Filamentous Microbial Communities Obtained from Geochemically Distinct Geothermal Channels Reveals Specialization of Three Aquificales Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eTakacs-vesbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal ‘filamentous streamer’ communities (~40 Mbp per site, which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae populations, whereas the circumneutral pH (6.5 - 7.8 sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae. Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae populations were found primarily in the circumneutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl. The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl CoA synthetase (Ccs and citryl CoA lyase (Ccl. All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2 have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales.

  6. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Mattila

    Full Text Available Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline.

  7. Exploring body-anchored and experience-based learning in a community of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    which, in a second step, is presented as part of the social realm and as one of the prerequisites of learning in a community of practice. This integration is established and becomes visible through the following two concepts: 1. Reification as the outflow of co-ordinated action, and 2. narratives......The article aims to integrate body-anchored and experience-based learning in the theoretical concept of learning in a community of practice. Present moment, epoché, intentional orientation and meaning making are introduced as the four basic premises for body-anchored and experience-based learning...

  8. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  9. Community experience of a Pacific Immersion Programme for medical students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauiliu, Melbourne; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Ekeroma, Alec

    2013-06-14

    To obtain the views of the Pacific community about their involvement in a Pacific Immersion Programme, to determine the programme's viability as a resource for medical education. The Pacific Immersion Programme run by the Dunedin School of Medicine had four attachments (March, April, June and September) with local Pacific communities in 2011. Community focus groups were held the week immediately after each attachment. There were two focus group sessions for each attachment, one obtained the views of adults and the other of young people. Focus groups consisted of eight participants recruited through community coordinators and were facilitated by trained research assistants. Sessions were audio recorded and analysed using a thematic framework. Sixty-four members of the community participated in the focus groups. Eight themes emerged from the discussions. The community agreed the Pacific Immersion Programme strengthened community cohesion through efforts to engage the students. There was shared learning and created opportunities for engagement between medical students and the community's younger generation. The Pacific families shared with the students about their health and context through storytelling, dancing and singing and cultural ceremonies. Participants hoped students achieved what they wanted from the programme and the experience was useful for their work in the future. Community based medical education is a unique and useful approach for teaching medical students about the health of a minority community. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the impacts on participating communities. Nurturing established relationships and providing mutual benefits for both partners will ensure this opportunity will be available as a learning resource for future medical students.

  10. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  11. COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM AND LOCAL EXPERIENCES. CASE STUDY OF THE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY MARAVILLA, TENEJAPA, CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Sánchez Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the experiences of the residents of Ejido Las Nubes, municipality of Maravilla Tenejapa in an ecotourism project called Green Causes. The results show the no easy effort they make from years ago, with little relevance to the financial aspect, but strength in decision-making, from the organizational innovations in agency capacity for the permanence of the project and conservation of natural resources. Decisions on the project involve a position not only instrumental, but normative, with participatory and consensus. Nothing strange is that this process has generated social learning among This research was conducted from a qualitative and quantitative approach.

  12. Seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in Ofunato Bay as revealed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Jonaira

    2018-04-30

    Small photosynthetic eukaryotes play important roles in oceanic food webs in coastal regions. We investigated seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of the class Mamiellophyceae, including the genera Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus, in Ofunato Bay, which is located in northeastern Japan and faces the Pacific Ocean. The abundances of PPEs were assessed over a period of one year in 2015 at three sampling stations, KSt. 1 (innermost bay area), KSt. 2 (middle bay area) and KSt. 3 (bay entrance area) at depths of 1 m (KSt. 1, KSt. 2 and KSt. 3), 8 m (KSt. 1) or 10 m (KSt. 2 and KSt. 3) by employing MiSeq shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The total abundances of Bathycoccus, Ostreococcus and Micromonas were in the ranges of 42–49%, 35–49% and 13–17%, respectively. Considering all assayed sampling stations and depths, seasonal changes revealed high abundances of PPEs during the winter and summer and low abundances during late winter to early spring and late summer to early autumn. Bathycoccus was most abundant in the winter, and Ostreococcus showed a high abundance during the summer. Another genus, Micromonas, was relatively low in abundance throughout the study period. Taken together with previously suggested blooming periods of phytoplankton, as revealed by chlorophyll a concentrations in Ofunato Bay during spring and late autumn, these results for PPEs suggest that greater phytoplankton blooming has a negative influence on the seasonal occurrences of PPEs in the bay.

  13. Seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in Ofunato Bay as revealed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Jonaira; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Reza, Md. Shaheed; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuri; Ikeda, Daisuke; Mizusawa, Nanami; Ikeo, Kazuho; Sato, Shigeru; Ogata, Takehiko; Kudo, Toshiaki; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Shiho; Naiki, Kimiaki; Kaga, Yoshimasa; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi; Watabe, Shugo

    2018-01-01

    Small photosynthetic eukaryotes play important roles in oceanic food webs in coastal regions. We investigated seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of the class Mamiellophyceae, including the genera Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus, in Ofunato Bay, which is located in northeastern Japan and faces the Pacific Ocean. The abundances of PPEs were assessed over a period of one year in 2015 at three sampling stations, KSt. 1 (innermost bay area), KSt. 2 (middle bay area) and KSt. 3 (bay entrance area) at depths of 1 m (KSt. 1, KSt. 2 and KSt. 3), 8 m (KSt. 1) or 10 m (KSt. 2 and KSt. 3) by employing MiSeq shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The total abundances of Bathycoccus, Ostreococcus and Micromonas were in the ranges of 42–49%, 35–49% and 13–17%, respectively. Considering all assayed sampling stations and depths, seasonal changes revealed high abundances of PPEs during the winter and summer and low abundances during late winter to early spring and late summer to early autumn. Bathycoccus was most abundant in the winter, and Ostreococcus showed a high abundance during the summer. Another genus, Micromonas, was relatively low in abundance throughout the study period. Taken together with previously suggested blooming periods of phytoplankton, as revealed by chlorophyll a concentrations in Ofunato Bay during spring and late autumn, these results for PPEs suggest that greater phytoplankton blooming has a negative influence on the seasonal occurrences of PPEs in the bay.

  14. What a Decade of Experiments Reveals about Factors that Influence the Sense of Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    included tex- tures, radiosity , and sound, whereas the second used flat, shaded polygons and no sound. One experiment (Nuñez and Blake, 2003a) had a...significantly higher presence scores given for the condition with textures, radiosity , and spatialized sound. In the first experiment, however, only the Witmer...HMD mono head-tracked, HMD mono mouse, desktop monitor). Computing platform: VE created using 3-D Studio MAX modeling suite and Lightscape radiosity

  15. Choice experiments versus revealed choice models : a before-after study of consumer spatial shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare a set of multinomial logit models derived from revealed choice data and a decompositional choice model derived from experimental data in terms of predictive success in the context of consumer spatial shopping behavior. Data on consumer shopping choice

  16. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Hussmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics.

  17. Imaginative Experience: A Narrative-Dialogic Ethnography of the Community Who Adores Its Idol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Managing customer loyalty becomes an important activity in marketing management. One of the reasons is that loyal consumers tend to make good financial performances to producer. Unfortunately, gaining a loyal customer is not a trivial activity since there are gaps to understand consumer experience comprehensively. To fulfill the gaps, this article explores imaginative experience of the community who adores its idol in the light of cultural perspective. The members of the community who adores its idol experience the imaginative experience. The author argues that those phenomena are cultural perspective, because they are meaningful to the members. Through narrative-dialogic ethnography, the author builds the concept of imaginative experience that through the imaginative media, the members do narrative-dialogic between “the realm of areal” and “the realm of afotik” then activate the imaginative relations in “the realm of aktinik”. Every member constructs its imaginative relations into imaginative constructions formed in a personal story. Managing imaginative experience could benefit the company. It can be the “Imaginative Experience Management” (IEM that accommodates imaginative consumers’ experiences with the company’s products deeply and sustainably through managing the story of its consumers’ imaginative experiences. It can also be linked to the customer loyalty programs. In this matter, IEM should be integrated with brand management.

  18. Legacy, legitimacy, and possibility: an exploration of community health worker experience across the generations in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Alison

    2013-06-01

    In South Africa, the response to HIV and TB epidemics is complex, varied, and contextually defined. "Task-shifting" and a movement toward a decentralized model of care have led to an increased reliance on community health workers (CHWs) providing health care services to residents of impoverished, peri-urban areas. Public health policy tends to present CHWs as a homogeneous group, with little attention paid to the nuances of experience, motivation, and understanding, which distinguish these care workers from one another and from other kinds of health workers. An exploration of the layered meanings of providing community health care services under financially, politically, and socially difficult conditions reveals clear distinctions of experience across the generations. Many older CHWs say that ubuntu, a notion of shared African humanity, is being "killed off" by the younger generation, whereas younger CHWs often describe older women as being "jealous" of the opportunities that this younger generation has for education, training, and employment. The structure of the South African health system, past and present responses to disease epidemics, and the legacy of apartheid's structural violence have amplified these generational differences among CHWs. Using ethnographic data collected from approximately 20 CHWS in a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa, I explore how CHWs experience and understand legitimacy in the moral economy of care. A call for closer attention to the experiences of CHWs is critical when designing public health policies for the delivery of health care services in impoverished communities in South Africa. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. Chinese characters reveal impacts of prior experience on very early stages of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stollhoff Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual perception is strongly determined by accumulated experience with the world, which has been shown for shape, color, and position perception, in the field of visuomotor learning, and in neural computation. In addition, visual perception is tuned to statistics of natural scenes. Such prior experience is modulated by neuronal top-down control the temporal properties of which had been subject to recent studies. Here, we deal with these temporal properties and address the question how early in time accumulated past experience can modulate visual perception. Results We performed stimulus discrimination experiments and compared a group of Chinese participants with a German control group. The perception of our briefly presented visual objects (targets was disturbed by masking stimuli which appeared in close spatiotemporal proximity. These masking stimuli were either intact or scrambled Chinese characters and did not overlap with the targets. In contrast to German controls, Chinese participants show substantial performance differences for real versus scrambled Chinese characters if these masking stimuli were presented as early as less than 100 milliseconds after the onset of the target. For Chinese observers, it even occured that meaningful masking stimuli enhanced target identification if they were shown at least 100 milliseconds after target onset while the same stimuli impaired recognition if presented in close temporal proximity to the target. The latter finding challenges interpretations of our data that solely rely on stimulus contours or geometric properties and emphasizes the impact of prior experience on the very early temporal dynamics of the visual system. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that prior experience which had been accummulated long before the experiments can modulate the time course of perception intriguingly early, namely already immediately after the perceptual onset of a visual event. This modulation

  20. Community-monitoring program surrounding the Nevada Test Site: one year of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, G.S.

    1983-05-01

    Since 1954, the US Public Health Service and later the US Environmental Protection Agency Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, have been responsible for conducting a program of environmental radiation monitoring and public radiation safety associated with nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States. A recent major innovation in this long-term program has been the establishment of a network of Community Monitoring Stations in 15 offsite communities. The new network supplements existing networks operated for nearly three decades in these and other offsite communities. It differs from other networks in the continuing offsite radiation monitoring and public safety program in that it incorporates Federal, State, and local Government participation. This report reviews the history of offsite radiation surveillance leading to institution of the new network and describes the first year of experience with its equipment, methodology, and management as well as its impact on citizens of the communities involved

  1. The formation of community-based organizations : an analysis of a quasi-experiment in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous analyses of the formation and composition of community-based organizations (CBOs) have used cross section data. So, causal inference has been compromised. We obviate this problem by using data from a quasi-experiment in which villages were formed by government officials selecting and

  2. Temporal dynamics of soil nematode communities in a grassland plant diversity experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viketoft, M.; Sohlenius, B.; Bostrom, S.; Palmborg, C.; Bengtsson, J.; Berg, M.P.; Kuss-Danell, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report here on an 8-year study examining links between plant and nematode communities in a grassland plant diversity experiment, located in the north of Sweden on previous agricultural soil. The examined plots contained 1, 4 and 12 common grassland plant species from three functional groups;

  3. Emergence of a Learning Community: A Transforming Experience at the Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Federica

    2013-01-01

    I narrate a process of transformation, a professional and personal journey framed by an experience that captured my attention shaping my interpretation and reflections. From a critical complexity framework I discuss the emergence of a learning community from the cooperation among individuals of diverse social and cultural worlds sharing the need…

  4. African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M

    2016-09-01

    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women ( n = 33) and men ( n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women ( n = 28) and men ( n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

  5. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  6. Adults with Learning Disabilities Experiences of Using Community Dental Services: Service User and Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn; Poole, Helen; Brennan, Michelle; Irvine, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Background: The government alongside other health and social care organisation have identified the need to improve the care provided for people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: This service evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities and their carers who accessed community dental services…

  7. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  8. A community intervention for behaviour modification: an experience to control cardiovascular diseases in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetra Dewi, Fatwa Sari; Stenlund, Hans; Marlinawati, V Utari; Öhman, Ann; Weinehall, Lars

    2013-11-04

    Non-communicable Disease (NCD) is increasingly burdening developing countries including Indonesia. However only a few intervention studies on NCD control in developing countries are reported. This study aims to report experiences from the development of a community-based pilot intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as initial part of a future extended PRORIVA program (Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Yogyakarta, Indonesia) in an urban area within Jogjakarta, Indonesia. The study is quasi-experimental and based on a mixed design involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Four communities were selected as intervention areas and one community was selected as a referent area. A community-empowerment approach was utilized to motivate community to develop health promotion activities. Data on knowledge and attitudes with regard to CVD risk factors, smoking, physical inactivity, and fruit and vegetable were collected using the WHO STEPwise questionnaire. 980 people in the intervention areas and 151 people in the referent area participated in the pre-test. In the post-test 883 respondents were re-measured from the intervention areas and 144 respondents from the referent area. The qualitative data were collected using written meeting records (80), facilitator reports (5), free-listing (112) and in-depth interviews (4). Those data were analysed to contribute a deeper understanding of how the population perceived the intervention. Frequency and participation rates of activities were higher in the low socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in the high SES communities (40 and 13 activities respectively). The proportion of having high knowledge increased significantly from 56% to 70% among men in the intervention communities. The qualitative study shows that respondents thought PRORIVA improved their awareness of CVD and encouraged them to experiment healthier behaviours. PRORIVA was perceived as a useful program and was

  9. Pattern Analyses Reveal Separate Experience-Based Fear Memories in the Human Right Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Demanet, Jelle; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Kalisch, Raffael; Brass, Marcel

    2017-08-23

    Learning fear via the experience of contingencies between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is often assumed to be fundamentally different from learning fear via instructions. An open question is whether fear-related brain areas respond differently to experienced CS-US contingencies than to merely instructed CS-US contingencies. Here, we contrasted two experimental conditions where subjects were instructed to expect the same CS-US contingencies while only one condition was characterized by prior experience with the CS-US contingency. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data, we found CS-related neural activation patterns in the right amygdala (but not in other fear-related regions) that dissociated between whether a CS-US contingency had been instructed and experienced versus merely instructed. A second experiment further corroborated this finding by showing a category-independent neural response to instructed and experienced, but not merely instructed, CS presentations in the human right amygdala. Together, these findings are in line with previous studies showing that verbal fear instructions have a strong impact on both brain and behavior. However, even in the face of fear instructions, the human right amygdala still shows a separable neural pattern response to experience-based fear contingencies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In our study, we addressed a fundamental problem of the science of human fear learning and memory, namely whether fear learning via experience in humans relies on a neural pathway that can be separated from fear learning via verbal information. Using two new procedures and recent advances in the analysis of brain imaging data, we localized purely experience-based fear processing and memory in the right amygdala, thereby making a direct link between human and animal research. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378116-15$15.00/0.

  10. Bacterial Communities in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis: High Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal Relationships of Microbiota to Clinical Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Hoffman, Noah G.; Morgan, Martin T.; Matsen, Frederick A.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Hall, Robert W.; Ross, Frederick J.; McCoy, Connor O.; Bumgarner, Roger; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Fredricks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV. Methodology/Principal Findings Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and pyrosequencing were performed on vaginal swabs from 220 women with and without BV. BV was assessed by Amsel’s clinical criteria and confirmed by Gram stain. Taxonomic classification was performed using phylogenetic placement tools that assigned 99% of query sequence reads to the species level. Women with BV had heterogeneous vaginal bacterial communities that were usually not dominated by a single taxon. In the absence of BV, vaginal bacterial communities were dominated by either Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners. Leptotrichia amnionii and Eggerthella sp. were the only two BV-associated bacteria (BVABs) significantly associated with each of the four Amsel’s criteria. Co-occurrence analysis revealed the presence of several sub-groups of BVABs suggesting metabolic co-dependencies. Greater abundance of several BVABs was observed in Black women without BV. Conclusions/Significance The human vaginal bacterial biota is heterogeneous and marked by greater species richness and diversity in women with BV; no species is universally present. Different bacterial species have different associations with the four clinical criteria, which may account for discrepancies often observed between Amsel and Nugent (Gram stain) diagnostic criteria. Several BVABs exhibited race-dependent prevalence when analyzed in separate groups by BV status which may contribute to increased incidence of BV in

  11. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Quattrini

    Full Text Available The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa, demersal fish (69 taxa, and decapod crustacean (34 taxa assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While

  12. Linking social and spatial networks to viral community phylogenetics reveals subtype-specific transmission dynamics in African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Packer, Craig; Troyer, Jennifer L; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Robinson, Stacie; Jacquot, Maude; Craft, Meggan E

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. Here, we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype-specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV Ple ) in African lions (Panthera leo) at multiple scales in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We used FIV Ple molecular data to examine the role of social organization and lion density in shaping transmission pathways and tested to what extent vertical (i.e., father- and/or mother-offspring relationships) or horizontal (between unrelated individuals) transmission underpinned these patterns for each subtype. Using the same data, we constructed subtype-specific FIV Ple co-occurrence networks and assessed what combination of social networks, spatial networks or co-infection best structured the FIV Ple network. While social organization (i.e., pride) was an important component of FIV Ple transmission pathways at all scales, we find that FIV Ple subtypes exhibited different transmission pathways at within- and between-pride scales. A combination of social and spatial networks, coupled with consideration of subtype co-infection, was likely to be important for FIV Ple transmission for the two major subtypes, but the relative contribution of each factor was strongly subtype-specific. Our study provides evidence that pathogen heterogeneity is important in understanding pathogen transmission, which could have consequences for how endemic pathogens are managed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that community phylogenetic ecology coupled with phylodynamic techniques can reveal insights into the differential evolutionary pressures acting

  13. Hope and despair: community health assistants' experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-05-25

    In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs' experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs' ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs' ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA's self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs' ability to deliver services. Programmes aimed at integrating

  14. The Fernald Preserve Visitors Center The Fernald Experience-Revealing, Engaging, and Preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Griffiths, G.; Walpole, S.; Lutz, M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management's public involvement activities at the Fernald, Ohio, site include continued communication about groundwater remediation, the management of legacy waste, and the future of the Fernald site. The completion of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, in August 2008, ensures that information continues to be readily available and effectively communicated to the public. A primary goal of the Visitors Center is to function as an informational and educational center within the surrounding community, with the information available at the Visitors Center serving as an institutional control. By offering information on a variety of topics, from the site's history to its current condition, the Visitors Center increases public awareness and helps prevent unsafe disturbances to and uses of the site. The Office of Legacy Management maintains and operates the Visitors Center, continues to solicit stakeholder opinion, and will periodically reevaluate the use of the Visitors Center and its programming. (authors)

  15. Newly qualified nurses — Experiences of interaction with members of a community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Lars; Hounsgaard, Lise; Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2012-01-01

    of their career. Studies indicate that interaction between NQNs and their colleagues has an important influence of the way in which the NQNs experience their participation in the community of practice. Methodology: Nine NQNs participated in the study. The data collection took place six months after graduating...... for Clinical Practice: NQNs' participation in a COP is influenced by the extent to which they are included in both professional and social interactions and afforded the opportunity to contribute with knowledge and experience from their nursing studies. Furthermore, the study indicates that NQNs' experience...

  16. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  17. Community-based medical education: is success a result of meaningful personal learning experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Len; Walters, Lucie; Rosenthal, David

    2014-01-01

    Community-based medical education (CBME) is the delivery of medical education in a specific social context. Learners become a part of social and medical communities where their learning occurs. Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) are year-long community-based placements where the curriculum and clinical experience is typically delivered by primary care physicians. These programs have proven to be robust learning environments, where learners develop strong communication skills and excellent clinical reasoning. To date, no learning model has been offered to describe CBME. The characteristics of CBME are explored by the authors who suggest that the social and professional context provided in small communities enhances medical education. The authors postulate that meaningfulness is engendered by the authentic context, which develops over time. These relationships with preceptors, patients and the community provide meaningfulness, which in turn enhances learning. The authors develop a novel learning model. They propose that the context-rich environment of CBME allows for meaningful relationships and experiences for students and that such meaningfulness enhances learning.

  18. Effect of a Community-Based Service Learning Experience in Geriatrics on Internal Medicine Residents and Community Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel K; Michener, Jennifer; Yang, Phyllis; Goldstein, Karen; Groce-Martin, Jennine; True, Gala; Johnson, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Community-based service learning (CBSL) provides an opportunity to teach internal medicine residents the social context of aging and clinical concepts. The objectives of the current study were to demonstrate the feasibility of a CBSL program targeting internal medicine residents and to assess its effect on medical residents and community participants. internal medicine residents participated in a CBSL experience for half a day during ambulatory blocks from 2011 to 2014. Residents attended a senior housing unit or center, delivered a presentation about a geriatric health topic, toured the facility, and received information about local older adult resources. Residents evaluated the experience. Postgraduate Year 3 internal medicine residents (n = 71) delivered 64 sessions. Residents felt that the experience increased their ability to communicate effectively with older adults (mean 3.91 ± 0.73 on a Likert scale with 5 = strongly agree), increased their knowledge of resources (4.09 ± 1.01), expanded their knowledge of a health topic pertinent to aging (3.48 ± 1.09), and contributed to their capacity to evaluate and care for older adults (3.84 ± 0.67). Free-text responses demonstrated that residents thought that this program would change their practice. Of 815 older adults surveyed from 36 discrete teaching sessions, 461 (56%) thought that the medical residents delivered health information clearly (4.55 ± 0.88) and that the health topics were relevant (4.26 ± 0.92). Free-text responses showed that the program helped them understand their health concerns. This CBSL program is a feasible and effective tool for teaching internal medicine residents and older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Pharmacist home visits: A 1-year experience from a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Scott V; Passafiume, Sarah N; Kufel, Wesley D; Comerford, Patrick; Trzewieczynski, Dean P; Andrus, Kenneth; Brody, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    To provide experience on the methods and costs for delivering a large-scale community pharmacist home visit service. Independent urban community pharmacy, Buffalo, NY. Mobile Pharmacy Solutions provides traditional community pharmacy walk-in service and a suite of clinically oriented services, including outbound adherence calls linked to home delivery, payment planning, medication refill synchronization, adherence packaging, and pharmacist home visits. Pharmacist daily staffing included three dispensing pharmacists, one residency-trained pharmacist, and two postgraduate year 1 community pharmacy residents. A large-scale community pharmacy home visit service delivered over a 1-year period. Pharmacist time and cost to administer the home visit service as well as home visit request sources and description of patient demographics. A total of 172 visits were conducted (137 initial, 35 follow-up). Patients who received a home visit averaged 9.8 ± 5.2 medications and 3.0 ± 1.6 chronic disease states. On average, a home visit required 2.0 ± 0.8 hours, which included travel time. The percentages of visits completed by pharmacists and residents were 60% and 40%, respectively. The amounts of time to complete a visit were similar. Average home visit cost including pharmacist time and travel was $119 ($147 for a pharmacist, $77 for a resident). In this community pharmacy-based home visit service, costs are an important factor, with each pharmacist visit requiring 2 hours to complete. This experience provides a blueprint and real-world perspective for community pharmacies endeavoring to implement a home visit service and sets a foundation for future prospective trials to evaluate the impact of the service on important indicators of health and cost. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  1. An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing

  2. Writing Experiences of Community College Students with Self-Reported Writing Anxieties and Linguistic Insecurity: A Perspective for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    This explanatory case study researched the writing experiences of 11 community college students who differed subculturally and who were all part of the African diasporic community. The theoretical perspectives used for this study were Arthur Chickering's (1969) classical concept of academic competence and community dialect theory (Baxter &…

  3. Tropical-extratropical climate interaction as revealed in idealized coupled climate model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun [Peking University, Department of Atmospheric Science and Laboratory for Severe Storm and Flood Disasters, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Zhengyu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Climatic Research and Department of the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Tropical-extratropical climate interactions are studied by idealized experiments with a prescribed 2 C SST anomaly at different latitude bands in a coupled climate model. Instead of focusing on intrinsic climate variability, this work investigates the mean climate adjustment to remote external forcing. The extratropical impact on tropical climate can be as strong as the tropical impact on extratropical climate, with the remote sea surface temperature (SST) response being about half the magnitude of the imposed SST change in the forcing region. The equatorward impact of extratropical climate is accomplished by both the atmospheric bridge and the oceanic tunnel. About two-thirds of the tropical SST change comes from the atmospheric bridge, while the remaining one-third comes from the oceanic tunnel. The equatorial SST increase is first driven by the reduced latent heat flux and the weakened poleward surface Ekman transport, and then enhanced by the decrease in subtropical cells' strength and the equatorward subduction of warm anomalies. In contrast, the poleward impact of tropical climate is accomplished mainly by the atmospheric bridge, which is responsible for extratropical temperature changes in both the surface and subsurface. Sensitivity experiments also show the dominant role of the Southern Hemisphere oceans in the tropical climate change. (orig.)

  4. Stable Composition of the Nano- and Picoplankton Community during the Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiment LOHAFEX

    KAUST Repository

    Thiele, Stefan

    2014-11-17

    The iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX was conducted in a cold-core eddy in the Southern Atlantic Ocean during austral summer. Within a few days after fertilization, a phytoplankton bloom developed dominated by nano- and picoplankton groups. Unlike previously reported for other iron fertilization experiments, a diatom bloom was prevented by iron and silicate co-limitation. We used 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing to investigate the diversity of these morphologically similar cell types within the nano- and picoplankton and microscopically enumerated dominant clades after catalyzed reported deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes. In addition to Phaeocystis, members of Syndiniales group II, clade 10–11, and the Micromonas clades ABC and E made up a major fraction of the tag sequences of the nano- and picoplankton community within the fertilized patch. However, the same clades were also dominant before the bloom and outside the fertilized patch. Furthermore, only little changes in diversity could be observed over the course of the experiment. These results were corroborated by CARD-FISH analysis which confirmed the presence of a stable nano- and picoplankton community dominated by Phaeocystis and Micromonas during the entire course of the experiment. Interestingly, although Syndiniales dominated the tag sequences, they could hardly be detected by CARD-FISH, possibly due to the intracellular parasitic life style of this clade. The remarkable stability of the nano- and picoplankton community points to a tight coupling of the different trophic levels within the microbial food web during LOHAFEX.

  5. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  6. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies. PMID:22764167

  7. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  8. Community health nursing practices in contexts of poverty, uncertainty and unpredictability: a systematization of personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this context. A systematization of personal experiences based on popular education is used and analyzed as a way of learning by obtaining scientific knowledge through critical analysis of field practices. Ties of solidarity and belonging developed in informal, mutual-help action groups are promising avenues for research and the development of knowledge in health promotion, prevention and community care and a necessary contribution to national public health programmers.

  9. Experiences of community health agents in the care of the elderly affected by chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Tambara Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand which are the experiences of community health agents in the care of patients with chronic diseases. Methods: qualitative research carried out through the interview of 20 community health agents. Data were analyzed following the steps of content analysis. Results: the care for the elderly has limitations due to their low educational level, resistance to adhere to drug therapy and low frequency of visits to health facilities. Another reason is the aging process in itself that may compromise the ability of self-care and the development of daily activities. Conclusion: difficulties of community health agents were identified in the care of elderly people with chronic diseases due to low adherence to treatment and to the health service.

  10. The Experiences of Reciprocity among Filipino Older Adults in Canada: Intergenerational, Transnational, and Community Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ilyan; Brotman, Shari; Grenier, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This article illustrates the concept of reciprocity in the context of immigrant families. It recommends that definition of reciprocity account for exchanges beyond the immediate family, and render visible the simultaneous location of older people as care recipients and providers, and care arrangements across generations, borders, community, and time. Adopting a critical ethnographic study on the aging and care experiences of older Filipinos in Canada, this article analyzes data from extended observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 older people, 6 adult children, and 13 community stakeholders. Findings highlight the unique configurations of care among the Filipino community whereby older people engage in care exchange as active participants across intergenerational, transnational, and fictive kin networks.

  11. Emergence of a learning community: a transforming experience at the boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Federica

    2013-03-01

    I narrate a process of transformation, a professional and personal journey framed by an experience that captured my attention shaping my interpretation and reflections. From a critical complexity framework I discuss the emergence of a learning community from the cooperation among individuals of diverse social and cultural worlds sharing the need to change a traditional professional development program structure and develop a new science education Masters Degree/Certification program. I zoom into the continual redefinition of the community, its evolution and complex interrelations among its participants and the emergence of a learning community as a boundary space having an emancipatory role and allowing growth and learning. I analyze the dialectical relationship between agents' behavior either impeding growth or having an emancipatory function of a mindful RelationalAct in a complex adaptive system framework.

  12. Novel method reveals a narrow phylogenetic distribution of bacterial dispersers in environmental communities exposed to low hydration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, U. S.; Bak, F.; Aamand, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we developed a method that provides community-level surface dispersal profiles under controlled hydration conditions from environmental samples and enables us to isolate and uncover the diversity of the fastest bacterial dispersers. The method expands on the Porous Surface Model (PSM...... Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium johnsoniae strains from their non-motile mutants. Applying the method to soil and lake water bacterial communities showed that community-scale dispersal declined as conditions became drier. However, for both communities, dispersal was detected even under low hydration...... dispersers were substantially less diverse than the total communities. The dispersing fraction of the soil microbial community was dominated by Pseudomonas which increased in abundance at low hydration conditions, while the dispersing fraction of the lake community was dominated by Aeromonas and, under wet...

  13. Supporting Shared Resource Usage for a Diverse User Community: the OSG Experience and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Sehgal, Chander; Slyz, Marko; Rynge, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) supports a diverse community of new and existing users in adopting and making effective use of the Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) model. The LHC user community has deep local support within the experiments. For other smaller communities and individual users the OSG provides consulting and technical services through the User Support area. We describe these sometimes successful and sometimes not so successful experiences and analyze lessons learned that are helping us improve our services. The services offered include forums to enable shared learning and mutual support, tutorials and documentation for new technology, and troubleshooting of problematic or systemic failure modes. For new communities and users, we bootstrap their use of the distributed high throughput computing technologies and resources available on the OSG by following a phased approach. We first adapt the application and run a small production campaign on a subset of “friendly” sites. Only then do we move the user to run full production campaigns across the many remote sites on the OSG, adding to the community resources up to hundreds of thousands of CPU hours per day. This scaling up generates new challenges – like no determinism in the time to job completion, and diverse errors due to the heterogeneity of the configurations and environments – so some attention is needed to get good results. We cover recent experiences with image simulation for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), small-file large volume data movement for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), civil engineering simulation with the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES), and accelerator modeling with the Electron Ion Collider group at BNL. We will categorize and analyze the use cases and describe how our processes are evolving based on lessons learned.

  14. The Community Mentoring REU: A Novel Paradigm for Research Experiences for Undergraduates Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry; Maierhofer, Lara; Kobulnicky, Carol; Dale, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Experience for Undergraduates programs were conceived to promote entry of college students into STEM disciplines. Evidence suggests that participating in REUs increases interest in STEM, conveys skills leading to STEM jobs and graduate study, increases science self-efficacy, builds professional networks for young scientists, and cultivates identity as a scientist. Nevertheless, the factors that mediate desired outcomes are still poorly understood, and persistence of negative mentoring experiences among REU participants motivates the design and study of novel approaches to preparing future STEM professionals. During five summers spanning 2012-2016 we implemented a "Community Mentoring" paradigm at the University of Wyoming's 10-week Astronomy REU program. In contrast to "traditional model (TM)" REUs that pair a single senior scientist mentor with a single junior mentee, community mentoring (CM) unites 6-8 undergraduates with 3-5 faculty (perhaps assisted by a graduate student or postdoc) on a collaborative team addressing a single science goal. In CM, students have access to a pool of mentors and a peer group reading the same literature, working in a common location, sharing equipment (in this case the WIRO 2.3 meter telescope), sharing data, and learning the same analysis skills. The community interacts daily, modeling the highly collaborative nature of modern scientific teams. Our study used an electronic survey consisting of 24 questions to compare a cohort of 28 CM students to a national control group of 77 students who conducted REUs elsewhere during the same period, typically under the TM. CM students report a significantly higher level of "learning from their peers", "learning to work on a science team", and "sense of community" compared to the TM cohort. The CM cohort also reports a higher overall level of satisfaction with the REU and a lower level of negative experiences, such as finding it difficult to get time with a mentor. This talk will

  15. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates.

  16. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V Lindh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2 and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6 water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating a higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating replacement. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating adjustment. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, the original triggering, or priming effect, resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment, and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial

  17. Torque controlled rotary-shear experiments reveal pseudotachilites formation-dynamics and precursor events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisato, Nicola; Cordonnier, Benoit; De Siena, Luca; Lavier, Luc; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Except few cases, rotary shear tests, which are designed to study dynamic friction and strengthening/weakening mechanisms in seismogenic faults, are performed by imposing, to the specimens, a slipping velocity that is pre-defined. This approach has been adopted from engineering that typically, tests man-made objects that, when functioning, spin or slide at a pre-defined velocity under a pre-defined load. On the other hand, natural earthquakes are the effect of a rupture that nucleates, propagates and arrests in the subsurface. These three phases, and the consequent emerging fault slipping velocity, are controlled by the accumulated and released energy around the seismogenic fault before, during and after the earthquake. Thus, imposing the slipping velocity in laboratory experiments might not represent the best option to uncover many aspects of earthquake nucleation and fault slipping dynamics. Here we present some experiments performed with an innovative rotary shear apparatus that uses a clock-spring that when winded provides to the rotating sample a linearly increasing torque. Thus, the nucleation of simulated events occur spontaneously when the shear stress on the slipping surface overcomes the static friction times the normal load that is controlled by a deadweight. In addition, this method allows studying precursory seismic events resembling natural slow-slip earthquakes. We report some preliminary results for a transparent polymer that has melting point 340 K and allows observing the slipping surface (i.e., the contact between the two samples). By coupling: i) the rotary shear apparatus, ii) a video camera recording at 60 fps and a iii) laser pointer we observed the formation and evolution of a melt film that forms in the slipping surface after a phase of "dry" stick-slip. After each seismic event the melt layer solidify forming a pseudotachilite that partially welds the slipping surfaces. We also present the mechanical data that show rupture strengthening in

  18. Patient experience and use of probiotics in community-based health care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lee B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blake Chin-Lee,1 William J Curry,1 John Fetterman,2 Marie A Graybill,1 Kelly Karpa2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine Hershey, PA, USA Objective: To investigate patient experience with probiotics and factors that influence probiotic use among adult patients.Method: Patients were invited to complete a questionnaire that assessed their experiences and opinions regarding probiotics. Questionnaires were distributed to patients seeking primary health care services at a family and community medicine practice site and a community pharmacy. Patients were invited to complete the questionnaire while awaiting the physician or waiting for prescriptions to be filled. Results: Overall, 162 surveys were completed and returned (66% response rate from patients aged 18 to 89 years of age (mean 49.5 years. Most patients (n=107; 65% were familiar with the term “probiotic”, and 49 patients (29.9% had personally used the supplements in the past. Of those who had used probiotics, the majority (57% had used the supplements to maintain “good gastrointestinal health” and most (59% felt that the supplements had been beneficial. However, most (59% had not informed their health care provider about their use of the supplements.Conclusion: Use of probiotic supplements is common among consumers, but may not be reported to health care providers. Keywords: primary care, community pharmacy, probiotic

  19. Sparse coding reveals greater functional connectivity in female brains during naturalistic emotional experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Ren

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is widely used to examine changes in brain function associated with age, gender or neuropsychiatric conditions. FMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging studies employ either laboratory-designed tasks that engage the brain with abstracted and repeated stimuli, or resting state paradigms with little behavioral constraint. Recently, novel neuroimaging paradigms using naturalistic stimuli are gaining increasing attraction, as they offer an ecologically-valid condition to approximate brain function in real life. Wider application of naturalistic paradigms in exploring individual differences in brain function, however, awaits further advances in statistical methods for modeling dynamic and complex dataset. Here, we developed a novel data-driven strategy that employs group sparse representation to assess gender differences in brain responses during naturalistic emotional experience. Comparing to independent component analysis (ICA, sparse coding algorithm considers the intrinsic sparsity of neural coding and thus could be more suitable in modeling dynamic whole-brain fMRI signals. An online dictionary learning and sparse coding algorithm was applied to the aggregated fMRI signals from both groups, which was subsequently factorized into a common time series signal dictionary matrix and the associated weight coefficient matrix. Our results demonstrate that group sparse representation can effectively identify gender differences in functional brain network during natural viewing, with improved sensitivity and reliability over ICA-based method. Group sparse representation hence offers a superior data-driven strategy for examining brain function during naturalistic conditions, with great potential for clinical application in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Ocean acidification effects on mesozooplankton community development: Results from a long-term mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algueró-Muñiz, María; Alvarez-Fernandez, Santiago; Thor, Peter; Bach, Lennart T.; Esposito, Mario; Horn, Henriette G.; Ecker, Ursula; Langer, Julia A. F.; Taucher, Jan; Malzahn, Arne M.; Riebesell, Ulf; Boersma, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification may affect zooplankton directly by decreasing in pH, as well as indirectly via trophic pathways, where changes in carbon availability or pH effects on primary producers may cascade up the food web thereby altering ecosystem functioning and community composition. Here, we present results from a mesocosm experiment carried out during 113 days in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak coast of Sweden, studying plankton responses to predicted end-of-century pCO2 levels. We did not observe any pCO2 effect on the diversity of the mesozooplankton community, but a positive pCO2 effect on the total mesozooplankton abundance. Furthermore, we observed species-specific sensitivities to pCO2 in the two major groups in this experiment, copepods and hydromedusae. Also stage-specific pCO2 sensitivities were detected in copepods, with copepodites being the most responsive stage. Focusing on the most abundant species, Pseudocalanus acuspes, we observed that copepodites were significantly more abundant in the high-pCO2 treatment during most of the experiment, probably fuelled by phytoplankton community responses to high-pCO2 conditions. Physiological and reproductive output was analysed on P. acuspes females through two additional laboratory experiments, showing no pCO2 effect on females’ condition nor on egg hatching. Overall, our results suggest that the Gullmar Fjord mesozooplankton community structure is not expected to change much under realistic end-of-century OA scenarios as used here. However, the positive pCO2 effect detected on mesozooplankton abundance could potentially affect biomass transfer to higher trophic levels in the future. PMID:28410436

  1. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria ...

  2. Experiences and Challenges of Community Participation in Urban Renewal Projects: The Case of Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal and inner city regeneration have become critical efforts for the South African government, which has invested in several structures to stem the tide of decline in its nine major cities. Commitment to the alleviation of poverty is a focal point of the renewal and regeneration agenda and will remain so in the future. This effort is motivated by the fact that around 24% of the South African population currently lives on less than USD 1.00 per day, below the poverty line defined by the World Bank. The Central Government has made numerous public commitments to development, a part of which concerns extensive infrastructure investment and service delivery. Communities are expected to participate fully in the planning and implementation of these urban renewal projects. To this aim, participation is a process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them. Community participation should be aimed at empowering people by ensuring the development of skills and the creation of employment opportunities. This paper first explores the concept of community participation, and will then look at relevant past experiences in relation to community participation in urban renewal projects. Furthermore, the paper outlines the challenges and problems of community participation in urban renewal projects in Johannesburg, and finally, close with recommendations for the future.

  3. nanoHUB.org: Experiences and Challenges in Software Sustainability for a Large Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Zentner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The science gateway nanoHUB.org, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF, serves a large scientific community dedicated to research and education in nanotechnology with community-contributed simulation codes as well as a vast repository of other materials such as recorded presentations, teaching materials, and workshops and courses. Nearly 330,000 users annually access over 4400 items of content on nanoHUB, including 343 simulation tools. Arguably the largest nanotechnology facility in the world, nanoHUB has led the way not only in providing open access to scientific code in the nanotechnology community, but also in lowering barriers to the use of that code, by providing a platform where developers are able to easily and quickly deploy code written in a variety of languages with user-friendly graphical user interfaces and where users can run the latest versions of codes transparently on the grid or other powerful resources without ever having to download or update code. Being a leader in open access code deployment provides nanoHUB with opportunities and challenges as it meets the current and future needs of its community. This paper discusses the experiences of nanoHUB in addressing and adapting to the changing landscape of scientific software in ways that best serve its community and meet the needs of the largest portion of its user base.

  4. Periodontal diseases and caries experience of diabetic patients in an Arabian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKhateeb, T. L; AlAmoudi, N. H; Fatani, H. H; Mira, S. A; Ardawi, M. S

    1991-01-01

    A group of diabetic patients living in an Arabian community were matched by sex and age with a non-diabetic control group. Examination for periodontal status and dental caries was carried out on the matched pairs. Diabetics exhibited more gingival inflammation and increased probing depths when com pared with age-/sex-matched controls. The caries experience of diabetic patients was higher than that of normal groups. The findings of this study highlight the urgent need to develop a preventive dental program for diabetic patients so as to minimize their experience of dental disease. (author)

  5. Community microrespirometry and molecular analyses reveal a diverse energy economy in Great Boiling Spring and Sandy's Spring West in the U.S. Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin N; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Babbitt, Aaron B; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-05-01

    Microrespirometry showed that several organic and inorganic electron donors stimulated oxygen consumption in two ∼80°C springs. Sediment and planktonic communities were structurally and functionally distinct, and quantitative PCR revealed catabolically distinct subpopulations of Thermocrinis. This study suggests that a variety of chemolithotrophic metabolisms operate simultaneously in these springs.

  6. Extension of academic pediatric radiology to the community setting: experience in two sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, K.; Share, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Children are better served by radiologists and technical personnel trained in the care of pediatric patients. However, a variety of obstacles may limit the access of children to dedicated pediatric imaging facilities. Objective. We designed and implemented two models for providing community-based imaging by academic pediatric radiologists. Materials and methods. The first site was an outpatient clinic staffed by physicians from the university-affiliated children's hospital. Imaging services included radiography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound. The second site was a full-service community hospital radiology department staffed by a group practice, with pediatric imaging covered by the children's hospital radiologists. Facility, equipment, and protocol modifications were required to maintain quality standards. Success of these models was determined by volume statistics, referring physician/patient satisfaction surveys, and quality-assurance (QA) programs. Results. The outpatient satellite had a 48 % increase in total examinations from the first year to the second year and 87 % the third year. Pediatric examinations in the community hospital increased over 1000 % the first 7 months. Referring physicians reported increased diagnostic information and patient satisfaction compared to previous service. QA efforts revealed improved image quality when pediatric radiologists were present, but some continuing difficulties off-hours. Conclusion. We successfully implemented pediatric imaging programs in previously underserved communities. This resulted in increased pediatric radiologist supervision and interpretation of examinations performed on children and improved referring physician and patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  7. Extension of academic pediatric radiology to the community setting: experience in two sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklund, K.; Share, J.C. [Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-01-01

    Background. Children are better served by radiologists and technical personnel trained in the care of pediatric patients. However, a variety of obstacles may limit the access of children to dedicated pediatric imaging facilities. Objective. We designed and implemented two models for providing community-based imaging by academic pediatric radiologists. Materials and methods. The first site was an outpatient clinic staffed by physicians from the university-affiliated children's hospital. Imaging services included radiography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound. The second site was a full-service community hospital radiology department staffed by a group practice, with pediatric imaging covered by the children's hospital radiologists. Facility, equipment, and protocol modifications were required to maintain quality standards. Success of these models was determined by volume statistics, referring physician/patient satisfaction surveys, and quality-assurance (QA) programs. Results. The outpatient satellite had a 48 % increase in total examinations from the first year to the second year and 87 % the third year. Pediatric examinations in the community hospital increased over 1000 % the first 7 months. Referring physicians reported increased diagnostic information and patient satisfaction compared to previous service. QA efforts revealed improved image quality when pediatric radiologists were present, but some continuing difficulties off-hours. Conclusion. We successfully implemented pediatric imaging programs in previously underserved communities. This resulted in increased pediatric radiologist supervision and interpretation of examinations performed on children and improved referring physician and patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  8. American Indian Women Cancer Survivor's Needs and Preferences: Community Support for Cancer Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Liddell, Jessica; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-03-15

    Cancer (the focus of this inquiry) is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native women. The purpose of this study was to identify American Indian women cancer survivors' needs and preferences related to community supports for their cancer experience. This qualitative study examined female American Indian cancer survivors' needs and preferences about community support. The sample included 43 American Indian women cancer survivors (the types of cancer survivors included cervical cancer: n = 14; breast cancer: n = 14; and colon and other types: n = 15) residing in the Northern Plains region, in the state of South Dakota. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and were collected between June of 2014 and February of 2015. When asked about their needs and preferences, 82% of participants (n = 35) of female American Indian cancer survivors reported at least one of the following most commonly reported themes: cancer support groups (n = 31, 72%), infrastructure for community support (n = 17, 40%), and cancer education (n = 11, 26%). In addition to the aforementioned themes, 33% of participants (n = 14) indicated the need for an improved healthcare system, with 11% (n = 5) of participants expressly desiring the integration of spirituality and holistic healing options. The majority of American Indian women cancer survivor participants of this study identified a need for more community-based support systems and infrastructures to aid with the cancer survivor experience. Results warrant a community approach to raise awareness, education, and support for American Indian cancer survivors.

  9. Community translation of the Math Interactive Learning Experience Program for children with FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy; Coles, Claire D

    2015-04-01

    The Math Interactive Learning Experience (MILE), a program designed to address academic and behavioral problems found in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), was found to be effective in a randomized clinical trials with results that persisted at a 6-month follow-up. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community translation, in partnership with several community sites in the metropolitan Atlanta area. A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: the MILE program administered at a specialty care center (Center MILE) or in the community (Community MILE), or to parent math instruction only (Parent Instruction). This study evaluated instructor satisfaction with the training program, knowledge related to FASD and the MILE program, adherence to the MILE teaching methodology, participant math outcomes, and parents' satisfaction with their treatment experience. Instructors reported a high degree of satisfaction with the overall training and mean site fidelity ratings were positively correlated with change in math performance. Those in the MILE intervention groups demonstrated more positive gains in math skills than those in the Parent Instruction group but did not differ from each other. Parents in the Parent Instruction group reported less satisfaction with their intervention than those assigned to the Center MILE group but satisfaction ratings did not differ between those in the MILE intervention groups. These results indicate that the community translation and the MILE instructor training program developed as part of this process were well-received and effective in producing positive treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  11. Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Schreiber, M. E.; Bahr, J. M.; Sewell, G. W.; Hickey, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems. PMID:10224013

  12. Health care waste management in community-based care: experiences of community health workers in low resource communities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hangulu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs working in community-based care (CBC programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB. Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW, there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs. Methods We used three ethnographic approaches to collect data: focus group discussions, participant observations and informal discussions. Data was collected from 85 CHWs working in 29 communities in the Durban metropolis, South Africa. Data collection took place from July 2013 to August 2014. Results CHWs provided nursing care activities to patients many of whom were incontinent or bedridden. Some the patients were living with HIV/AIDS/TB, stroke, diabetes, asthma, arthritis and high blood pressure. These caregiving activities generate sharps and infectious waste but CHWs and family members did not segregate HCW according to the risk posed as stipulated by the HCWM policy. In addition, HCW was left with domestic waste. Major barriers to proper HCWM identified by CHWs include, lack of assistance from family members in assisting patients to use the toilet or change diapers and removing HCW from homes, irregular waste collection by waste collectors, inadequate water for practicing hygiene and sanitation, long distance between the house and the toilets and poor conditions of communal toilets and pit latrines. As a result of these barriers, HCW was illegally dumped along roads or in the bush, burnt openly and buried within the yards. Liquid HCW such as vomit, urine and sputum were disposed in open spaces near the homes. Conclusion Current policies on primary health care (PHC and HCWM in South Africa have not paid attention to HCWM. Findings suggest the

  13. Sustainable Tourism Experiences in Ecuador; Implementing knowledge’ Social Construction process in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to socialize a successful experience for Social Knowledge Construction in the field of Environmental Literacy. This work takes place at the rural Afro-Ecuadorian community “San Miguel”, located in Ecuador, South America. The participants are 35 women and men, who installed a communitarian tourism project with the support of national and international rural development programs in 2005. However, any study had been executed in the location to determine the impacts on the natural and cultural heritage, since the touristic project began; in consequence, the community has not information to take decisions about their entrepreneurship. This work applied the ethnographic social research method and the techniques of semi-structured interview and community surveys to collect data. It was applied the Model of Echavarren for Assessing the Tourism Impacts on Natural and Cultural Resources. The results show that the economical contribution from the touristic project is still low but, necessary in the community. There are no relevant impacts on the natural and cultural heritage. However, an Environmental Literacy Plan based on Mendonça and the Social Knowledge Construction approach is introduced by the authors to strengthen local people environmental behavior. This plan can be adapted and applied in other communities. It is concluded that environmental literacy plans can be more efficient when are applied as transversal topics during formal and informal communitarian activities. This community members respect their agreement for keeping their natural and cultural resources for the enjoying of the future generations; even when, this represents a limited economic retribution.

  14. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M.S.; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27–54%), unique environmental influences (E=12–50%) and little common environmental influences (11–20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69–100%, bivariate unique environment=28–31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2–5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to ‘travel together’. PMID:25912376

  15. Patient preferences for community pharmacy asthma services: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Armour, Carol; Rose, John M; Saini, Bandana

    2012-10-01

    Specialized community pharmacy services, involving the provision of disease state management and care by pharmacists, have been developed and trialled and have demonstrated very good health outcomes. Most of these services have been developed from a healthcare professional perspective. However, for the future uptake and long-term sustainability of these services as well as for better and sustained health outcomes for patients, it is vital to gain an understanding of patients' preferences. We can then structure healthcare services to match these preferences and needs rather than around clinical viewpoints alone. The aim of this study was to elicit patient preferences for pharmacy-based specialized asthma services using a discrete choice experiment and to explore the value/importance that patients place on the different attributes of the asthma service. The existence of preference heterogeneity in the population was also investigated. The study was conducted with asthma patients who had recently experienced a specialized asthma management service at their pharmacy in New South Wales, Australia. Pharmacists delivering the asthma service mailed out the discrete choice questionnaires to participating patients at the end of 6 months of service provision. A latent class (LC) model was used to investigate each patient's strength of preference and preference heterogeneity for several key attributes related to asthma service provision: frequency of visits, access to pharmacist, interaction with pharmacy staff, availability of a private area for consultation, provision of lung function testing, type and depth of advice provision, number of days with asthma symptoms and cost of service. Eighty useable questionnaires (of 170 questionnaires sent out) were received (response rate 47.1%). The study identified various key elements of asthma services important to patients. Further, the LC analysis revealed three classes with differing patient preferences for levels of asthma service

  16. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of surveying. Setting 72 Swedish community pharmacies, distributed all over the country. Method (a) A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 400 dispensing pharmacists at the pharmacies conducting the patient surveys; (b) semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists at 12...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  17. Indigenous cultural contexts for STEM experiences: snow snakes' impact on students and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2018-03-01

    Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes ( Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.

  18. What are community nurses experiences of assessing frailty and assisting in planning subsequent interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Hannah

    2017-09-02

    With an ageing population and increasing focus on community care, this study aimed to explore the experiences of community nurses in assessing frailty and planning interventions around frailty. Six community nurses were recruited for face-to-face semi-structured interviews as part of this qualitative study which was underpinned by a competence framework ( Royal College of Nursing, 2009 ). Thematic analysis was used and frailty was identified as an emerging topic within practice. Participants discussed several aspects associated with frailty; however, some uncertainty around the concept of frailty and its definition was noted, particularly for staff who had received limited frailty training. Participants had a growing awareness of frailty in practice, but challenges-including time constraints and staffing within some roles, a perception of limited services to support older people, and for some a lack of confidence and training-presented barriers to frailty assessment. The Rockwood frailty scale was used by participants within practice, but evidence suggested it was felt to lack validity within the community setting.

  19. Teachers' Experiences and Perceptions of a Community Music Project: Impacts on Community and New Ways of Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansio, Hei; Seppälä, Piia; Houni, Pia

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research discusses a Finnish community music project aimed at school pupils with disabilities. The practices of this project define community music as community-driven, goal-oriented participatory music-making with a musician as a facilitator. Instead of the effects on pupils, this research investigates the project's impacts on…

  20. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals the responses of PBDE-degrading microbial communities to electron donor amendments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    Full Text Available Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs can be reductively degraded by microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. However, little is known about the effect of electron donors on microbial communities involved in PBDEs degradation. Here we employed 454 Titanium pyrosequencing to examine the phylogenetic diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of microbial communities from microcosms under the conditions of different electron donor amendments. The community structures in each of the five alternate electron donor enrichments were significantly shifted in comparison with those of the control microcosm. Commonly existing OTUs between the treatment and control consortia increased from 5 to 17 and more than 50% of OTUs increased around 13.7 to 186 times at least in one of the microcosms after 90-days enrichment. Although the microbial communities at different taxonomic levels were significantly changed by different environmental variable groups in redundancy analysis, significant correlations were observed between the microbial communities and PBDE congener profiles. The lesser-brominated PBDE congeners, tri-BDE congener (BDE-32 and hexa-BDE, were identified as the key factors shaping the microbial community structures at OTU level. Some rare populations, including the known dechlorinating bacterium, Dehalobacter, showed significant positive-correlation with the amounts of PBDE congeners in the consortia. The same results were also observed on some unclassified bacteria. These results suggest that PBDEs-degrading microbial communities can be successfully enriched, and their structures and compositions can be manipulated through adjusting the environmental parameters.

  1. Coaching small communities towards a climate stretegy plan -- experiences from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormsen, D. [City of Malmoe (Sweden). Environment Dept.

    2008-07-01

    the work continues after the completion of the climate strategy developed for the community. This talk focuses on the experiences that were gained from the project in Sweden, and how these can be transferred to other municipalities around Europe.

  2. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  3. Experience of developing Twitter-based communities of practice in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bex Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a case study of the use of a microblogging tool by a university academic to increase their knowledge and experience of social media for educational purposes. The academic had the role of digital steward in a university and attempted to use microblogging (Twitter to increase professional contacts within the framework of a community of practice. Several types of data were collected and analysed. These included the structure of the network arising from the links formed with others by microblogging, the similarity of stated interests between the academic and others in the network, and the contents of postings such as their external references. It was found that a personal network had been established, with some of the characteristics of a community of practice. The activity demonstrated the utility of social media in supporting the professional development of academic staff using technology.

  4. Molecular Techniques Revealed Highly Diverse Microbial Communities in Natural Marine Biofilms on Polystyrene Dishes for Invertebrate Larval Settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, On On; Chung, Hong Chun; Yang, Jiangke; Wang, Yong; Dash, Swagatika; Wang, Hao; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members

  5. Elevational gradients in phylogenetic structure of ant communities reveal the interplay of biotic and abiotic constraints on diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machac, Antonin; Janda, Milan; Dunn, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    A central focus of ecology and biogeography is to determine the factors that govern spatial variation in biodiversity. Here, we examined patterns of ant diversity along climatic gradients in three temperate montane systems: Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA), Chiricahua Mountains (USA......), and Vorarlberg (Austria). To identify the factors which potentially shape these elevational diversity gradients, we analyzed patterns of community phylogenetic structure (i.e. the evolutionary relationships among species coexisting in local communities). We found that species at low-elevation sites tended...... to be evenly dispersed across phylogeny, suggesting that these communities are structured by interspecific competition. In contrast, species occurring at high-elevation sites tended to be more closely related than expected by chance, implying that these communities are structured primarily by environmental...

  6. REXUS/BEXUS: launching student experiments -a step towards a stronger space science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittock, Mark; Stamminger, Andreas; Maria, Roth; Dannenberg, Kristine; Page, Helen

    The REXUS/BEXUS (Rocket/Balloon Experiments for University Students) programme pro-vides opportunities to teams of European student scientists and engineers to fly experiments on sounding rockets and high altitude balloons. This is an opportunity for students and the scientific community to benefit from encouragement and support for experiments. An important feature of the programme is that the students experience a full project life-cycle which is typically not a part of their university education and which helps to prepare them for further scientific work. They have to plan, organize, and control their project in order to develop and build up an experiment but must also work on the scientic aspects. Many of the students continue to work in the field on which they focused in the programme and can often build upon both the experience and the results from flight. Within the REXUS/BEXUS project cycle, they are encouraged to write and present papers about their experiments and results; increasing amounts of scientific output are seen from the students who participate. Not only do the students learn and develop from REXUS/BEXUS but the scientific community also reaps significant benefits. Another major benefit of the programme is the promotion that the students are able to bring to the whole space community. Not only are the public made more aware of advanced science and technical concepts but an advantage is present in the contact that the students who participate have to other university level students. Students are less restricted in their publicity and attract large public followings online as well as presenting themselves in more traditional media outlets. Many teams' creative approach to outreach is astonishing. The benefits are not only for the space science community as a whole; institutes, universities and departments can see increased interest following the support of participating students in the programme. The programme is realized under a bilateral Agency

  7. Means and extremes: building variability into community-level climate change experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross M; Beardall, John; Beringer, Jason; Grace, Mike; Sardina, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Experimental studies assessing climatic effects on ecological communities have typically applied static warming treatments. Although these studies have been informative, they have usually failed to incorporate either current or predicted future, patterns of variability. Future climates are likely to include extreme events which have greater impacts on ecological systems than changes in means alone. Here, we review the studies which have used experiments to assess impacts of temperature on marine, freshwater and terrestrial communities, and classify them into a set of 'generations' based on how they incorporate variability. The majority of studies have failed to incorporate extreme events. In terrestrial ecosystems in particular, experimental treatments have reduced temperature variability, when most climate models predict increased variability. Marine studies have tended to not concentrate on changes in variability, likely in part because the thermal mass of oceans will moderate variation. In freshwaters, climate change experiments have a much shorter history than in the other ecosystems, and have tended to take a relatively simple approach. We propose a new 'generation' of climate change experiments using down-scaled climate models which incorporate predicted changes in climatic variability, and describe a process for generating data which can be applied as experimental climate change treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Web-based multimedia vignettes in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Schwanda K; Vanderbush, Ross E; Hastings, Jan K; West, Donna

    2010-04-12

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based multimedia vignettes on complex drug administration techniques to augment the training of pharmacy students in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences. During the orientation for a community APPE, students were randomly assigned to either a study group or control group After they began their APPE, students in the study group were given an Internet address to access multimedia vignettes which they were required to watch to augment their training and standardize their counseling of patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. A 12-item questionnaire was administered to students in both groups at the orientation and again on the last day of the APPE to evaluate their knowledge of counseling patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. The control group did not experience any improvement in their counseling knowledge of the research topics during their month-long experience. Students in the intervention group scored higher on their postintervention test than students in the control group (p < 0.001). Student learning outcomes from experiential training can be improved through the use of Web-based multimedia instructional vignettes.

  9. Response of soil bacterial communities to lead and zinc pollution revealed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xihui; Zhang, Zhou; Hu, Shunli; Ruan, Zhepu; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Chen; Shen, Zhenguo

    2017-01-01

    Soil provides a critical environment for microbial community development. However, microorganisms may be sensitive to substances such as heavy metals (HMs), which are common soil contaminants. This study investigated bacterial communities using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment sequencing in geographic regions with and without HM pollution to elucidate the effects of soil properties and HMs on bacterial communities. No obvious changes in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities were observed between samples from mining and control areas. Significant differences in bacterial richness and diversity were detected between samples from different geographic regions, indicating that the basic soil characteristics were the most important factors affecting bacterial communities other than HMs. However, the abundances of several phyla and genera differed significantly between mining and control samples, suggesting that Zn and Pb pollution may impact the soil bacterial community composition. Moreover, regression analyses showed that the relative abundances of these phyla and genera were correlated significantly with the soil-available Zn and Pb contents. Redundancy analysis indicated that the soil K, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), total Cu, and available Zn and Cu contents were the most important factors. Our results not only suggested that the soil bacteria were sensitive to HM stresses but also indicated that other soil properties may affect soil microorganisms to a greater extent.

  10. Succession within the prokaryotic communities during the VAHINE mesocosms experiment in the New Caledonia lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Van Wambeke, France; Caffin, Mathieu; Bonnet, Sophie; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2016-04-01

    N2 fixation fuels ˜ 50 % of new primary production in the oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean. The VAHINE experiment has been designed to track the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) and carbon within a coastal lagoon ecosystem in a comprehensive way. For this, large-volume ( ˜ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed in the New Caledonian lagoon and were intentionally fertilized with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate N2 fixation. This study examined the temporal dynamics of the prokaryotic community together with the evolution of biogeochemical parameters for 23 consecutive days in one of these mesocosms (M1) and in the Nouméa lagoon using MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing and flow cytometry. Combining these methods allowed for inference of absolute cell numbers from 16S data. We observed clear successions within M1, some of which were not mirrored in the lagoon. The dominating classes in M1 were Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, Flavobacteriia, and Acidimicrobia. Enclosure led to significant changes in the M1 microbial community, probably initiated by the early decay of Synechococcus and diatoms. However, we did not detect a pronounced bottle effect with a copiotroph-dominated community. The fertilization with ˜ 0.8 µM DIP on day 4 did not have directly observable effects on the overall community within M1, as the data samples obtained from before and 4 days after fertilization clustered together, but likely influenced the development of individual populations later on, like Defluviicoccus-related bacteria and UCYN-C-type diazotrophic cyanobacteria (Cyanothece). Growth of UCYN-C led to among the highest N2-fixation rates ever measured in this region and enhanced growth of nearly all abundant heterotrophic groups in M1. We further show that different Rhodobacteraceae were the most efficient heterotrophs in the investigated system and we observed niche partitioning within the SAR86 clade

  11. Understanding the experience of place: expanding methods to conceptualize and measure community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Wright, Patricia A

    2009-06-01

    Community integration research explores community contexts and factors that encourage or hinder individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) from actively participating in community life. This research agenda can be advanced by using mixed-methods that better document the relationships between contextual factors and individual experience. Two such methods were applied to a mixed-methods study of 40 adults with SMI living in independent housing in the Southeastern United States. Their contextualized experiences of community integration were measured by applying innovative participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping techniques. Use of these methods in conjunction with one another facilitated the creation of activity spaces, which can measure geographic accessibility and help to represent an individual's experience of place and degree of mobility. The utility of these newly applied methods for better understanding community integration for persons with SMI is explored and implications for using these measures in research and practice are discussed.

  12. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  13. Fish-mediated changes in bacterioplankton community composition: an in situ mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congqiang; Yi, Chunlong; Ni, Leyi; Guo, Longgen

    2017-06-01

    We characterized variations in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in mesocosms subject to three different treatments. Two groups contained fish (group one: Cyprinus carpio; group two: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix); and group three, the untreated mesocosm, was the control. Samples were taken seven times over a 49-day period, and BCC was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results revealed that introduction of C. carpio and H. molitrix had a remarkable impact on the composition of bacterioplankton communities, and the BCC was significantly different between each treatment. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the bacterioplankton community in the different treatment groups was consistent at a taxonomic level, but differed in its abundance. H. molitrix promoted the richness of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while more bands affiliated to Cyanobacteria were detected inC. carpio mesocosms. The redundancy analysis (RDA) result demonstrated that the BCC was closely related to the bottom-up (total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass) and top-down forces (biomass of copepods and cladocera) in C. carpio and control mesocosms, respectively. We found no evidence for top-down regulation of BCC by zooplankton in H. molitrix mesocosms, while grazing by protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) became the major way to regulate BCC. Total bacterioplankton abundances were significantly higher in C. carpio mesocosms because of high nutrient concentration and suspended solids. Our study provided insights into the relationship between fish and bacterioplankton at species level, leading to a deep understanding of the function of the microbial loop and the aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Fish-mediated changes in bacterioplankton community composition: an in situ mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congqiang; Yi, Chunlong; Ni, Leyi; Guo, Longgen

    2018-03-01

    We characterized variations in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in mesocosms subject to three different treatments. Two groups contained fish (group one: Cyprinus carpio; group two: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix); and group three, the untreated mesocosm, was the control. Samples were taken seven times over a 49-d period, and BCC was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results revealed that introduction of C. carpio and H. molitrix had a remarkable impact on the composition of bacterioplankton communities, and the BCC was significantly different between each treatment. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the bacterioplankton community in the different treatment groups was consistent at a taxonomic level, but differed in its abundance. H. molitrix promoted the richness of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while more bands affiliated to Cyanobacteria were detected in C. carpio mesocosms. The redundancy analysis (RDA) result demonstrated that the BCC was closely related to the bottom-up (total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass) and top-down forces (biomass of copepods and cladocera) in C. carpio and control mesocosms, respectively. We found no evidence for top-down regulation of BCC by zooplankton in H. molitrix mesocosms, while grazing by protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) became the major way to regulate BCC. Total bacterioplankton abundances were significantly higher in C. carpio mesocosms because of high nutrient concentration and suspended solids. Our study provided insights into the relationship between fish and bacterioplankton at species level, leading to a deep understanding of the function of the microbial loop and the aquatic ecosystem.

  15. A cosmic Ray Muon Experiment: a Way to Teach Standard Model of Particles at Community Colleges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barazandeh, C; Gutarra-Leon, A; Rivas, R; Glaser, H; Majewski, W

    2016-01-01

    This experiment is an example of research for early undergraduate students and of its benefits and challenges as an accessible strategy for community colleges, in the spirit of the report on improving undergraduate STEM education from the US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. The goals of this project include measuring average low- energy muon flux, day/night flux difference, time dilation, energy spectra of electrons and muons in arbitrary units, muon decay curve, average lifetime of muons. From the lifetime data we calculate the weak coupling constant g w , electric charge e and the Higgs energy density. (paper)

  16. A qualitative study of English community pharmacists' experiences of providing lifestyle advice to patients with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Background - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. Objective - This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Methods - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 superm...

  17. Microbiology Meets Archaeology: Soil Microbial Communities Reveal Different Human Activities at Archaic Monte Iato (Sixth Century BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Siles, José A; Cajthaml, Tomas; Öhlinger, Birgit; Kistler, Erich

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria). PLFA-derived microbial abundance was lower in soils from the fireplace than in soils from the deposit; the opposite was observed with culturable bacteria. Microbial communities in soils from the fireplace had a higher ability to metabolize carboxylic and acetic acids, while those in soils from the deposit metabolized preferentially carbohydrates. The lower deposit layer was characterized by higher total microbial and bacterial abundance and bacterial richness and by a different carbohydrate metabolization profile compared to the upper deposit layer. Microbial community structures in the fireplace were similar and could be distinguished from those in the two deposit layers, which had different microbial communities. Our data confirmed our hypothesis that human consumption habits left traces on microbiota in the archaeological evidence; therefore, microbiological residues as part of the so-called ecofacts are, like artifacts, key indicators of consumer behavior in the past.

  18. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process. Fungi were found to be the most abundant and active community members. A total of 932 carbohydrate-active enzymes, including highly expressed auxiliary activity family 9 and 10 proteins, were identified at 62°C under aerobic conditions. Some potential thermostable enzymes were identified at 50, 62, and 25°C (mature stage. Increased content and overexpressed key enzymes involved in glycolysis and starch, pyruvate and ethanol metabolism were detected at 50 and 62°C. The key enzymes of the citrate cycle were up-regulated at 62°C, and their abundant derivatives are crucial for flavor generation. Here, the metabolism and functional enzymes of the active microbial communities in NF liquor starter were studied, which could pave the way to initiate improvements in liquor quality and to discover microbes that produce novel enzymes or high-value added products.

  19. Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the Red Sea revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-07-29

    The ecosystems of the Red Sea are among the least-explored microbial habitats in the marine environment. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in the water column overlying the Atlantis II Deep and Discovery Deep in the Red Sea. Taxonomic classification of pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed vertical stratification of microbial diversity from the surface water to 1500 m below the surface. Significant differences in both bacterial and archaeal diversity were observed in the upper (2 and 50 m) and deeper layers (200 and 1500 m). There were no obvious differences in community structure at the same depth for the two sampling stations. The bacterial community in the upper layer was dominated by Cyanobacteria whereas the deeper layer harbored a large proportion of Proteobacteria. Among Archaea, Euryarchaeota, especially Halobacteriales, were dominant in the upper layer but diminished drastically in the deeper layer where Desulfurococcales belonging to Crenarchaeota became the dominant group. The results of our study indicate that the microbial communities sampled in this study are different from those identified in water column in other parts of the world. The depth-wise compositional variation in the microbial communities is attributable to their adaptations to the various environments in the Red Sea. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  20. Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the Red Sea revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Peiyuan; Wang, Yong; Lee, Onon; Lau, Chunkwan; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Wong, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The ecosystems of the Red Sea are among the least-explored microbial habitats in the marine environment. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in the water column overlying the Atlantis II Deep and Discovery Deep in the Red Sea. Taxonomic classification of pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed vertical stratification of microbial diversity from the surface water to 1500 m below the surface. Significant differences in both bacterial and archaeal diversity were observed in the upper (2 and 50 m) and deeper layers (200 and 1500 m). There were no obvious differences in community structure at the same depth for the two sampling stations. The bacterial community in the upper layer was dominated by Cyanobacteria whereas the deeper layer harbored a large proportion of Proteobacteria. Among Archaea, Euryarchaeota, especially Halobacteriales, were dominant in the upper layer but diminished drastically in the deeper layer where Desulfurococcales belonging to Crenarchaeota became the dominant group. The results of our study indicate that the microbial communities sampled in this study are different from those identified in water column in other parts of the world. The depth-wise compositional variation in the microbial communities is attributable to their adaptations to the various environments in the Red Sea. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing participatory practices in community-based natural resource management: experiences in community engagement from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S

    2014-05-01

    The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by

  2. Preparing educators for problem-based and community-based curricula: a student's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, N

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Nursing at the University of Natal Durban (UND) introduced a one year Masters Degree in Progressive Education for Health Professionals in 1996, the aim of which is to prepare educators of health professionals to understand better innovative methods of teaching, learning and more specifically problem-based learning (PBL) and community-based education (CBE). The author of this paper is a registered nurse and this paper focuses on her experiences as a student in this programme. Most of the experiences gained are related to the use of a Personal and Academic Development Portfolio, which covered activities from both her own classes and those related to facilitation of basic student's learning.

  3. [Formative evaluation: experience of the Catalonian family and community medicine teaching units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra Lezcano, Matilde; Bundo Vidiella, Magda; Descarrega Queralt, Ramón; Martín Zurro, Amando; Fores García, Dolores; Fornells Vallès, Josep Maria

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on the experience in formative evaluation that was carried out in the Catalonian family and community medicine teaching units during the years 2001-2007. This formative evaluation project included the use of several evaluation tools such as, self-listening, video-recording, structured observation of clinical practice, cases by computer and simulated patients. Different resident intakes have participated in the development of the project, as well as their teaching unit tutors and coordinators. This accumulated experience has allowed it to progress into the field of formative evaluation, and to adapt and integrate the activities that were being carried out in a resident portfolio, which in our opinion is the best tool for the formative evaluation of the family medicine resident. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of community alcohol problems: computer simulation experiments in three counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, H D; Blose, J O

    1987-03-01

    A series of alcohol abuse prevention strategies was evaluated using computer simulation for three counties in the United States: Wake County, North Carolina, Washington County, Vermont and Alameda County, California. A system dynamics model composed of a network of interacting variables was developed for the pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption in a community. The relationship of community drinking patterns to various stimulus factors was specified in the model based on available empirical research. Stimulus factors included disposable income, alcoholic beverage prices, advertising exposure, minimum drinking age and changes in cultural norms. After a generic model was developed and validated on the national level, a computer-based system dynamics model was developed for each county, and a series of experiments was conducted to project the potential impact of specific prevention strategies. The project concluded that prevention efforts can both lower current levels of alcohol abuse and reduce projected increases in alcohol-related problems. Without such efforts, already high levels of alcohol-related family disruptions in the three counties could be expected to rise an additional 6% and drinking-related work problems 1-5%, over the next 10 years after controlling for population growth. Of the strategies tested, indexing the price of alcoholic beverages to the consumer price index in conjunction with the implementation of a community educational program with well-defined target audiences has the best potential for significant problem reduction in all three counties.

  5. Teaching methods in community health nursing clerkships: experiences of healthcare staff in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Ildarabadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Healthcare staff educate nursing students during their clerkships at community health nursing programs. Their teaching methods play an important role in nursing students’ acquisition of competencies; however, these methods have not been studied thoroughly. Thus, this study aims to describe, interpret, and understand the experiences of healthcare staff’s teaching methods in clerkships at a community health nursing program. Methods: This study was conducted using purposeful sampling and semi-structured interviews with 13 members of the staff of three urban healthcare centers in Iran. The data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Results: Multiplicity of teaching was identified as the main category of teaching method, and the five subcategories were teaching through lecture, demonstration, doing, visits and field trips, and readiness. The most common method used by the healthcare staff was lecturing. Conclusion: The healthcare staff used multiple methods to teach students in the nursing clerkship of the community health program, which was the strength of the course. However, they should be familiar with, and utilize additional methods, such as discussion rather than lecture.

  6. Virtual community centre for power wheelchair training: Experience of children and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkia, Caryne; Ryan, Stephen E; Reid, Denise; Boissy, Patrick; Lemay, Martin; Routhier, François; Contardo, Resi; Woodhouse, Janet; Archambault, Phillipe S

    2017-11-02

    To: 1) characterize the overall experience in using the McGill immersive wheelchair - community centre (miWe-CC) simulator; and 2) investigate the experience of presence (i.e., sense of being in the virtual rather than in the real, physical environment) while driving a PW in the miWe-CC. A qualitative research design with structured interviews was used. Fifteen clinicians and 11 children were interviewed after driving a power wheelchair (PW) in the miWe-CC simulator. Data were analyzed using the conventional and directed content analysis approaches. Overall, participants enjoyed using the simulator and experienced a sense of presence in the virtual space. They felt a sense of being in the virtual environment, involved and focused on driving the virtual PW rather than on the surroundings of the actual room where they were. Participants reported several similarities between the virtual community centre layout and activities of the miWe-CC and the day-to-day reality of paediatric PW users. The simulator replicated participants' expectations of real-life PW use and promises to have an effect on improving the driving skills of new PW users. Implications for rehabilitation Among young users, the McGill immersive wheelchair (miWe) simulator provides an experience of presence within the virtual environment. This experience of presence is generated by a sense of being in the virtual scene, a sense of being involved, engaged, and focused on interacting within the virtual environment, and by the perception that the virtual environment is consistent with the real world. The miWe is a relevant and accessible approach, complementary to real world power wheelchair training for young users.

  7. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies

  8. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2015-01-01

    organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below -10ºC. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA......The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78º......N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable...

  9. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ferrenberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the

  10. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species) and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers) arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community) and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community) and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity) among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the aboveground arthropod

  11. Student nurses' experiences of community-based practice placement learning: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglin, M R; Rugg, Sue

    2010-05-01

    United Kingdom (UK) health policy has adopted an increasing community and primary care focus over recent years (Department of Health, 1997; Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visitor Contribution to Health and Health Care. Department of Health, London; Department of Health, 2004. The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF). Department of Health, London). Nursing practice, education and workforce planning are called upon to adapt accordingly (Department of Health, 2004. The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF). Department of Health, London; Kenyon, V., Smith, E., Hefty, L., Bell, M., Martaus, T., 1990. Clinical competencies for community health nursing. Public Health Nursing 7(1), 33-39; United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, 1986. Project 2000: A New Preparation for Practice. UKCC, London). Such changes have major implications for pre-registration nursing education, including its practice placement element. From an educational perspective, the need for increased community nursing capacity must be balanced with adequate support for student nurses' learning needs during community-based placements. This qualitative study explored six second year student nurses' experiences of 12 week community-based practice placements and the extent to which these placements were seen to meet their perceived learning needs. The data came from contemporaneous reflective diaries, completed by participants to reflect their 'lived experience' during their practice placements (Landeen, J., Byrne, Brown, B., 1995. Exploring the lived experiences of psychiatric nursing students through self-reflective journals. Journal of Advanced Nursing 21(5), 878-885; Kok, J., Chabeli, M.M., 2002. Reflective journal writing: how it promotes reflective thinking in clinical nursing education: a students' perspective. Curationis 25(3), 35-42; Löfmark, A., Wikblad, K., 2001. Facilitating and

  12. Transition from Hospital to Community Care: The Experience of Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Admi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines care transition experiences of cancer patients and assesses barriers to effective transitions.Methods: Participants were adult Hebrew, Arabic, or Russian speaking oncology patients and health care providers from hospital and community settings. Qualitative (n=77 and quantitative (n=422 methods such as focus groups, interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used. Qualitative analysis showed that patients faced difficulties navigating a complex and fragmented healthcare system.Results: Mechanisms to overcome barriers included informal routes such as personal relationships, coordinating roles by nurse coordinators and the patients' general practitioners (GPs. The most significant variable was GPs involvement, which affected transition process quality as rated on the CTM (p<0.001. Our findings point to the important interpersonal role of oncology nurses to coordinate and facilitate the care transition process.Conclusion: Interventions targeted towards supporting the care transition process should emphasize ongoing counseling throughout a patient’s care, during and after hospitalization.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Admi H, Muller E, Shadmi E. Transition from Hospital to Community Care: The Experience of Cancer Patients. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:34011.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  13. Patient experience and use of probiotics in community-based health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Lee, Blake; Curry, William J; Fetterman, John; Graybill, Marie A; Karpa, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    To investigate patient experience with probiotics and factors that influence probiotic use among adult patients. Patients were invited to complete a questionnaire that assessed their experiences and opinions regarding probiotics. Questionnaires were distributed to patients seeking primary health care services at a family and community medicine practice site and a community pharmacy. Patients were invited to complete the questionnaire while awaiting the physician or waiting for prescriptions to be filled. Overall, 162 surveys were completed and returned (66% response rate) from patients aged 18 to 89 years of age (mean 49.5 years). Most patients (n=107; 65%) were familiar with the term "probiotic", and 49 patients (29.9%) had personally used the supplements in the past. Of those who had used probiotics, the majority (57%) had used the supplements to maintain "good gastrointestinal health" and most (59%) felt that the supplements had been beneficial. However, most (59%) had not informed their health care provider about their use of the supplements. Use of probiotic supplements is common among consumers, but may not be reported to health care providers.

  14. Las Cumbres Observatory Partners With Local Museums In “Experience The Eclipse” Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Seale, Sandy; Rivera, Javier; Skinner, Ron

    2017-10-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) in Goleta, California, together with the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (SBMNH) and the Wolf Museum of Exploration & Innovation (MOXI) put together a community program called “Experience the Eclipse” for the month of August.The greater Santa Barbara community includes over 200,000 people and the city is known for its vibrant cultural life. Events featuring science, physics, and astronomy are very popular. In 2016, Javier Rivera, the Astronomy Program Manager of the SBMNH, and Ron Skinner, the Director of Education at MOXI, met with LCO to discuss planning a month of activities to educate the public about the Great American Eclipse. The vision was to capitalize on the strength of each organization and to share information and events.The events included daily planetarium shows and open houses at the observatory of the SBMNH. All three organizations gave parties at public venues with presentations by astronomers. Together the group purchased 6,000 pairs of eclipse viewer glasses and they shared the responsibility of distributing these to local schools and community groups. A master calendar of the events was published in local press outlets and a document describing the eclipse and safe viewing practices was distributed widely. Preparation of these materials was a joint effort among the three institutions.“Experience the Eclipse” was a great success. The open houses at SBMNH were well attended and all public events sold out very quickly. On August 21, the SBMNH presented a live feed of the eclipse taken from their own observatory.We will present photos and videos from these events, along with data on the attendance and quotes from enthusiastic participants.

  15. The experience of community health workers training in Iran: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanparast Sara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Community Health Workers (CHWs in improving access to basic healthcare services, and mobilising community actions on health is broadly recognised. The Primary Health Care (PHC approach, identified in the Alma Ata conference in 1978, stressed the role of CHWs in addressing community health needs. Training of CHWs is one of the key aspects that generally seeks to develop new knowledge and skills related to specific tasks and to increase CHWs’ capacity to communicate with and serve local people. This study aimed to analyse the CHW training process in Iran and how different components of training have impacted on CHW performance and satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Training policies were reviewed using available policy documents, training materials and other relevant documents at national and provincial levels. Documentary analysis was supplemented by individual interviews with ninety-one Iranian CHWs from 18 provinces representing a broad range of age, work experience and educational levels, both male and female. Results Recognition of the CHW program and their training in the national health planning and financing facilitates the implementation and sustainability of the program. The existence of specialised training centres managed by district health network provides an appropriate training environment that delivers comprehensive training and increases CHWs’ knowledge, skills and motivation to serve local communities. Changes in training content over time reflect an increasing number of programs integrated into PHC, complicating the work expected of CHWs. In-service training courses need to address better local needs. Conclusion Although CHW programs vary by country and context, the CHW training program in Iran offers transferable lessons for countries intending to improve training as one of the key elements in their CHW program.

  16. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Tasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

  17. Towards Promotion of Community rewards to Volunteer Community Health Workers? Lessons from Experiences of Village Health Teams in Luwero, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turinawe, E.B.; Rwemisisi, J.T.; Musinguzi, L.K.; de Groot, M.; Muhangi, D.; Mafigiri, D.K.; de Vries, D.H.; Pool, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the debate regarding volunteer Community Health Workers (CHWs) some argue that lack of remuneration is exploitation while others caution that any promise to pay volunteers will decrease the volunteer spirit. In this paper we discuss the possibility of community rewards for CHWs. Ethnographic

  18. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila, H.R.; Rios, D.; Walker-Sperling, V.E.; Roeselers, G.; Newton, I.L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected

  19. Bacterial communities potentially involved in iron-cycling in Baltic Sea and North Sea sediments revealed by pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, Carlen; Dellwig, Olaf; Dähnke, K.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into the bacterial communities involved in iron-(Fe) cycling under marine conditions, we analysed sediments with Fe-contents (0.5-1.5 wt %) from the suboxic zone at a marine site in the Skagerrak (SK) and a brackish site in the Bothnian Bay (BB) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing....

  20. Bacterial communities in chitin-amended soil as revealed by 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, M.S.; Kielak, A.M.; Schluter, A.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and its derivatives are natural biopolymers that are often used as compounds for the control of soil-borne plant pathogens. In spite of recent advances in agricultural practices involving chitin amendments, the microbial communities in chitin-amended soils remain poorly known. The objectives

  1. Bacterial communities in chitin-amended soil as revealed by 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Kielak, Anna Maria; Schluter, Andreas; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    Chitin and its derivatives are natural biopolymers that are often used as compounds for the control of soilborne plant pathogens. In spite of recent advances in agricultural practices involving chitin amendments, the microbial communities in chitin-amended soils remain poorly known. The objectives

  2. Trophic structure of cold-water coral communities revealed from the analysis of tissue isotopes and fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Kutti, T.; Soetaert, K.

    2018-01-01

    The trophic structure of cold-water coral reef communities at two contrasting locations, the 800-m deep Belgica Mounds (Irish margin) and the 300-m deep Træna reefs (Norwegian Shelf), was investigated using stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) and fatty-acid composition analysis. A broad range of

  3. Painful languages of the body: experiences of headache among women in two Peruvian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Sarah; Pedersen, Duncan; Bibeau, Gilles; Rousseau, Cecile

    2006-09-01

    This exploratory study focuses on the understandings of and experiences with headache in two settings in Peru: the Quechua-speaking district of Ayacucho, in southern Peru, and a poor urban district of Lima Metropolitana. More specifically, it explores the personal and collective meanings constructed around women's headache experiences. Structured and open-ended interviews were administered to patients suffering headache to elicit interpretations of headache episodes. An analysis of the collected narratives suggests that headache is often comprehended in a polysemic framework, where meanings ascribed in bodily, emotional, family, and social terms articulate individual and shared notions of suffering within larger contexts of social dislocation. Often woven into experiences of solitude, headache accounts are lived and told in dynamic temporal spaces, and narrate dissolution of family ties and tensions associated with women's roles. The results underscore the significance of patients' subjective interpretations of painful experiences and underscore the connections between bodily and emotional pain and distress experienced at family, community, and larger social levels.

  4. Work-related subjective experiences among community residents with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoff; Chant, David; King, Robert

    2005-04-01

    To develop a self-report scale of subjective experiences of illness perceived to impact on employment functioning, as an alternative to a diagnostic perspective, for anticipating the vocational assistance needs of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. A repeated measures pilot study (n(1) = 26, n(2) = 21) of community residents with schizophrenia identified a set of work-related subjective experiences perceived to impact on employment functioning. Items with the best psychometric properties were applied in a 12 month longitudinal survey of urban residents with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n(1) = 104; n(2) = 94; n(3) = 94). Construct validity, factor structure, responsiveness, internal consistency, stability, and criterion validity investigations produced favourable results. Work-related subjective experiences provide information about the intersection of the person, the disorder, and expectations of employment functioning, which suggest new opportunities for vocational professionals to explore and discuss individual assistance needs. Further psychometric investigations of test-retest reliability, discriminant and predictive validity, and research applications in supported employment and vocational rehabilitation, are recommended. Subject to adequate psychometric properties, the new measure promises to facilitate exploring: individuals' specific subjective experiences; how each is perceived to contribute to employment restrictions; and the corresponding implications for specialized treatment, vocational interventions and workplace accommodations.

  5. Metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading system in a microbial community associated with a wood-feeding beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Scully

    Full Text Available The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an assemblage of microbes hypothesized to make significant contributions to these processes. While lignin degrading mechanisms have been well characterized in pure cultures of white rot basidiomycetes, little is known about such processes in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects. The goals of this study were to develop a taxonomic and functional profile of a gut community derived from an invasive population of larval A. glabripennis collected from infested host trees and to identify genes that could be relevant for the digestion of woody tissue and nutrient acquisition. To accomplish this goal, we taxonomically and functionally characterized the A. glabripennis midgut microbiota through amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing and conducted a large-scale comparison with the metagenomes from a variety of other herbivore-associated communities. This analysis distinguished the A. glabripennis larval gut metagenome from the gut communities of other herbivores, including previously sequenced termite hindgut metagenomes. Genes encoding enzymes were identified in the A. glabripennis gut metagenome that could have key roles in woody tissue digestion including candidate lignin degrading genes (laccases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, novel peroxidases and β-etherases, 36 families of glycoside hydrolases (such as cellulases and xylanases, and genes that could facilitate nutrient recovery, essential nutrient synthesis, and detoxification. This community

  6. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more accurate community profiles for fecal source tracking.

  7. A field reciprocal transplant experiment reveals asymmetric costs of migration between lake and river ecotypes of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, J; Lenz, T L; Kalbe, M; Milinski, M; Eizaguirre, C

    2017-05-01

    Theory of local adaptation predicts that nonadapted migrants will suffer increased costs compared to local residents. Ultimately this process can result in the reduction of gene flow and culminate in speciation. Here, we experimentally investigated the relative fitness of migrants in foreign habitats, focusing on diverging lake and river ecotypes of three-spined sticklebacks. A reciprocal transplant experiment performed in the field revealed asymmetric costs of migration: whereas mortality of river fish was increased under lake conditions, lake migrants suffered from reduced growth relative to river residents. Selection against migrants thus involved different traits in each habitat but generally contributed to bidirectional reduction in gene flow. Focusing particularly on the parasitic environments, migrant fish differed from resident fish in the parasite community they harboured. This pattern correlated with both cellular phenotypes of innate immunity as well as with allelic variation at the genes of the major histocompatibility complex. In addition to showing the costs of migration in three-spined sticklebacks, this study highlights the role of asymmetric selection particularly from parasitism in genotype sorting and in the emergence of local adaptation. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Model for teaching population health and community-based care across diverse clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Elizabeth J; Valentine-Maher, Sarah K; Tracy, Janet P

    2015-02-01

    The pillars constructivist model is designed to offer a unifying clinical paradigm to support consistent learning opportunities across diverse configurations of community and public health clinical sites. Thirty-six students and six faculty members participated in a mixed methods evaluation to assess the model after its inaugural semester of implementation. The evaluation methods included a rating scale that measures the model's ability to provide consistent learning opportunities at both population health and direct care sites, a case study to measure student growth within the five conceptual pillars, and a faculty focus group. Results revealed that the model served as an effective means of clinical education to support the use of multiple, small-scale public health sites. Although measurements of student growth within the pillars are inconclusive, the findings suggest efficacy. The authors recommend the continued use of the pillars constructivist model in baccalaureate programs, with further study of the author-designed evaluation tools. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  10. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  11. Giving Voice to the Medically Under-Served: A Qualitative Co-Production Approach to Explore Patient Medicine Experiences and Improve Services to Marginalized Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asam; Tariq, Sana; Abbasi, Nasa; Mandane, Baguiasri

    2018-01-27

    With an aging population, the appropriate, effective and safe use of medicines is a global health priority. However, "'medically under-served" patients continue to experience significant inequalities around access to healthcare services. This study forms part of a wider project to co-develop and evaluate a digital educational intervention for community pharmacy. The aim of this paper is to explore the medicine needs of patients from marginalized communities and suggest practical way on how services could be better tailored to their requirements. Following ethical approval, qualitative data was gathered from: (1) workshops with patients and professionals ( n = 57 attendees); and (2) qualitative semi-structured interviews (10 patients and 10 pharmacists). Our findings revealed that patients from marginalized communities reported poor management of their medical conditions and significant problems with adherence to prescribed medicines. Their experience of pharmacy services was found to be variable with many experiencing discrimination or disadvantage as a result of their status. This study highlights the plight of medically under-served communities and the need for policy makers to tailor services to an individual's needs and circumstances. Furthermore, patients and professionals can work in collaboration using a co-production approach to develop educational interventions for pharmacy service improvements.

  12. Ecosystem Resilience and Limitations Revealed by Soil Bacterial Community Dynamics in a Bark Beetle-Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Kristin M; Brouillard, Brent M; Bokman, Chelsea M; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2017-12-05

    Forested ecosystems throughout the world are experiencing increases in the incidence and magnitude of insect-induced tree mortality with large ecologic ramifications. Interestingly, correlations between water quality and the extent of tree mortality in Colorado montane ecosystems suggest compensatory effects from adjacent live vegetation that mute responses in less severely impacted forests. To this end, we investigated whether the composition of the soil bacterial community and associated functionality beneath beetle-killed lodgepole pine was influenced by the extent of surrounding tree mortality. The most pronounced changes were observed in the potentially active bacterial community, where alpha diversity increased in concert with surrounding tree mortality until mortality exceeded a tipping point of ~30 to 40%, after which diversity stabilized and decreased. Community structure also clustered in association with the extent of surrounding tree mortality with compositional trends best explained by differences in NH 4 + concentrations and C/N ratios. C/N ratios, which were lower in soils under beetle-killed trees, further correlated with the relative abundance of putative nitrifiers and exoenzyme activity. Collectively, the response of soil microorganisms that drive heterotrophic respiration and decay supports observations of broader macroscale threshold effects on water quality in heavily infested forests and could be utilized as a predictive mechanism during analogous ecosystem disruptions. IMPORTANCE Forests around the world are succumbing to insect infestation with repercussions for local soil biogeochemistry and downstream water quality and quantity. This study utilized microbial community dynamics to address why we are observing watershed scale biogeochemical impacts from forest mortality in some impacted areas but not others. Through a unique "tree-centric" approach, we were able to delineate plots with various tree mortality levels within the same watershed

  13. [Relationships between foot problems, fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Kaburagi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    Although a foot care program for long-term care prevention has been launched in Japan, few studies have examined its effectiveness. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of foot problems with fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly people. The participants were 10,581 community-dwelling elderly people (75.2 +/- 5.6 years) and the study design was cross-sectional using a questionnaire. Self-reported tinea pedis, skin problems (inflammation, swelling, or discoloration), nail problems (thickening or deformities), impairment (in function or blood flow), regular foot care, and wearing of appropriate shoes were selected as parameters of foot problems and their care. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether these were related to fall experience (in the past 1 year) and fear of falling adjusted for age, the Tokyo Metropolitan institute of gerontology index of competence, medical conditions, and lower limb functions. Forty-six percents of males and 39.0% of females reported at least one foot problem. After adjusting for covariates, tinea pedis (male: adjusted odds ratio = 1.37[95% confidence interval= 1.15-1.63], female: 1.29[1.08-1.53]), skin problems (male: 1.66[1.32-2.101, female: 1.37[1.13-1.66]), nail problems (male: 1.72[1.45-2.051, female: 1.48[1.26-1.74]), and functional impairment (male: 2.42[1.91-3.05], female: 1.66[1.36-2.04]) were significantly associated with fall experience. Also, each problem was negatively associated with fear of falling (tinea pedis[male: 1.37 [1.15-1.62], female: 1.25[1.07-1.47

  14. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  15. Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality and Benthic Macrophyte Communities in Florida Bay, USA Reveals Hurricane Effects and Susceptibility to Seagrass Die-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Cole

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass communities, dominated by Thalassia testudinum, form the principal benthic ecosystem within Florida Bay, Florida USA. The bay has had several large-scale seagrass die-offs in recent decades associated with drought and hypersaline conditions. In addition, three category-5 hurricanes passed in close proximity to the bay during the fall of 2005. This study investigated temporal and spatial trends in macrophyte abundance and water quality from 2006 to 2013 at 15 permanent transect sites, which were co-located with long-term water quality stations. Relationships, by year and by transect location (basin, between antecedent water quality (mean, minimum and maximum for a 6-month period and benthic macrophyte communities were examined using multivariate analyses. Total phosphorus, salinity, pH, turbidity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, DIN to phosphate ratio (DIN:PO4-3, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen correlated with temporal and spatial variations in the macrophyte communities. Temporal analysis (MDS and LINKTREE indicated that the fall 2005 hurricanes affected both water quality and macrophyte communities for approximately a 2-year period. Spatial analysis revealed that five basins, which subsequently exhibited a major seagrass die-off during summer 2015, significantly differed from the other ten basins in macrophyte community structure and water quality more than 2 years before this die-off event. High total phosphorus, high pH, low DIN, and low DIN:PO4-3, in combination with deep sediments and high seagrass cover were characteristic of sites that subsequently exhibited severe die-off. Our results indicate basins with more mixed seagrass communities and higher macroalgae abundance are less susceptible to die-off, which is consistent with the management goals of promoting more heterogeneous benthic macrophyte communities.

  16. Disentangling community functional components in a litter-macrodetritivore model system reveals the predominance of the mass ratio hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílá, Karolína; Morreti, M.; de Bello, Francesco; Dias, A. T. C.; Pezzatti, G. B.; van Oosten, A. R.; Berg, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2014), s. 408-416 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Community -weighted mean trait value * functional diversity * functional metrics * Isopoda * litter decomposition * macrodetritivores * trait dissimilarity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2014

  17. Bacterial community variations in an alfalfa-rice rotation system revealed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana R; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-03-01

    Crop rotation is a practice harmonized with the sustainable rice production. Nevertheless, the implications of this empirical practice are not well characterized, mainly in relation to the bacterial community composition and structure. In this study, the bacterial communities of two adjacent paddy fields in the 3rd and 4th year of the crop rotation cycle and of a nonseeded subplot were characterized before rice seeding and after harvesting, using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the phyla Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes predominated in all the samples, there were variations in relative abundance of these groups. Samples from the 3rd and 4th years of the crop rotation differed on the higher abundance of groups of presumable aerobic bacteria and of presumable anaerobic and acidobacterial groups, respectively. Members of the phylum Nitrospira were more abundant after rice harvest than in the previously sampled period. Rice cropping was positively correlated with the abundance of members of the orders Acidobacteriales and 'Solibacterales' and negatively with lineages such as Chloroflexi 'Ellin6529'. Studies like this contribute to understand variations occurring in the microbial communities in soils under sustainable rice production, based on real-world data. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecosystem Resilience and Limitations Revealed by Soil Bacterial Community Dynamics in a Bark Beetle-Impacted Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Mikkelson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forested ecosystems throughout the world are experiencing increases in the incidence and magnitude of insect-induced tree mortality with large ecologic ramifications. Interestingly, correlations between water quality and the extent of tree mortality in Colorado montane ecosystems suggest compensatory effects from adjacent live vegetation that mute responses in less severely impacted forests. To this end, we investigated whether the composition of the soil bacterial community and associated functionality beneath beetle-killed lodgepole pine was influenced by the extent of surrounding tree mortality. The most pronounced changes were observed in the potentially active bacterial community, where alpha diversity increased in concert with surrounding tree mortality until mortality exceeded a tipping point of ~30 to 40%, after which diversity stabilized and decreased. Community structure also clustered in association with the extent of surrounding tree mortality with compositional trends best explained by differences in NH4+ concentrations and C/N ratios. C/N ratios, which were lower in soils under beetle-killed trees, further correlated with the relative abundance of putative nitrifiers and exoenzyme activity. Collectively, the response of soil microorganisms that drive heterotrophic respiration and decay supports observations of broader macroscale threshold effects on water quality in heavily infested forests and could be utilized as a predictive mechanism during analogous ecosystem disruptions.

  19. Shifts in microbial community structure and function in surface waters impacted by unconventional oil and gas wastewater revealed by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfeld, N.L.; Reyes, Hannah Delos; Eramo, Alessia; Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production produces large quantities of wastewater with complex geochemistry and largely uncharacterized impacts on surface waters. In this study, we assessed shifts in microbial community structure and function in sediments and waters upstream and downstream from a UOG wastewater disposal facility. To do this, quantitative PCR for 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes along with metagenomic sequencing were performed. Elevated conductivity and markers of UOG wastewater characterized sites sampled downstream from the disposal facility compared to background sites. Shifts in overall high level functions and microbial community structure were observed between background sites and downstream sediments. Increases in Deltaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia and decreases in Thaumarchaeota were observed at downstream sites. Genes related to dormancy and sporulation and methanogenic respiration were 18–86 times higher at downstream, impacted sites. The potential for these sediments to serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance was investigated given frequent reports of the use of biocides to control the growth of nuisance bacteria in UOG operations. A shift in resistance profiles downstream of the UOG facility was observed including increases in acrB and mexB genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps, but not overall abundance of resistance genes. The observed shifts in microbial community structure and potential function indicate changes in respiration, nutrient cycling, and markers of stress in a stream impacted by UOG waste disposal operations.

  20. Exploring the Lived Experiences and Intersectionalities of Mexican Community College Transfer Students: Qualitative Insights toward Expanding a Transfer Receptive Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Erin L.; Cortez, Edén

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of six Mexican community college transfer students attending a research-intensive institution in the Pacific Northwest. Using semi-structured interviews, the objectives of this study were to 1) understand how Mexican students made meaning of their transfer experiences and 2) how those experiences…

  1. Change Management Model for Implementing an Effective First-Year Experience Program in the Community College Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joy C.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides evidence that systematic management of change can facilitate the implementation of first-year experience programming that leads to improved results in retention and student success for community college students. The study includes four major themes: (a) first-year experience, (b) change management, (c) change leadership, and…

  2. Building climate change adaptation on community experiences: Lessons from community-based natural resource management in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chishakwe, Nyasha; Murray, Laurel; Chambwera, Muyeye

    2012-05-15

    This publication, produced in collaboration with WWF Southern Africa, looks at how community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) can inform and contribute to climate change adaptation at the community level, specifically to community-based adaptation (CBA) to climate change. It provides a framework for analysing the two approaches at conceptual and practical levels. Using case studies from southern Africa, the publication demonstrates the synergies between CBA and CBNRM, most important of which are the adaptation co-benefits between the two. While local incentives have driven community action in CBNRM, it is the evolution of an enabling environment in the region, in the form of institutions, policies, capacity and collaboration which characterises the scaling up of CBNRM to national and regional levels.

  3. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Bælum, Jacob; Taş, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Philipp; Priemé, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78°N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below −10°C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface. PMID:25983731

  4. A Study of the Vaginal Microbiome in Healthy Canadian Women Utilizing cpn60-Based Molecular Profiling Reveals Distinct Gardnerella Subgroup Community State Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Emily C.; Schellenberg, John J.; Links, Matthew G.; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Reid, Gregor; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Hill, Janet E.; Money, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiota is important in women’s reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy, non-pregnant, ethnically diverse, reproductive-aged Canadian women. Socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected and vaginal swabs were analyzed from 310 women. Detailed profiles of their vaginal microbiomes were generated by pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target. Six community state types (CST) were delineated by hierarchical clustering, including three Lactobacillus-dominated CST (L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii), two Gardnerella-dominated (subgroups A and C) and an “intermediate” CST which included a small number of women with microbiomes dominated by seven other species or with no dominant species but minority populations of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptoniphilus, E. coli and various Proteobacteria in co-dominant communities. The striking correspondence between Nugent score and deep sequencing CST continues to reinforce the basic premise provided by the simpler Gram stain method, while additional analyses reveal detailed cpn60-based phylogeny and estimated abundance in microbial communities from vaginal samples. Ethnicity was the only demographic or clinical characteristic predicting CST, with differences in Asian and White women (p = 0.05). In conclusion, this study confirms previous work describing four cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella, revealing previously undescribed CST. The data describe the range of bacterial communities seen in Canadian women presenting with no specific vaginal health concerns, and provides an important baseline for future investigations of clinically important cohorts. PMID:26266808

  5. The motivations and experiences of students enrolled in online science courses at the community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Urbi

    An important question in online learning involves how to effectively motivate and retain students in science online courses. There is a dearth of research and knowledge about the experiences of students enrolled in online science courses in community colleges which has impeded the proper development and implementation of online courses and retention of students in the online environment. This study sought to provide an understanding of the relationships among each of the following variables: self-efficacy, task value, negative-achievement emotions, self-regulation learning strategies (metacognition), learning strategy (elaboration), and course satisfaction to student's performance (course final grade). Bandura's social-cognitive theory was used as a framework to describe the relationships among students' motivational beliefs (perceived task value, self-efficacy, and self-regulation) and emotions (frustration and boredom) with the dependent variables (elaboration and overall course satisfaction). A mixed-method design was used with a survey instrumentation and student interviews. A variety of science online courses in biology, genetics, astronomy, nutrition, and chemistry were surveyed in two community colleges. Community colleges students (N = 107) completed a questionnaire during enrollment in a variety of online science online courses. Upon course completion, 12 respondents were randomly selected for follow-up in-depth interviews. Multiple regression results from the study indicate perceived task value and self-regulatory learning strategies (metacognition) were as important predictors for students' use of elaboration, while self-efficacy and the number of prior online courses was not significant predictors for students' elaboration when all four predictors were included. Frustration was a significant negative predictor of overall course satisfaction, and boredom unexpectedly emerged as a positive predictor when frustration was also in the model. In addition, the

  6. Do community medicine residency trainees learn through journal club? An experience from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Muhammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal clubs are an internationally recognized teaching tool in many postgraduate medical education fields. In developing countries lack of funds for current print materials may have limited journal club use. But with advancing information technology trainees in developing countries increasingly have more access to high quality journals online. However, we are aware of no studies describing journal club existence and effectiveness in postgraduate medical training in Pakistan. Also we have found no published effectiveness studies of this teaching modality in Community Medicine (Public Health in any country. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Community Medicine (Public Health Resident Journal Club (CMR-JC in Aga Khan University, Pakistan using international criteria for successful journal clubs (2 years continuous existence and more than 50% attendance and examining resident and alumni satisfaction. Methods Journal club effectiveness criteria were searched using electronic search databases. Departmental records were reviewed from September1999–September 2005. Ninety percent of residents and alumni of Community Medicine Residency Programme participated voluntarily in a confidential survey. Results The CMR-JC was regularly conducted. More than 95% of residents attended. (Total residents in the CMR-Programme: 32. Twenty-seven out of 29 current residents/alumni responded to the anonymous questionnaire. Acquisition of critical appraisal skills (23 respondents and keeping up with current literature (18 respondents were the two most important objectives achieved. Respondents recommended improved faculty participation and incorporating a structured checklist for article review. Conclusion CMR-JC fulfils criteria for effective journal clubs. Residents and alumni agree CMR-JC meets its objectives. Incorporating suggested recommendations will further improve standards. The journal club learning modality should be included in

  7. The satisfaction, motivation, and future of community preceptors: the North Carolina experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latessa, Robyn; Beaty, Norma; Landis, Suzanne; Colvin, Gaye; Janes, Cynthia

    2007-07-01

    To measure satisfaction and motivation of community-based preceptors, and to examine differences between degree groups of physicians, pharmacists, advanced-practice nurses (nurse practitioners and certified nurse midwives), and physician assistants. In spring 2005, the authors mailed a four-page, 24-item survey to all 2,061 community-based primary care preceptors served by the North Carolina Area Health Education Centers system. The survey measured preceptor satisfaction, likelihood of continuing as a preceptor, influence of having students, motivation for teaching, satisfaction in professional practice, satisfaction with incentives, and value of incentives. Response rate was 69.3%, or 1,428 preceptors. Most preceptors (93.0%) reported high satisfaction with their precepting experience, and 90.9% indicated high likelihood of continuing to precept for the next five years. Almost all preceptors (93.7%) reported they were satisfied with their professional life. Many community preceptors (57.2%) were satisfied with incentives. They placed greater value on the intrinsic reasons for precepting (i.e., enjoyment of teaching) rather than extrinsic rewards (such as no-cost online library resources). Degree groups placed differing values on intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Physicians reported more negativity about the influence of students and regarding aspects of their professional lives. Tailoring support to better meet individual degree groups' preferences can maximize resources and may encourage preceptor retention. Special attention to physicians' needs may be warranted to avoid decreased preceptor numbers in this at-risk group. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings are unique to North Carolina, which has a strong infrastructure to support preceptors.

  8. Patients' experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-09-09

    To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be undertaken to address these. Published by the BMJ

  9. Retention of habitat complexity minimizes disassembly of reef fish communities following disturbance: a large-scale natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Emslie

    Full Text Available High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year, spatially extensive (∼ 115,000 kms(2 dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef.

  10. Understanding community and solidarity tourism: a dialog with experiences in Marraquech and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cioce Sampaio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussion on community tourism and solidarity tourism reflects on others such as: cultural tourism, ethnic tourism, ecotourism and rural tourism, many times expropriated by darwinean logics and capitalist dynamics which limit tourist experiences potentialities to the conservation of traditional ways of life. This article intends to dialog with commercial exchange ceremonies experienced in Marraquech in Dezember 2008 to understand community and solidarity tourism in Latin America. Tourism in Marraquech is divided through a wall. Inside it, at the Medina, socio cultural beriberi and Arabian culture is predominant, under the only commercial ceremonial: you never know if you are doing big deal. Outside, west prone socio-cultural circuit is predominant, with hotel chains, restaurants and international shops known as the more expensive, the best! Reflection is made about the way ceremonies, turned into ways of life are similar or not. No doubt real wall is not as big as the symbolic wall between villages: western and communitarian, and between tourisms, conventional and solidarity local based one.

  11. Nurses' and community support workers' experience of telehealth: a longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvashi; Clarke, Malcolm

    2014-04-10

    Introduction of telehealth into the healthcare setting has been recognised as a service that might be experienced as disruptive. This paper explores how this disruption is experienced. In a longitudinal qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions prior to and semi structured interviews post introduction of a telehealth service in Nottingham, U.K. with the community matrons, congestive heart failure nurses, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease nurses and community support workers that would be involved in order to elicit their preconceptions and reactions to the implementation. Users experienced disruption due to the implementation of telehealth as threatening. Three main factors add to the experience of threat and affect the decision to use the technology: change in clinical routines and increased workload; change in interactions with patients and fundamentals of face-to-face nursing work; and change in skills required with marginalisation of clinical expertise. Since the introduction of telehealth can be experienced as threatening, managers and service providers should aim at minimising the disruption caused by taking the above factors on board. This can be achieved by employing simple yet effective measures such as: providing timely, appropriate and context specific training; provision of adequate technical support; and procedures that allow a balance between the use of telehealth and personal visit by nurses delivering care to their patients.

  12. 'Trust and teamwork matter': community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India's rural public health system. Though the logic of horizontal and integrated health care to strengthen health systems has long been acknowledged at policy level, empirical evidence on how such integration operates is rare. Based on recent (2011-2012) ethnographic fieldwork in Odisha, India, this article discusses community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. Crucially, they perceive 'teamwork' and 'building trust with the community' (beyond trust in health services) to be critical components of their practice. However, the comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology - which the health workers espouse - is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance. Our ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalised privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration.

  13. Clients' experiences of a community based lifestyle modification program: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth S M; Lok, Kris Y W; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients' experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists' capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist's capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification.

  14. Clients’ Experiences of a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients’ experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists’ capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist’s capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification.

  15. Key experiences of community engagement and social mobilization in the Ebola response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverack, G.; Manoncourt, Erma

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa is the largest on record; it has undermined already fragile healthcare systems and presented new challenges to contain the spread of the disease. Based on our observations in the field and insights from referenced sources, we aimed to identify...... key experiences of community engagement and social mobilization efforts in the current Ebola response. We concluded that there is no excuse not to actively involve local people and that the United Nations (UN) agencies and other partners did learn from their earlier mistakes to make a genuine attempt...... and health. This commentary can provide a guide to agencies to understand an appropriate way forward when the next Ebola outbreak inevitably occurs. © The Author(s) 2015....

  16. Estimating receiver functions on dense arrays: application to the IRIS Community Wavefield Experiment in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Zhan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Receiver functions (RF) estimated on dense arrays have been widely used for studies of Earth structures at different scales. However, there are still challenges in estimating and interpreting RF images due to non-uniqueness of deconvolution, noise in data, and lack of uncertainty. Here, we develop a dense-array-based RF method towards robust and high-resolution RF images. We cast RF images as the models in a sparsity-promoted inverse problem, in which waveforms from multiple events recorded by neighboring stations are jointly inverted. We use the Neighborhood Algorithm to find the optimal model (i.e., RF image) as well as an ensemble of models for further uncertainty quantification. Synthetic tests and application to the IRIS Community Wavefield Experiment in Oklahoma demonstrate that the new method is able to deal with challenging dataset, retrieve reliable high-resolution RF images, and provide realistic uncertainty estimates.

  17. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were ...% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study...

  18. Transcriptional Activities of the Microbial Consortium Living with the Marine Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium Reveal Potential Roles in Community-Level Nitrogen Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Webb, Eric A; Walworth, Nathan G; Fu, Fei-Xue; Held, Noelle A; Saito, Mak A; Hutchins, David A

    2018-01-01

    Trichodesmium is a globally distributed cyanobacterium whose nitrogen-fixing capability fuels primary production in warm oligotrophic oceans. Like many photoautotrophs, Trichodesmium serves as a host to various other microorganisms, yet little is known about how this associated community modulates fluxes of environmentally relevant chemical species into and out of the supraorganismal structure. Here, we utilized metatranscriptomics to examine gene expression activities of microbial communities associated with Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) using laboratory-maintained enrichment cultures that have previously been shown to harbor microbial communities similar to those of natural populations. In enrichments maintained under two distinct CO 2 concentrations for ∼8 years, the community transcriptional profiles were found to be specific to the treatment, demonstrating a restructuring of overall gene expression had occurred. Some of this restructuring involved significant increases in community respiration-related transcripts under elevated CO 2 , potentially facilitating the corresponding measured increases in host nitrogen fixation rates. Particularly of note, in both treatments, community transcripts involved in the reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were detected, suggesting the associated organisms may play a role in colony-level nitrogen cycling. Lastly, a taxon-specific analysis revealed distinct ecological niches of consistently cooccurring major taxa that may enable, or even encourage, the stable cohabitation of a diverse community within Trichodesmium consortia. IMPORTANCE Trichodesmium is a genus of globally distributed, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacteria. As a source of new nitrogen in otherwise nitrogen-deficient systems, these organisms help fuel carbon fixation carried out by other more abundant photoautotrophs and thereby have significant roles in global nitrogen and carbon cycling. Members of the Trichodesmium genus tend to

  19. Fall Risk Index predicts functional decline regardless of fall experiences among community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Yasuko; Wada, Taizo; Kasahara, Yoriko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Hirosaki, Mayumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Michiko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishine, Masayuki; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2012-10-01

    The 21-item Fall Risk Index (FRI-21) has been used to detect elderly persons at risk for falls. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the FRI-21 as a predictor of decline in basic activities of daily living (BADL) among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons independent of fall risk. The study population consisted of 518 elderly participants aged 65 years and older who were BADL independent at baseline in Tosa, Japan. We examined risk factors for BADL decline from 2008 to 2009 by multiple logistic regression analysis on the FRI-21 and other functional status measures in all participants. We carried out the same analysis in selected participants who had no experience of falls to remove the effect of falls. A total of 45 of 518 participants showed decline in BADL within 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.20), FRI-21 ≥ 10 (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.49-9.27), intellectual activity dependence (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.42-7.44) and history of osteoarthropathy (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.40-7.21) were significant independent risk factors for BADL decline within 1 year. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence (≤ 3) remained significant predictors, even in selected non-fallers. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence were significant predictive factors of BADL decline, regardless of fall experience, after adjustment for confounding variables. The FRI-21 is a brief, useful tool not only for predicting falls, but also future decline in functional ability in community-dwelling elderly persons. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Conventional and technical diving surveys reveal elevated biomass and differing fish community composition from shallow and upper mesophotic zones of a remote United States coral reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldan C Muñoz

    Full Text Available The world's coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at deeper depths. The few previous studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems have shown variation across locations in depth-specific species composition and assemblage shifts, potentially a response to differences in habitat or light availability/water clarity. This study utilized scuba to examine fish and benthic communities from shallow and upper mesophotic (to 45 m zones of Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS, 28°0'N; 93°50'W from 2010-2012. Dominant planktivores were ubiquitous in shallow and upper mesophotic habitats, and comparisons with previous shallow research suggest this community distribution has persisted for over 30 years. Planktivores were abundant in shallow low-relief habitats on the periphery of the coral reef, and some of these sites that contained habitat transitioning from high to low relief supported high biomass of benthic predators. These peripheral sites at FGBNMS may be important for the trophic transfer of oceanic energy to the benthic coral reef. Distinct differences between upper mesophotic and shallow communities were also observed. These included greater overall fish (as well as apex predator biomass in the upper mesophotic, differences in apex predator community composition between depth zones, and greater percent cover of algae, rubble, sand, and sponges in the upper mesophotic. Greater fish biomass in the upper mesophotic and similar fish community composition between depth zones provide preliminary support that upper mesophotic habitats at FGBNMS have the capacity to serve as refugia for the shallow-water reefs. Diving

  1. Conventional and technical diving surveys reveal elevated biomass and differing fish community composition from shallow and upper mesophotic zones of a remote United States coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Buckel, Christine A; Whitfield, Paula E; Viehman, Shay; Clark, Randy; Taylor, J Christopher; Degan, Brian P; Hickerson, Emma L

    2017-01-01

    The world's coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m) studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at deeper depths. The few previous studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems have shown variation across locations in depth-specific species composition and assemblage shifts, potentially a response to differences in habitat or light availability/water clarity. This study utilized scuba to examine fish and benthic communities from shallow and upper mesophotic (to 45 m) zones of Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS, 28°0'N; 93°50'W) from 2010-2012. Dominant planktivores were ubiquitous in shallow and upper mesophotic habitats, and comparisons with previous shallow research suggest this community distribution has persisted for over 30 years. Planktivores were abundant in shallow low-relief habitats on the periphery of the coral reef, and some of these sites that contained habitat transitioning from high to low relief supported high biomass of benthic predators. These peripheral sites at FGBNMS may be important for the trophic transfer of oceanic energy to the benthic coral reef. Distinct differences between upper mesophotic and shallow communities were also observed. These included greater overall fish (as well as apex predator) biomass in the upper mesophotic, differences in apex predator community composition between depth zones, and greater percent cover of algae, rubble, sand, and sponges in the upper mesophotic. Greater fish biomass in the upper mesophotic and similar fish community composition between depth zones provide preliminary support that upper mesophotic habitats at FGBNMS have the capacity to serve as refugia for the shallow-water reefs. Diving surveys of the

  2. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs.

  3. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Ye

    Full Text Available Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities.

  4. Pyrosequencing revealed shifts of prokaryotic communities between healthy and disease-like tissues of the Red Sea sponge Crella cyathophora

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhao-Ming

    2015-06-11

    Sponge diseases have been widely reported, yet the causal factors and major pathogenic microbes remain elusive. In this study, two individuals of the sponge Crella cyathophora in total that showed similar disease-like characteristics were collected from two different locations along the Red Sea coast separated by more than 30 kilometers. The disease-like parts of the two individuals were both covered by green surfaces, and the body size was much smaller compared with adjacent healthy regions. Here, using high-throughput pyrosequencing technology, we investigated the prokaryotic communities in healthy and disease-like sponge tissues as well as adjacent seawater. Microbes in healthy tissues belonged mainly to the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and were much more diverse at the phylum level than reported previously. Interestingly, the disease-like tissues from the two sponge individuals underwent shifts of prokaryotic communities and were both enriched with a novel clade affiliated with the phylum Verrucomicrobia, implying its intimate connection with the disease-like Red Sea sponge C. cyathophora. Enrichment of the phylum Verrucomicrobia was also considered to be correlated with the presence of algae assemblages forming the green surface of the disease-like sponge tissues. This finding represents an interesting case of sponge disease and is valuable for further study.

  5. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, L; Engberg, R M; Leser, T D; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Pedersen, K

    2006-07-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known cultured species. The chicken ileum was dominated by lactobacilli, whereas the cecum harbored a more diverse microbial community. The cecum was dominated by a large group of bacteria with hitherto no close cultured relatives but most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Approximately 49 and 20% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the conventional feed. In the ileum, the abundance of the different Lactobacillus species differed between the 2 broiler types. The culture-based and culture-independent techniques complemented each other well. Strengths and limitations of the different methods are discussed.

  6. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic microbial communities associated with the siliceous vent walls and outflow channel of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, have been examined for lipid biomarkers and carbon isotopic signatures. These data were compared with that obtained from representatives of three Aquificales genera. Thermocrinis ruber. "Thermocrinis sp. HI", Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus and Aquifex aeolicus all contained phospholipids composed not only of the usual ester-linked fatty acids, but also ether-linked alkyls. The fatty acids of all cultured organisms were dominated by a very distinct pattern of n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21 compounds. The alkyl glycerol ethers were present primarily as CIS() monoethers with the expection of the Aquifex spp. in which dialkyl glycerol ethers with a boarder carbon-number distribution were also present. These Aquificales biomarker lipids were the major constituents in the lipid extracts of the Octopus Spring microbial samples. Two natural samples, a microbial biofilm growing in association with deposition of amorphous silica on the vent walls at 92 C, and the well-known 'pink-streamers community' (PSC), siliceous filaments of a microbial consortia growing in the upper outflow channel at 87 C were analyzed. Both the biofilm and PSC samples contained mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers with a prevalence of C-18 and C-20 alkyls. Phospholipid fatty acids were comprised of both the characteristic Aquificales n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21, and in addition, a series of iso-branched fatty acids from i-C-15:0 to i-C-21:0, With i-C-17:0 dominant in the PSC and i-C-19:0 in the biofilm, suggesting the presence of two major bacterial groups. Bacteriohopanepolyols were absent and the minute quantities of archaeol detected showed that Archaea were only minor constituents. Carbon isotopic compositions of the PSC yielded information about community structure and likely physiology. Biomass was C-13-depleted (10.9%) relative to available

  7. Illumina sequencing-based analysis of a microbial community enriched under anaerobic methane oxidation condition coupled to denitrification revealed coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto Lemos; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2017-07-01

    Methane is produced in anaerobic environments, such as reactors used to treat wastewaters, and can be consumed by methanotrophs. The composition and structure of a microbial community enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge under methane-oxidation condition coupled to denitrification were investigated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis retrieved sequences of Methylocaldum and Chloroflexi. Deep sequencing analysis revealed a complex community that changed over time and was affected by methane concentration. Methylocaldum (8.2%), Methylosinus (2.3%), Methylomonas (0.02%), Methylacidiphilales (0.45%), Nitrospirales (0.18%), and Methanosarcinales (0.3%) were detected. Despite denitrifying conditions provided, Nitrospirales and Methanosarcinales, known to perform anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (DAMO) process, were in very low abundance. Results demonstrated that aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs coexisted in the reactor together with heterotrophic microorganisms, suggesting that a diverse microbial community was important to sustain methanotrophic activity. The methanogenic sludge was a good inoculum to enrich methanotrophs, and cultivation conditions play a selective role in determining community composition.

  8. Green infrastructure planning for cooling urban communities: Overview of the contemporary approaches with special reference to Serbian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contemporary approaches defined by the policies, programs or standards that favor green infrastructure in urban planning for cooling urban environments with special reference to Serbian experiences. The research results reveal an increasing emphasis on the multifunctionality of green infrastructure as well the determination to the development of policies, guidelines and standards with the support of the overall community. Further, special importance is given to policies that promote ‘cool communities’ strategies resulting in the increase of vegetation-covered areas, what has contributed in adapting urban environments to the impacts of climate change. In addition, this research indicates the important role of local authorities and planners in Serbia in promoting planning policies and programs that take into consideration the role of green infrastructure in terms of improving climatic conditions, quality of life and reducing energy needed for cooling and heating. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36035: Spatial, ecological, energy, and social aspects of developing settlements and climate change - mutual impacts i br. 43007: The investigation of climate change and its impacts, climate change adaptation and mitigation

  9. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Calvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai

  10. Developing Preceptors through Virtual Communities and Networks: Experiences from a Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Margaret L; Romanick, Marcel

    2011-11-01

    Supporting preceptors is critical to the expansion of experiential learning opportunities for the pharmacy profession. Informal learning opportunities within communities of practitioners are important for hospital preceptors. However, such communities may be limited by geographic separation of preceptors from peers, faculty members, and supports within the pharmacy services department. To use computer-mediated conferencing to create a sense of community among preceptors, specifically by using this medium to provide initial development of and continuing support for preceptors, and to examine preceptors' satisfaction with this approach. Thirty-nine preceptors who had completed a day-long face-to-face preceptor development workshop and who were supervising students in 1 of 2 specific rotation blocks were invited to participate in the study. The pharmacists used computer-mediated conferencing to meet for virtual networking about specific topics. They met once before the student rotation to receive instructions about the technology and to discuss student orientation and scheduling, and 3 times during the student rotation for open discussion of specific topics. Evaluation and feedback were solicited by means of an electronic survey and virtual (i.e., computer-based) feedback sessions with an independent facilitator. The response rate was 66% (26/39) for the electronic survey, but only 15% (6/39) for the virtual feedback sessions. All of the respondents were experienced preceptors, but for 92% (22/24), this was their first experience with computer-mediated conferencing. Overall, the sessions had a positive reception, and participants found it useful to share information and experiences with other preceptors. The main challenges were related to the technology, perceived lack of support for their participation in the sessions, and inconvenience related to the timing of sessions. Computer-mediated conferencing allowed preceptors to learn from and to support each other

  11. Alcohol brief intervention in community pharmacies: a feasibility study of outcomes and customer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Natasha S; Norman, Ian J; Dhital, Ranjita; McCrone, Paul; Milligan, Peter; Whittlesea, Cate M

    2013-12-01

    Studies indicate that community pharmacy-based alcohol brief intervention (BI) is feasible. However, few studies report significant reductions in post-BI alcohol consumption and customer experience. Cost-effectiveness has not been previously examined. This 5 month study adopted a single group pre- and post-experimental design to: (1) assess uptake of the community pharmacy alcohol BI service; (2) establish post-BI changes in alcohol consumption for hazardous drinkers; (3) report the acceptability of the service to customers who received it; and (4) undertake a preliminary economic evaluation of the service through establishing whether pharmacy-based alcohol BI affected health and social care costs, including lost employment costs, and whether it was cost-effective. 26 community pharmacies in south London, UK. Trained pharmacists used the AUDIT-C and a retrospective 7-day Drinking Diary to identify risky drinkers and inform feedback and advice. Harmful drinkers were referred to their general practitioner and/or specialist alcohol services. A confidential service feedback questionnaire was completed by alcohol BI recipients. Baseline and 3-month follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with hazardous and low risk drinkers to assess post-BI alcohol use change and service cost-effectiveness. AUDIT-C, 7-day alcohol unit consumption, drinking days, cost utilisation data. Of the 663 eligible customers offered alcohol BI, 141 (21 %) took up the service. Three-quarters of customers were identified as risky drinkers. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 61 hazardous/low risk drinkers (response rate = 58 %). Hazardous drinkers were found to significantly reduce their 7-day alcohol unit consumption and drinking days, but not AUDIT-C scores. The majority of harmful drinkers (91 %, n = 10) who were contactable post-BI had accessed further alcohol related services. Customer feedback was generally positive. Over 75 % of customers would recommend the service to others. The

  12. Environment sensitization through arts: an experience with communities along Amazon rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia Isabel P. de; Gusmao, Dulce Milena Almeida [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, the deforestation, pollution, losses in historic and cultural patrimony are each time more common in communities which, due to the great distances from urban centers, lack of any level of information. Normally, in these communities, theaters do not exist, nor local cinemas or places where people can have access to any type of art and culture. In this context, the Amazon suffers from the same problems than other regions in Brazil, however allied to logistic difficulties and other local specificities. That way, this work is about an experience lived in the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline construction and assembly process, in which 18 communities were involved in a work of Environmental Education through arts: music, theater, movies, and others. In those communities there is great disinformation or distortion regarding programs and environmental plans from Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, mainly due to the distance from urban centers and lack of communication vehicles. But this initiative did not come from an obligation or legal recommendations, but from a necessity to reach this public using an assertive communication. This work's specific goals were: To use the interpenetration between art and education and the playful, creative and humorous language of specific artistic interventions, adjusted to that public and its peculiarities, in order to lead the dialogue between different knowledge, that is, between traditional culture and environmental concepts paved in studies and scientific data, and to spread Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline environmental programs; To arise, in the artistic interventions, that specific public's participation and integration, always focusing the environmental message and the respect for the Amazonian culture; To value, in all artistic interventions, people's traditional knowledge, the Amazonian environment and, mainly, the importance of each local inhabitant for that environment's conservation, important for us all

  13. Community health workers for ART in sub-Saharan Africa: learning from experience – capitalizing on new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Erik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low-income countries with high HIV/AIDS burdens in sub-Saharan Africa must deal with severe shortages of qualified human resources for health. This situation has triggered the renewed interest in community health workers, as they may play an important role in scaling-up antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS by taking over a number of tasks from the professional health workers. Currently, a wide variety of community health workers are active in many antiretroviral treatment delivery sites. This article investigates whether present community health worker programmes for antiretroviral treatment are taking into account the lessons learnt from past experiences with community health worker programmes in primary health care and to what extent they are seizing the new antiretroviral treatment-specific opportunities. Based on a desk review of multi-purpose community health worker programmes for primary health care and of recent experiences with antiretroviral treatment-related community health workers, we developed an analytic framework of 10 criteria: eight conditions for successful large-scale antiretroviral treatment-related community health worker programmes and two antiretroviral treatment-specific opportunities. Our appraisal of six community health worker programmes, which we identified during field work in Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda in 2007, shows that while some lessons from the past have been learnt, others are not being sufficiently considered and antiretroviral treatment-specific opportunities are not being sufficiently seized. In particular, all programmes have learnt the lesson that without adequate remuneration, community health workers cannot be retained in the long term. Yet we contend that the apparently insufficient attention to issues such as quality supervision and continuous training will lead to decreasing quality of the programmes over time. The life experience of people living with HIV/AIDS is still a relatively

  14. Tissue-associated bacterial alterations in rectal carcinoma patients revealed by 16S rRNA community profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Maltez Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified

  15. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and health-related quality of life in adulthood: revelations from a community needs assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Salemi, Jason L.; King, Lindsey M.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Berry, Estrellita ?Lo?; Austin, Deborah A.; Scarborough, Kenneth; Spooner, Kiara K.; Zoorob, Roger J.; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been previously linked to quality of life, health conditions, and life expectancy in adulthood. Less is known about the potential mechanisms which mediate these associations. This study examined how ACE influences adult health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a low-income community in Florida. Methods A community-based participatory needs assessment was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 with 201 residents of Tampa, Florida, USA. H...

  17. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eBrooks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13-21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.

  18. Volunteers' Experiences Delivering a Community-University Chronic Disease Health Awareness Program for South Asian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Jones, Polly; Daly, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Volunteers and voluntary organizations can connect preventative health care programs to communities and may play an important role in addressing the health needs of older adults. Despite this, tensions may exist in the structures that drive volunteers and voluntary organizations representing immigrant communities to provide unpaid labour to augment and supplement health care services. Furthermore, organizational challenges may exist for community agencies relying on volunteers to sustain a health screening and education program. The intervention program was led by one voluntary agency specifically for South Asian communities in partnership with the university and five local organizations. This paper draws on volunteer surveys (n = 22) and key informant interviews (n = 12) to detail volunteer experiences providing this intervention. Volunteers were university students and other community volunteers. A total of 810 adults participated in the intervention within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada between October 2014 and June 2016. We found that volunteers often used their experience as a 'stepping stone' position to other education or work. They also gained from the knowledge and used it to educate themselves and their family members and friends. This paper provides a critical reflection on the role of volunteers in a preventative and educational healthcare intervention program for older adults from the South Asian community. Tensions exist when relying on volunteer labour for the implementation of preventative community health care programming and must be explored to ensure program sustainability as well as equity within the health care system.

  19. Case-mix adjustment and the comparison of community health center performance on patient experience measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M Laura; Rodriguez, Hector P; Solorio, M Rosa

    2010-06-01

    To assess the effect of case-mix adjustment on community health center (CHC) performance on patient experience measures. A Medicaid-managed care plan in Washington State collected patient survey data from 33 CHCs over three fiscal quarters during 2007-2008. The survey included three composite patient experience measures (6-month reports) and two overall ratings of care. The analytic sample includes 2,247 adult patients and 2,859 adults reporting for child patients. We compared the relative importance of patient case-mix adjusters by calculating each adjuster's predictive power and variability across CHCs. We then evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on the relative ranking of CHCs. Important case-mix adjusters included adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, and educational attainment. The effects of case-mix adjustment on patient reports and ratings were different in the adult and child samples. Adjusting for race/ethnicity and language had a greater impact on parent reports than adult reports, but it impacted ratings similarly across the samples. The impact of adjustment on composites and ratings was modest, but it affected the relative ranking of CHCs. To ensure equitable comparison of CHC performance on patient experience measures, reports and ratings should be adjusted for adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, education, race/ethnicity, and survey language. Because of the differential impact of case-mix adjusters for child and adult surveys, initiatives should consider measuring and reporting adult and child scores separately.

  20. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  1. Species co-occurrence networks: Can they reveal trophic and non-trophic interactions in ecological communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Mara A; Wieters, Evie; Broitman, Bernardo R; Marquet, Pablo A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2018-03-01

    Co-occurrence methods are increasingly utilized in ecology to infer networks of species interactions where detailed knowledge based on empirical studies is difficult to obtain. Their use is particularly common, but not restricted to, microbial networks constructed from metagenomic analyses. In this study, we test the efficacy of this procedure by comparing an inferred network constructed using spatially intensive co-occurrence data from the rocky intertidal zone in central Chile to a well-resolved, empirically based, species interaction network from the same region. We evaluated the overlap in the information provided by each network and the extent to which there is a bias for co-occurrence data to better detect known trophic or non-trophic, positive or negative interactions. We found a poor correspondence between the co-occurrence network and the known species interactions with overall sensitivity (probability of true link detection) equal to 0.469, and specificity (true non-interaction) equal to 0.527. The ability to detect interactions varied with interaction type. Positive non-trophic interactions such as commensalism and facilitation were detected at the highest rates. These results demonstrate that co-occurrence networks do not represent classical ecological networks in which interactions are defined by direct observations or experimental manipulations. Co-occurrence networks provide information about the joint spatial effects of environmental conditions, recruitment, and, to some extent, biotic interactions, and among the latter, they tend to better detect niche-expanding positive non-trophic interactions. Detection of links (sensitivity or specificity) was not higher for well-known intertidal keystone species than for the rest of consumers in the community. Thus, as observed in previous empirical and theoretical studies, patterns of interactions in co-occurrence networks must be interpreted with caution, especially when extending interaction

  2. Healthcare students' experiences of an interprofessional, student-led neuro-rehabilitation community-based clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Louise; Hutchinson, Laura; Theodoros, Deborah; Williams, Katrina; Copley, Anna; Fagan, Amy; Desha, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Student-led clinics are becoming more prominent as educators seek alternate models of clinical education for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate healthcare students' experiences of an interprofessional student-led clinic for clients with neurological conditions. Thirteen students representing occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech pathology were recruited for the study. A sequential mixed-methods evaluation was employed and the results from the Interprofessional Education Scale and focus group revealed that the students experienced positive perceptions of working collaboratively with other professions, forming good relationships with others, as well as an increased respect for the roles of other professions. The findings suggest that providing a capstone opportunity, where students can work as part of an interprofessional team with a real client, in a format they may come across in future clinical practice, may be beneficial in providing them with essential interprofessional skills as new graduate health professionals.

  3. 'What vision?': experiences of Team members in a community service for adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, I C H; Madden, E M; Holland, A J; Farrington, C J T; Whitson, S; Broughton, S; Lillywhite, A; Jones, E; Wade, K A; Redley, M; Wagner, A P

    2017-03-01

    In the UK, the closure of 'long-stay' hospitals was accompanied by the development of community teams (CTs) to support people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to live in community settings. The self-reported experiences of staff working in such teams have been neglected. Focusing on a single county-wide service, comprising five multi-disciplinary and inter-agency CTs, we measured perceptions among the health care and care management Team members of (1) their personal well-being; (2) the functioning of their team; and (3) the organisation's commitment to quality, and culture. Almost three-quarters of the questionnaires were returned (73/101; 72%). The scores of health care practitioners and care managers were very similar: (1) the MBI scores of more than half the respondents were 'of concern'; (2) similarly, almost four in ten respondents' scores on the Vision scale of the TCI were 'of concern'; (3) the perceived commitment to quality (QIIS-II Part 2) was uncertain; and (4) the organisational culture (QIIS-II, Part 1) was viewed as primarily hierarchical. The perceived absence of a vision for the service, combined with a dominant culture viewed by its members as strongly focussed on bureaucracy and process, potentially compromises the ability of these CTs to respond proactively to the needs of people with IDs. Given the changes in legislation, policy and practice that have taken place since CTs were established, it would be timely to revisit their role and purpose. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. © FEMS 2015.

  5. The Pseudomonas community in metal-contaminated sediments as revealed by quantitative PCR: a link with metal bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wauven, Corinne Vander; Billon, Gabriel; Matthijs, Sandra; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria are ubiquitous Gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms that are known to harbor metal resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps and intracellular redox enzymes. Specific Pseudomonas bacteria have been quantified in some metal-contaminated environments, but the entire Pseudomonas population has been poorly investigated under these conditions, and the link with metal bioavailability was not previously examined. In the present study, quantitative PCR and cell cultivation were used to monitor and characterize the Pseudomonas population at 4 different sediment sites contaminated with various levels of metals. At the same time, total metals and metal bioavailability (as estimated using an HCl 1 m extraction) were measured. It was found that the total level of Pseudomonas, as determined by qPCR using two different genes (oprI and the 16S rRNA gene), was positively and significantly correlated with total and HCl-extractable Cu, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn, with high correlation coefficients (>0.8). Metal-contaminated sediments featured isolates of the Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa groups, with other bacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Klebsiella and Methylobacterium. It is concluded that Pseudomonas bacteria do proliferate in metal-contaminated sediments, but are still part of a complex community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Disconnects in pedagogy and practice in community health nursing clinical experiences: Qualitative findings of a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Awosoga, Olu; Konkin, Jill

    2015-10-01

    Many baccalaureate schools of nursing are using non-traditional placements for undergraduate community health clinical rotations. These placements occur at agencies not organizationally affiliated with the health care system and they typically do not employ registered nurses (RNs). In this paper, we describe the qualitative findings of a mixed method study that explored these gaps as they relate to pre-registration nursing students' preparation for community health roles. While non-traditional community health placements offer unique opportunities for learning through carefully crafted service learning pedagogy, these placements also present challenges for student preparation for practice in community health roles. The theory-practice gap and the gap between the expected and actual performance of new graduates are accentuated through the use of non-traditional community clinical experiences. These gaps are not necessarily due to poor pedagogy, but rather due to the perceptions and values of the stakeholders involved: nursing students, community health nursing faculty, and community health nurses. New ways must be developed between academe and community health practice areas to provide students with opportunities to develop competence for practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motivation and incentive preferences of community health officers in Ghana: an economic behavioral experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Sakiko; Agyekum, Enoch Oti; Shibanuma, Akira; Oduro, Abraham; Okawa, Sumiyo; Enuameh, Yeetey; Yasuoka, Junko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Gyapong, Margaret; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ansah, Evelyn; Hodgson, Abraham; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-08-22

    Health worker shortage in rural areas is one of the biggest problems of the health sector in Ghana and many developing countries. This may be due to fewer incentives and support systems available to attract and retain health workers at the rural level. This study explored the willingness of community health officers (CHOs) to accept and hold rural and community job postings in Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was used to estimate the motivation and incentive preferences of CHOs in Ghana. All CHOs working in three Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Ghana, 200 in total, were interviewed between December 2012 and January 2013. Respondents were asked to choose from choice sets of job preferences. Four mixed logit models were used for the estimation. The first model considered (a) only the main effect. The other models included interaction terms for (b) gender, (c) number of children under 5 in the household, and (d) years worked at the same community. Moreover, a choice probability simulation was performed. Mixed logit analyses of the data project a shorter time frame before study leave as the most important motivation for most CHOs (β 2.03; 95 % CI 1.69 to 2.36). This is also confirmed by the largest simulated choice probability (29.1 %). The interaction effect of the number of children was significant for education allowance for children (β 0.58; 95 % CI 0.24 to 0.93), salary increase (β 0.35; 95 % CI 0.03 to 0.67), and housing provision (β 0.16; 95 % CI -0.02 to 0.60). Male CHOs had a high affinity for early opportunity to go on study leave (β 0.78; 95 % CI -0.06 to 1.62). CHOs who had worked at the same place for a long time greatly valued salary increase (β 0.28; 95 % CI 0.09 to 0.47). To reduce health worker shortage in rural settings, policymakers could provide "needs-specific" motivational packages. They should include career development opportunities such as shorter period of work before study leave and financial policy in the

  8. Like a hotel, but boring: users' experience with short-time community-based residential aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eirik; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Svavarsdóttir, Margrét Hrönn; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-12-16

    The discharge process from hospital to home for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) is often complex, and most are in need of tailored and coordinated community services at home. One solution is to discharge patients to inpatient short-stay community residential aftercare (CRA). The aim of this study was to explore how patients with SMI experience a stay in CRA established in a City in Central Norway. A descriptive qualitative study with individual interviews and a group interview with 13 persons. The CRA aims to improve the discharge process from hospital to independent supported living by facilitating the establishment of health and social services and preparing the patients. The philosophy is to help patients use community resources by e.g. not offering any organized in-house activities. The main question in the interviews was "How have you experienced the stay at the CRA?" The interviews were analyzed with a thematic approach using systematic text condensation. The participants experienced the stay at the CRA "Like a hotel" but also boring, due to the lack of organized in-house activities. The patients generally said they were not informed about the philosophy of the CRA before the stay. The participants had to come up with activities outside the CRA and said they got active help from the staff to do so; some experienced this as positive, whereas others wanted more organized in-house activities like they were used to from mental health hospital stays. Participants described the staff in the CRA to be helpful and forthcoming, but they did not notice the staff being active in organizing the aftercare. The stay at the CRA was experienced as different from other services, with more freedom and focus on self-care, and lack of in-house activities. This led to increased self-activity among the patients, but some wanted more in-house activities. To prepare the patients better for the stay at the CRA, more information about the philosophy is needed in the pre

  9. The Experience of Community in Canadian Military Families: A Female Partners' Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullin-Splude, Bernadine

    2006-01-01

    .... The literature review covered the topics of Community, Military Families and Social Support. The emerging questions dealt with matters of meaning and perception of community for the female military partners...

  10. Cultural diversity in community sport: an ethnographic inquiry of Somali Australians' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sport organisations aim to grow the participation of culturally and linguistically diverse communities, including newly arrived people from refugee backgrounds. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research conducted by the author at community sport organisations in the multicultural city of

  11. Nurses' experiences providing palliative care to individuals living in rural communities: aspects of the physical residential setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, S; Brazil, K; Williams, A; Wilson, D; Willison, K; Marshall, D; Taniguchi, A; Phillips, C

    2014-01-01

    Efforts are needed to improve palliative care in rural communities, given the unique characteristics and inherent challenges with respect to working within the physical aspects of residential settings. Nurses who work in rural communities play a key role in the delivery of palliative care services. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences of providing palliative care in rural communities, with a particular focus on the impact of the physical residential setting. This study was grounded in a qualitative approach utilizing an exploratory descriptive design. Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 21 community nurses. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Nurses described the characteristics of working in a rural community and how it influences their perception of their role, highlighting the strong sense of community that exists but how system changes over the past decade have changed the way they provide care. They also described the key role that they play, which was often termed a 'jack of all trades', but focused on providing emotional, physical, and spiritual care while trying to manage many challenges related to transitioning and working with other healthcare providers. Finally, nurses described how the challenges of working within the physical constraints of a rural residential setting impeded their care provision to clients who are dying in the community, specifically related to the long distances that they travel while dealing with bad weather. These study findings contribute to our understanding of the experiences of nurses working in rural communities in terms of the provision of palliative care and the influence of the physical residential setting that surrounds them. These findings are important since nurses play a major role in caring for community-dwelling clients who are dying, but they are confronted with many obstacles. As such, these results may help inform future decisions about how to best improve

  12. Bacterial diversity and community structure of supragingival plaques in adults with dental health or caries revealed by 16S pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700 clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity, representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. Smooth rarefaction curves were suggestive of plaque microbial diversity. α diversity analysis showed that healthy plaque microbial diversity exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups and that group members were relatively constant, only showing differences in abundance. Analysis of composition differences identified 10 health-related and 21 caries-related genera. Key genera (27 that potentially contributed to plaque microbiota distributions between groups were identified. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function prediction were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed.

  13. Asymmetry of Hemispheric Network Topology Reveals Dissociable Processes between Functional and Structural Brain Connectome in Community-Living Elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human brain is structurally and functionally asymmetrical and the asymmetries of brain phenotypes have been shown to change in normal aging. Recent advances in graph theoretical analysis have showed topological lateralization between hemispheric networks in the human brain throughout the lifespan. Nevertheless, apparent discrepancies of hemispheric asymmetry were reported between the structural and functional brain networks, indicating the potentially complex asymmetry patterns between structural and functional networks in aging population. In this study, using multimodal neuroimaging (resting-state fMRI and structural diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated the characteristics of hemispheric network topology in 76 (male/female = 15/61, age = 70.08 ± 5.30 years community-dwelling older adults. Hemispheric functional and structural brain networks were obtained for each participant. Graph theoretical approaches were then employed to estimate the hemispheric topological properties. We found that the optimal small-world properties were preserved in both structural and functional hemispheric networks in older adults. Moreover, a leftward asymmetry in both global and local levels were observed in structural brain networks in comparison with a symmetric pattern in functional brain network, suggesting a dissociable process of hemispheric asymmetry between structural and functional connectome in healthy older adults. Finally, the scores of hemispheric asymmetry in both structural and functional networks were associated with behavioral performance in various cognitive domains. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the lateralized nature of multimodal brain connectivity, highlight the potentially complex relationship between structural and functional brain network alterations, and augment our understanding of asymmetric structural and functional specializations in normal aging.

  14. Sports and Community on Campus: Constructing a Sports Experience that Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.

    2013-01-01

    Student affairs personnel are often charged with the task of creating a sense of community on campuses. Sports is among the many activities that historically have been used to meet this need for community among students. Yet, how and when a sense of community is created within a sports context has not been appropriately addressed in literature.…

  15. The omnipresent community in the work-life experiences of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen, M.L.; Hailu Gudeta, Konjit; Las Heras, M.; Chinchilla, N.; Grau, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the community roles of women entrepreneurs in a traditional and developing country context—Ethiopia, where various social and/or community expectations on women are present. The study also tried to explore the interface between the various community roles of the women with

  16. Persons with physical disabilities’ experiences of rehabilitation services at Community Health Centres in Cape Town.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Kahonde

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rehabilitation is of fundamental importance for the persons with disability to achieve functional independence and have an improved quality of life. To enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, it  is  important  to  seek  clients’  perspectives  of  the  rehabilitation  services and  to  incorporate  these  perspectives  into  the  planning  and  delivery  of rehabilitation  services.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  explore  the  persons with  physical  disabilities’  experiences  of  the  rehabilitation  services  they received at Community Health Centres (CHCs. Methods: In-depth  qualitative  interviews  were  used  to  collect  data.  Ten  persons  with  physical  disabilities,  who  had  received  rehabilitation  services at CHCs participated in the in-depth interviews. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim.  Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.  Results: The  clients  experienced  problems  with  accessing  transport  and  obtaining  information  from  the  service providers. Experiences regarding clients’ involvement in the rehabilitation were varied. All the clients reported positive experiences regarding their interaction with service providers and family involvement. Conclusion: The experiences of the participants who accessed CHCs for rehabilitation were positive and negative. The service providers should therefore address the aspects of rehabilitation that were negatively experienced.

  17. Genesis of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment and its resonance amongst the physics community in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Flavio

    2018-05-01

    I present the reconstruction of the involvement of Karl Popper in the community of physicists concerned with foundations of quantum mechanics, in the 1980s. At that time Popper gave active contribution to the research in physics, of which the most significant is a new version of the EPR thought experiment, alleged to test different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The genesis of such an experiment is reconstructed in detail, and an unpublished letter by Popper is reproduced in the present paper to show that he formulated his thought experiment already two years before its first publication in 1982. The debate stimulated by the proposed experiment as well as Popper's role in the physics community throughout 1980s is here analysed in detail by means of personal correspondence and publications.

  18. Bacterial Pathogens and Community Composition in Advanced Sewage Treatment Systems Revealed by Metagenomics Analysis Based on High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Kailong; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Weigang; Tan, Yunfei; Liu, Bo; Tang, Junying

    2015-01-01

    This study used 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to investigate bacterial pathogens and their potential virulence in a sewage treatment plant (STP) applying both conventional and advanced treatment processes. Pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing consistently demonstrated that Arcobacter genus occupied over 43.42% of total abundance of potential pathogens in the STP. At species level, potential pathogens Arcobacter butzleri, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia dominated in raw sewage, which was also confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Illumina sequencing also revealed prevalence of various types of pathogenicity islands and virulence proteins in the STP. Most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors were eliminated in the STP, and the removal efficiency mainly depended on oxidation ditch. Compared with sand filtration, magnetic resin seemed to have higher removals in most of the potential pathogens and virulence factors. However, presence of the residual A. butzleri in the final effluent still deserves more concerns. The findings indicate that sewage acts as an important source of environmental pathogens, but STPs can effectively control their spread in the environment. Joint use of the high-throughput sequencing technologies is considered a reliable method for deep and comprehensive overview of environmental bacterial virulence. PMID:25938416

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences among a Community of Resilient Centenarians and Seniors: Implications for a Chronic Disease Prevention Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Torres, Xochitl; Valladares, Johanny; Pasco-Rubio, Marco; Dougherty, Molly; Kim, Wonha

    2018-03-11

    Research has linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with chronic disease in adults and diminished life span. Adverse biological embedding of ACEs potentially occurs through inflammatory mechanisms; inflammatory marker alterations are identified as candidate biomarkers for mediating health consequences. Lifestyle practices of residents of California's Loma Linda Blue Zone, one of five worldwide longevity hotspots, may provide insight into inflammation remediation and chronic disease prevention. Little research has been done on centenarians' early-life experiences or on ACEs in a longevity community. To interview centenarians and seniors in this region regarding their childhood experiences to inform chronic disease prevention frameworks. Qualitative study of Loma Linda Blue Zone community members. Childhood exposures and practices were assessed using focus groups and semistructured key informant interviews, with open-ended questions on general hardships and ACEs and supplemented with lifestyle and resiliency factor questions. Data were audiorecorded and transcribed. Integrative grounded theory methods guided coding and theming. Exposure to ACEs and practice of resiliency factors. Participants (7 centenarians and 29 seniors) reported exposure to multiple ACEs (domains: Economic deprivation, family dysfunction, and community violence). Community members reported practicing resiliency factors, each with anti-inflammatory properties suggesting mitigation of ACE-related toxic stress. This is one of the first studies of its kind to identify a community of resilient members despite their tremendous burden of ACEs. Embedding the identified resiliency factors into chronic disease prevention frameworks has potential for mitigating systemic inflammation, alleviating chronic disease burden, and promoting a culture of health.

  20. [Current status of diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in Shanghai revealed by a questionnaire analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhang, J; Cheng, Q J; Xu, J F; Jie, Z J; Jiao, Y; Huang, Y; Qu, J M

    2018-04-12

    Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among doctors in various hospitals across Shanghai, for the purpose of promoting the 2016 clinical practice guidelines for adult CAP of China. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to address the common questions in CAP management. The responses were collected via WeChat and the data were analyzed. Results: A total of 1 254 valid questionnaires were received, 46.1% from tertiary , 26.4% from secondary and 27.5% from primary care hospitals. Of these valid respondents, 31.4% were respiratory physicians and 68.6% from non-respiratory physicians. When diagnosing CAP, 78.1% of the doctors would use chest CT in more than 50% of the patients. Regarding the tools for evaluating the severity of CAP, 60.3% of the respondents would prefer CURB-65. "Respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and septic shock" were the most common criteria for admission to ICU. Blood culture was not widely used in severe CAP regardless of the level of hospitals ( P >0.05). The results of this survey showed that the top 5 pathogenic microorganisms of CAP were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Chlamydia pneumoniae. For non-severe CAP patients, all the doctors tended to select monotherapy. The most frequently used antimicrobial regimen for severe CAP was third- or fourth-generation cephalosporin monotherapy. As for combination therapy, the most frequently used regimen in tertiary hospitals was "carbapenem plus vancomycin" , while in primary and secondary hospitals it was "β-lactams plus macrolides" . More doctors from primary hospitals and non-respiratory medicine would consider "complete resolution of pulmonary opacity" as the indication to discontinue antimicrobial therapy or to discharge patients, and "prolonged high fever" , "large area consolidation" , "multiple lobe-segment involvement " as the indication for

  1. Bacterial diversity exploration in hydrocarbon polluted soil: metabolic potential and degrader community evolution revealed by isotope labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds produced by incomplete combustion of organic matter. They are a source of environmental pollution, especially associated to oil product exploitation, and represent a threat for living organisms including human beings because of their toxicity. Many bacteria capable of degrading PAHs have been isolated and studied. However, since less than 5% of soil bacteria can be cultivated in the laboratory, bacterial species able to degrade PAHs in situ have been poorly studied. The first goal of this study was to identify bacteria that degrade PAHs in soil using culture-independent molecular methods. To this end, a strategy known a stable isotope probing has been implemented based on the use of phenanthrene, a three rings PAH, in which the natural isotope of carbon was replaced by 13 C. This molecule has been introduced as a tracer in microcosms containing soil from a constructed wetlands collecting contaminated water from highway runoff. Bacteria having incorporated the 13 C were then identified by 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis after PCR amplification from labeled genomic DNA extracted from soil. The results show that so far little studied Betaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Rhodoferax, Hydrogenophaga and Thiobacillus, as well as Rhodocyclaceae, were the key players in phenanthrene degradation. Predominance of Betaproteobacteries was established thanks to quantitative PCR measurements. A dynamic analysis of bacterial diversity also showed that the community structure of degraders depended on phenanthrene bioavailability. In addition, the phylogenetic diversity of ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases, enzymes involved in the first step of PAH degradation, has been explored. We detected new sequences, mostly related to di-oxygenases from Sphingomonadales and Burkholderiales. For the first time, we were able to associate a catalytic activity for oxidation of PAHs to partial gene sequences

  2. Experience and meaning of user involvement: some explorations from a community mental health project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Carole; Raine, Pamela

    2002-05-01

    With an increased interest in and policy commitment to involving service users in the planning and delivery of health service provision, there is a clear need to explore both the rhetoric and realities of what user involvement entails. In the present paper, by drawing upon an evaluation of a community-based exercise facility for people with mental health problems, the authors explore ways in which the reality of user involvement is subject to a range of configurations within health services. The paper describes a piece of qualitative research that was undertaken within a participatory framework to explore the nature of user involvement within the facility. The data have been analysed using a grounded theory approach to provide insights into: the organisational context in which user involvement takes place; factors which encourage meaningful participation on the part of service users; perceived barriers to user involvement; and issues of sustainability and continuity. This research approach has enabled the authors to explore the views and experiences of users, service providers and referral agencies in relation to the nature and potential for user involvement. The findings illustrate ways in which user involvement may take place under both flexible and formal arrangements across a variety of activities. The present paper provides an account of some of the meanings and experiences of what 'successful' user participation may involve and the conditions which underpin 'success'. The authors conclude that successful and meaningful user involvement should enable and support users to recognise their existing skills, and to develop new ones, at a pace that suits their particular circumstances and personal resources. This process may require adaptation not only by organisations, but also by service providers and non-involved users.

  3. Promotores As Advocates for Community Improvement: Experiences of the Western States REACH Su Comunidad Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Rachel; Moore-Monroy, Martha; Bello, Elizur; Doyle, Seth; Ibarra, Jorge; Kunz, Susan; Munoz, Rocio; Patton-Lopez, Megan; Sharkey, Joseph R; Wilger, Susan; Alfero, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    The REACH Su Comunidad Consortium worked with 10 communities to address disparities in access to healthy food and physical activity opportunities among Hispanic populations through policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) strategies. Community health workers took leadership roles in the implementation of PSE strategies in partnership with local multisector coalitions. This article describes the role of community health workers in PSE change, the technical and professional development support provided to the REACH Su Comunidad Communities, and highlights professional development needs of community health workers engaging in PSE strategies.

  4. Psychosocial investigation of individual and community responses to the experience of Ovine Johne's Disease in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Bernadette; Seedsman, Terence

    2004-04-01

    This paper explores the psychosocial outcomes for individuals and communities in rural Victoria who experienced the outbreak of Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD). The study uses a qualitative methodology to analyse the minutes of evidence provided by the inquiry into the control of OJD to identify the psychosocial events, experiences and outcomes associated with the control of this outbreak. The inquiry was undertaken by the Environment and Natural Resources Committee of the Victorian State Government. Public hearings were undertaken by the committee across several rural Victorian communities and the state capital, Melbourne. The transcripts detail 136 submissions from 98 individuals and 23 organisations. The analysis aimed to provide insight into the impact of the disease on individuals and communities and also to explore the factors individuals perceived as associated with these outcomes. While the paper identifies that aspects of stock loss associated with the outbreak caused substantial emotional and economic distress, for farmers the most significant finding was the impact of the government control program on individuals, families and rural communities. The control program was perceived as having very limited scientific credibility and its implementation was described as heartless, inflexible and authoritarian. Involvement with the program resulted in farmers reporting emotions, such as, trauma, shame, guilt and stigma. Families became discordant and the sense of community within rural townships fragmented. Psychological outcomes of grief, depression and anxiety emerged as prevalent themes within families and communities. These data highlight the need for significant attention to the management of rural disasters, such as, the OJD program. There is an acknowledgement in the literature that rural disasters have a significant impact on the well-being of individuals, families and communities. The major focus of the previous research has, however, been on the impact of

  5. Preoperative vs. postoperative radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification: A rural community hospital's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantorowitz, David A.; Muff, Nicholas S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo data employing a rat model, suggest equivalent suppression of ectopic bone formation by single-fraction irradiation given either pre (≤4 h)- or post (≤24 h)-surgery. Two subsequent randomized clinical trials, from tertiary academic centers with robust experience in heterotopic bone prophylaxis, have reached similar conclusions. To assess the transferability of the above data to the community setting we reviewed our rural community hospital experience with pre- and postoperative radiation prophylaxis. Methods and Materials: Between 11/90 and 6/96, 16 surgerized hips with high risk of heterotopic bone formation received 7.00-8.00 Gy in one fraction either preoperatively (≤4 h) (n = 9) or postoperatively (≤3 days for six hips; day 7 for one hip) (n = 7). Initial patients were routinely treated postoperatively. In late 1992, treatment preference was switched to preoperative irradiation in response to evolving data. The two groups were similar with respect to age, sex, nature of surgery, presurgical Brooker and Harris scores, and in U. of Rochester risk classification distribution. Irradiation was given via 4-20 MV photons through equally weighted AP:PA portals to the periacetabular tissues and proximal one third to one-half of the femoral component. Radiation dose, energy, portal, and blocking design were all similar for the two groups. Hip radiographs were obtained immediately postsurgery and at last follow-up: Delta grades (Brooker grade at follow-up--Brooker grade immediately postsurgery) were computed. Harris scale scores of hip function and movement were assigned via personal interviews and examinations performed prior to irradiation and at last follow-up. Results: All 16 hips are evaluable. Follow-up interval among the post-operative group (mean = 39.8 months; range 18.6-65.8) was significantly longer than among the preoperative group (mean = 20.4 months; range 8.6-41.3) (p < 0.02). The mean Delta grade among the postoperative and

  6. Local-scale models reveal ecological niche variability in amphibian and reptile communities from two contrasting biogeographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Niche Models (ENMs are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area. The ENMs were built with maximum entropy modelling using 11 environmental variables in each territory. The contributions of these variables to the models were analysed and classified using various statistical procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, Principal Components Analysis and General Linear Models. Distance to the hydrological network was consistently the most relevant variable for both parks and taxonomic classes. Topographic variables (i.e., slope and altitude were the second most predictive variables, followed by climatic variables. Differences in variable contribution were observed between parks and taxonomic classes. Variables related to water availability had the larger contribution to the models in the Mediterranean park, while topography variables were decisive in the Atlantic park. Specific response curves to environmental variables were in accordance with the biogeographic affinity of species (Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean species and taxonomy (amphibians and reptiles. Interestingly, these results were observed for species located in both parks, particularly those situated at their range limits. Our findings show that ecological niche models built at local scale reveal differences in habitat preferences within a wide environmental gradient. Therefore, modelling at local scales rather than assuming large-scale models could be preferable for the establishment of conservation strategies for herptile species in natural

  7. Local-scale models reveal ecological niche variability in amphibian and reptile communities from two contrasting biogeographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Xavier; Felicísimo, Ángel M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area. The ENMs were built with maximum entropy modelling using 11 environmental variables in each territory. The contributions of these variables to the models were analysed and classified using various statistical procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, Principal Components Analysis and General Linear Models). Distance to the hydrological network was consistently the most relevant variable for both parks and taxonomic classes. Topographic variables (i.e., slope and altitude) were the second most predictive variables, followed by climatic variables. Differences in variable contribution were observed between parks and taxonomic classes. Variables related to water availability had the larger contribution to the models in the Mediterranean park, while topography variables were decisive in the Atlantic park. Specific response curves to environmental variables were in accordance with the biogeographic affinity of species (Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean species) and taxonomy (amphibians and reptiles). Interestingly, these results were observed for species located in both parks, particularly those situated at their range limits. Our findings show that ecological niche models built at local scale reveal differences in habitat preferences within a wide environmental gradient. Therefore, modelling at local scales rather than assuming large-scale models could be preferable for the establishment of conservation strategies for herptile species in natural parks. PMID

  8. Two year experience with Web connectivity to PACS at a community-based hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Brian D.; Hayward, Ulrike; Trambert, Michael; Kywi, Alberto; Hartzman, Steven

    2002-05-01

    Referring physician web based access to a PACS is evaluated at a community-based hospital. Survey results show 100% perceived improvement in referring physician productivity, and 97% perceived improvement in patient care. Overall satisfaction and perception of ease of use is greater than 90%.Web connectivity to PACS is perceived by 97% to result in decreased visits and calls to the radiology department due to the availability of virtual results, with high value placed on the voice clip summary results by 94% of respondents (the voice clip is a recording made by the radiologist at the time of reading the exam, which summarizes the results of the study).The availability of exams and virtual results via web-based connectivity is perceived to result in increase referrals by 58% of respondents. Web log audit trails are analyzed to evaluate the use of the system by referring physicians. The gross number of cases retrieved over the web for a two-week period is assessed. The number of times a voice clip was played is also evaluated. The results overall show a very positive experience with web connectivity to PACS.

  9. Experiences of men with psychosis participating in a community-based football programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moloney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Physical activity is associated with both physical and mental health benefits for people with psychosis. However, mental health services have been criticised for failing to adequately promote physical activities. Occupational Therapy, with its focus on meaningful everyday occupations, is well placed to incorporate physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of men with psychosis participating in an Irish community-based football programme. Design/methodology/approach - Six men with psychosis participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analysed thematically. Findings - Participants identified many benefits of engaging in the programme. Football became a valued part of weekly routines and fostered re-engagement with previously valued roles. Participants identified improvements in social confidence and motor and process skills, as well as a positive impact on their mental and physical health. Originality/value - This study highlights the value and meaning of participation in football for men with psychosis, as well as demonstrating the longer-term feasibility of football as a therapeutic medium in Occupational Therapy mental health service provision. Findings could help to promote the routine use of sports interventions to mental health services.

  10. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  11. The Sewol Ferry Disaster: Experiences of a Community-Based Hospital in Ansan City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hak; Cho, Hanjin; Kim, Joo Yeong; Song, Joo-Hyun; Moon, Sungwoo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung-Min; Han, Chang-Su; Ko, Young-Hoon; Lee, Hongjae

    2017-06-01

    The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea's modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389-393).

  12. ‘Trust and teamwork matter’: Community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India's rural public health system. Though the logic of horizontal and integrated health care to strengthen health systems has long been acknowledged at policy level, empirical evidence on how such integration operates is rare. Based on recent (2011–2012) ethnographic fieldwork in Odisha, India, this article discusses community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. Crucially, they perceive ‘teamwork’ and ‘building trust with the community’ (beyond trust in health services) to be critical components of their practice. However, the comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology – which the health workers espouse – is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance. Our ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalised privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration. PMID:25025872

  13. Experiences of patients with laryngectomies as they reintegrate into their community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooks, Penny; McQuestion, Maurene; Goldstein, David; Molassiotis, Alex

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe the patient's experiences as they reintegrate into the community following laryngectomy surgery and identify their perceived support and barriers within this transition. Using Thorne's interpretive descriptive approach, purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants from two large urban hospitals. In-depth, audio-taped interviews were conducted with nine participants 6-12 months following surgery. Enveloped under an overarching theme of a "Constant Accommodation to Life with a Laryngectomy," were three main themes: (1) "Impact of Cancer Diagnosis," (2) "Coping with Illness: Trying to Live Life like Before," and (3) "Transitions in Recovery." Subthemes further illuminated the constant accommodation participants had to make following cancer recurrence, surgery, and returning home. Patients with laryngectomies face major changes in lifestyle related to altered airway, loss of voice, body image concerns, and challenges with eating. Support of family, friends, and health care professionals is critical for successful transition during this stressful period. Instant messaging, email, Web-based support groups, and video messaging can contribute to a great improvement in communication and engagement for this population.

  14. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  15. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the planktonic community of a shallow, eutrophic estuary: results of mesocosm experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Schubert, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of pelagic mesocosm experiments designed to test the effects of enhanced and reduced ultraviolet radiation (UV) on the planktonic community of a Baltic Sea estuary. The Darss-Zingst estuary consists of a series of brackish lagoons with high concentrations of

  16. An Investigation of Achievement Goals and Time Perspective in Community College Students Engaged in a First-Year Experience Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Darrin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between time perspective and achievement goals among 144 community college students engaged in a first-year experience course. A 4 X 5 correlational model was utilized to examine the relationship between four different achievement goals as measured by scores on the…

  17. Degrees of Co-Creation: An Exploratory Study of Perceptions of International Students' Role in Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, David; Raciti, Maria; Lawley, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Increased competition for the international student market has motivated universities to modernize their marketing strategies. Community engagement is an important component of students' international university experience and represents a potential point of competitive advantage. Developing marketing strategies around university-student-community…

  18. Influence of Remedial Education Policies: Experiences of Low-Income Native American Women at a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…

  19. Improving child survival through a district management strengthening and community empowerment intervention: early implementation experiences from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka; Ssegujja, Eric; Waiswa, Peter; Ayebare, Florence; Bagenda, Danstan; Mbonye, Anthony K; Peterson, Stefan Swartling

    2015-08-19

    The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project pioneered the implementation of a comprehensive district management and community empowerment intervention in five districts in Uganda. In order to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions CODES combines UNICEF tools designed to systematize priority setting, allocation of resources and problem solving with Community dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U-Reports used to engage and empower communities in monitoring health service provision and to demand for quality services. This paper presents early implementation experiences in five pilot districts and lessons learnt during the first 2 years of implementation. This qualitative study was comprised of 38 in-depth interviews with members of the District Health Teams (DHTs) and two implementing partners. These were supplemented by observations during implementation and documents review. Thematic analysis was used to distill early implementation experiences and lessons learnt from the process. All five districts health teams with support from the implementing partners were able to adopt the UNICEF tools and to develop district health operational work plans that were evidence-based. Members of the DHTs described the approach introduced by the CODES project as a more systematic planning process and very much appreciated it. Districts were also able to implement some of the priority activities included in their work plans but limited financial resources and fiscal decision space constrained the implementation of some activities that were prioritized. Community dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards (CRC) increased community awareness of available health care services, their utilization and led to discussions on service delivery, barriers to service utilization and processes for improvement. Community dialogues were also instrumental in bringing together service users, providers and leaders to discuss problems and

  20. Pyrosequencing the Bemisia tabaci transcriptome reveals a highly diverse bacterial community and a robust system for insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is a phloem-feeding insect poised to become one of the major insect pests in open field and greenhouse production systems throughout the world. The high level of resistance to insecticides is a main factor that hinders continued use of insecticides for suppression of B. tabaci. Despite its prevalence, little is known about B. tabaci at the genome level. To fill this gap, an invasive B. tabaci B biotype was subjected to pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Roche 454 pyrosequencing, 857,205 reads containing approximately 340 megabases were obtained from the B. tabaci transcriptome. De novo assembly generated 178,669 unigenes including 30,980 from insects, 17,881 from bacteria, and 129,808 from the nohit. A total of 50,835 (28.45% unigenes showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. Among them, 40,611 unigenes were assigned to one or more GO terms and 6,917 unigenes were assigned to 288 known pathways. De novo metatranscriptome analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci, and demonstrated the host-symbiont cooperation in amino acid production. In-depth transcriptome analysis indentified putative molecular markers, and genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance and nutrient digestion. The utility of this transcriptome was validated by a thiamethoxam resistance study, in which annotated cytochrome P450 genes were significantly overexpressed in the resistant B. tabaci in comparison to its susceptible counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This transcriptome/metatranscriptome analysis sheds light on the molecular understanding of symbiosis and insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important phloem-feeding insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research of the

  1. Gender and representation in refugee communities: the experience of the Ikafe programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L; Adoko, J

    1997-06-01

    The Ikafe camp established in 1994 in Uganda for 45,000 refugees from Sudan was treated as a rural development program by Oxfam UK/1. Refugees and Oxfam staff achieved registration, land allocation, distribution of food, water, sanitation, health care, and livelihood development, and the refugees successfully cleared land for cultivation, established nurseries, and instituted community-managed water and sanitation systems. All programming has been achieved through representative structures linked to Ugandan bodies. Despite Oxfam's attempt to provide women with equal representation and an equal voice in decision-making, only a low participation of women was achieved. Analysis of this situation revealed that women in the Sudan traditionally held positions of responsibility. However, in the refugee settlements women sometimes did not learn about meetings or meetings were held at inconvenient times or women lacked free time for meetings. The men feared that women would appropriate jobs the men considered their rightful positions, and women expressed jealousy of prominent women. The existence of a position entitled "Women's Representative" led the refugees to believe that all the other jobs were for men, and they considered the alien Ugandan structures appropriate only for voicing concerns, not for self-management. Thus, refugee representatives were often the men who could speak English. In response, Oxfam reformed the representative structure to insure sex equality and restructured the committee overseeing discipline on Sudanese lines. Oxfam learned that it is important to establish interim structures that can be adapted later and that it is not enough simply to create democratic election procedures and encourage people to elect women.

  2. Real-time simulation: first-hand experience of the challenges of community nursing for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stephanie; Cooper-Stanton, Garry; Potter, Andrew

    2018-04-02

    The Community Challenge is a simulated community event for pre-registration nursing students across all four fields. Through the provision of real-time simulation, the Community Challenge has combined a deeper learning for both nursing students and the drama students who were involved in making the scenarios real and interactive. The event was run over 5 days, with positive evaluations from students and staff. Furthermore, Community Challenge has been found to be successful in expanding opportunities for students that align with national drivers, curriculum planning and interprofessional learning. The event has allowed students to engage in learning with other fields, enhancing their own practice. The Community Challenge has been found to enhance the link between theory and practice within primary care, promoting the relevance and importance of community care within nursing.

  3. Getting to know the island: Artistic experiments in rural community development

    OpenAIRE

    Crawshaw, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes an original contribution to our understandings of the relational role of artistic practice as part of rural community development. Art-led initiatives are now commonplace in rural development strategies. However, the effects of art in rural community, particularly beyond economic development, have received little attention. In this paper we seek to address this omission by exploring artistic ex- periments as part of community development processes. Theoretically, we draw on r...

  4. Student experiences of the adolescent diversion project: a community-based exemplar in the pedagogy of service-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, William S; Jimenez, Tiffeny R; Onifade, Eyitayo; Hankins, Sean S

    2010-12-01

    Service-learning partnerships between universities and surrounding communities striving to create systems-level change must consider an emphasis in critical community service; a community centered paradigm where students are taught to work with communities to better understand contexts surrounding a social problem, as opposed to merely volunteering to provide a service to a community. The Adolescent Diversion Project (ADP), which has been operating for over 30 years, demonstrates critical community service through the type of relationship built between students and the local community. This article describes: a qualitative study with ADP students, the historical context of ADP, what and how students learned through their involvement in ADP, and reframes the work of this project as a form of service-learning pedagogy. Inductive content analysis was employed to identify underlying themes across participants related to their personal experiences of ADP and its impact in their lives. Findings were compared with service-learning outcomes and other quantitative studies conducted with past ADP cohorts from the literature. Consistent with past studies, ADP students become more negative toward social systems involved with their youth. This finding may explain an increase in feelings of political commitment following involvement in ADP. Consistent with service-learning outcomes, results demonstrate that ADP should be further documented as not only an effective community-based program but also as an exemplar in the pedagogy of service-learning. This study highlights why service-learning opportunities for students are not just one way to teach students, they are opportunities to bridge relationships within communities, bring life to theoretical concepts, and build the foundations necessary for educated citizens that will one day take lead roles in our society.

  5. Providing Middle School Students With Science Research Experiences Through Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.

    2007-12-01

    Science research courses have been around for years at the university and high school level. As inquiry based learning has become more and more a part of the science teacher's vocabulary, many of these courses have adopted an inquiry model for studying science. Learners of all ages benefit from learning through the natural process of inquiry. I participated in the CIRES Earthworks program for science teachers (Colorado University) in the summer of 2007 and experienced, first hand, the value of inquiry learning. With the support and vision of my school administration, and with the support and commitment of community partners, I have developed a Middle School Science Research Program that is transforming how science is taught to students in my community. Swift Creek Middle School is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are approximately 1000 students in this suburban public school. Students at Swift Creek are required to take one science class each year through 8th grade. As more emphasis is placed on learning a large number of scientific facts and information, in order to prepare students for yearly, standardized tests, there is a concern that less emphasis may be placed on the process and nature of science. The program I developed draws from the inquiry model followed at the CIRES Earthworks program, utilizes valuable community partnerships, and plays an important role in meeting that need. There are three major components to this Middle School Research Program, and the Center for Integrated Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) at Florida State University is playing an important role in all three. First, each student will develop their own research question and design experiments to answer the question. Scientists from the NHMFL are serving as mentors, or "buddy scientists," to my students as they work through the process of inquiry. Scientists from the CIRES - Earthworks program, Florida State University, and other

  6. Recent breakthroughs in metabolomics promise to reveal the cryptic chemical traits that mediate plant community composition, character evolution and lineage diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedio, Brian E

    2017-05-01

    Contents 952 I. 952 II. 953 III. 955 IV. 956 V. 957 957 References 957 SUMMARY: Much of our understanding of the mechanisms by which biotic interactions shape plant communities has been constrained by the methods available to study the diverse secondary chemistry that defines plant relationships with other organisms. Recent innovations in analytical chemistry and bioinformatics promise to reveal the cryptic chemical traits that mediate plant ecology and evolution by facilitating simultaneous structural comparisons of hundreds of unknown molecules to each other and to libraries of known compounds. Here, I explore the potential for mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics to enable unprecedented tests of seminal, but largely untested hypotheses that propose a fundamental role for plant chemical defenses against herbivores and pathogens in the evolutionary origins and ecological coexistence of plant species diversity. © 2017 The Author. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Investigating microearthquake finite source attributes with IRIS Community Wavefield Demonstration Experiment in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; McGuire, Jeffrey J.

    2018-05-01

    An earthquake rupture process can be kinematically described by rupture velocity, duration and spatial extent. These key kinematic source parameters provide important constraints on earthquake physics and rupture dynamics. In particular, core questions in earthquake science can be addressed once these properties of small earthquakes are well resolved. However, these parameters of small earthquakes are poorly understood, often limited by available datasets and methodologies. The IRIS Community Wavefield Experiment in Oklahoma deployed ˜350 three component nodal stations within 40 km2 for a month, offering an unprecedented opportunity to test new methodologies for resolving small earthquake finite source properties in high resolution. In this study, we demonstrate the power of the nodal dataset to resolve the variations in the seismic wavefield over the focal sphere due to the finite source attributes of a M2 earthquake within the array. The dense coverage allows us to tightly constrain rupture area using the second moment method even for such a small earthquake. The M2 earthquake was a strike-slip event and unilaterally propagated towards the surface at 90 per cent local S- wave speed (2.93 km s-1). The earthquake lasted ˜0.019 s and ruptured Lc ˜70 m by Wc ˜45 m. With the resolved rupture area, the stress-drop of the earthquake is estimated as 7.3 MPa for Mw 2.3. We demonstrate that the maximum and minimum bounds on rupture area are within a factor of two, much lower than typical stress drop uncertainty, despite a suboptimal station distribution. The rupture properties suggest that there is little difference between the M2 Oklahoma earthquake and typical large earthquakes. The new three component nodal systems have great potential for improving the resolution of studies of earthquake source properties.

  8. Cyanobacterial life at low O(2): community genomics and function reveal metabolic versatility and extremely low diversity in a Great Lakes sinkhole mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, A A; Biddanda, B A; Kendall, S T; Jain, S; Marcus, D N; Nold, S C; Sheldon, N D; Dick, G J

    2012-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are renowned as the mediators of Earth's oxygenation. However, little is known about the cyanobacterial communities that flourished under the low-O(2) conditions that characterized most of their evolutionary history. Microbial mats in the submerged Middle Island Sinkhole of Lake Huron provide opportunities to investigate cyanobacteria under such persistent low-O(2) conditions. Here, venting groundwater rich in sulfate and low in O(2) supports a unique benthic ecosystem of purple-colored cyanobacterial mats. Beneath the mat is a layer of carbonate that is enriched in calcite and to a lesser extent dolomite. In situ benthic metabolism chambers revealed that the mats are net sinks for O(2), suggesting primary production mechanisms other than oxygenic photosynthesis. Indeed, (14)C-bicarbonate uptake studies of autotrophic production show variable contributions from oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, presumably because of supply of sulfide. These results suggest the presence of either facultatively anoxygenic cyanobacteria or a mix of oxygenic/anoxygenic types of cyanobacteria. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed a remarkably low-diversity mat community dominated by just one genotype most closely related to the cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale, for which an essentially complete genome was reconstructed. Also recovered were partial genomes from a second genotype of Phormidium and several Oscillatoria. Despite the taxonomic simplicity, diverse cyanobacterial genes putatively involved in sulfur oxidation were identified, suggesting a diversity of sulfide physiologies. The dominant Phormidium genome reflects versatile metabolism and physiology that is specialized for a communal lifestyle under fluctuating redox conditions and light availability. Overall, this study provides genomic and physiologic insights into low-O(2) cyanobacterial mat ecosystems that played crucial geobiological roles over long stretches of Earth history.

  9. Interactive network configuration maintains bacterioplankton community structure under elevated CO2 in a eutrophic coastal mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Huang, Ruiping; Li, Yan; Li, Futian; Wu, Yaping; Hutchins, David A.; Dai, Minhan; Gao, Kunshan

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the effects of ocean acidification on marine biogeochemical and ecological processes and the organisms that drive them, including marine bacteria. Here, we examine the effects of elevated CO2 on the bacterioplankton community during a mesocosm experiment using an artificial phytoplankton community in subtropical, eutrophic coastal waters of Xiamen, southern China. Through sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region, we found that the bacterioplankton community in this high-nutrient coastal environment was relatively resilient to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Based on comparative ecological network analysis, we found that elevated CO2 hardly altered the network structure of high-abundance bacterioplankton taxa but appeared to reassemble the community network of low abundance taxa. This led to relatively high resilience of the whole bacterioplankton community to the elevated CO2 level and associated chemical changes. We also observed that the Flavobacteria group, which plays an important role in the microbial carbon pump, showed higher relative abundance under the elevated CO2 condition during the early stage of the phytoplankton bloom in the mesocosms. Our results provide new insights into how elevated CO2 may influence bacterioplankton community structure.

  10. Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

  11. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  12. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  13. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transformation of chlorpyrifos in integrated recirculating constructed wetlands (IRCWs) as revealed by compound-specific stable isotope (CSIA) and microbial community structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yang; Huang, Wenda; McBride, Murray B; Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Ran; Dai, Yunv

    2017-06-01

    Carbon isotope analysis and 454 pyrosequencing methods were used to investigate in situ biodegradation of chlorpyrifos during its transport through three model integrated recirculating constructed wetlands (IRCWs). Results show that plant and Fe-impregnated biochar promoted degradation of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Carbon isotope ratios in the IRCWs shifted to -31.24±0.58‰ (IRCW1, plant free), -26.82±0.60‰ (IRCW2, with plant) and -24.76±0.94‰ (IRCW3, with plant and Fe-biochar). The enrichment factors (Ɛ bulk,c ) were determined as -0.69±0.06‰ (IRCW1), -0.91±0.07‰ (IRCW2) and -1.03±0.09‰ (IRCW3). Microbial community analysis showed that IRCW3 was dominated by members of Bacillus, which can utilize and degrade chlorpyrifos. These results reveal that plant and Fe-biochar can induce carbon isotope fractionation and have a positive impact on the chlorpyrifos degradation efficiency by influencing the development of beneficial microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Preparing FCS Professionals for a Multilingual Society: Building Community through the Experiences of Multilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Janine; Duncan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As demographics in the United States shift, family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals must be prepared to foster healthy communities that embrace multilingual families. Because hegemonic language ideologies challenge multilingual families, FCS professionals need to know how to inclusively reframe communities to honor multilingual families.…

  16. Shared Space, Liminal Space: Five Years into a Community-University Place-Based Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Martin, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article explores shared space at the University of Minnesota's Robert J. Jones Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center (UROC), located four miles off campus in a community strong in assets, but facing inequality, disinvestment and racism. UROC's mission promotes university-community collaboration to solve critical urban challenges. We…

  17. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  18. An experiment framework to identify community functional components driving ecosystem processes and services delivery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.; Berg, M.P.; de Bello, F.; van Oosten, A.R.; Bila, K.; Moretti, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that the distribution of species trait values in a community can greatly determine ecosystem processes and services delivery. Two distinct components of community trait composition are hypothesized to chiefly affect ecosystem processes: (i) the average trait value of the

  19. (Re)creating community: Experiences of Older Women Forcibly Relocated During Apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Vera; Kolobe, Patricia Stockie; Keating, Norah

    2014-01-01

    This article explores sense of community with a group of older African women, who were forcibly relocated during apartheid. The situation of a marginalised group, with a history of disconnection from younger generations and from place, provides an opportunity to consider the relevance of community in later life. The research was conducted at a day centre for older people in the North West Province of South Africa, more than 50 years after forced relocations took place. Eleven older women (70 years and older) participated. Qualitative data were obtained through visual research methods and group discussions and were thematically analysed. Findings were that place and sense of belonging as well as elements of community were relevant. Participants reported limited connections to place in either childhood or current communities. Post relocation, a sense of belonging was expressed only in relation to a shared-interest community of peers that addressed their needs for safety, emotional support and instrumental care. Also, generational relations were strained, giving rise to a sense of loss of a community where both young and old were responsible for each other. Constrained resource communities have a profound impact on opportunities to create a sense of belonging. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Minority within a Minority Paradox: Asian Experiences in Latino Schools & Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sarai; Nishimura, Trisha S.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT), the authors report on narratives of education collected from three young Asian women living in and attending a predominately Latina/o community and school. The authors explored how Asians and Latina/o groups intersect in a majority minority community. Specifically, they sought to understand: (1) How young…

  1. Use of the Delphi method for determining community growth goals inventory: the Nashville experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwa K. Varma

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses the growth-inducing pressures on Nashville, Tennessee, describes the application of the Delphi technique to develop an inventory of the community's growth goals, and suggests that the development of a list of community goals is a necessary first step toward growth management.

  2. Forging community partnerships to improve health care: the experience of four Medicaid managed care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Rodin, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Some managed care organizations (MCOs) serving Medicaid beneficiaries are actively engaging in community partnerships to meet the needs of vulnerable members and nonmembers. We found that the history, leadership, and other internal factors of four such MCOs primarily drive that focus. However, external factors such as state Medicaid policies and competition or collaboration among MCOs also play a role. The specific strat­egies of these MCOs vary but share common goals: (1) improve care coordination, access, and delivery; (2) strengthen the community and safety-net infrastructure; and (3) prevent illness and reduce disparities. The MCOs use data to identify gaps in care, seek community input in designing interventions, and commit resources to engage community organiza­tions. State Medicaid programs can promote such work by establishing goals, priorities, and guidelines; providing data analysis and technical assistance to evaluate local needs and community engagement efforts; and convening stakeholders to collaborate and share best practices.

  3. INTERDEM Academy special section -  Digging for Dementia: Exploring the experience of community gardening from the perspectives of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Sarah; Jenkins, Nicholas

    2017-10-25

    The study sought to explore the lived experiences of people with dementia who participate in community-based gardening programmes. A collaborative gardening project was conducted over six weeks at a day centre for people with dementia. Six participants were recruited from the centre's attendees. Each session was co-designed by participants. Semi-structured group interviews were conducted each week, and researcher observations were documented. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the centre's staff to explore their views and to contextualise gardening participants' experiences. Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. This paper focuses upon three of the study's emergent themes: identity, agency, and community. The findings revealed that for people with dementia, gardening is not merely a matter of enjoying time outdoors; it is a forum for the articulation of identity and selfhood and expression of agency, and can facilitate the development of new social bonds based upon shared interests, rather than a shared diagnosis. Gardening-based interventions can offer more than simply facilitating outdoor engagement and promoting social interaction. When conditions are right, gardening can be an effective vehicle for the promotion of social citizenship and expression of selfhood and agency in dementia.

  4. Through the lens of our cameras: children's lived experience with food security in a Canadian Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, S K; Willows, N; Jardine, C

    2015-07-01

    The related issues of food security and obesity among North American Indigenous children are serious public health concerns. This community-based participatory study sought to gain deeper understanding of young First Nation children's lived experience with food and to learn, from their perspective, about food security issues in their community. In this Photovoice investigation 26 young children attending a rural reserve school in Canada were asked to take photographs of the food they ate. Nine high school students from the same school were trained as co-researchers: they interviewed the younger students, helped identify emerging themes and contributed to knowledge translation. Data analysis incorporated conventional content analysis, grounded theory's constant-comparative method, and examination of photos and texts. Five primary findings emerged from photographs and interviews: (1) children had a dualistic understanding of healthy vs. unhealthy foods; (2) packaged, quick-preparation foods played a dominant role in children's everyday food experiences; (3) families were critical to children's food-related experiences; (4) although traditional foods are viewed as central to Aboriginal health, few were depicted in the photographs; and (5) photos do not tell the whole story - despite the smaller numbers of fruits and vegetables in photos, children like to eat these foods when they are available at home. The study improved understanding of children's everyday food-related experiences, provided insight into community food security, and demonstrated the contribution of children and youth as experts on their lives and matters affecting them. A photobook representing findings provided a rich, visual tool for communicating the food-related experiences of children and messages about healthy eating within the school and to community members and leaders. Intervention efforts can build on participants' understanding of healthy versus unhealthy foods and on the critical role of

  5. Capturing Early Changes in the Marine Bacterial Community as a Result of Crude Oil Pollution in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolicka, Adriana; Boccadoro, Catherine; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Baussant, Thierry

    2017-12-27

    The results of marine bacterial community succession from a short-term study of seawater incubations at 4°C to North Sea crude oil are presented herein. Oil was used alone (O) or in combination with a dispersant (OD). Marine bacterial communities resulting from these incubations were characterized by a fingerprinting analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with the aim of 1) revealing differences in bacterial communities between the control, O treatment, and OD treatment and 2) identifying the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of early responders in order to define the bacterial gene markers of oil pollution for in situ monitoring.After an incubation for 1 d, the distribution of the individual ribotypes of bacterial communities in control and oil-treated (O and OD) tanks differed. Differences related to the structures of bacterial communities were observed at later stages of the incubation. Among the early responders identified (Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Glaciecola, Neptunomonas, Methylophaga, and Pseudofulvibacter), genera that utilize a disintegrated biomass or hydrocarbons as well as biosurfactant producers were detected. None of these genera included obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB). After an incubation for 1 d, the abundances of Glaciecola and Pseudofulvibacter were approximately 30-fold higher in the OD and O tanks than in the control tank. OTUs assigned to the Glaciecola genus were represented more in the OD tank, while those of Pseudofulvibacter were represented more in the O tank. We also found that 2 to 3% of the structural community shift originated from the bacterial community in the oil itself, with Polaribacter being a dominant bacterium.

  6. Social Marginalization and Internal Exclusion: Gay Men's Understandings and Experiences of Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Hendriks, Andrew; Horvath, Cynthia; Bouchard, Christiane; Etches, Vera

    2014-03-01

    A total of 27 gay and bisexual men were interviewed about how they perceived the criminal prosecution of persons living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status. The stories that emerged from the interviews raise questions about the nature of the gay community. The findings centre on the participants' descriptions of (1) the heterosexual meta-culture, (2) the locales of gay life, and (3) unsupportive elements in the gay community. Analysis of the interview data situates the gay community as a place of both inclusion and exclusion and as a heterogeneous environment. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  7. Community-Based Tourism in the Citizens 'Territory of the Jalapão (TO: the Experience of Silver Quilombolas Communities e Mumbuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antônia Valadares de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this article aims to describe the experience lived by the quilombola communities of Prata and Mumbuca in the implementation of a community based tourism project, both communities belong to the Territory of Jalapão Citizenship in the state of Tocantins. The methodology used in the construction of the work was a talk round, carried out with the actors of the communities involved in the project and participant observation. The operationalization of the tourist routes in the molds that were elaborated was active for a short time. Soon, the community returned to receive tourists of the form that received previously, exploring only the natural beauties. The recognition by the communities themselves of the richness of their cultural identity and natural potential seems to be the most valuable in this experience. O Turismo de Base Comunitária no Território da Cidadania do Jalapão (TO: a Experiência das Comunidades Quilombolas Prata e Mumbuca Resumo: este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a experiência vivida pelas comunidades quilombolas do Prata e do Mumbuca na implantação de um projeto de turismo de base comunitária, ambas as comunidades pertencem ao Território da Cidadania do Jalapão no estado do Tocantins. A metodologia utilizada na construção do trabalho foi roda de conversa, realizada com os atores das comunidades envolvidas no projeto e a observação participante. A operacionalização dos roteiros turísticos nos moldes que foram elaborados ficou ativa por pouco tempo. Logo, a comunidade voltou a receber turistas da forma que recebia anteriormente, explorando apenas as belezas naturais. O reconhecimento pelas próprias comunidades da riqueza da sua identidade cultural e do potencial natural parece ser o que ficou de maior valor nessa experiência. El Turismo de Base Comunitaria en el Territorio De La Ciudadanía del Jalapão - TO: la Experiencia de las Comunidades Quilombolas Plata y Mumbuca Resumen: este art

  8. "My body was my temple": a narrative revealing body image experiences following treatment of a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2017-09-01

    This narrative explores the lived experience of a young woman, Rebecca, and her transitioned body image after sustaining and being treated for a spinal cord injury. Data were collected from a single semi-structured in-depth interview. Rebecca disclosed her transitioned body image experiences after sustaining a spinal cord injury and being treated by medical staff immediately following her injury. Before her injury, she described a holistic body experience and named this experience her "temple". During intensive care in the hospital, she explained her body was treated as an object. The disconnected treatment of her body led to a loss of the private self, as she described her sacred body being stripped away - her "temple" lost and in ruins. Body image may be an overlooked component of health following a spinal cord injury. This narrative emphasizes the importance of unveiling body image experiences after the treatment of a spinal cord injury to medical professionals. Lessons of the importance of considering the transitioned body experiences after a spinal cord injury may help prevent body-related depression and other subsequent health impacts. Recommendations for best practice are provided. Implications for Rehabilitation    Spinal Cord Injury   • A spinal cord injury may drastically change a person's body image, thereby significantly impacting psychological health   • More effective screening for body image within the medical/rehabilitation context is needed to help practitioners recognize distress   • Practitioners should be prepared to refer clients to distress hotlines they may need once released from treatment.

  9. Social Management, Expansion and Emancipation Theology: one study about research experiences with popular communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Tenório

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Social management to be understood as a dialogic process management, in which decision-making authority is shared among the participants of the action makes sense as a practice to be developed by the university extension. It is based on this theme that the article aims to analyze an extension project dedicated to conducting courses in social management with the different communities of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology includes the emancipatory pedagogy of Paulo Freire’s philosophy and work in communities Boff (1986, in addition to the action research Thiollent (1998 method. Among the results achieved stands out: the development of community projects on various issues; mobilization and the inclusion of representatives of communities in participatory decision-making instances and the dissemination of courses in social management within a network of universities.

  10. [Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR): the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aristizabal, Urko; Sanz-Victoria, Silvia; Sahonero-Daza, Milton; Ledesma-Ocampo, Sandra; Cachimuel-Vinueza, Mesías; Torrico, Marisabel

    2012-01-01

    Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labor Office (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP) in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio-cultural context may determine whether CBR programs succeed or fail.

  11. MILITARY CONSTRUCTION: Kaiserslautern Military Community Center Project Continues to Experience Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutz, Gregory D; Causseaux, Bruce A; Dorn, Terrell G

    2008-01-01

    The Kaiserslautern Military Community Center (KMCC) is one of many projects initiated at Ramstein Air Base to upgrade capabilities of the base as a result of the consolidation of military bases in Europe...

  12. Together We Can Live and Learn. Living-Learning Communities as Integrated Curricular Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Dean, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the history of living-learning communities (LLC) in colleges and universities. It details conceptualization, design, implementation and assessment of such programs. Model recreation and leisure LLC are highlighted and discussed.

  13. Teaching population health and community-based care across diverse clinical experiences: integration of conceptual pillars and constructivist learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-Maher, Sarah K; Van Dyk, Elizabeth J; Aktan, Nadine M; Bliss, Julie Beshore

    2014-03-01

    Nursing programs are challenged to prepare future nurses to provide care and affect determinants of health for individuals and populations. This article advances a pedagogical model for clinical education that builds concepts related to both population-level care and direct care in the community through a contextual learning approach. Because the conceptual pillars and hybrid constructivist approach allow for conceptual learning consistency across experiences, the model expands programmatic capacity to use diverse community clinical sites that accept only small numbers of students. The concept-based and hybrid constructivist learning approach is expected to contribute to the development of broad intellectual skills and lifelong learning. The pillar concepts include determinants of health and nursing care of population aggregates; direct care, based on evidence and best practices; appreciation of lived experience of health and illness; public health nursing roles and relationship to ethical and professional formation; and multidisciplinary collaboration. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Community health nursing practices in contexts of poverty, uncertainty and unpredictability: a systematization of personal experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Laperrière,Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this contex...

  15. Emotion experience and frailty in a sample of Italian community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulasso A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mulasso,1,2 Laura Argiolu,1 Mattia Roppolo,1 Danny Azucar,1 Emanuela Rabaglietti1 1Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 2NeuroMuscular Function Research Group, School of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Frailty increases individual vulnerability to external stressors and involves high risk for adverse geriatric outcomes. To date, few studies have addressed the role of emotion perception and its association with frailty in aged populations. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore whether a significant association between frailty and emotional experience exists in a sample of Italian community-dwelling older adults. Our sample consisted of 104 older adults (age 76±8 years; 59.6% women living in Piedmont, Italy. Frailty was measured using the Italian version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI, and emotion perception was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. The Mini–Mental State Examination was used as a screening tool for cognitive functions (people with a score ≤20 points were excluded. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, adjusted for interesting variables, and post hoc tests were performed where appropriate. According to the TFI, 57.7% of participants resulted as frail. Analysis showed a significant greater severity of frailty in the low positive affect (PA group compared to the high PA group. Similarly, those with high negative affect (NA showed significantly higher levels of frailty than the low NA group. As expected, significant differences for frailty were also found among the groups composed of 1 people with high PA and low NA, 2 people with low PA or high NA, and 3 people with low PA and high NA. Post hoc tests showed a greater severity of frailty in the second and in the third groups compared to the first one. Lastly, robust participants aged >75 years showed higher levels of PA than the group

  16. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  17. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne M; Smith, Lorraine; LeMay, Kate S; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K; Burton, Deborah L; Stewart, Kay; Armour, Carol L

    2012-06-18

    The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists' feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS), a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Feedback about the pharmacists' experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group) at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists' training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. The PAMS provided pharmacists an opportunity to become involved in an

  18. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton Lynne M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists’ feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Methods Feedback about the pharmacists’ experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists’ training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Results Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. Conclusions The

  19. Recent progress in econophysics: Chaos, leverage, and business cycles as revealed by agent-based modeling and human experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chen; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2017-12-01

    Agent-based modeling and controlled human experiments serve as two fundamental research methods in the field of econophysics. Agent-based modeling has been in development for over 20 years, but how to design virtual agents with high levels of human-like "intelligence" remains a challenge. On the other hand, experimental econophysics is an emerging field; however, there is a lack of experience and paradigms related to the field. Here, we review some of the most recent research results obtained through the use of these two methods concerning financial problems such as chaos, leverage, and business cycles. We also review the principles behind assessments of agents' intelligence levels, and some relevant designs for human experiments. The main theme of this review is to show that by combining theory, agent-based modeling, and controlled human experiments, one can garner more reliable and credible results on account of a better verification of theory; accordingly, this way, a wider range of economic and financial problems and phenomena can be studied.

  20. Too poor to be green consumers? A field experiment on revealed preferences for firewood in rural Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Sandóval, C.; Castañeda, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on a field experiment that investigates whether households in Guatemala are willing to surrender a small material gain in order to buy legal rather than illegal firewood. Given the ineffectiveness of command-and-control policies to curb the problem of illegal logging in Guatemala,

  1. Recent progress in econophysics: Chaos, leverage,and business cycles as revealed by agent-based modeling and human experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Ji-Ping Huang

    2017-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and controlled human experiments serve as two fundamental research methods in the field of econophysics.Agent-based modeling has been in development for over 20 years,but how to design virtual agents with high levels of human-like "intelligence" remains a challenge.On the other hand,experimental econophysics is an emerging field;however,there is a lack of experience and paradigms related to the field.Here,we review some of the most recent research results obtained through the use of these two methods concerning financial problems such as chaos,leverage,and business cycles.We also review the principles behind assessments of agents' intelligence levels,and some relevant designs for human experiments.The main theme of this review is to show that by combining theory,agent-based modeling,and controlled human experiments,one can garner more reliable and credible results on account of a better verification of theory;accordingly,this way,a wider range of economic and financial problems and phenomena can be studied.

  2. Analysis of experience-regulated transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development reveals spatiotemporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Lin; Chou, Chih-Hsuan; Huang, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Yi; Lin, Meng-Ying; Tung, Chun-Che; Lin, Chun-Yen; Lai, Ivan Pochou; Zou, Yan-Fang; Youngson, Neil A; Lin, Shau-Ping; Yang, Chang-Hao; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Hsien-Sung

    2018-03-15

    Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is unknown if genomic imprinting contributes to visual system development. We profiled the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development under normal- and dark-rearing conditions using B6/CAST F1 hybrid mice. We identified experience-regulated, isoform-specific and brain-region-specific imprinted genes. We also found imprinted microRNAs were predominantly clustered into the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus with light experience affecting some imprinted miRNA expression. Our findings provide the first comprehensive analysis of light-experience regulation of the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of visual system development. Our results may contribute to therapeutic strategies for visual impairments and circadian rhythm disorders resulting from a dysfunctional imprintome.

  3. Ties that bind: community attachment and the experience of discrimination among Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sluytman, Laurens; Spikes, Pilgrim; Nandi, Vijay; Van Tieu, Hong; Frye, Victoria; Patterson, Jocelyn; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the impact of psychological distress may be greater for Black men who have sex with men given that they may experience both racial discrimination in society at large and discrimination due to sexual orientation within Black communities. Attachments to community members may play a role in addressing psychological distress for members of this vulnerable population. This analysis is based on 312 Black men who have sex with men recruited for a behavioural intervention trial in New York City. Analyses were conducted using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of discrimination and community attachment to psychological distress. Most participants (63%) reported exposure to both discrimination due to race and sexual orientation. However, a majority of participants (89%) also reported racial and/or sexual orientation community attachment. Psychological distress was significant and negatively associated with older age (40 years and above), being a high school graduate and having racial and/or sexual orientation community attachments. Psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with being HIV-positive and experiencing both racial and sexual orientation discrimination. Similar results were found in the multivariable model. Susceptibility to disparate psychological distress outcomes must be understood in relation to social membership, including its particular norms, structures and ecological milieu.

  4. Practical strategies and perceptions from community pharmacists following their experiences with conducting pharmacy practice research: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Campbell, Natasha K J; Chhina, Harpreet; Galo, Jessica S; Marra, Carlo

    2017-10-26

    While prior research identified barriers to conducting research in community pharmacies, there remains a need to better understand facilitators to ensure successful collaborations between academic researchers and pharmacists. Our objective was to determine the experiences and perspectives of community pharmacists who have recently conducted a pharmacy practice-based research study to gain in-depth understanding of challenges as well as facilitators and identify strategies and solutions. We conducted a qualitative study involving one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews with community pharmacists following the completion of a practice-based research study in their pharmacies. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive content analysis involving open coding, creating categories and abstraction into final themes. Eleven pharmacists participated in the qualitative interviews. We identified six major themes including: (1) barriers (e.g. time constraints); (2) facilitators (e.g. ideal pharmacy layout); (3) support and resources from academic researchers (e.g. helpfulness of training, easy-to-use study materials); (4) pharmacist-initiated strategies for conducting research (beyond prior suggestions from researchers); (5) suggestions for future pharmacy practice research; and (6) motivation for conducting pharmacy practice research. These findings informed practical strategies targeted at academic researchers and pharmacists, respectively, to facilitate the conduct of research in community pharmacists across various stages of the research process. Our study adds to better understanding of community pharmacists' perspectives on conducting research and identifies practical solutions that can be readily implemented by academic researchers and pharmacists participating in research. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers--Field and laboratory microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M.D.; Schreiber, M.E.; Bahr, J.M.; Sewell, G.W.; Hickey, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    % of theBacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems.

  6. Experiences and perspectives of community health workers from implementing treatment for schistosomiasis using the community directed intervention strategy in an informal settlement in Kisumu City, western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Gladys O; Musuva, Rosemary M; Odiere, Maurice R; Mwinzi, Pauline N

    2016-09-15

    The Community Directed Intervention (CDI) strategy has been used to conduct various health interventions in Africa, including control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Although the CDI approach has shown good results in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis with respect to treatment coverage using community drug distributors, its utility in the control of schistosomiasis among urban poor is yet to be established. Using a longitudinal qualitative study, we explored the experiences, opportunities, challenges as well as recommendations of Community Health Workers (CHWs) after participation in annual mass drug administration (MDA) activities for schistosomiasis using the CDI approach in an urban setting. Unstructured open-ended group discussions were conducted with CHWs after completion of annual MDA activities. Narratives were obtained from CHWs using a digital audio recorder during the group discussions, transcribed verbatim and translated into English where applicable. Thematic decomposition of data was done using ATLAS.ti. software, and themes explored using the principle of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). From the perspective of the CHWs, opportunities for implementing CDI in urban settings, included the presence of CHWs, their supervisory structures and their knowledge of intervention areas, and opportunity to integrate MDA with other health interventions. Several challenges were mentioned with regards to implementing MDA using the CDI strategy among them lack of incentives, fear of side effects, misconceptions regarding treatment and mistrust, difficulties working in unsanitary environmental conditions, insecurity, and insufficient time. A key recommendation in promoting more effective MDA using the CDI approach was allocation of more time to the exercise. Findings from this study support the feasibility of using CDI for implementing MDA for schistosomiasis in informal settlements of urban areas. Extensive community

  7. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwes, Nicolaas; Weber, Nicholas; Jordan, Chris E.; Saunders, W. Carl; Tattam, Ian A.; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Pollock, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have been referred to as ecosystem engineers because of the large impacts their dam building activities have on the landscape; however, the benefits they may provide to fluvial fish species has been debated. We conducted a watershed-scale experiment to test how increasing beaver dam and colony persistence in a highly degraded incised stream affects the freshwater production of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following the installation of beaver dam analogs (BDAs), we observed significant increases in the density, survival, and production of juvenile steelhead without impacting upstream and downstream migrations. The steelhead response occurred as the quantity and complexity of their habitat increased. This study is the first large-scale experiment to quantify the benefits of beavers and BDAs to a fish population and its habitat. Beaver mediated restoration may be a viable and efficient strategy to recover ecosystem function of previously incised streams and to increase the production of imperiled fish populations. PMID:27373190

  8. Reproductive isolation revealed in preliminary crossbreeding experiments using field collected Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from three ITS–2 defined groups

    OpenAIRE

    García, Mauricio; Menes, Marianela; Dorn, Patricia L.; Monroy, Carlot