Miller, Danise C
This article reviews the current research related to the many issues affecting women's journey from incarceration back into community living. The complex transition process that comes when ex-offenders attempt to reenter society post-release is examined, and the story of one faith-based community reentry program for women located in southern California is described. The women in this program currently achieve overall recidivism rates of 3% as compared with national averages of 50%. The program uses peers to help newly released women achieve long-term success. The specific steps taken by this organization to obtain such significant measurable positive outcomes are described.
Price, Sarah Kye
Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…
Lachance, Laurie; Kelly, R Patrick; Wilkin, Margaret; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra
Social determinants of health likely play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes for women in vulnerable communities. Adult African American women diagnosed with or at-risk for diabetes in Inkster, Michigan (n = 113) and a group of demographically similar women in Flint, Michigan (n = 48) participated in programs aimed at increasing diabetes-related self-management behaviors through peer coaching, health literacy training, and social support. Participants completed surveys to measure changes in health, health behaviors, health literacy, and social support. We found that these diabetes programs with a focus on increasing women's capacity to practice health management behaviors, navigate the health care system, and connect with social support, led to an increase in healthy behaviors and a reported increase in both overall and diabetes-specific health over an 18 month period. Overall health, general diet and specific diet improved significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline to follow-up, when controlled for age, diabetes status and site. Exercise also improved, but the change was not statistically significant. Women who participated in the intervention changed health behaviors, and increased their sense of health literacy and social support. Improvement in women's access to and use of community preventive services, and the provision of outreach support using community health workers (CHWs) and peer mentorship was an integral part of creating these changes. Although this study found that a variety of diabetes prevention and management programs provided opportunities for positive health changes, findings also suggest that it is critical to address the burdens women from vulnerable communities face in order to participate in these programs.
Seyednezami Nasrin; Nabipour Iraj; Pazoki Raha; Imami Seyed
Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) ...
While women have been graduating from physical oceanography programs in increasing numbers for the past two decades, the number of women occupying senior positions in the field remains relatively low. Thus, the disparity between the percentages of women at various career stages seems to be related to the retention of those completing graduate school in physical oceanography, not in recruiting women to the field. Studies indicate that a positive mentoring experience is strongly correlated with success in science, and as such, MPOWIR (Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase Retention) provides this essential mentoring to physical oceanographers from late graduate school through their early careers. Our network includes over 400 scientists at 70 institutions participating in a variety of online and face-to-face mentoring opportunities. The MPOWIR website (www.mpowir.org) includes resources for junior scientists, ways to get involved, data and career profiles, and a blog with job postings and relevant information. In October 2011, we will hold the third Pattullo conference to bring mentors and mentees together. The 43 participants at this conference will share their research, attend professional development sessions, and openly discuss issues related to the retention of young scientists in the field.
Maciak, B J; Guzman, R; Santiago, A; Villalobos, G; Israel, B A
LA VIDA--the Southwest Detroit Partnership to Prevent Intimate Violence Against Latina Women--evolved in response to community concern about the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the lack of culturally competent preventive and support services for Latino women and men in southwest Detroit. Since 1997, diverse organizations have mobilized as a community-academic partnership to ensure the availability, accessibility, and utilization of IPV services. This article describes and analyzes the evolution of LA VIDA within a community-based participatory research framework using a case study approach that draws on multiple data sources including group and individual interviews and field notes. The challenges and lessons learned in addressing a complex multifaceted problem such as IPV in an ethnic minority community are highlighted in an examination of the process of mobilizing diverse organizations, conducting community diagnosis and needs assessment activities, establishing goals and objectives within a social ecological framework, and integrating evaluation during the development phase.
Kenny, Marilyn; Cap, Ihor
Canada's Community-Based Language Training (CBLT) program was designed as a part-time, flexible language training response for non-confident, isolated immigrant women who required adult English-as-a-Second-Language (A/ESL) training to assist them in their daily lives. It addressed barriers to their participation in classes housed in educational…
Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma
The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…
Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. Methods: ...
DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela
Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…
Li, Rong; Zhang, Qiufang; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, Xiaoke; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Lin, Jinfang; Zhu, Yimin; Jiang, Yong; Feng, Huai L; Qiao, Jie
What is the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese women from different communities? The prevalence of PCOS in Chinese women aged 19-45 years is 5.6%. The prevalence of PCOS is reported to range from 5 to 10% but to the best of our knowledge the Han Chinese population has not been studied. A large-scale epidemiological study was carried out between October 2007 and September 2011 in 15 924 Han Chinese women of reproductive age (19-45 years) from the 10 provinces and municipalities in China. A total of 16 886 women from 152 cities and 112 villages were involved in the study. All study participants received a questionnaire and underwent a physical and transvaginal ultrasound examination. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of women (n = 3565) for analysis of metabolic markers and hormones. Based on the Rotterdam PCOS criteria, we assessed hyperandrogenism (H), chronic anovulation (O) and polycystic ovaries (P). Following diagnosis, women with PCOS were assigned to one of four different phenotypes. Finally, the prevalence and related risks of PCOS among Chinese women were estimated based on all the data sources. A total of 16 886 women were initially involved in the study and 15 924 eligible participants then completed the study; the overall response rate was 94.3% (15 924/16 886). The prevalence of PCOS in the Chinese community population was 5.6% (894/15 924). Blood samples were analyzed from 833 of these women who were assigned to the four PCOS phenotypes as follows: 19% H + O, 37% H + P, 15% O + P and 29% H + O + P. Comparing the 833 women with PCOS to 2732 women without PCOS indicated that PCOS occurs in younger women (P syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of hypertension or hyperlipemia between the two groups. Obese patients with PCOS had a higher rate of MS (16 versus 48%), IR (7 versus 28%), hypertension (8 versus 30%) and hyperlipemia (48 versus 73%) compared with
López del Valle, Lydia M; Riedy, Christine A; Weinstein, Phil
The purpose of this study was to examine women's views on beliefs, preferences, and behaviors relevant to children's oral health. Women of childbearing age and mothers of women of childbearing age were recruited from 2 rural Puerto Rican communities to participate in 24 focus groups. One hundred fifty women participated. Participants were asked about their awareness and knowledge of childhood decay and their child-feeding and oral care attitudes and practices. Analysis consisted of a comprehensive content review of participant's responses. Participants used a variety of infant and toddler feeding practices, including breastfeeding and prolonged bottle use. Children progressed through feeding stages based on mother's experience, older relatives' advice, and child readiness. Grandmothers were considered trusted and reliable sources of information. Many believed that dental disease did not affect infants and were unaware of el síndrome del biberón (baby bottle tooth decay, SIB). Participants believed that decay was caused by too much sugar and prolonged bottle use and only affected children. Dental visits were rare in very young children, unless conspicuous decay or pain was present. Mothers' dental experiences influenced seeking children's preventive and treatment visits. This study highlights caregivers' perceptions, which are inconsistent with maximizing children's oral health. This information can be used to develop culturally appropriate, community based oral health programs.
Full Text Available Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia. Data on the study subjects’ background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150 μg/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC was 58.1 μg/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13 and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50, but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52. Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy.
Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H
Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months). The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8) months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age. For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing. The preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.
Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.
Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.
Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, pPap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495
Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. A total of 335 healthy, 25-64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. ACTRNO12606000521527.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527
Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Dworkin, Shari L; Hu, Mei-Chen; Manuel, Jennifer; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V
Relationship power has been highlighted as a major factor influencing women's safer sex practices. Little research, however, has specifically examined relationship power in drug-involved women, a population with increased risk for HIV transmission. Using baseline data from a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network multisite trial of a women's HIV prevention intervention in community-based drug treatment programs, this paper examined the association between sexual relationship power and unprotected vaginal or anal sex. The Sexual Relationship Power Scale, a measure of relationship control and decision-making dominance, was used to assess the association between power and unprotected sex in relationships with primary male partners. It was hypothesized that increased relationship power would be associated with decreased unprotected sexual occasions, after controlling for relevant empirical and theoretical covariates. Findings show a more complex picture of the association between power and sexual risk in this population, with a main effect in the hypothesized direction for decision-making dominance but not for relationship control. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, and future research directions for examining power constructs and developing interventions targeting relationship power among drug-involved women are suggested.
Full Text Available Context: Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS, measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Aims: Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children′s exposure to SHS at home. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. Results: A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7% was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Conclusions: Women′s initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Ruiz, Myriam; Meneses, Sergio; Amaya, Claudia; Márquez, Margarita; Taboada, Arianna; Careaga, Katherine
Indigenous women in Mexico represent a vulnerable population in which three kinds of discrimination converge (ethnicity, gender and class), having direct repercussions on health status. The discrimination and inequity in health care settings brought this population to the fore as a priority group for institutional action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the processes and performance of the "Casa de la Mujer Indígena", a community based project for culturally and linguistically appropriate service delivery for indigenous women. The evaluation summarizes perspectives from diverse stakeholders involved in the implementation of the model, including users, local authorities, and institutional representatives. The study covered five Casas implementation sites located in four Mexican states. A qualitative process evaluation focused on systematically analyzing the Casas project processes and performance was conducted using archival information and semi-structured interviews. Sixty-two interviews were conducted, and grounded theory approach was applied for data analysis. Few similarities were observed between the proposed model of service delivery and its implementation in diverse locations, signaling discordant operating processes. Evidence gathered from Casas personnel highlighted their ability to detect obstetric emergencies and domestic violence cases, as well as contribute to the empowerment of women in the indigenous communities served by the project. These themes directly translated to increases in the reporting of abuse and referrals for obstetric emergencies. The model's cultural and linguistic competency, and contributions to increased referrals for obstetric emergencies and abuse are notable successes. The flexibility and community-based nature of the model has allowed it to be adapted to the particularities of diverse indigenous contexts. Local, culturally appropriate implementation has been facilitated by the fact that the Casas have been
DePrince, Anne P; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela
Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interdisciplinary community-coordinated response program conditions: Outreach (community-based victim advocate outreach) or Referral (criminal justice system-based victim advocate referrals to community-based agencies). Participants were interviewed 3 times over a 1-year period: within 26 (median) days of police-reported IPA, 6 months later, and 12 months later. Primary outcome measures included posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptom severity (Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; Beck Depression Inventory-II), fear appraisals (Trauma Appraisal Questionnaire), IPA revictimization (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale), and readiness to leave the relationship with the abuser. One year after the initial interview, women in the Outreach condition reported decreased PTSD and depression symptom severity and fear compared with women in the Referral condition. Although both conditions were unrelated to revictimization in the follow-up year, women in the Outreach condition reported greater readiness to leave the abuser and rated services as more helpful than women in the Referral condition. This is one of the first studies to examine community-based outreach in the context of an interdisciplinary community coordinated response to police-reported IPA. The findings suggest that community-based outreach by victim advocates results in decreased distress levels, greater readiness to leave abusive relationships, and greater perceived helpfulness of services relative to system-based referrals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Jayabharathi, Baskaran; Judie, Arulappan
Menopause is the stage when the menstrual period permanently stops, and is a part of every woman's life. It usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and is associated with hormonal, physical, and psychological changes. Estrogen and progesterone levels play the biggest part in menopause. In this stage, the ovaries make less estrogen and progesterone. When the body produces less of these hormones, the parts of the body that depend on estrogen to keep them healthy will react and this often causes discomfort for women. This study tested the impact of a complementary health approach to quality of life in menopausal women. A community-based interventional study was conducted in selected areas in Kattankulathur Block, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. A simple random sampling technique was used to select menopausal women for the study. Of 260 menopausal women identified, 130 were allocated to a study group and 130 to a control group. The study group underwent yoga training for 1.5 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. After the 5-day intensive yoga training program, the menopausal women practiced yoga daily at home for 35-40 minutes a day. Along with daily yoga practice, they underwent group yoga practice for 2 days a week under the supervision of one of the investigators until 18 weeks. The yoga training program consisted of Yogasanas, Pranayama (breathing exercises), and meditation. The standardized World Health Organization QoL BREF scale was used to assess the women's quality of life. We distributed an instruction manual on steps of selected yoga practice for the women's self-reference at home after the 5 days of continuous yoga practice. A yoga practice diary was used to confirm regular performance of yoga. The women in the control group did not participate in the yoga program; however, on completion of the study, these women received intensive yoga training for 5 days. There was an extremely high statistically significant difference (P=0
Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M; Wright, Cherie; Hasler, Allison; Kerch, Sarah; Moehring, Patricia; Geller, Stacie
Rural populations in the United States experience unique challenges in health and health care. The health of rural women, in particular, is influenced by their knowledge, work and family commitments, as well as environmental barriers in their communities. In rural southern Illinois, the seven southernmost counties form a region that experiences high rates of cancer and other chronic diseases. To identify, understand, and prioritize the health needs of women living in these seven counties, a comprehensive gender-based community health assessment was conducted with the goal of developing a plan to improve women's health in the region. A gender-analysis framework was adapted, and key stakeholder interviews and focus groups with community women were conducted and analyzed to identify factors affecting ill health. The gender-based analysis revealed that women play a critical role in the health of their families and their communities, and these roles can influence their personal health. The gender-based analysis also identified several gender-specific barriers and facilitators that affect women's health and their ability to engage in healthy behaviors. These results have important implications for the development of programs and policies to improve health among rural women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases are increasing in India. There is a clear need to study risk factors for NCDs in various population groups in the country. Materials and Methods: This community based cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the diet and physical activity of women in urban and rural areas in Vellore district. Dietary data was collected using 24-h dietary recall and physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Sociodemographic variables were collected to assess the risk factors for unfavorable diet and physical activity. Results: The odds of the rural women engaging in high physical activity are 3.61 times greater than urban women (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.36-5.54. The odds of the urban women consuming a high calorie diet are 1.923 times that of the rural women (95% CI = 1.282-2.857. The odds of the urban women being overweight/obese are 5.555 times than that of the urban women (95% CI = 3.333-10. Women who were housewives and not doing household work were significantly less physically active, took higher calorie diet, and were more overweight and obese compared to women who were involved in active household work. Conclusions: Urban women had unfavorable diet and physical activity levels compared to rural women. They also had higher levels of overweight and obesity. There is a need for targeted NCD prevention interventions among urban women.
Janet M. Turan
Full Text Available Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV. We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n=2 groups and in-depth interviews (n=25 with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37% reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa.
Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Gharipour, Mojgan
Smoking has long been discouraged in Iranian women. However, in recent years, more women have started smoking. This study aimed to investigate the role of women's attitude towards smoking on smoking prevalence in women in the context of a community-based intervention program. Participants were samples of the third and fifth evaluation stages of the 'Isfahan Healthy Heart Program', which is a comprehensive community-based intervention program for noncommunicable disease prevention and control. A total of 3112 and 4794 women were investigated in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Intervention and reference groups were assessed for smoking habits and attitude towards smoking. T test and chi-square test were used to compare the parameters between the intervention and the reference groups. Negative attitude towards smoking increased significantly in the intervention and the reference groups from 2004 to 2007 (P = 0.0001). Negative attitude towards smoking in women decreased significantly in the intervention group (P = 0.0001), whereas it increased significantly in the reference group (P = 0.0001). However, smoking prevalence showed a significant decrease in women in the intervention group, from 2.5 to 1% (P smoking for women can be overcome by effective strategies that discourage the population from smoking.
DiGiacomo, Michelle; Green, Anna; Rodrigues, Emma; Mulligan, Kathryn; Davidson, Patricia M
Chronic conditions contribute to over 70 % of Australia's total disease burden, and this is set to increase to 80 % by 2020. Women's greater longevity means that they are more likely than men to live with disability and have unique health concerns related to their gender based roles in society. Cultural and social issues can impact on women's health and are important to consider in health services planning and research. In this study, we aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to providing a gender-based approach to chronic conditions and women's health in an eastern metropolitan region of Australia. Focus groups were used to engage both community-dwelling women who had chronic conditions and relevant professional stakeholders in the target area. Recorded proceedings underwent thematic analysis. Five focus groups were conducted with professional stakeholders and women community members in February and March 2014. Resultant themes included: women's disempowerment through interactions with health systems; social and economic constraints and caregiving roles act to exclude women from participating in self-care and society; and empowerment can be achieved through integrated models of care that facilitate voice and enable communication and engagement. This study underscores the importance of including perspectives of sex and gender in health care services planning. Tailoring services to socio-demographic and cultural groups is critical in promoting access to health care services. Unique epidemiological trends, particularly the ageing of women and new migrant groups, require particular attention.
Ensuring that benefits from natural resource management initiatives are shared amongst both men and women is crucial to achieving long-term conservation objectives. In southwest Madagascar, community-managed temporary closures of octopus (Octopus cyanea) fisheries have become a popular approach to resource ...
Lykes, M Brinton; Scheib, Holly
Recovery from disaster and displacement involves multiple challenges including accompanying survivors, documenting effects, and rethreading community. This paper demonstrates how African-American and Latina community health promoters and white university-based researchers engaged visual methodologies and participatory action research (photoPAR) as resources in cross-community praxis in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the flooding of New Orleans. Visual techniques, including but not limited to photonarratives, facilitated the health promoters': (1) care for themselves and each other as survivors of and responders to the post-disaster context; (2) critical interrogation of New Orleans' entrenched pre- and post-Katrina structural racism as contributing to the racialised effects of and responses to Katrina; and (3) meaning-making and performances of women's community-based, cross-community health promotion within this post-disaster context. This feminist antiracist participatory action research project demonstrates how visual methodologies contributed to the co-researchers' cross-community self- and other caring, critical bifocality, and collaborative construction of a contextually and culturally responsive model for women's community-based health promotion post 'unnatural disaster'. Selected limitations as well as the potential for future cross-community antiracist feminist photoPAR in post-disaster contexts are discussed.
Objective: We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods: In a ...
Garg, Rajesh; Deepti, ShyamSunder; Padda, Avtar; Singh, Tejbir
Irrespective of the fact that breastfeeding in India is almost universal, psychosocial and cultural barriers still exists to early breastfeeding. The exact reasons for this delay are not clearly known. Hence we conducted this study to assess breastfeeding knowledge and practices and the factors influencing them among women in rural Punjab, India. We interviewed 1,000 women in a community-based analytical cross-sectional study that was carried out in 20 villages of the District of Amritsar, Punjab, India, in 2005-2006 by standard cluster sampling. Time at initiation of breastfeeding and variables like understanding about the importance of colostrum, nutrition during lactation, and motivation by health workers were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by percentages compared with the χ² test. Two hundred twenty-five respondents (23.8%) started breastfeeding their babies on the first day of birth, but in terms of early breastfeeding only 128 (13.5%) respondents put their babies on the breast within 4 hours of birth. Of the 1,000 respondents, 356 (35.6%) of the respondents were unaware of the importance of colostrum, 733 (77.6%) were not given advice on benefits of breastfeeding/weaning, and 306 (33.5%) of respondents had not increased their diet during lactation. Early breastfeeding knowledge and practices were suboptimal among the mothers in rural Punjab. Health education on breastfeeding and nutrition remains the dark area. Research and public health efforts like one-to-one "breastfeeding counseling and health education on nutrition" to the mother by health workers should be promoted.
Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods: A total of 335 healthy, 25-64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R.Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results: Among the participants, the percentage of those who reported being active (practicing at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (P<0.0001 at the ending of the program in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The participants in the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity per week (mean=139.81, SE=23.35 than women in the control group (mean=40.14, SE=12.65 at week 8 (P<0.0001.The intervention group subjects exhibited a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 mmHg than the control group women (+2.0. mmHg. The mean ranks for posttest healthy heart
Baird, Martha B; Domian, Elaine Williams; Mulcahy, Ellyn R; Mabior, Rebecca; Jemutai-Tanui, Gladys; Filippi, Melissa K
To explore the process of partnership between university researchers, students, and South Sudanese refugee women to address the health challenges associated with their resettlement transition to the United States. This qualitative study used a community-based collaborative action research (CBCAR) framework in the design, collection, and analysis of the qualitative data. Twenty refugee women participated in this study. Five health education seminars followed by an audio-recorded focus group were held over 9 months. A final focus group was held to confirm derived themes and develop an action plan. The partnership between the refugee women and researchers resulted in awareness of how power structures and differing expectations affected the process. The dialog in the focus groups provided an opportunity for refugee women to voice challenges to their health in resettlement. A pattern was recognized about how political and sociocultural events affected the process of CBCAR. Dialog and sharing differing worldviews and perspectives led to insights about ways to improve the health of the South Sudanese refugee community. CBCAR is a useful framework to address health concerns of a refugee community. Insights from this study provided a foundation for a future intervention research project with the refugee women. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Deng, Ai-Wen; Xiong, Ri-Bo; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Luo, Ying-Ping; Chen, Wang-Zhong
To investigate the prevalence and analyze the risk factors of postpartum depression (PPD) in Tangxia Community, Guangzhou, a community representative of the process of urbanization in China. A total of 1 823 delivery women in Tangxia Community, Guangzhou were screened with the Chinese Version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. The risk factors were evaluated by self-made questionnaire based on literature interview combined with expert consultation. The data collected were analyzed using Student's t test and logistic regression in SPSS16.0. The prevalence of PPD in Tangxia Community, Guangzhou was 27.37%. Mutivariant logistic regression analysis identified mode of delivery, puerperant from one-child family, relationship between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law and fetus gender as the risk factors of PPD while housing condition was negatively correlated with the incidence of PPD with OR value of 0.82.The the total score of social support rating scale, the score of objective support, subjective support and social utilization degree were significantly reduced in women with PPD in contrast with women without PPD. The incidence of PPD was slightly higher than other regions of China. It's of great importance to distinguish risk factors in regional culture context and develop health promotion program in order to enhance the well-being of delivery women. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kyokan, Michiko; Whitney-Long, Melissa; Kuteh, Mabel; Raven, Joanna
to explore the factors influencing women's use of birth waiting homes in the Northern Bombali district, Sierra Leone. this was a descriptive exploratory study using qualitative research methodology, which included in depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, document review and observations. two chiefdoms in the Northern Bombali district, Sierra Leone. eight interviews were conducted with women who had delivered in the past one year and used birth waiting homes; eight key informant interviews with a project manager, birth waiting homes hosts, and community members; thirteen women who delivered in the past year without using birth waiting homes (four interviews and two focus group discussions). there are several factors influencing the use of birth waiting homes (BWHs) including: past experience of childbirth, promotion of the birth waiting homes by traditional birth attendance, distance and costs of transport to the homes, child care and other family commitments, family's views of the importance of the homes, the costs of food during women's stay, and information given to women and families about when and how to use the homes. some barriers, especially those related to family commitments and costs of food, are challenging to solve. In order to make a BWH a user-friendly and viable option, it may be necessary to adjust ways in which BWHs are used. Good linkage with the health system is strength of the programme. However, further strengthening of community participation in monitoring and managing the BWHs is needed for the long term success and sustainability of the BWHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wong, Chun-Yue
Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40-60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was "problem waking up too early" (29.4%), followed by "difficulty staying asleep" (28.0%) and "difficulty falling asleep" (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score >or=8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances.
Lombard, Catherine; Deeks, Amanda; Jolley, Damien; Teede, Helena J
Women aged 25-45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary) schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127) or control (n = 123). Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7) and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6). All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months.Nearly all women (90%) reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2) than physical activity (mean score 2.7). This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g) and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g) representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33%) and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671). Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based women with children is feasible. Women with children are
Teede Helena J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. Methods This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Results Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127 or control (n = 123. Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7 and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6. All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months. Nearly all women (90% reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2 than physical activity (mean score 2.7. This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33% and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671. Conclusion Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based
Kulik, Liat; Megidna, Hofit
The study is aimed at examining the relationship between psychological empowerment of women volunteers and their clients in community volunteer projects in Israel. Based on an ecological approach, the study also aimed at examining whether the variables that explain empowerment of women who volunteer also explain empowerment of their clients. The…
Full Text Available Abstract Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting.
Full Text Available IMPORTANCE: This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. OBJECTIVE: We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health among drug-involved women under community supervision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1 a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH; (2 a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3 a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237 and 63% (n = 194 had multiple sex partners. RESULTS: Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18 and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest
El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan
This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical
El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan
Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may
Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Boro, Enu; Jamil, M D; Roy, Aakash
Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A 'p-value' instructional module was effective in increasing the knowledge score of pre- menopausal women under study. Administration of self instructional module was shown to significantly increase the knowledge scores in all areas of pre-menopausal tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge of tri-dimensional problems in premenopausal women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and
Jing, Meng-Juan; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lin, Wei-Quan; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi
Fatigue has been widely studied in the general population; however, limited studies have investigated it in the female population. The objectives of this community-based study were to (1) investigate the prevalence of fatigue, (2) explore the relationship between gynecological history and experiences of fatigue, and (3) identify risk factors for fatigue in middle-aged and elderly women. Based on a cross-sectional health study that employed a multi-instrument questionnaire, 1272 women aged 45years or older dwelling in the community were included. The Chinese version of Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) was used to assess fatigue, and socio-demographic, health-related, and gynecological data were also collected. Fatigue was defined as a total CFS score≥4. The prevalence of fatigue among women aged over 45years was 33.9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that older age, single marital status, lower education level, the presence of chronic diseases, underweight, hospitalization in the last year, postmenopause, and a higher number of live births were associated with an increased risk of fatigue (Pelderly females. Being postmenopausal and having more than three live births were the particular gynecological factors contributing to fatigue in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asp, Gustav; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette
Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost.
Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. Due to the logistics of diagnosis and lack of consensus on the diagnostic criteria, there are very few prevalence studies in the community. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of PCOS in women 18-25 years of age, conducted in college girls from Lucknow, North India. Materials and Methods: Sample size for the study was calculated as 1052. Girls from 3 different colleges were approached (n = 2150, 1520 (70.7% agreed to participate. They were asked to fill up a questionnaire asking details of menstrual cycle and features of hyperandrogenism. Hirsutism was self-reported. Responses were verified by a trained research assistant. A probable case was defined as a girl with menstrual irregularity (MI or hirsutism (H or both. All the probable cases were invited for detailed examination, hormone estimation, and ovarian ultrasonography. Results: Of the 1520 girls, 200 (13.1% were labeled as probable cases; 175 (87.5% had MI and 25 (12.5% had both MI and H. Of the 200 cases, 75 (37.5% had hormonal evaluation while 11 agreed for ultrasonography. 27 girls had confirmed PCOS. Therefore, if all the 200 girls would have had hormonal evaluation, 56 girls were likely to be confirmed as PCOS, giving a calculated prevalence of 3.7% (95% CI, 2.6-4.4 in this population. The mean age of these PCOS cases was 18.96 ± 1.73 yrs, body mass index was 21.72 ± 5.48 Kg/m 2 , and waist hip ratio was 0.81 ± 0.08. Only 12% girls had a body mass index ≥ 27.5 Kg/m 2 , but 44% had waist hip ratio > 0.81, again highlighting that despite low BMI, Indians have more abdominal obesity. Conclusion: Calculated prevalence of PCOS in women between the ages of 18-25 years from Lucknow, north India, is 3.7%. Majority of these girls were lean but have abdominal obesity.
Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic Violence against women is still an unsolved issue in India, though, it is an important public health problem contributing to physical, mental illness and low quality of life. Aim: The study was undertaken with the aim to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence against ever married women in an urban slum and the associated factors contributing to it. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study had been conducted among 430 ever married women of reproductive age group, selected using a systematic random sampling technique in an urban slum of Kolkata. Interviews were conducted using pre-designed, pre-tested semi structured schedule regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, violence experienced by the subjects in their lifetime, type of violence (physical, emotional and sexual violence and the person responsible for the same. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS 20.0 version. Results: The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was (59.3%. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual violence was 61.6%, 84.3%and 58.8%, respectively. The occurrence of the event was reported by only 33.1% of the victims. Multivariate analysis revealed violence was higher among women belonging to families with low per capita income (6 years, low educational background of husband, not able to bear a male child, unemployment amongst both the spouses, leave the household on any pretext without prior permission from husband and where the wives did not attend household activities properly. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence in urban slum of Kolkata was high which is an alarming public health problem which needs to be addressed at the earliest through awareness programmes and empowerment of women.
Saffari, Mohsen; Arslan, Syed Asadullah; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeid; Pakpour, Amir H; Zaben, Faten Al; Koenig, Harold G
Domestic violence against women committed by intimate partners is a worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the problem among Iranian women and identify associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional multicenter design, 1,600 women in six different areas of Iran were surveyed. A measure of domestic violence against women was administered and demographic information collected. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with domestic violence. The prevalence of domestic violence among participants were emotional (64%), physical (28%), and sexual (18%). Higher education (both women and their partners), employment status of partner (being employed), and lower number of children lowered the risk, whereas history of previous marriage (for either women or their partners), unstable marriage, substance abuse, crowded family situation, and lower socioeconomic status increased the risk of domestic violence. There is a high prevalence of domestic violence, particularly emotional, against women by their partners. Preventive measures are recommended such as increasing public awareness, improving in socioeconomic status of families, educating women about what they can do, and encouraging counseling for the couple or the woman alone.
Forte, D A
African American women are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. African American women ages 50 and older have been a difficult group to reach through conventional breast cancer intervention programs. Cultural and health beliefs that differ from mainstream society are reported to be factors contributing to the low rates of breast screening among this group. In addition to these attitudinal factors, older African American women are disproportionately represented among uninsured and under-insured Americans. As a result, cost becomes a barrier to mammography screening for many of these women. This project proposes to increase breast cancer screening awareness and provide a referral or free breast screening, or both, for African American women ages 50 and older. This information will be offered in the culturally familiar setting of local beauty salons. The culturally sensitive educational pamphlets developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and video developed by the NCI-funded project, Cancer Prevention Research Unit, will be used to promote mammography, clinical breast examinations, and breast self-examination. Providers staffing a mobile mammography van provided by Dr. Anitha Mitchell of the Association of Black Women Physicians through a grant from the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will perform mammograms for women on site during scheduled intervals. A followup telephone survey will be conducted.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is one of the countries with very high prevalence of anaemia in the world. In India, almost 59% of pregnant women are anaemic and it accounts for 20-40% of total maternal deaths. Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the major risks and associated with abortions, premature births, postpartum haemorrhage and low birth weight. In view of the above, the present study was carried out to find out the prevalence of anaemia amongst pregnant women and sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 pregnant women with gestational period 12-20 weeks attending the antenatal sessions in 4 tea garden areas under Dholai BPHC, Cachar District, for 6 months from April 2016 to September 2016. Data were presented in proportion, mean and standard deviation. Association was seen by using Chi-square test and Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Among 200 pregnant women, majority (38.5% were in 20-24 years of age, 98% Hindu by religion and 56% from class IV socioeconomic class. Regarding the educational status, 34.5% were educated up to primary school, while 33.5% were illiterate. Majority, i.e. 45.5% and 31.5% were having parity 0 and 1, respectively. Prevalence of anaemia in the present study was found to be 81% and among which 77.2% were moderately anaemic. The study showed significant association of anaemia among pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and high parity. CONCLUSION In the present study, there is high prevalence (81% of anaemia among pregnant women. The study also noted that lower socioeconomic status and high parity had a significant role in anaemia during pregnancy. So, there is a need to intensify IEC activities to promote early antenatal care, increased compliance of intake of iron and folic acid tablets, dietary modification and utilisation of family planning services among pregnant women of this region.
Joham, Anju E; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Zoungas, Sophia; Boyle, Jacqueline
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6%-21% of women. PCOS is the primary cause of anovulatory infertility, with major health and economic costs, yet we are unaware of any community-based, natural history studies on fertility and fertility treatments published to date. We aim to compare infertility, fertility treatment use, and relationship to body mass index (BMI) in women reporting PCOS to women not reporting PCOS in a community-based population. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). For the ALSWH, women from the general community were randomly selected from the national public insurance database. Mailed survey data were collected at multiple time points. At survey 4, there were 9145 respondents aged 28-33 years. Of 8612 women with known PCOS status, 478 women reported having PCOS. Information regarding fertility status was available for 4856 women. This was the subgroup used in this analysis. The main outcomes measures are self-reported PCOS status, BMI, infertility, and use of fertility therapies including ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with infertility and use of fertility treatment. Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3%-6.4%). Infertility was noted by 72% of 309 women reporting PCOS, compared with 16% of 4547 women not reporting PCOS (pInfertility was 15-fold higher in women reporting PCOS (adjusted odds ratio 14.9, 95% CI 10.9-20.3), independent of BMI. Of women reporting infertility, there was greater use of fertility hormone treatment, (62%, n=116 vs. 33%, n=162, pinfertility and use of fertility hormone treatment was significantly higher in women reporting PCOS. Considering the prevalence of PCOS and the health and economic burden of infertility, strategies to optimize fertility are important.
Kiran Rao; Prameela Vanguri; Smita Premchander
Objective. To share experiences from a project that integrates a mental health intervention within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women in rural India. Method. The mental health intervention had two components: group counseling and stress management. The former comprised of ventilation and reassurance and the latter strengthening of coping skills and a relaxation technique. Focus group discussions were used to understand women's perception o...
Owens, Collette; Dandy, Justine; Hancock, Peter
Equality of care in pregnancy is important for all women, however can be difficult for healthcare providers to achieve. It has been found that culturally and linguistically diverse women born overseas generally have lower satisfaction with pregnancy care than women born in the host country. Using a phenomenological framework, and models of care as a conceptual framework, this study explored the perceptions of care experienced by refugees and migrant women of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who had participated in a community-based antenatal programme specialising in maternity care of multicultural women. Informants were twelve women aged between 23 and 44 years of age; one woman was 33 weeks pregnant, other women had given birth in the six months prior to data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, using interpreters for women who spoke little or no English. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified; Social Support, Gaining of Knowledge, A Holistic Service, and New Opportunities. Using a community-based antenatal service specialising in maternity care of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds enabled the needs of refugee and migrant women to be recognised and met, and therefore enhanced their perception of the pregnancy experience. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Baskaran Jayabharathi, Arulappan Judie SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India Background: Menopause is the stage when the menstrual period permanently stops, and is a part of every woman’s life. It usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and is associated with hormonal, physical, and psychological changes. Estrogen and progesterone levels play the biggest part in menopause. In this stage, the ovaries make less estrogen and progesterone. When the body produces less of these hormones, the parts of the body that depend on estrogen to keep them healthy will react and this often causes discomfort for women. This study tested the impact of a complementary health approach to quality of life in menopausal women. Methods: A community-based interventional study was conducted in selected areas in Kattankulathur Block, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. A simple random sampling technique was used to select menopausal women for the study. Of 260 menopausal women identified, 130 were allocated to a study group and 130 to a control group. The study group underwent yoga training for 1.5 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. After the 5-day intensive yoga training program, the menopausal women practiced yoga daily at home for 35–40 minutes a day. Along with daily yoga practice, they underwent group yoga practice for 2 days a week under the supervision of one of the investigators until 18 weeks. The yoga training program consisted of Yogasanas, Pranayama (breathing exercises, and meditation. The standardized World Health Organization QoL BREF scale was used to assess the women’s quality of life. We distributed an instruction manual on steps of selected yoga practice for the women’s self-reference at home after the 5 days of continuous yoga practice. A yoga practice diary was used to confirm regular performance of yoga. The women in the control group did not participate in the yoga
Demographic and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Risk among Men and Transgender Women Recruited from Gay Entertainment Venues and Community-based Organizations in Thailand: Implications for HIV Prevention
Newman, PA; Lee, SJ; Roungprakhon, S; Tepjan, S
High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Thailand suggest a vital need for targeted interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine and compare sexual risk behaviors, and demographic and behavioral correlates of risk, among MSM and transgender women recruited from gay entertainment venue staff and community-based organization (CBO) participants. We used venue-based sampling across nine sites in Bangkok and Chiang Mai. Among 260 partici...
Juber, Brian A; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Johnson, Kristopher B; Harris, William S; Baack, Michelle L
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content. New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. At baseline, breast milk DHA content (n = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements (n = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%, P DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% (P DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.
Lorvick, Jennifer; Comfort, Megan L.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Kral, Alex H.
Background Most women involved in the criminal justice system are not incarcerated, but rather on probation or parole. We examined the receipt of health services and social vulnerability among women on parole or probation in the past year. Methods In a community-based sample of 776 women who use crack cocaine or injection drugs, we compared those who had been on probation or parole in the past year with those who had no criminal justice involvement in the past year. Results Women recently on ...
Vaughan, Cathy; Murdolo, Adele; Murray, Linda; Davis, Erin; Chen, Jasmin; Block, Karen; Quiazon, Regina; Warr, Deb
One in three women around the world are or have been subjected to violence. This includes in Australia, where violence against women is an urgent public health and human rights issue. Immigrant and refugee women who have resettled in Australia are known to face barriers accessing services aimed at preventing and responding to family violence. However there is little evidence about the contexts, nature and dynamics of violence against immigrant and refugee women to inform appropriate responses to enhance their safety and well-being. The ASPIRE project will address this gap by identifying opportunities for the development of responsive local and community-based interventions for family violence against immigrant and refugee women, contributing to the currently limited Australian research in this area. This participatory research project will work with communities in eight geographic locations (two inner-city, three outer-suburban, and three regional) across two states (Victoria and Tasmania), to generate evidence about immigrant and refugee women's experiences in a range of settings. The project will engage stakeholders and communities through extensive consultation prior to data collection and by facilitating community members' participation in generating and analysing data. A mix of qualitative methods will be used to generate rich data about the family, cultural and place-based contexts that shape the prevalence and dynamics of violence against immigrant and refugee women; women's prevention and help-seeking efforts; and community attitudes about and responses to violence across a range of cultural groups. Methods include in-depth interviews with women who have experienced family violence, key informant interviews with local community service providers, focus group discussions with men and women from predominant cultural groups that have migrated to areas covered by the research sites, and Photovoice with community leaders. Bilingual health educators will
Full Text Available Objective. To share experiences from a project that integrates a mental health intervention within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women in rural India. Method. The mental health intervention had two components: group counseling and stress management. The former comprised of ventilation and reassurance and the latter strengthening of coping skills and a relaxation technique. Focus group discussions were used to understand women's perception of how microcredit economic activity and the mental health intervention had affected their lives. Results. Women in the mental health intervention group reported reduction in psychological distress and bodily aches and pains. Majority (86% reported that the quality of their sleep had improved with regular practice of relaxation and that sharing their problems in the group had helped them to unburden. The social support extended by the members to each other, made them feel that they were not alone and could face any life situation. Conclusion. The study provided qualitative evidence that adding the mental health intervention to the ongoing economic activity had made a positive difference in the lives of the women. Addressing mental health concerns along with livelihood initiatives can help to enhance both economic and social capital in rural poor women.
Juana Valentina Nieto
Full Text Available This article reflects on the representations of communal work and collective property held by promoters of income-generating projects in the Witoto community “El Once”, near Leticia in the Colombian Amazon. It focuses on the ways women get involved in development projects, in comparison with their organization for the production of handicrafts and subsistence agricultural crops. The main argument is that work in agriculture and handicrafts is organized based on a close connection between the body, the person, and the products of his/her work, in contrast with the development projects promoted by diverse external agencies, which assume a logic of communal work and collective property. All this has as a consequence the dissatisfaction of both parties –the promoters and those “promoted”–with the results of such projects.
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders constitute a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease and are projected to form the second most common cause of disability by 2020. Objective: To assess the level of depression and anxiety among middle age women and the possible factors behind it. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women aged 40-60 years were selected by proportionate sampling technique. Age, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at marriage, age at menopause, weight and height were noted. Zung-self-rating scales were used for calculating levels of depression and anxiety in these women. The data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. Results: The level of syndromal depression and anxiety was found to be 86.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Most of the subjects had the moderate type of depression (49.5% followed by mild (29.4% and severe depression (7.8%. While in case of anxiety, most of the subjects (69.4% had a mild form of anxiety and 17.8% had moderate anxiety level. A significant difference was observed in the level of depression with respect to marital status (P = 0.009 and in the level of anxiety with respect to age (P = 0.021 in the study subjects. On applying logistic regression, none of the factors studied were found to be significant variables for anxiety or depression in the study population. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among the middle-aged women in rural Punjab. Provision of mental health services in this group is essential.
Siller, Heidi; Renner, Walter; Juen, Barbara
The study focuses on psychosocial functioning of female Turkish immigrants in Austria with recurrent depressive disorder participating in self-help groups. Self-help groups guided by group leaders of Turkish descent should increase autonomy in participants, providing the opportunity to follow their ethnic health beliefs. Turkish immigrant women (n = 43) with recurrent depressive disorder participated in self-help groups over four months. Qualitative data of participants and group leaders, containing interviews, group protocols and supervision protocols of group leaders were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis for effects on psychosocial function, such as interaction with others, illness beliefs and benefit from self-help group. Women reported feelings of being neglected and violated by their husbands. They stated that they had gained strength and had emancipated themselves from their husbands. Self-help groups functioned as social resources and support for changes in participants' lives. Further interventions should integrate the functional value of depressive symptoms and focus on social support systems and social networks.
Full Text Available of poverty’: Empowering women through community-based employment-intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects M MASHIRI, J CHAKWIZIRA AND C NHEMACHENA CSIR Built Environment PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa Email: firstname.lastname@example.org – www... poverty, build capacity and create community assets1,2. The term ‘employment-intensive’ is used to describe a competitive technology where optimal use is made of labour as the predominant resource in infrastructure projects, while ensuring cost...
Schmidt N C; Fargnoli V
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on inequalities in health by involving community members and researchers in all parts of the research process. The project COMIRES (COmmunity Migrant RESearch), based in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University Hospitals of Geneva, engages academic researchers and migrant communities in Geneva in a co-learning process to understand barriers to reproductive health services and evaluate the role of the community. The article illustrates the methodological approach, but also advantages and challenges of CBPR.
Rodríguez-Angulo, Elsa; Andueza-Pech, Guadalupe; Rosado-Alcocer, Ligia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo
To evaluate a community-based intervention aimed to improve women's knowledge on alarm signs for preeclampsia-eclampsia, obstetrical hemorrhage, and puerperal sepsis, in Mayan pregnant women in the state of Yucatan, Mexico, in 2008, using participatory methodology. Community-based randomized controlled trial, with experimental (n = 28) and control (n = 28) groups. Participatory strategies with translators of Mayan language were used. Analysis of differences in differences was carried out to evaluate the effect of intervention. The intervention increased knowledge on alarm signs for preeclampsia-eclampsia in 42.9% (p = 0.012), obstetrical hemorrhage in 32.1% (p = 0.071) and puerperal sepsis in 25.0% (p = 0.659). Control group increased 32.1% (p = 0.033) knowledge on alarm signs for puerperal sepsis. Overall effect of intervention was 33.3% (p = 0.007). The community-based intervention improved overall knowledge of women on alarm signs and specific knowledge on alarm signs for preeclampsia-eclampsia. It is necessary to spread this methodology, so that a greater number of women of the community will also be benefitted with the intervention.
Loutfy, Mona; Greene, Saara; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Thomas-Pavanel, Jamie; Conway, Tracey; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; O'Brien, Nadia; Carter, Allison; Tharao, Wangari; Nicholson, Valerie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Dubuc, Danièle; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Hogg, Robert S; Kaida, Angela
Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating research-to-action. While having these positive attributes, the community-based health research literature is predominantly composed of small projects, using qualitative methods, and set within geographically limited communities. Its use in larger health studies, including clinical trials and cohorts, is limited. We present the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), a large-scale, multi-site, national, longitudinal quantitative study that has operationalized community-based research in all steps of the research process. Successes, challenges and further considerations are offered. Through the integration of community-based research principles, we have been successful in: facilitating a two-year long formative phase for this study; developing a novel survey instrument with national involvement; training 39 Peer Research Associates (PRAs); offering ongoing comprehensive support to PRAs; and engaging in an ongoing iterative community-based research process. Our community-based research approach within CHIWOS demanded that we be cognizant of challenges managing a large national team, inherent power imbalances and challenges with communication, compensation and volunteering considerations, and extensive delays in institutional processes. It is important to consider the iterative nature of community-based research and to work through tensions that emerge given the diverse perspectives of numerous team members. Community-based research, as an approach to large-scale quantitative health research projects, is an increasingly viable methodological option. Community-based research has several
Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Davis, Catherine C.; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J.; Schutte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D.; Forney, Larry J.
To determine if different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence in Japanese women of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences. PMID:19912342
Exercise is recognized as a mainstay treatment of arthritis, yet more than 40% of adults with arthritis report no leisure time physical activity participation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working to identify and promote evidence-based physical activity programs to improve physi...
Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Mathis, LaTanya; Hooker, Steven P; Keller, Colleen
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how spirituality and religion can be leveraged in the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women delivered outside of faith-based or faith-placed settings. Three focus groups were conducted were conducted with 23 African American women (M age = 37.8 years, M BMI = 39.6 kg m(2)). Results showed that incorporating aspects of spirituality (i.e., words encouraging connectedness to a higher power, meditation, mind-body activities) into a physical activity program was universally accepted among participants, regardless of religious affiliation. In contrast, including concepts of religion (i.e., bible verses and/or quotes from religious leaders) was controversial and not recommended among women who did not identify with a religious faith. Findings indicate that when developing community-based physical activity interventions that will not be delivered through faith-based or faith-placed settings, researchers should avoid references to specific religious beliefs. Instead, interventions should focus on spirituality and emphasize the mind-body relationship between physical activity and an African American women's inner-being and her connectedness with a higher power. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02823379. Registered July 1, 2016.
Gesell, Sabina B; Katula, Jeffrey A; Strickland, Carmen; Vitolins, Mara Z
About 48 % of US women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a major risk factor for obesity in both women and offspring over their lifetimes, and should be avoided. This study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of a prenatal behavioral intervention in a sample of low-income, predominantly Latina women. The intervention was delivered in groups of 8-10 women in a community recreation center, and structured to reduce the proportion of women who gained weight in excess of IOM guidelines. Recruitment targets were met in 3 months: 135 pregnant women (>10 and <28 weeks) were randomly assigned to receive a 12-week intervention (n = 68) or usual care (n = 67). Retention rate was 81 %. On average, women attended 4 of 12 group sessions, and each session had 4 of the 8-10 assigned participants in attendance. Initial efficacy analyses were based on 87 women. Compared to usual care, fewer normal-weight women in the intervention exceeded IOM recommendations (47.1 % usual care vs. 6.7 % intervention; absolute difference 40.4 %; p = .036). Recommendations for recruitment, retention, and delivery are discussed. A community-based cognitive-behavioral lifestyle intervention during pregnancy was feasible in a hard-to-reach, high-risk population of low-income Latina women, and showed efficacy in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. Due to frequently changing work schedules, strategies are needed to either increase attendance at group sessions (e.g., within a group prenatal care format) or to build core skills necessary for behavior change through other modalities.
Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Fiori, Katherine Leigh; Feeney, Joanne; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Koyanagi, Ai
Data is lacking on the association of interpersonal stressors and social isolation with mental disorders and the mediating role of loneliness. Thus, we examined this association prospectively using community-based data. Data on 6105 adults aged ≥50 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was analyzed. Mental health outcomes were assessed 2 years after baseline. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were evaluated with validated scales. Multivariable linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Higher levels of spousal support, less strain from spouse and better social network integration were protective against depressive symptoms in men. Social support from friends and children was protective against depressive symptoms in both genders. Higher levels of social strain from children were positively associated with depressive symptoms in women. Loneliness was a significant mediator in the majority of these associations. Interventions aimed at increasing relationship quality and strengthening existing social network structures, with a specific focus on reducing feelings of loneliness, may be beneficial in the prevention of depressive symptoms among older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fang, Carolyn Y; Ma, Grace X; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Rhee, Joanne; Miller, Suzanne M; Kim, Charles; Koh, Han Seung
Korean American women have among the lowest rates of cervical cancer screening in the United States. The authors evaluated a multicomponent intervention combining community education with navigation services to reduce access barriers and increase screening rates in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that cervical cancer screening rates would be higher among women who received the intervention program compared with those in the control program. Korean American women (N = 705) were recruited from 22 churches. In this matched-pair, group-randomized design, 347 women received the intervention, which consisted of a culturally relevant cancer education program combined with provision of navigation services. The control group (N = 358) received general health education, including information about cervical cancer risk and screening and where to obtain low-cost or no-cost screening. Screening behavior was assessed 12 months after the program. Screening behavior data were obtained from 588 women 12 months after the program. In both site-level and participant-level analyses, the intervention program contributed to significantly higher screening rates compared with the control program (odds ratio [OR], 25.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-66.1; P cancer education with navigation services yielded significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates among underscreened Korean American women. Community-accessible programs that incorporate cancer education with the delivery of key navigation services can be highly effective in increasing cervical cancer screening rates in this underserved population. Cancer 2017;123:1018-26. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Nguyen, Anh B; Belgrave, Faye Z
This paper examines community-based participatory research (CBPR) intervention approaches in promoting cancer-relevant outcomes for 102 Vietnamese women. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in promoting breast and cervical cancer knowledge, positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening, and breast cancer screening. Collectivism moderated the effect of the intervention on attitudes towards breast cancer screening. The intervention led to more favorable attitudes towards breast cancer screening for women with high levels of collectivism but not for women with low levels. Ethnic identity moderated the effect of the intervention on breast cancer screening: the intervention program led to higher probability of getting a clinical breast exam; however, this effect was more pronounced for women with low ethnic identity than for those with high ethnic identity. The study provides evidence for the effectiveness of culturally-tailored strategies in developing cancer screening interventions for the Vietnamese American population.
Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV counselling and testing for pregnant women is a key factor for successful prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women's access to testing can be improved by scaling up the distribution of this service at all levels of health facilities. However, this strategy...... will only be effective if pregnant women are tested early and provided enough counselling. OBJECTIVE: To assess early uptake of HIV testing and the provision of HIV counselling among pregnant women who attend antenatal care at primary and higher level health facilities. METHODS: A community based study...... was conducted among 1108 nursing mothers. Data was collected during interviews using a structured questionnaire focused on socio-economic background, reproductive history, experience with antenatal HIV counselling and testing as well as types of health facility providing the services. RESULTS: In all 91...
Riley, Elise D; Cohen, Jennifer; Knight, Kelly R; Decker, Alyson; Marson, Kara; Shumway, Martha
We determined associations between co-occurring psychiatric conditions and violence against homeless and unstably housed women. Between 2008 and 2010, we interviewed homeless and unstably housed women recruited from community venues about violence, socioeconomic factors, and psychiatric conditions. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent correlates of violence. Among 291 women, 97% screened positive for 1 or more psychiatric conditions. Types of violence perpetrated by primary partners and persons who were not primary partners (non-primary partners) included emotional violence (24% vs 50%; P violence (11% vs 19%; P violence (7% vs 22%; P violence increased with each additional psychiatric diagnosis and decreasing levels of social isolation. All types of violence were more commonly perpetrated by non-primary partners, suggesting that an exclusive focus on domestic violence screening in health care or social service settings will miss most of the violence in this population. Contrary to some previous studies, the odds of violence decreased as social isolation increased, suggesting that social isolation may be protective in homeless and unstably housed communities with high levels of comorbidity and limited options.
Using community-based participatory research to explore social determinants of women's mental health and barriers to help-seeking in three urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved communities.
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; De Maagd-Rodriguez, Megan
Depression and anxiety are significant mental health issues that affect urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women disproportionately. This study sought to identify social determinants of mental health and barriers to help-seeking for this population. Using community based participatory research and focus groups, sixty-one Black, Hispanic, and White women identified economic, family, cultural, and neighborhood issues as perceived determinants of their depression/anxiety. They identified practical, psychosocial, and cultural barriers to their help-seeking behavior. These results can promote women's health by fostering an understanding of social factors as perceived determinants of depression/anxiety and shaping practice and policy initiatives that foster positive aggregate outcomes. © 2013.
The study examined attitudes of women in community development associations towards participation in community development projects in Imo State, Nigeria. Data was obtained from 127 randomly selected respondents from the study area. Results showed that women have favourable attitude towards participating in ...
The paper presents a case for the consideration of both practical and strategic needs when empowering women for community development. Using conceptual analysis the complex and multiple roles of Ghanaian women are examined resulting in revelations that point to compromises in women's empowerment initiatives.
St. Rose, Andresse; Hill, Catherine
Community colleges open the door to opportunity for millions of Americans who want to pursue higher education and secure their economic futures. As an organization founded on the basic principle of making college accessible to women, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has been a leading voice for women in education and the…
Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist
We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).
Morrison, J; Colbourn, T; Budhathoki, B; Sen, A; Adhikari, D; Bamjan, J; Pathak, S; Basnet, A; Trani, J F; Costello, A; Manandhar, D; Groce, N
There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Kifle, Dereje; Azale, Telake; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu
Regular utilization of maternal health care services reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the maternal health care seeking behavior and associated factors of reproductive age women in rural villages of Haramaya district, East Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study supplemented with qualitative data was conducted in Haramaya district from November 15 to Decemeber 30, 2015. A total of 561 women in reproductive age group and who gave birth in the last 2 years were randomly included. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions model was used to identify the associated factors. Odds ratios with 95% CI were used to measure the strength of association. Maternal health care service seeking of women was found as; antenatal care 74.3% (95% CI; 72.5, 76.14), attending institutional delivery 28.7% (95% CI; 26.8, 30.6) and postnatal care 22.6% (95% CI; 20.84, 24.36). Knowledge of pregnancy complications, Educational status, and religion of women were found to be significantly associated with antenatal health care, delivery and postnatal health care service seeking behaviours triangulated with individual, institutional and socio-cultural qualitative data. The maternal health care service seeking behavior of women in the study area was low. Educational status of the women, birth order and knowledge about pregnancy complications were the major factors associated with maternal health care service seeking behavior Focused health education with kind and supportive health care provider counseling will improve the maternal health care seeking behaviors of women.
Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a community-based exercise program on bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Twenty postmenopausal women (aged 61.3 ± 6.0 years with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a community-based exercise program group (n=10 or a control group (n=10. The community-based exercise program was multicomponent, three days per week for 32 weeks, and included walking, resistance and aquatic exercises. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured pre and post-training by dual X-ray absorptiometry. In the exercise group significant increases were found in the ward’s triangle bone mineral density (+7.8%, p=0.043, and in fat-free mass (+2.4%, p=0.018. The findings suggest that regular multicomponent training is effective in preventing osteoporosis and sarcopenia among postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Bello, Marieni; Sousa, Maria Cirilo; Neto, Gabriel; Oliveira, Leonardo; Guerras, Ialuska; Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a community-based exercise program on bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Twenty postmenopausal women (aged 61.3 ± 6.0 years) with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a community-based exercise program group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). The community-based exercise program was multicomponent, three days per week for 32 weeks, and included walking, resistance and aquatic exercises. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured pre and post-training by dual X-ray absorptiometry. In the exercise group significant increases were found in the ward's triangle bone mineral density (+7.8%, p=0.043), and in fat-free mass (+2.4%, p=0.018). The findings suggest that regular multicomponent training is effective in preventing osteoporosis and sarcopenia among postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Varol, Nesrin; Hall, John J; Black, Kirsten; Turkmani, Sabera; Dawson, Angela
The physical and psychological impact of female genital mutilation / cutting (FGM/C) can be substantial, long term, and irreversible. Parts of the health sector in Australia have developed guidelines in the management of FGM/C, but large gaps exist in community and professional knowledge of the consequences and treatment of FGM/C. The prevalence of FGM/C amongst Australian women is unknown. Our article reviews the literature on research on FGM/C in Australia, which focuses on health system response to women and girls with FGM/C. Recommendations are made for policy reform in health, legislation, and community programs to provide the best healthcare, protect children, and help communities abandon this harmful practice. Midwives and doctors in Australia acknowledged a lack of knowledge on FGM/C, clinical guidelines and consequences for maternity care. In a metropolitan Australian hospital with specialised FGM/C care, women with FGM/C had similar obstetric outcomes as women without FGM/C, underlining the importance of holistic FGM/C clinics. Greater focus on integration of refugee and migrant populations into their new cultures may be an important way of facilitating the abandonment of this practice, as is education of communities that practise FGM/C, and experts involved in the care and protection of children. Men could be important advocates for protecting women and girls from violence and FGM/C through a man-to-man strategy with programs focussing on men's health and other personal issues, education, and communication. The Australian Government has identified gender-based violence as an area of priority and has been implementing a National plan to reduce violence against women and their children 2010-2022. A multidisciplinary network of experts on FGM/C could be established within this taskforce to develop well-defined and rapid referral pathways to care for and protect these children, as well as coordinate education and prevention programs to help communities
Semahegn, Agumasie; Torpey, Kwasi; Manu, Abubakar; Assefa, Nega; Ankomah, Augustine
Violence against women is a well understood devastating global pandemic, and human right violation. One in three women experienced intimate partner violence worldwide. In Ethiopia, the level of domestic violence against women is one of the highest in the world. However, Ethiopia is signatory for various conventions and incorporated in legal frameworks. Nevertheless, effective implementation of the existing policy documents, and engaging different stakeholders is very limited. Therefore, we aimed to pilot feasibility of implementing available research evidence and policy documents at community level to prevent domestic violence against women in Awi zone, northwestern Ethiopia. A community-based quasi-experimental study design will be employed using mixed method. Multistage stratified systematic sampling and purposive sampling will be used to recruit quantitative and qualitative study participants, respectively. A total of 1,269 women will be participated in the intervention, active comparator and control groups. Pre and post-test quantitative data will be collected using face-to-face interview. Qualitative data will be collected through in-depth, key informant interview and focus group discussions. advocacy meeting will be held to persuade local politicians and sustain the implementation of community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women. Community representatives will be trained to enhance peer education to promote community awareness and engage stakeholders to transform the traditional gender norm within local context. Awareness creation and husband involvement will be made through integrating the intervention with community health extension program. Only husband involvement will not be promoted in the active comparator to test the role of husband involvement on the domestic violence prevention activities. Intervention progress will be monitored regularly. Gathered data will be entered in Epidata and exported to SPSS (23.0) software for
Oster, Richard T; Bruno, Grant; Montour, Margaret; Roasting, Matilda; Lightning, Rick; Rain, Patricia; Graham, Bonny; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L; Bell, Rhonda C
Pregnant Indigenous women suffer a disproportionate burden of risk and adverse outcomes relative to non-Indigenous women. Although there has been a call for improved prenatal care, examples are scarce. Therefore, we explored the characteristics of effective care with First Nations women from the perspective of prenatal healthcare providers (HCPs). We conducted an ethnographic community-based participatory research study in collaboration with a large Cree First Nations community in Alberta, Canada. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 12 prenatal healthcare providers (HCPs) that were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. According to the participants, relationships and trust, cultural understanding, and context-specific care were key features of effective prenatal care and challenge the typical healthcare model. HCPs that are able to foster sincere, non-judgmental, and enjoyable interactions with patients may be more effective in treating pregnant First Nations women, and better able to express empathy and understanding. Ongoing HCP cultural understanding specific to the community served is crucial to trusting relationships, and arises from real experiences and learning from patients over and above relying only on formal cultural sensitivity training. Consequently, HCPs report being better able to adapt a more flexible, all-inclusive, and accessible approach that meets specific needs of patients. Aligned with the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, improving prenatal care for First Nations women needs to allow for genuine relationship building with patients, with enhanced and authentic cultural understanding by HCPs, and care approaches tailored to women's needs, culture, and context.
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of ... Adult Day Care Adult day care is a community-based option that has become more common. It ...
Doreen Nkiru Eugene-Ezebilo; Eugene Ejike Ezebilo
Objective: To examine the medicines and dosage that mothers who engage in home-based malaria management administer to children aged ≤ 5 years having signs and symptoms associated with malaria and to discuss the possibilities of designing an effective home-based malaria management strategy. Methods: The data were obtained from face-to-face semi-structured interviews conducted with mothers in the Ugbowo Community of Benin City, Nigeria who were selected using multi-stage systematic random s...
Pereira Guilherme AR
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population variation in the duration and amount of menstrual bleeding has received little attention in the literature. This study describes these characteristics and investigates the distribution of self-perceived amount of menstrual bleeding according to socio-demographic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 years old women users of the 31 primary health care (PHC facilities in Pelotas city (Brazil. Interviews with structured questionnaire were carried out in the waiting rooms during two work shifts. Heaviness of menstrual bleeding was determined through the answer to the question: "Usually how much blood do you lose in every period?" Crude and adjusted analyses through Poisson regression took into account the aggregation per PHC facility. Results A total of 865 women were enrolled. Prevalence of heavy menstrual flow was 35.3% (95% CI 32.1-38.6%. In adjusted analyses, heavy menstrual bleeding was higher among the older, less educated and obese women, with higher number of pregnancies and who reported longer menstrual periods, extra-menstrual bleeding and clots in the flow. Use of hormonal contraceptive methods was protective against heavy menses. Conclusion Heavy menstrual bleeding is highly prevalent at the community level, and is associated with socio-demographic and anthropometric women's characteristics, as well as with duration of menstruation, extra-bleeding and presence of clots.
Gupta, Adyya; Priya, Bavani; Williams, Joseph; Sharma, Mona; Gupta, Ruby; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Ebrahim, Shah; Dhillon, Preet K
Harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented for drinkers, and adverse effects are also reported for the physical and emotional well-being of family members, with evidence often originating from either drinkers or their families in clinic-based settings. This study evaluates intra-household associations between alcohol abuse in men, and depression and suicidal attempts in women, in community-based settings of Chennai, India. This community-based cross-sectional study of chronic disease risk factors and outcomes was conducted in n = 259 households and n = 1053 adults (aged 15 years and above) in rural and urban Chennai. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score was used to classify alcohol consumption into 'low-risk', 'harmful', 'hazardous' and 'alcohol dependence' drinking and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score to classify depression as 'mild', 'moderate', 'moderate-severe' and 'severe'. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated the association of depression in women with men's drinking patterns in the same household. A significant 2.5-fold increase in any depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) was observed in men who were 'alcohol-dependent' compared to non-drinkers (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26, 5.09). However, there was no association between men's drinking behavior and depression in women of the same household, although suicidal attempts approached a significant dose-response relationship with increasing hazard-level of men's drinking (p = 0.08). No significant intra-household association was observed between men's alcohol consumption and women's depression, though an increasing (non-significant) trend was associated with suicidal attempts. Complex relationships between suicidal attempts and depression in women and male abusive drinking require further exploration, with an emphasis on intra-household mechanisms and pathways.
Farrell, Maureen A; Hayashi, Toshi; Loo, Ryan K; Rocha, David A; Sanders, Charlene; Hernandez, Marianne; Will, Julie C
The Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) program in California, named Heart of the Family, implements and evaluates the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity while reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among low-income, uninsured or underinsured Hispanic women aged 40-64 who participate in the Cancer Detection Programs: Every Woman Counts (CDP:EWP). This paper reports the study design and baseline findings of the California WISEWOMAN program. Heart of the Family, a within-site randomized controlled study at four community health centers in Los Angeles and San Diego, featured a unique set of strategies meeting the state population in implementing a California WISEWOMAN program. The program exclusively targeted Hispanic women who are at risk of developing CVD, provided lifestyle intervention using a validated intervention material in Spanish and English to motivate behavioral changes, and used bilingual (English and Spanish) community health workers (CHWs) to provide individually based face-to-face counseling. Women meeting enrollment criteria were randomly assigned either to an enhanced intervention group (EIG), who received lifestyle intervention, or usual care group (UCG), who received the usual care for elevated blood pressure or cholesterol. A total of 1093 women enrolled between January 2006 and August 2006. Demographic and baseline CVD risk profiles are similar in both groups. Some notable characteristics of the California participants are lower smoking rate (5%), higher average body mass index (BMI) (31.9), and a significantly higher percentage with less than high school education (70%). With its unique study design and large number of enrolls, Heart of the Family will enable future public health efforts to better meet the health needs of Hispanic women by addressing education levels, economic considerations, and cultural and linguistic needs.
Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012
Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012
Full Text Available Background. A significant number of women make Implanon their first choice of contraception. However, they discontinue their Implanon before its expiry date was high, but factors that contribute to discontinuing their Implanon were poorly described in Ethiopia. Methods. A community based unmatched case control study was conducted. Then simple random sampling technique was used to select 340 women. Data was collected by nurses using face to face interview. Epi-Info version 7 and SPSS 20 software were used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed with COR and AOR with 95% CI. Findings. Having preinsertion counseling (AOR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20–0.64, having follow-up appointment (AOR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.2–0.62, age at insertion <20 years (AOR: 3, 95% CI: 1.16–7.8, women who had no formal education (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.31–6.11, women who had ≤4 children (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.01–3.21, and women who had previous abortion history (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.10–4.63 were determinants of Implanon discontinuation. Conclusions. Policy makers and concerned bodies should take into account future intervention and also great emphasis should be given to follow-up appointment and counseling services, especially counseling on side effects, and informed choice for clients after Implanon insertion.
Among the strategies adopted by rural women associations in community development, mobilization of available community resources to support development projects, advising intervention agencies on priority areas of need, donation of resources for welfare services, provision of credit and loan to members were ranked ...
Doreen Nkiru Eugene-Ezebilo
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the medicines and dosage that mothers who engage in home-based malaria management administer to children aged ≤ 5 years having signs and symptoms associated with malaria and to discuss the possibilities of designing an effective home-based malaria management strategy. Methods: The data were obtained from face-to-face semi-structured interviews conducted with mothers in the Ugbowo Community of Benin City, Nigeria who were selected using multistage systematic random sampling technique. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, arithmetic mean, simple percentages and bar chart. Results: Approximately 90% of the interviewees engaged in home-based malaria management and 10% patronized the hospital. Most of the interviewees who engaged in home-based malaria management administered medicines that stimulates the production of red blood cells and supplies vitamins to children having signs and symptoms of malaria, followed by painkillers and anti-malaria and cough medicine was the least. Of the anti-malaria medicines administered to children, almost 80% of the interviewees administered chloroquine to children, 15% quinine and 3% halfan. Approximately 60% of the interviewees had the correct knowledge of the dosage regime for chloroquine, 38% for quinine and 9% for halfan. Conclusions: Although home-based malaria management is important, it cannot serve as a substitute to the hospital. Some diseases have signs and symptoms that are similar to that of malaria which implies that administering anti-malaria medicines to a child without confirmatory tests might lead to irredeemable complications in that child. If the strategy is to make home-based malaria management effective and sustainable mothers, community health officials should be involved in designing the strategy. Simple rapid diagnostic test kits for malaria should be made available to community health officials and pharmacists so that confirmatory tests could be
Mitchell, W L
In the Aymara community of 'Utani', hierarchical relationships between middle aged and younger women are evident in the cycle of domestic life. An older woman - mother, sister, step mother, mother-in-law - has unquestioned authority as taskmistress over the labor of girls and young women; although very old women no longer wield such power. Post-marital residence patterns and the family life cycle contribute to the hierarchical relationships among women in an extended family household. When women's community-wide prestige is examined, however, a different pattern is apparent. Prestige among female peers is based less on age than on a woman's reputation for being long-suffering. The paper concludes that these two types of female hierarchy complement each other as part of women's adaptation to the exploitations of peasant life.
Romero, Daniela C; Sauris, Aileen; Rodriguez, Fátima; Delgado, Daniela; Reddy, Ankita; Foody, JoAnne M
Hispanic women suffer from high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors and an increasingly disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly, Hispanic women with limited English proficiency suffer from low levels of CVD knowledge associated with adverse CVD health outcomes. Thirty-two predominantly Spanish-speaking Hispanic women completed, Vivir Con un Corazón Saludable (VCUCS), a culturally tailored Spanish language-based 6-week intensive community program targeting CVD health knowledge through weekly interactive health sessions. A 30-question CVD knowledge questionnaire was used to assess mean changes in CVD knowledge at baseline and postintervention across five major knowledge domains including CVD epidemiology, dietary knowledge, medical information, risk factors, and heart attack symptoms. Completion of the program was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in total mean CVD knowledge scores from 39 % (mean 11.7/30.0) to 66 % (mean 19.8/30.0) postintervention consistent with a 68 % increase in overall mean CVD scores. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in mean knowledge scores across all five CVD domains. A culturally tailored Spanish language-based health program is effective in increasing CVD awareness among high CVD risk Hispanic women with low English proficiency and low baseline CVD knowledge.
Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne
We identified key elements required for a training curriculum for Southeast Asian community-based health navigators (CBHNs), who help low-income, immigrant Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Vietnamese women negotiate cultural and systemic barriers to breast cancer screening and care in the United States. We gathered the perspectives of 3 groups: CBHNs, community members, and their providers. We conducted 16 focus groups with 110 women representing different stages of the cancer care continuum and in-depth interviews with 15 providers and 10 navigators to identify the essential roles, skills, and interpersonal qualities that characterize successful CBHNs. The most important areas identified for training CBHNs were information (e.g., knowing pertinent medical information and how to navigate resources), logistics (transportation, interpretation), and affective interpersonal skills (understanding the language and cultural beliefs of patients, communicating with providers, establishing trust). CBHNs serve a crucial role in building trust and making screening practices culturally meaningful, accessible, usable, and acceptable. Future research should focus on developing training curricula, policies, resources, and funding to better maximize the expertise and services that CBHNs provide and to expand our findings to other underserved communities.
Ard, J D; Carson, T L; Shikany, J M; Li, Y; Hardy, C M; Robinson, J C; Williams, A G; Baskin, M L
Obesity is highly prevalent in African American women, especially those in the rural southern USA, resulting in persistent health disparities. To test the effectiveness of an evidence-based behavioural weight loss intervention delivered by community health advisors to African American women in the rural south. Overweight or obese African American women (30-70 years) from eight counties in Mississippi and Alabama participated in a 24-month randomized controlled trial of an evidence-based behavioural weight loss programme augmented with community strategies to support healthy lifestyles (Weight Loss Plus, N = 154) compared to the weight loss programme alone (Weight Loss Only, N = 255). This study reports on 6-month outcomes on primary (weight change) and secondary (waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, fasting blood glucose) outcomes, coinciding with the completion of the intensive weight loss phase. Weight Loss Only participants lost an average of 2.2 kg (P Weight Loss Plus participants lost an average of 3.2 kg (P lost at least 5% of their body weight was 27.1% with no difference between treatment groups. Similarly, we observed statistically significant reductions in blood pressure, waist circumference and triglycerides in each treatment group, with no statistical differences between groups. Trained lay health staff and volunteers from the rural southern USA were able to deliver a translation of a high-intensity behavioural intervention targeted to African American women, resulting in clinically meaningful weight loss and improvement in other metabolic outcomes in a significant proportion of participants. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available Background: Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of the availability of contraceptive services. Objectives: (1 To study the sociodemographic profile of abortion seekers. (2 To study the reasons for procuring abortions by married women of reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional community-based study. All the married women of reproductive age group (15–49 years with a history of induced abortion were selected as the subjects. Results: The most common reason for seeking an abortion was poverty (39.4%, followed by girl child and husband's insistence, which accounted for 17.2% each. More complications were noted in women undergoing an abortion in places other than government hospitals and also who did it in the second trimester. Conclusions: To reduce maternal deaths from unsafe abortion, several broad activities require strengthening such as decreasing unwanted pregnancies, increasing geographic accessibility and affordability, upgrading facilities that offers medical termination of pregnancy (MTP services, increasing awareness among the reproductive age about the legal and safe abortion facilities, the consequences of unsafe abortion, ensuring appropriate referral facilities, increasing access to safe abortion services and increasing the quality of abortion care, including postabortion care.
Pattanaik, Sumitra; Patnaik, Lipilekha; Subhadarshini, Arpita; Sahu, Trilochan
Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of the availability of contraceptive services. (1) To study the sociodemographic profile of abortion seekers. (2) To study the reasons for procuring abortions by married women of reproductive age group. It was a cross-sectional community-based study. All the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years) with a history of induced abortion were selected as the subjects. The most common reason for seeking an abortion was poverty (39.4%), followed by girl child and husband's insistence, which accounted for 17.2% each. More complications were noted in women undergoing an abortion in places other than government hospitals and also who did it in the second trimester. To reduce maternal deaths from unsafe abortion, several broad activities require strengthening such as decreasing unwanted pregnancies, increasing geographic accessibility and affordability, upgrading facilities that offers medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) services, increasing awareness among the reproductive age about the legal and safe abortion facilities, the consequences of unsafe abortion, ensuring appropriate referral facilities, increasing access to safe abortion services and increasing the quality of abortion care, including postabortion care.
Boro, Enu; Jamil, MD; Roy, Aakash
Introduction Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. Aim To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A ‘p-value’ instructional module was effective in increasing the knowledge score of pre- menopausal women under study. Conclusion Administration of self instructional module was shown to significantly increase the knowledge scores in all areas of pre-menopausal tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge of tri-dimensional problems in premenopausal women. PMID:28050408
Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E
High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to
Worsley, Roisin; Bell, Robin J; Gartoulla, Pragya; Davis, Susan R
Low desire is the most common sexual problem in women at midlife. Prevalence data are limited by lack of validated instruments or exclusion of un-partnered or sexually inactive women. To document the prevalence of and factors associated with low desire, sexually related personal distress, and hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD) using validated instruments. Cross-sectional, nationally representative, community-based sample of 2,020 Australian women 40 to 65 years old. Low desire was defined as a score no higher than 5.0 on the desire domain of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); sexually related personal distress was defined as a score of at least 11.0 on the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised; and HSDD was defined as a combination of these scores. The Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to document menopausal vasomotor symptoms. The Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to identify moderate to severe depressive symptoms (score ≥ 20). The prevalence of low desire was 69.3% (95% CI = 67.3-71.3), that of sexually related personal distress was 40.5% (95% CI = 38.4-42.6), and that of HSDD was 32.2% (95% CI = 30.1-34.2). Of women who were not partnered or sexually active, 32.4% (95% CI = 24.4-40.2) reported sexually related personal distress. Factors associated with HSDD in an adjusted logistic regression model included being partnered (odds ratio [OR] = 3.30, 95% CI = 2.46-4.41), consuming alcohol (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.16-1.89), vaginal dryness (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.66-2.61), pain during or after intercourse (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.27-2.09), moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.99-3.64), and use of psychotropic medication (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.83). Vasomotor symptoms were not associated with low desire, sexually related personal distress, or HSDD. Given the high prevalence, clinicians should screen midlife women for HSDD. Strengths include the large size and representative nature of the
Demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV risk among men and transgender women recruited from gay entertainment venues and community-based organizations in Thailand: implications for HIV prevention.
Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon
High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Thailand suggest a vital need for targeted interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine and compare sexual risk behaviors, and demographic and behavioral correlates of risk, among MSM and transgender women recruited from gay entertainment venue staff and community-based organization (CBO) participants. We used venue-based sampling across nine sites in Bangkok and Chiang Mai. Among 260 participants (57.3% gay-identified, 26.9% heterosexual/bisexual-identified, 15.8% transgender; mean age = 26.7 years), nearly one-fifth (18.5%) reported unprotected anal sex (UAS), half (50.4%) sex in exchange for money, and one-fifth (20.0%) STI diagnosis (past year). Nearly one-fourth (23.1%) reported oral erectile dysfunction medication use and nearly one-fifth (19.2%) illicit drug use (past 3 months). Overall, 43.1% indicated that healthcare providers exhibited hostility towards them. Gay entertainment venue staff were significantly more likely to self-identify as heterosexual/bisexual (versus gay or transgender female), and to have less than high school degree education, higher monthly income, to have engaged in sex in exchange for money, sex with women and unprotected vaginal sex, but were significantly less likely to have engaged in UAS than CBO participants. Targeted interventions for younger MSM and transgender women, for non gay-identified men, and strategies to address structural determinants of risk, including low education and discrimination from healthcare providers, may support HIV prevention among MSM and transgender women, and serve broader national HIV prevention efforts in Thailand.
Lakew, Serawit; Tachbele, Erdaw; Gelibo, Terefe
In Ethiopia, about 20,000 women die each year from complications of pregnancy and child birth with many more maternal morbidities occurring for each maternal deaths. This makes Ethiopia one of the highest countries for maternal deaths in the developing world. This study attempted to assess women's skilled assistance seeking behaviour for pregnancy complications among those who gave birth. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among women who gave birth within one year regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in fifteen randomly selected villages at Arba Minch Zuria district, south west Ethiopia. Data was collected house-to-house using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 798 women were interviewed. Logistic regression model was applied to control confounders. Out of the total sample, 344 (43.1 %) respondents reported at least any one of the pregnancy complications faced in the recent pregnancy. The most common complications reported were malaria (57 %), nausea/vomiting (47.1 %) and severe head ache (29.1 %). of those women who faced complications, around 254 (73.8 %) sought assistance from a skilled provider. Ninety (26.2 %) of the respondents sought assistance either from unskilled provider or home based self-care. Unable to understand the seriousness of the complications, thought as unnecessary, and family disapproval were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to monthly household income $US25- 100 (AOR = 3.4, 95 % CI; 1.04, 11.4), getting antenatal care from a skilled provider (AOR = 10.6, 95 % CI; 3.3, 34.5), Women in the age 20-34 years old (AOR = 3.8; 95 % CI, 1.2, 12.3), Availability of transport access (AOR = 72.2; 95 % CI; 17.2, 303.5) were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider. Nearly half (43.1 %) of the women had faced pregnancy complications to the recent birth of last one year. Majority (2/3(rd)) of the women who reported
Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali
Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women a...
Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of the established risk factors associated with cancer cervix? Objective: To assess the presence of some determinants of cancer cervix among married, rural women of reproductive age group. Study design: Community based, cross â€" sectional, observational study. Setting: Rural: Village East Gobindopur is Singur block in Hooghly district of West Bengal. Study population : All the married women of reproductive age group (103 of the village were included in the study. Results: More than two â€" third (72.8% of the study population belonged to the vulnerable age group (25-45 years for this disease while 59.3% were married before they attained 18 years of age. Again 50% (approx of the married women gave birth to their first child before they were 18 years of age. One â€" third of the study population had parity higher than three. Two â€" third of the women studied were using one or more methods of family planning and one â€" third of the same population were permanently sterilized, 20% were using oral contraceptive pills and only 7.7% were using barrier methods of contraception. Only 31% of the women had satisfactory genital hygiene practice and 36.9% had symptoms of reproductive tract infection. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of some important risk factors associated with cancer cervix like age, age of marriage, age of first child birth, parity ,family planning practices, genital hygiene and reproductive tract infections in the study population. Therefore screening and early detection efforts can be directed specifically to the group at risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of women on Iodine Deficiency were investigated. Methods A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification. Results Total goitre prevalence (weighted was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1, 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre. Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP, Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p 2 = 67.52; p Conclusion Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.
Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Chin, Dorothy; Sumner, Lekeisha A; Loeb, Tamra B; Carmona, Jennifer V; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu
Experiences of past and current gender-based violence are common among HIV-positive women in the United States, who are predominantly from ethnic minority groups. However, culturally congruent, feasible interventions for HIV-positive women who have experienced past and/or current violence are not widely available. The Office on Women's Health Gender Forum has made several recommendations for responding to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy Implementation Plan, including recommendations to incorporate gender-based violence prevention into a comprehensive, gender-responsive national strategy. This paper draws on an example of a community-based project for HIV-positive women, the Healing Our Women Project, to illustrate how violence prevention can be achieved within peer-led and community-based programming. Strong community partnerships, responsiveness to community needs and local cultural norms, a trained workforce, and culturally competent care are programmatic cornerstones of gender-responsive services. HIV-positive women with histories of gender-based violence and risk factors for current and future violence deserve the highest quality gender-responsive services to ensure that they can address their health needs within contexts of safety and respect. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Salihu, Hamisu M; Adegoke, Korede; Turner, DeAnne; Al Agili, Dania; Berry, Estrellita Lo
This study examined the association between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among low-income women in the southeastern region of the United States. Analysis was performed on data from a community needs assessment survey that was designed to explore social determinants of health and QoL indicators using a community-based participatory research approach. The study sample comprised 132 women aged 18 years old and older. Bivariate analysis and logistic regressions with bootstrapping were performed. Social support was predictive of physical and mental HRQoL in a contrasting fashion, suggesting a complex relation. Other social determinants of global HRQoL independent of social support status include marital and employment status, maternal age, and income. Our results also demonstrate complex interaction patterns across race, social support, and HRQoL. The linkage between social support and HRQoL may not be a simple relation, as previously assumed. Rather, it is characterized by multifaceted interactions through which social determinants of health modulate the impact of social support on HRQoL. These are new findings.
Argento, Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Tupper, Kenneth; Braschel, Melissa; Wood, Evan; Shannon, Kate
This study aimed to longitudinally investigate whether ever having used a psychedelic drug can have a protective effect on incidence of suicidality among marginalised women. Longitudinal community-based cohort study. Data were drawn from a prospective, community-based cohort of marginalised women in Metro Vancouver, Canada. 766 women completed the baseline questionnaire between January 2010 and August 2014. Participants who did not report suicidality at baseline and who completed at least one follow-up visit were included. Extended Cox regression was used to model predictors of new suicidality (suicide ideation or attempts) over 54-month follow-up. Nearly half (46%; n=355) of participants reported prior suicidality and were thus excluded from the present analyses. Of 290 women eligible at baseline, 11% (n=31) reported recent suicidality during follow-up, with an incidence density of 4.42 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.10 to 6.30). In multivariable analysis, reported lifetime psychedelic drug use was associated with a 60% reduced hazard for suicidality (adjusted HR (AHR) 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.94). Crystal methamphetamine use (AHR 3.25; 95% CI 1.47 to 7.21) and childhood abuse (AHR 3.54; 95% CI 1.49 to 8.40) remained independent predictors of suicidality. The high rate of suicidality identified in this study is of major concern. Alongside emerging evidence on the potential of psychedelic-assisted therapy to treat some mental illness and addiction issues, our findings demonstrate that naturalistic psychedelic drug use is independently associated with reduced suicidality, while other illicit drug use and childhood trauma predispose women to suicidality. While observational, this study supports calls for further investigation of the therapeutic utility of psychedelic drugs in treating poor mental health and promoting mental wellness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans.
Noya, Gladys R. Capella
Describes the development of Proyecto Aurora, a program to develop and implement educational, support, and research programs to benefit low-income women in Puerto Rico. Portraits of some clients illustrate the rewards and challenges of working with this community and furthering their educational experiences and opportunities. (SLD)
The aim of the study was to assess the level of community and women involvement and empowerment in the implementation of the second National Fadama Development Project (Fadama II or NFDP II) in Ogun State. A sample of 240 Fadama II beneficiaries (members) was selected using a combination of purposive and ...
Kneipp, Shawn M; Kairalla, John A; Lutz, Barbara J; Pereira, Deidre; Hall, Allyson G; Flocks, Joan; Beeber, Linda; Schwartz, Todd
We evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based participatory research-grounded intervention among women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) with chronic health conditions in increasing (1) health care visits, (2) Medicaid knowledge and skills, and (3) health and functional status. We used a randomized controlled trial design to assign 432 women to a public health nurse case management plus Medicaid intervention or a wait-control group. We assessed Medicaid outcomes pre- and posttraining; other outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Medicaid knowledge and skills improved (P < .001 for both). Intervention group participants were more likely to have a new mental health visit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92; P = .007), and this likelihood increased in higher-risk subgroups (OR = 2.03 and 2.83; P = .04 and .006, respectively). Depression and functional status improved in the intervention group over time (P = .016 for both). No differences were found in routine or preventive care, or general health. Health outcomes among women receiving TANF can be improved with public health interventions. Additional strategies are needed to further reduce health disparities in this population.
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries.This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle zone among age eligible women from February to June 2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 1286 women in to the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Data was entered and cleaned using EPINFO and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess association between dependent and independent variables with 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05 was set for association.The study revealed that among 1186 age eligible women, only 235(19.8% have been screened for cervical cancer. Age (AOR = 1.799, 95%CI = 1.182-2.739, history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.635, 95%CI = 1.094-2.443, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 1.635,95%CI = 1.094-2.443, HIV sero status (AOR = 5.614, 95%CI = 2.595-12.144, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer (AOR = 2.225, 95%CI = 1.308-3.783, perceived barriers to premalignant cervical lesions screening (AOR = 2.256, 95%CI = 1.447-3.517 and knowledge on cervical cancer and screening (AOR = 2.355, 95%CI = 1.155-4.802 were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake.Magnitude of cervical cancer screening service uptake among age eligible women is still unacceptably low. Age of the women, history of multiple sexual partners
Bayu, Hinsermu; Berhe, Yibrah; Mulat, Amlaku; Alemu, Amare
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle zone among age eligible women from February to June 2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 1286 women in to the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Data was entered and cleaned using EPINFO and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess association between dependent and independent variables with 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05 was set for association. The study revealed that among 1186 age eligible women, only 235(19.8%) have been screened for cervical cancer. Age (AOR = 1.799, 95%CI = 1.182-2.739), history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.635, 95%CI = 1.094-2.443), history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 1.635,95%CI = 1.094-2.443), HIV sero status (AOR = 5.614, 95%CI = 2.595-12.144), perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer (AOR = 2.225, 95%CI = 1.308-3.783), perceived barriers to premalignant cervical lesions screening (AOR = 2.256, 95%CI = 1.447-3.517) and knowledge on cervical cancer and screening (AOR = 2.355, 95%CI = 1.155-4.802) were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake. Magnitude of cervical cancer screening service uptake among age eligible women is still unacceptably low. Age of the women, history of multiple sexual partners and
Parvez, R; Sugunan, A P; Vijayachari, P; Burma, S P; Mandal, A; Saha, M K; Shah, W A
There is scarcity of information on the prevalence of female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) in the community. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of FGTB, its risk factors and associated clinical features. Community-based cross-sectional survey. This study was carried during October 2011 and May 2014 in the Andaman Islands. A total of 13,300 women aged 20-59 years were primarily screened using a structured questionnaire. About 721 (5.4%) were found initially eligible for screening for genital tuberculosis by clinical examination and specimen collection for laboratory tests but only 460 (63.8%) expressed their willingness. Endometrial specimens were collected from 405 (88%) subjects. The association of the potential risk factors with genital tuberculosis was tested by Chi-squared test. A similar analysis was performed to identify clinical features associated with genital tuberculosis. The estimated prevalence of FGTB was 45.1 cases per 100,000 women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-98.1). Infertility and oligomenorrhoea were identified as clinical features associated with FGTB. Past history of tuberculosis and history of close contact with tuberculosis cases were identified as risk factors. This study shows the prevalence of FGTB among the female population of the Andaman Islands. Though the estimated prevalence was close to the expected prevalence, but as only 63.8% of the eligible women could be adequately screened, a much higher prevalence of FGTB could not be ruled out. Infertility, oligomenorrhoea, past history of tuberculosis and contact with tuberculosis case were identified as factors associated with genital tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Melka, Alemu Sufa; Wirtu, Desalegn
In Ethiopia, the prevalence of modern contraceptive use is very low (27 %) and the percentage of those with unmet needs for family planning is 25 %. The current study identified factors associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods among married women in Western Ethiopia. A community based, cross-sectional study was employed from April 10 to April 25, 2014, among married women of reproductive age in Nekemte Town. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 1003 study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and data collectors who had completed high school were involved in the data collection process. A bivariate, multivariable logistic regression model was fit, and statistical significance was determined with a 95% confidence level. The overall utilization rate of modern contraceptives in this study was 71.9%. The most common form of modern contraceptives used was injectable (60.3%). Age (AOR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.35-2.98), women's educational level (AOR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.62-3.84), monthly income (AOR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.24-4.10), respondent's fertility (AOR = 2.60, 95 % CI = 1.48-4.56), fertility-related decision (AOR = 3.70, 95 % CI = 2.45-5.58), and having radio (AOR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.37-2.71) showed significant positive associations with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods. The findings showed that women's empowerment, fertility-related discussions among couples, and the availability of the media were important factors that influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Thus, policymakers and implementers should work on those factors to increase the utilization of modern contraceptive methods.
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Robinson, Jennifer G; Johnson, Karen C; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Crawford, Sybil; Qi, Lihong; Martin, Lisa W; Ockene, Judith; Manson, JoAnn E
To determine whether statin treatment is associated with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke (HS) in older women. A secondary objective was to evaluate HS risk in users of combined statin and antiplatelet treatment. Observational study: secondary data analysis from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. Women were recruited from 40 participating sites. Cohort of 68,132 women followed through 2005 (parent study) and for an additional 5 years in the extension study. Statin use was assessed at baseline and at follow-up visits (1, 3, 6 and 9 years). Women brought medications in original containers for inventory. Strokes were ascertained semiannually and centrally adjudicated. Risk of HS by statin use (time-varying covariate, with the 'no use' category as the referent) was estimated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for age (model 1); risk factors for HS (model 2); and possible confounders by indication (model 3). Prespecified subgroup analyses were conducted by use of antiplatelet medications. Final models included 67,882 women (mean age, 63±7 years). Over a mean follow-up of 12 years, incidence rates of HS were 6.4/10,000 person-years among statin users and 5.0/10,000 person-years among non-users (p=0.11). The unadjusted risk of HS in statin users was 1.21 (CI 0.96 to 1.53); after adjusting for age and HS risk factors the HR was 0.98 (CI 0.76 to 1.26). Risk of HS was higher among women on statins and antiplatelet agents versus women on antiplatelet medications alone (HR=1.59; CI 1.03 to 2.47); p for interaction=0.011. This retrospective analysis did not show an association between statin use and HS risk among older women. HS risk was higher among women taking statins with antiplatelet agents. These findings warrant further investigation, given potential implications for clinical decision-making. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
Maternal malnutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting a high proportion of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1731 pregnant women selected by a cluster random sampling method. Data on maternal anthropometry and other factors were gathered by trained data collectors. Mid-upper arm circumference malnutrition. Mixed-effect, multilevel logistic regression was used to control clustering effect. On average, 19.06% of subjects were malnourished, while 23.3% study participants were underweight (body mass index malnutrition was more than twofold higher in pregnant women with low (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-4.34) and medium (adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-5.35) autonomy of household decision-making than those who had high level of autonomy in household decision-making. Husband illiteracy and not owning livestock were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Women in the second and third trimester had a 66% and nearly twofold increased risk of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the first trimester, respectively. Women who improved their eating habits had a 53% lower risk of malnutrition than those who did not. The risk of malnutrition was 39% lower in respondents who received prenatal dietary advice than in those who did not. Malnutrition affects at least one of every five pregnant women studied, calling for priority attention. Interventions that improve maternal involvement in household decision-making autonomy and provision of prenatal dietary advice are recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Alareqi, Lina M Q; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Al-Mikhlafy, Abdullah A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Mahmud, Rohela
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic coccidian parasite causing morbidity and mortality. In Yemen, T. gondii infection has been reported among pregnant women seeking healthcare in the main cities. However, no data are available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of the country. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and identify its risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz governorate, Yemen. A total of 359 pregnant women living in the rural communities of Taiz governorate were enrolled in this study by house-to-house visits. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire, and blood samples were collected and tested for the detection of anti- T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of T. gondii infection among pregnant women in this study was 46.2% (166/359). Bivariate analysis identified the age of ≥ 30 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.65, P = 0.019) and unimproved water sources (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.10-4.55, P = 0.023) as factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women. The multivariable analysis, however, identified unimproved water sources as an independent risk factor (adjusted OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.16-5.0, P = 0.018) associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women. Pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz, Yemen are at high risk of contracting T. gondii infection. Unimproved water sources (wells, water streams and water tanks) are significantly associated with T. gondii infection and should be considered in prevention and control strategies, especially among pregnant women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for the first six months of infants' lives is a cost effective intervention in saving children's lives and can avert 13 - 15% of the 9 million deaths of children under 5 years old in resource poor settings. However, EBF rates have been shown to be low in resource poor settings, ranging between 20 and 40%. In Tanzania, the prevalence of EBF among infants under 6 months is 41%, with limited information on predictors of EBF. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence of EBF and its predictors in Kigoma Municipality, Western Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among 402 consenting women, with infants aged 6 to 12 months, from randomly selected households. A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, knowledge of EBF, infant feeding practices, and on HIV status. Results The prevalence of EBF among women in Kigoma Municipality was 58%. Knowledge of EBF was relatively higher (86% compared to the practice. In the multivariable analysis, women with adequate knowledge of EBF (AOR 5.4, women who delivered at health facilities (AOR 3.0 and women who had no problems related to breasts, like engorgement/cracked nipples (AOR 6.6 were more likely to exclusively breastfeed compared to others. Conclusions Prevalence of EBF in Kigoma municipality was slightly higher than the national figure of 41%, however it was way below the EBF prevalence of 90% recommended by the WHO. Strategies that target improving knowledge and skills for lactation management among women, as well as strategies to improve health facility delivery, may help to improve EBF in this setting.
Full Text Available Mihiretu Alemayehu, Mengistu Meskele School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Introduction: Millions of women have little health care decision making autonomy in many cultures and tribes. African women are often perceived to have little participation in health care decisions. However, little has been investigated to identify factors contributing to decision making autonomy. Hence, it is important to obtain information on the contributing factors of decision making autonomy and disparities across different socio-cultural contexts. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita and Dawro zones, Southern Ethiopia from February to March 2015. A total of 967 women were selected through multi-stage sampling. A survey was administered face-to-face through an interview format. EpiData v22.214.171.124 and SPSS version 20 were used to enter and analyze data, respectively. Proportions and means were used to describe the study population. Variables with P-value <0.2 in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariable regression. Finally, variables with P-value <0.05 in multivariable logistic regressions were identified as independent predictors. Odds ratios along with confidence intervals were used to determine the presence of association. Result: It was determined that 58.4% of women have autonomy, while 40.9% of study participants’ health care decisions were made by their husbands. The husband’s education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.91 [1.10, 3.32], wealth index (AOR =0.62 [0.42, 0.92], age (AOR =2.42 [1.35, 4.32] and AOR =7 [3.45, 14.22], family size (AOR =0.53 [0.33, 0.85] and AOR =0.42 [0.23, 0.75], and occupation (AOR =1.66 [1.14, 2.41], were predictors of health care decision making autonomy. Conclusion: Even though every woman has the right to participate in her own health care decision making, more than two fifths of them have no role in making health care
Vestergaard, Sonja; Kronborg, Christian; Puggaard, Lis
, handgrip, biceps strength, chair rise, and 10-m maximal walking-speed in the training group, and for walking-speed and self-rated health in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that homebased training for frail older women using an exercise video induces lasting health-related quality...... and health-related quality of life. METHODS: Communitydwelling frail women >/=75 yrs, receiving public home care, were randomized into a training group (n=30) and a control group (n=31). Participants exercised for 26 minutes, three times per week for five months. Both groups received a bi-weekly telephone...... call. The effect of intervention was evaluated by the physical performance test, mobility-tiredness score, maximal isometric handgrip and biceps strength, lower limb explosive power, repeated chair rise (5 times), 10-m maximal walking-speed, semi-tandem balance, and health-related quality of life...
When migrants remit, there is no expectation to receive a gift but such reciprocity is based on cultural norms, obligations and loyalty to one's kin and community. These cultural norms and obligations override selfinterest in reciprocal arrangements. Keywords: Solidarity, community projects, remittance, Ghanaian migrant ...
Nielsen, H S; Lindberg, L; Nygaard, U
OBJECTIVES: To assess urinary and reproductive health and quality of life following surgical repair of obstetric fistula. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: A newly established fistula clinic (2004) at Gimbie Adventist Hospital, a 71-bedded district general hospital in West Wollega Zone, in rural...... and quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urinary health at follow up was assessed as completely dry, stress or urge incontinence, or fistula. King's Health Questionnaire was modified and used for the quality-of-life assessment. RESULTS: At follow up, 21 women (57%) were completely dry, 13 (35%) suffered...
Effects of a new community-based reproductive health intervention on knowledge of and attitudes and behaviors toward stress urinary incontinence among young women in Shanghai: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
Zhang, Ning; He, Yuan; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Ke-qin
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to introduce a new community-based reproductive health intervention. We then evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention. In this cluster-randomized trial, 2100 participants aged 18-40 years were divided randomly into an intervention group (IG, 1400 women) and a control group (CG, 700 women). The CG received traditional community intervention, cmprising limited reproductive information and education; the IG received the new community-based reproductive health intervention model, comprising self-designed handbooks, health lectures, and free medical consultations, in addition to the traditional community intervention. All participants were surveyed face to face using a self-designed questionnaire before and after the 6-month intervention. In Shanghai, the prevalence rate of SUI was 14.3 %. No difference was observed between groups regarding mean knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) about SUI and the total score at baseline (P > 0.05). The IG scored significantly higher than the CG on the KAP questions at follow-up, and a significant improvement was observed in the IG after the intervention. Total scores increased with age, educational level, income, and time spent working in Shanghai per year but decreased with gravidity and the number of abortions. Native respondents scored higher than did migrants. The prevalence of SUI is high in Shanghai, and the new community-based reproductive health intervention model is both effective and easily implemented. This intervention should focus on women with a low income, women with low education levels, young women, migrant women, and women who have had multiple abortions or pregnancies.
Full Text Available We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (P<0.001. Serum total bilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG in females (P<0.005. Logistic regression showed that serum total bilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863–0.960; P=0.001. The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.
It was recommended among others that existing women organizations in the rural communities should be encouraged by way of adequate recognition, training and funding by the State and Local Government authorities. Keywords: Women\\'s organizations, rural community development, Imo state. International Journal of ...
Rebecca A. Seguin, MS; Christina D. Economos, PhD; Raymond Hyatt, PhD; Ruth Palombo, PhD; Peter N.T. Reed, MPH; Miriam E. Nelson, PhD
Background Physical activity is essential for maintaining health and function with age, especially among women. Strength training exercises combat weakness and frailty and mitigate the development of chronic disease. Community-based programs offer accessible opportunities for strength training. Program Design The StrongWomen Program is an evidence-informed, community-based strength training program developed and disseminated to enable women aged 40 or older to maintain their strength, functio...
Syeda Sakira Sahin
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to tease out the factors and forces that enable women to form communities of women and the circumstances within which they act. In addition, the research aims to observe into their activities to see if there is a germination of gender consciousness even if in a nascent form. Taking off from a historical vantage point of women coming together for various kinds of social and political action, the paper tries to delve into the epistemological dilemma encountered by feminist politics, where the subject of feminist politics i.e., women, is presented as a problematic category. Gender is understood not as a sole defining category but one that exists alongside other constituents of identities intersecting with it like class, caste, race, ethnicity etc. Given such an understanding the paper is based on a micro-level qualitative study conducted in an urban set-up of Guwahati city where two different kinds of locality-based women’s communities are taken as case studies, one of which is an all-women local neighbourhood development committee and the other a women’s forum within a gated community. The interesting contrasts as well as complexities of the groups in their membership as well their cultures are analysed to raise questions on whether such groups serve patriarchal interests or whether they present themselves as potential sites through which social change towards a more gender-conscious society can be made possible.
This chapter explores the creative ways in which WE LEARN (Women Expanding Literacy Education Action Resource Network) empowers women's full participation in community across all literacy levels.
Geller, Jeffrey S; Kulla, Jill; Shoemaker, Alena
Over the past decade, group medical visits have become more prevalent. Group medical visits may have some advantages in treating chronic illnesses such as chronic pain as they can be more patient centered. The empowerment model is a novel approach used to provide support, education, and healthy activities guided by participants. To evaluate the early stages of a chronic pain group medical visit program based on the empowerment model. This prospective cohort study recruited 60 female participants to participate between October 2004 and May 2005. All enrolled participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire, which was administered at baseline and again after 6 months of participation. Data from chart review included age, race, weight, height, chronic illness, chronic pain diagnosis, and degree of participation. Chronic pain diagnoses included back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid/inflammatory arthritis, and other/unknown. Forty-two participants were enrolled in the program for 6 months. Their average Charleson Comorbidity Index score was 3.1 (SD=1.5). Statistically significant changes (P<.05) were seen in the following SF-36 categories: Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Social Function, and Mental Health. All factors trended toward improvement, with the largest improvements seen in Role-Physical and Role-Emotional. Participants in the chronic pain group medical visit program had a high degree of comorbidity and poor health related quality of life in regards to functioning. There was improvement in many domains of health-related quality of life.
Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy
Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…
Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.
Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.
... Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart Truth Community Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents National ... Heart Truth ®, in partnership with many national and community organizations. The program's goal is to raise awareness ...
Herath, Himali; Herath, Rasika; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha
Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life compared to women with no GDM. This study was aimed to determine the risk of developing T2DM 10 years after GDM in Sri Lankan women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka. 7205 women who delivered a child in 2005 were identified through Public Health Midwives in the field. Women with antenatal records were interviewed and relevant data were extracted from medical records to identify potential participants. One hundred and nineteen women who had GDM and 240 women who did not have GDM were recruited. Current diagnosis of diabetes was based on history, relevant medical records and blood reports within the past 1 year. The mean duration of follow up was 10.9 (SD = 0.35) years in the GDM group and 10.8 (SD = 0.31) years in the non-GDM group. The incidence density of diabetes in the GDM group was 56.3 per 1000 person years compared to 5.4 per 1000 person years in non GDM group giving a rate ratio of 10.42 (95% CI: 6.01-19.12). A woman having GDM in the index pregnancy was 10.6 times more likely to develop diabetes within 10 years compared to women with no GDM after controlling for other confounding variables. Delivering a child after 30 years, being treated with insulin during the pregnancy and delivering a baby weighing more than 3.5 Kg were significant predictors of development of T2DM after controlling for family history of diabetes mellitus (DM), GDM in previous pregnancies, parity and gestational age at delivery. Women with GDM had a 10-fold higher risk of developing T2DM during a 10-year follow up period as compared to women with no GDM after controlling for other confounding variables.
Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.
The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…
Mihiretu Alemayehu Arba
Full Text Available The highest number of maternal deaths occur during labour, delivery and the first day after delivery highlighting the critical need for good quality care during this period. Therefore, for the strategies of institutional delivery to be effective, it is essential to understand the factors that influence individual and household factors to utilize skilled birth attendance and institutions for delivery. This study was aimed to assess factors affecting the utilization of institutional delivery service of women in rural districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones.A community based cross-sectional study was done among mothers who gave birth within the past one year preceding the survey in Wolaita and Dawro Zones, from February 01 -April 30, 2015 by using a three stage sampling technique. Initially, 6 districts were selected randomly from the total of 17 eligible districts. Then, 2 kebele from each district was selected randomly cumulating a total of 12 clusters. Finally, study participants were selected from each cluster by using systematic sampling technique. Accordingly, 957 mothers were included in the survey. Data was collected by using a pretested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared by including socio-demographic variables and variables of maternal health service utilization factors. Data was entered using Epi-data version 126.96.36.199 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were applied to identify candidate and predictor variables respectively.Only 38% of study participants delivered the index child at health facility. Husband's educational status, wealth index, average distance from nearest health facility, wanted pregnancy, agreement to follow post-natal care, problem faced during delivery, birth order, preference of health professional for ante-natal care and maternity care were predictors of institutional delivery.The use of institutional delivery service is
This study was carried out to examine the contributions of women social clubs in the Development of Communities in Akuku-Toru, Asari-Toru and Degema Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. The objective was to identify the number of registered women social clubs in the areas, their community development ...
McDonnell, Karen Ann; Burke, Jessica G; Gielen, Andrea C; O'Campo, Patricia; Weidl, Meghan
.... This study will present our initial findings into the development of measures to assess women's perception of their community's social norms toward assisting women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV...
Gallant, Mary P; Pettinger, Tianna M; Coyle, Cassandra L; Spokane, Linda S
This article reports the results of a community demonstration of an evidence-based heart disease self-management program for older women. Women Take PRIDE (WTP) is a group-based education and behavior modification program, based on social cognitive theory, designed to enhance heart disease self-management among older women. We implemented the program in community settings with 129 participants. Evaluation data was collected at baseline and at 4- and 12-month follow-ups. Outcomes included general health status, functional health status, and knowledge. Results showed significant improvements in self-rated health, energy, social functioning, knowledge of community resources, and number, frequency, and bother of cardiac symptoms. These results demonstrate that an evidence-based heart disease self-management program can be effective at improving health and quality of life among older women with heart disease when implemented in community settings. © The Author(s) 2013.
Highfield, Linda; Bartholomew, L Kay; Hartman, Marieke A; Ford, M Molly; Balihe, Philomene
When community health planners select an evidence-based intervention that has been developed and tested in one situation and adapt it for use in a different situation or community, best practice suggests needs assessment and formative research in the new setting. Cancer prevention planners who are interested in adopting and adapting evidence-based approaches need to base their choices on a sound understanding of the health or behavioral risk problem in which they mean to intervene. This requires a balancing act of weighing community information against a broader perspective from the scientific literature and using the combination to identify and adapt an evidence-based intervention program that is likely to be effective in the new setting. This report is a case study of a community and organizational assessment conducted as a foundation for selecting and recommending adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for improving mammography appointment attendance. We used an inductive sequential exploratory mixed-methods design to inform this process. The process provides a model for formative research grounding evidence-based practice for cancer control planners. Future studies that incorporate findings from needs assessment into the adaptation of the selected intervention program may promote the effective dissemination of evidence-based programs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Davis, Lwendo Moonzwe; Schensul, Stephen L.; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Singh, Rajendra
This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalized area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined. PMID:24766149
Moonzwe Davis, Lwendo; Schensul, Stephen L; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Singh, Rajendra
This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalised area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy-related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined.
Hesler, Lilian Zielke; da Costa, Marta Cocco; Resta, Darielli Gindri; Colomé, Isabel Cristina dos Santos
The current study has the objective of learning and understanding how Community Health Agents conceptualize, develop and perform strategies to counter violence against women attending the Family Health Strategies in a northeastern municipality of Rio Grande do Sul. It is an exploratory research, utilizing a descriptive and qualitative approach, carried out with 35 Community Health Agents. Semi-structured interviews were performed to collect the data, which were analyzed using the thematic model. Conceptions of violence against women are centered around violence as a social construction based on gender inequalities and on violence as having a multifactorial construction. Regarding care practices and interventions to counter violence, the following tools are highlighted construction of intervention strategies within the staff forming bonds, listening and dialogue with the women victims of violence; and directing victims to support services. We believe that this study contributes to the visibility of this theme as a need in health care, as well as for the construction of strategies to counter it.
Mulvey, Anne; Egan, Irene M
This narrative describes a series of 15 short-term public art projects that were part of a program for women and girls in Lowell, Massachusetts, a mid-size city in the United States. The projects were designed to give public space to women's stories and perspectives by exhibiting their creative art in response to suggested themes. A few thousand women and girls representing diverse age and cultural groups created art based on their lived experiences. The organizers of the program met people in comfortable settings, tailored their art-making approaches to particular groups, and used inclusive processes in developing and executing the program. Program successes and challenges were related to the organizational structure of the art projects, the annual themes and art media, the extent of outreach and support, the process of creation, and the impact of art exhibits. Using community psychology and feminist frameworks, authors reflect on the projects and their relevance across contexts, highlight key organizing strategies, and identify ways the project represents community psychology in action.
Oakeshott, Pippa; Aghaizu, Adamma; Reid, Fiona; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Hay, Phillip E; Sadiq, S Tariq; Lacey, Charles J; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate
To investigate frequency and risk factors for prevalent, incident, and persistent carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in young women before the introduction of immunisation against HPV types 16 and 18 for schoolgirls. Cohort study 20 London universities and further education colleges. 2185 sexually active female students, mean age 21 years (range 16-27), 38% from ethnic minorities, who took part in the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) chlamydia screening trial in 2004-08 and who provided duplicate, self taken vaginal swabs and completed questionnaires at baseline. At follow-up, a median of 16 months later, 821 women (38%) returned repeat vaginal swabs by post. In 2009-10, stored samples were tested for HPV. Samples from 404/2185 (18.5% (95% CI 16.9% to 20.2%)) of the cohort were positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline, including 15.0% (327) positive for non-vaccine carcinogenic genotypes. Reporting two or more sexual partners in the previous year and concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis or bacterial vaginosis were independent risk factors for prevalent vaginal HPV infection. Infection with one or more new HPV types was found in 17.7% (145/821) of follow-up samples, giving an estimated annual incidence of carcinogenic HPV infection of 12.9% (95% CI 11.0% to 15.0%). Incident infection was more common in women reporting two or more partners in the previous year, agedcarcinogenic HPV infection, 20 (14% (8.3% to 19.7%) had infection with the same carcinogenic HPV type(s) detected after 12-28 months. Of these women, 13 (65%) had redetected infection with HPV 16 or 18, and nine (45%) with non-vaccine carcinogenic HPV genotypes. In the first UK cohort study of carcinogenic HPV in young women in the community, multiple sexual partners was an independent predictor of both prevalent and incident infection. Infection with non-vaccine carcinogenic genotypes was common. Although current HPV vaccines offer partial cross protection against some non-vaccine carcinogenic HPV
Web-Based Interventions Alone or Supplemented with Peer-Led Support or Professional Email Counseling for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Women from Rural Communities: Results of a Clinical Trial
Patricia A. Hageman
Full Text Available Objective. This trial compared the effectiveness of a web-based only (WO intervention with web-based supplemented by peer-led discussion (WD or professional email counseling (WE across 3 phases to achieve weight loss and weight maintenance in women from underserved rural communities. Methods. 301 women (BMI of 28–45 kg/m2 randomly assigned to groups participated in guided weight loss (baseline to 6 months, guided weight loss and maintenance (6 to 18 months, and self-managed weight maintenance (18 to 30 months. Results. Retention was 88.7%, 76.5%, and 71.8% at 6, 18, and 30 months, respectively. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated no group differences in change in weight within any phases. At 6 months, observed mean (SD weight loss was 5.1 (6.0 kg in WO, 4.1 (5.6 kg in WD, and 6.0 (6.3 kg in WE, with 42%, 38%, and 51%, respectively, meeting ≥ 5% weight loss. These proportions dropped by a third after phase 2 with no further change during phase 3. Conclusion. Web-based interventions assisted women from rural communities in achieving 6-month weight loss, with weight regain by half at 30 months. No group differences were potentially due to the robust nature of the web-based intervention. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01307644.
community Development Assistants and home economic~/instructor and Adult literacy instruc- tors). These have been trained to integrate CS message into their daily activities. Activities done so far include: Orientation of policy makers; Training of master ...
Parsons, Mickey L; Warner-Robbins, Carmen
The purpose of this study was to describe factors that support women's successful transition to the community following incarceration. The design is qualitative, utilizing open-ended data generating interview questions of women who participate in Welcome Home Ministries (WHM), a new community faith-based program for women released from jail/prison. A multitude of factors are necessary to support women's successful transition to the community following incarceration. Although no questions were asked about religion or spirituality, the rank-ordered dominant factors were a spiritual belief and practice and freedom from addiction. The role of support groups and their "sisters" in WHM, the nurse-chaplain's jail visit and support, and the role of supportive friends (not former drug using friends) were additional key factors. The study findings may be used to support the design of new interventions based upon women's needs and capacities to empower them to create their own and their children's healthy future.
Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar
This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.
Maraux, Barbara; Lissouba, Pascale; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Taljaard, Dirk; Bouscaillou, Julie; Lewis, David; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran
The roll-out of medical male circumcision (MC) is progressing in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little is known about the effect of this roll-out on women. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of women regarding MC in a setting before and after the roll-out. This study was conducted in the South African township of Orange Farm where MC prevalence among men increased from 17% to 53% in the period 2008-2010. Data from three community-based cross sectional surveys conducted in 2007, 2010 and 2012 among 1258, 1197 and 2583 adult women, respectively were studied. In 2012, among 2583 women, 73.7% reported a preference for circumcised partners, and 87.9% knew that circumcised men could become infected with HIV. A total of 95.8% preferred to have their male children circumcised. These three proportions increased significantly during the roll-out. In 2007, the corresponding values were 64.4%, 82.9% and 80.4%, respectively. Among 2581 women having had sexual intercourse with circumcised and uncircumcised men, a majority (55.8%, 1440/2581) agreed that it was easier for a circumcised man to use a condom, 20.5% (530/2581) disagreed; and 23.07 (611/2581) did not know. However, some women incorrectly stated that they were fully (32/2579; 1.2%; 95%CI: 0.9% to 1.7%) or partially (233/2579; 9.0%; 95%CI: 8.0% to 10.2%) protected when having unprotected sex with a circumcised HIV-positive partner. This study shows that the favorable perception of women and relatively correct knowledge regarding VMMC had increased during the roll-out of VMMC. When possible, women should participate in the promotion of VMMC although further effort should be made to improve their knowledge.
Full Text Available The roll-out of medical male circumcision (MC is progressing in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little is known about the effect of this roll-out on women. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of women regarding MC in a setting before and after the roll-out. This study was conducted in the South African township of Orange Farm where MC prevalence among men increased from 17% to 53% in the period 2008-2010. Data from three community-based cross sectional surveys conducted in 2007, 2010 and 2012 among 1258, 1197 and 2583 adult women, respectively were studied. In 2012, among 2583 women, 73.7% reported a preference for circumcised partners, and 87.9% knew that circumcised men could become infected with HIV. A total of 95.8% preferred to have their male children circumcised. These three proportions increased significantly during the roll-out. In 2007, the corresponding values were 64.4%, 82.9% and 80.4%, respectively. Among 2581 women having had sexual intercourse with circumcised and uncircumcised men, a majority (55.8%, 1440/2581 agreed that it was easier for a circumcised man to use a condom, 20.5% (530/2581 disagreed; and 23.07 (611/2581 did not know. However, some women incorrectly stated that they were fully (32/2579; 1.2%; 95%CI: 0.9% to 1.7% or partially (233/2579; 9.0%; 95%CI: 8.0% to 10.2% protected when having unprotected sex with a circumcised HIV-positive partner. This study shows that the favorable perception of women and relatively correct knowledge regarding VMMC had increased during the roll-out of VMMC. When possible, women should participate in the promotion of VMMC although further effort should be made to improve their knowledge.
Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M.; Huber, Rachel; Moehring, Patricia A.; Koch, Abby; Geller, Stacie E.
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Rural women have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to both behavioral and environmental factors. Models of prevention that are tailored to community needs and build on existing resources are essential for effective outreach to rural women.…
exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of conventional .... formal medical practice should be considered12. .... writing process, literature was used to support the.
Recruitment and retention of women in fishing communities in HIV prevention research. A Ssetaala, J Nakiyingi-Miiro, S Asiimwe, A Nanvubya, J Mpendo, G Asiki, L Nielsen, N Kiwanuka, J Seeley, A Kamali, P Kaleebu ...
Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Dunphy Suplee, Patricia; Gardner, Marcia R
As a first step in a proposed program of community-based participatory research, this study investigated access to care and specific health needs in a population of Hispanic women from a medically underserved, urban community. There were 66 Hispanic women recruited at a local church to complete a 94-item researcher-developed survey. Thirty-two percent of women in the study were not U.S. citizens. Being insured, being a citizen, and having a medical diagnosis were significant in satisfaction with care. The most prevalent health issue for this population was being overweight or obese. This study demonstrates the use of the community needs assessment process in the development of interventions to improve a community's health and health care. This is especially true in the Hispanic community in which large variations based on culture and country of origin will impact the success of planned interventions.
Various Community-Based Reproductive Health interventions were initiated in many developing countries but their effectiveness has not been evaluated as much as needed. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out in February 2002 among women who participated in community based reproductive health ...
Community Based Distributors and Increased Ownership of the Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Rural Area of Jos Plateau State. ... those that served as community based distributors (CBDs) who were pregnant women themselves that could read and write and understood English, Hausa and the native language Birom.
Background: Rural women in developing countries, including Nigeria are faced with a number of health problems with very limited access to health care facilities. This study assessed the perception of women in rural areas on community health extension services in Ilorin, Kwara State. Methods: One hundred and twenty ...
Patterson, Susan J.
An interpretative philosophical framework was applied to a case study to document the particular experiences and perspectives of ten women engineering transfer students who once attended a community college and are currently enrolled in one of two university professional engineering programs. This study is important because women still do not earn…
Abstract. At present there is under utilization of maternity service provision in Nigeria, with only a third of childbearing women electing to deliver in ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... participants criticised personal attributes of some.
Townsend, Barbara K.
This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…
Salamon, Sonya; Keim, Ann Mackey
Control over land, a scarce resource for farmers, is found to be the source of women's power in a community of Illinois farm families. Women appear to make a trade-off of lower status and less power for male management of the family enterprise, which assures them a financially secure widowhood. (Author)
Shelton, Rachel C; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This article seeks to address this gap by describing the characteristics and capacity of a sample of 76 female African American LHAs from a nationally disseminated evidence-based LHA program for breast and cervical cancer screening (The National Witness Project), as well as potential differences between cancer survivors and nonsurvivors who serve as LHAs. A conceptual model for understanding LHA capacity and contributions in underserved communities at the individual, social, and organizational levels is presented. We describe LHA experiences and characteristics (e.g., experiences of mistrust and discrimination, racial pride, sociodemographics), capacity at the individual level (e.g., psychological and physical health, health behaviors), capacity at the social level (e.g., social networks, social support), and capacity at the organizational level (e.g., role-related competencies, self-efficacy, leadership, role benefits/challenges). Data were obtained through interview-administered telephone surveys between 2010 and 2011. Findings highlight the critical capacity that LHAs bring to their communities and the importance of supporting LHAs to sustain these programs and to address racial/ethnic health disparities.
Wallner, Lauren P; Sarma, Aruna V; Kim, Catherine
To examine sexual dysfunction among women with and without diabetes in a community-based sample of women aged 30-79 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of survey responses of female participants in the Boston Area Community Health Study, a community-based random sample, who answered questions regarding sexual functioning and diabetes status and also reported sexual activity (n = 1,291). Associations between diabetes and overall sexual function as well as domain of sexual function were examined in multivariable linear regression models. Women with type 2 diabetes (n = 75) were older, less often white, and more likely to have decreased physical activity levels, elevated body mass index, and cardiovascular disease than women without diabetes (n = 1,190). Women with type 1 diabetes (n = 26) were similar to women without diabetes except for higher depression scores and lower levels of activity. Age, marital status, and depressive symptoms were correlated with overall sexual function. After adjustment for age and race, women with and without diabetes had similar arousal, lubrication, orgasm, dyspareunia, satisfaction, and desire. After further adjustment for other factors, including age, depression, and marital status, women with type 1 diabetes had increased dyspareunia compared with women without diabetes, and women with type 2 diabetes had similar functioning to women without diabetes. Women with type 2 diabetes may have similar sexual functioning to women without diabetes, although women with type 1 diabetes may more often have dyspareunia. Factors such as depression, which are common in women with diabetes, are more strongly related to sexual dysfunction than diabetes status.
Full Text Available In the slums and rural areas of India, visual impairment, blindness, and childhood blindness are usually more prevalent.In order to improve the eye health of children and the community in these areas, it is important to understand the influence women and mothers have over children’s eye health and the eye health of the community as a whole.
The paper analysed the role of women organizations in the development of rural communities in Orlu Agricultural zone of Imo state. Six communities were purposively selected from three Local Government Areas of the Zone for the study. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 randomly selected ...
Decades of communication research have shown that the stories we humans tell ourselves about ourselves reflect and shape our identities as members of our particular culture(s). By creating texts that portray a group rarely made visible, lesbian comic artists both represent and define lesbian identity and community. This textual analysis of the work of four comic artists, Alison Bechdel, Diane DiMassa, Justine Shaw, and Ariel Schrag, demonstrates how lesbian comic book artists draw on and contribute to the notions of lesbian identity and community. This study of the comics and secondary sources reveals three interconnected themes: visibility, self-reflexivity, and the complex interrelation of and process of defining identity and community.
Rawsthorne, Margot; Ellis, Kayleigh; de Pree, Alison
Australia, like all developed Western countries, is experiencing a demographic shift resulting in an increasing proportion of the population being over the age of 65 years. Contrary to stereotypes, the vast majority of older people live independently in communities. This article explores the potential of social work practice informed by community development principles to enable socially disadvantaged older women to live in vibrant and supportive communities, in which they feel safe and are able to access the support services they need. It argues that participation in social action not only builds older women's well-being but also enables them to become (or continue to be) agents for social change in local communities. Adopting a community-based research methodology, this article draws on a decade of community development practice with the Concerned Older Women's (COW) Group. This data suggests that community development practice based on participation, empowerment, and social action founded on respectful relationships may accrue significant benefits to individuals and the broader community. This social work practice creates the social conditions to facilitate older women's capacity to work collectively to achieve social change, challenging ageist stereotypes.
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
under representation of women in education management abroad and in South Africa, gender differences in communication as a managerial function are discussed and the implications for the workplace outlined by means of a literature review. A qualitative investigation explored the communication strategies of a woman ...
Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs
This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders.
Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Hyatt, Raymond; Palombo, Ruth; Reed, Peter N T; Nelson, Miriam E
Physical activity is essential for maintaining health and function with age, especially among women. Strength training exercises combat weakness and frailty and mitigate the development of chronic disease. Community-based programs offer accessible opportunities for strength training. The StrongWomen Program is an evidence-informed, community-based strength training program developed and disseminated to enable women aged 40 or older to maintain their strength, function, and independence. The StrongWomen Workshop and StrongWomen Tool Kit are the training and implementation tools for the StrongWomen Program. Program leaders are trained at the StrongWomen Workshop. They receive the StrongWomen Tool Kit and subsequent support to implement the program in their communities. Program dissemination began in May 2003 with a three-part approach: recruiting leaders and forming key partnerships, soliciting participant interest and supporting implementation, and promoting growth and sustainability. We conducted site visits during the first year to assess curriculum adherence. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on program leaders, participants, locations, and logistics. We used a database to track workshop locations and program leaders. As of July 2006, 881 leaders in 43 states were trained; leaders from 35 states had implemented programs. Evidence-informed strength training programs can be successful when dissemination occurs at the community level using trained leaders. This research demonstrates that hands-on training, a written manual, partnerships with key organizations, and leader support contributed to the successful dissemination of the StrongWomen Program. Results presented provide a model that may aid the dissemination of other community-based exercise programs.
Full Text Available Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL in eating disorders (EDs have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL and psychological distress (PD.Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828 surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form, and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale.Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups.Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs.
Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community development in Nigeria: Some empirical evidence. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... the people". Keywords: Renewal strategy, Community development, Community-based organizations, Bottom-up, Top-down, Nigeria ...
Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene
The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation.
Joy Beveridge, clinical project manager III, is all about building relationships. Her work as a clinical project manager requires her to manage teams such as the Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials, Center for Global Health, Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative, and Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis. Equally important are the relationships Beveridge builds through her work with Woman to Woman Mentoring, Inc. (W2WM), a 501(C)3 non-profit organization that seeks to cultivate mentoring relationships that provide women with guidance, support, and connections.
Plotzker, Rosalyn; Seekaew, Pich; Jantarapakde, Jureeporn; Pengnonyang, Supabhorn; Trachunthong, Deondara; Linjongrat, Danai; Janyam, Surang; Nakpor, Thitiyanun; Charoenying, Sutinee; Mills, Stephen; Vannakit, Ravipa; Cassell, Michael; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lertpiriyasuwat, Cheewanan; Phanuphak, Nittaya
HIV prevalence among Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) are 9.15% and 11.8%, respectively, compared with 1.1% in the general population. To better understand early adopters of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Thailand, we analyzed biobehavioral and sociodemographic characteristics of PrEP-eligible MSM and TG. Four Thai urban community clinics between October 2015 and February 2016. Sociodemographics, HIV risk characteristics, and PrEP knowledge and attitudes were analyzed in association with PrEP initiation among eligible Thai MSM and TG. Adjusted analysis explored factors associated with PrEP acceptance. We then analyzed HIV risk perception, which was strongly associated with PrEP initiation. Of 297 participants, 55% accepted PrEP (48% of MSM, 54% of TG). Perceived HIV risk levels were associated with PrEP acceptance [odds ratio (OR): 4.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.5 to 12.2. OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1 to 19.0. OR: 14.7; 95% CI: 3.9 to 55.1; for minimal, moderate, and high perceived risks, respectively]. HIV risk perception was associated with previous HIV testing (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.5); inconsistent condom use (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.9); amphetamine use in the past 6 months (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 8.6); and uncertainty in the sexually transmitted infection history (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.7). Approximately half of those who reported either inconsistent condom use (46%), multiple partners (50%), group sex (48%), or had baseline bacterial sexually transmitted infection (48%) perceived themselves as having no or mild HIV risk. HIV risk perception plays an important role in PrEP acceptance. Perception does not consistently reflect actual risk. It is therefore critical to assess a client's risk perception and provide education about HIV risk factors that will improve the accuracy of perceived HIV risk.
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...
Moreno, Veronica; Persad, Judy Vashti
The primary objective of the kit is to present a model to assist Canadian community workers in developing a workshop or a course on community development working with or intending to work with immigrant women. The booklet provides a guide through the stages of needs assessment, outreach, selection of participants, program design, implementation,…
Semba, Richard D; Ricks, Michelle O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Xue, Qian-Li; Chaves, Paulo; Fried, Linda P; Guralnik, Jack M
To classify the different types of anemia among moderately to severely disabled women living in the community and examine the relationship between types of anemia and mortality. We studied anemia in 688 women, >or=65 years, in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, a population based study of moderately to severely disabled older women living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria. Causes of anemia were classified as due to nutritional deficiencies (iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies), anemia of chronic inflammation, anemia with renal disease, and unexplained anemia. 147 of 688 (21.4%) women were anemic (hemoglobin anemia due to nutritional causes, 45 (30.6%) had anemia due to chronic inflammation, 29 (19.7%) had anemia and renal disease, and 51 (34.7%) had unexplained anemia. The proportions of those who died over five years among non-anemic women and women with anemia due to nutritional causes, chronic inflammation, renal disease, and unexplained anemia were 26.1%, 18.2%, 38.6%, 64.3%, and 33.3%, respectively (panemia and renal disease (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.18-3.35, p=0.009) and anemia of chronic inflammation (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.84, p=0.05) had higher risk of death. Anemia is common among moderately to severely disabled older women living in the community, and about one-third of the anemia is unexplained. Anemia with renal disease and anemia of chronic inflammation are associated with a higher mortality.
The aim of the study was to identify and appraise the participation of women in household and community decision-making and its implications for their empowerment. Test samples were selected through a multi–stage random sampling technique. A total of ninety respondents were chosen from the five sampled wards, and ...
and neonatal health and reducing mortality3. Community mobilization through women's groups has been shown to be effective and cost-effective in changing care and care-seeking practices and reducing mortality in rural Bolivia,. Nepal and India4,5,6. This approach, if equally successful in. Malawi and other countries in ...
Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane
.... The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam...
S. Ziaei; Contreras, M.; Zelaya Blandón, E; Persson, L.Å; Hjern, A; Ekström, EC
To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item...
Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B
To assess the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities of southwestern Nigeria. The present cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted during 2010-2011 among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically screened for infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Of 313 volunteer participants, 20.8% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The prevalence of infection was highest (31.5%) among women aged 20-24years. The infection intensity did not differ significantly between age groups (t=1.848, P=0.71). Primigravidae and women in the first trimester of pregnancy had the highest intensity of infection with 33.1 and 27.7 eggs/10mL of urine, respectively. There was an association between disease prevalence and parasite intensity across the age groups (χ(2)=68.82, P=0.02). The prevalence of S. haematobium was not associated with age or pregnancy trimester (P=0.06), but associations existed between intensity of infection and gravidity (P=0.001). The prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in Nigeria was high, with younger women and primigravidae at the greatest risk. These data can be used to develop a schistosomiasis control program among pregnant women in the study area. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.
[Prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in school students, university students, and women from community-based organizations in the districts of Lima, Callao, la Libertad and Arequipa, Peru 2011].
Núñez-Robles, Eloísa; Huapaya-Pizarro, Cleopatra; Torres-Lao, Rogger; Esquivel-León, Silvia; Suarez-Moreno, Víctor; Yasuda-Espinoza, Myriam; Sanjinés-López, Giovanna
To determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in school students, college students and women from community-based organizations (CBO) in four districts in Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2011 in the districts of Lima, Callao, La Libertad and Arequipa with school students, university students and women from CBOs. A survey, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements and fasting blood sampling were conducted to determine glucose and lipid levels. Thus, prevalence of overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, suspected diabetes, and other variables, were calculated. The main outcome variable was prevalence of overweight. 1,127 people were included: 283 (25.1%) school students, 431 (38.3%) university students, and 413 women (36.6%) from CBOs. Non-response rates were 3%, 0% and 8%, respectively. The average ages in the three groups were 14.3 ± 0.9; 19.6 ± 2.8; and 46.1 ± 15.3 years, respectively. Prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was 11.3%, 20.9%, and 73.4%; hypertension was 0.7%; 1.2%, and 12.8%; high cholesterol (≥ 200 mg/dL) was 5.2%, 11.5%, and 50.1%; and suspected diabetes was 1.4%; 1.0%, and 20.3% respectively in each group of school students, university students and women from CBOs. The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors generally increased in older age groups. In school and university aged groups, the most frequent problems were overweight and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity.
Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study
University, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: To examine the acceptability and feasibility of mobile health (mHealth/short message service (SMS and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (cDOT as interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission (PMTCT. Design and methods: A mixed-method approach was used. Two qualitative focus group discussions with HIV-infected pregnant women (n=20 examined the acceptability and feasibility of two ART adherence interventions for PMTCT: 1 SMS text messaging and 2 patient-nominated cDOT supporters. Additionally, 109 HIV-infected, pregnant South African women (18–30 years old receiving PMTCT services under single-tablet antiretroviral therapy regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding and continuing for life (“Option B+” were interviewed about mobile phone access, SMS use, and potential treatment supporters. Setting: A community primary care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants: HIV-infected pregnant women. Main outcomes: Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and cDOT interventions. Results: Among the 109 women interviewed, individual mobile phone access and SMS use were high (>90%, and 88.1% of women were interested in receiving SMS ART adherence support messages such as reminders, motivation, and medication updates. Nearly all women (95% identified at least one person close to them to whom they had disclosed their HIV status and would nominate as a cDOT supporter. Focus group discussions revealed that cDOT supporters and adherence text messages were valued, but some concerns regarding supporter time availability and risk of unintended HIV status disclosure were expressed. Conclusion: mHealth and/or cDOT supporter as interventions to improve ART adherence are feasible in this setting. However, safe HIV status disclosure to treatment supporters and confidentiality of text messaging content about HIV and ART were
Gundersen, Hilde; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne
Vehicle traffic is increasing worldwide, and this is a major concern because traffic-related air pollution and noise may influence health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with vehicle traffic density in area of residence. A total of 16,410 individuals, 40 to 45 years old, were asked to participate in this study (response rate: 55% for men, 66% for women). Using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire, both physical and mental HRQoL were investigated. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that women living in areas with high traffic density had significantly poorer physical HRQoL than women living in areas with moderate or low vehicle traffic density. There were no similar findings among men. Mental HRQoL was not associated with vehicle traffic density in the area of residence, neither for women nor for men. There is an association between high vehicle traffic density in residential area and reduced HRQoL in women.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
Full Text Available Since 2011, Women Who Rock (WWR has brought together scholars, archivists, musicians, media-makers, performers, artists, and activists to explore the role of women and popular music in the creation of cultural scenes and social justice movements in the Americas and beyond. The project promotes generative dialogue and documentation by “encompassing several interwoven components: project-based coursework at the graduate and undergraduate levels; an annual participant-driven conference and film festival; and an oral history archive hosted by the University of Washington Libraries Digital Initiatives Program that ties the various components together” (Bartha 8. In our courses, programming, and archive, we examine the politics of performance, social identity, and material access in music scenes, cultures, and industries. Performance studies scholar Daphne Brooks argues that the “confluence of cultural studies, rock studies, and third wave feminist critical studies makes it possible now more than ever to continue to critique and re-interrogate the form and content of popular music histories” (58. WWR implements this approach, asking how particular stories of popular music determine a performer, band, or scene’s “legendary” status or excision from the official annals of memory. WWR reshapes conventional understandings of popular music studies by initiating collective methods of participatory research, as well as community collaboration and dialogue. By way of WWR, we seek to transform traditional models of popular music studies, instigating new convergences between academic disciplines and critical approaches that create alternative histories and new forms of knowledge.
Ochwo, M T; Cockburn, J; Tumwine, I
The impact of post-British colonialism in Jinja, Uganda, is examined, with particular emphasis being given to the involvement of the Masese Women's Association in revival efforts in Jinja, Uganda has gone through periods of political upheaval resulting from civil strife during Idi Amin's rule in 1971-78. Refugees had started to squat in the "Masese" slum area and were experiencing destitute poverty and unemployment. In response to such conditions, citizens, governments, and nongovernmental organizations, in association with the Masese Women's Association, engaged in an effort called the Masese Women's Self Help Projects with the aim of bringing about a change in the way of life for the people in Jinja, Uganda. A Housing and Human Settlement Upgrading Program was created to establish a settlement and credit plan that would enable women to acquire secure land tenure and production materials for housing. The project also developed a community infrastructure for employment, health, and education services. The women's organization encountered many obstacles in the realization of these housing and settlement projects, among them illiteracy and traditional thinking and practices of the kind that have confined Ugandan women to the private sphere.
Herd, Denise; Gruenewald, Paul; Remer, Lillian; Guendelman, Sylvia
Racial and ethnic groups in the US exhibit major differences in low birthweight (LBW) rates. While previous studies have shown that community level social indicators associated with LBW vary by race and ethnicity, it is not known whether these differences exist among racial or ethnic groups who live in the same neighborhood or community. To address this question, we examined the association of community level features with LBW among African American, White and Hispanic women who live in similar geographic areas. The analysis is based on geocoded birth certificates for all singleton live births in the year 2000 to women residing in 805 California ZIP codes. Community level social and demographic data were obtained from U.S. Census data files for the year 2000 and surrogate indices of population level alcohol and drug abuse and dependence were derived from hospital discharge data (HDD). Tobit and bootstrap analyses were used to test associations with birth outcomes, maternal characteristics, and community level social and demographic features within and across the three groups of women living in similar geographic areas. The results demonstrate major racial and ethnic differences in community level correlates of LBW. Rates of LBW among African Americans were lower if they lived in areas that were more densely populated, had greater income disparities, were more racially segregated, and had low rates of alcohol abuse or dependence. These associations were different or absent for Hispanic and White women. The results suggest that despite living in the same areas, major differences in neighborhood features and social processes are linked to birth outcomes of African American women compared to Hispanic and White women. Further research, especially using multilevel approaches, is needed to precisely identify these differences to help reduce racial and ethnic disparities in LBW.
María del Carmen Rodríguez de France
Full Text Available With empowering stories and histories from twelve Aboriginal women who are leaders in different contexts and communities, the book acknowledges and celebrates the contributions of Aboriginal women to diverse fields of work and disciplines such as art, culture, politics, language, law, community, education, and social activism. About the Authors Eric Guimond is an assistant director at the Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate at Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Gail Guthrie Valaskakis was a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Concordia University and was a leading authority on Aboriginal Media and Communication. She passed away in 2007. Madeleine Dion Stout is a former nurse and founding director of the Centre of Aboriginal Education, Research, and Culture at Carleton University.
Kleinman, Sharon S.
This article explores the constructs of online community and online social support and discusses a naturalistic case study of a public, unmoderated, online discussion group dedicated to issues of interest to women in science and engineering. The benefits of affiliation with OURNET (a pseudonym) were explored through participant observation over a 4-year period, telephone interviews with 21 subscribers, and content analysis of e-mail messages posted to the discussion group during a 125-day period. The case study findings indicated that through affiliation with the online discussion group, women in traditionally male-dominated fields expanded their professional networks, increased their knowledge, constituted and validated positive social identities, bolstered their self-confidence, obtained social support and information from people with a wide range of experiences and areas of expertise, and, most significantly, found community.
Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders
We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city residents aged 66+ years. We offered a prevention program consisting of a daily supplement of 1000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate and 400 IU (10 microg) of vitamin-D3 to a total of 4957 participants. The remaining 5063 participants were offered home safety inspection with dietary and health advice, or no intervention. The Calcium and Vitamin D program was followed by 50.3% and the Environmental and Health Program by 46.4%. According to a multivariate analysis including age, marital status and intervention program, female residents who followed the Calcium and Vitamin D Program had a 12% risk reduction in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; p prevent falls leading to acute hospitalization in community-dwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D.
Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Jia-Jie; Sun, Qing; Wang, Li-Ping; Jia, Yi-Fei; Xuan, Bin-Bin; Xu, Bing; Sheng, Hui-Ming
This study explored chlamydia trachomatis (CT), ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and/or neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in 5893 women with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Shanghai. From January 2009 to December 2014, 5893 women with UTIs in Shanghai were selected to undergo CT, UU and NG detection. Baseline characteristics including age, education level, occupation, reproductive history, sexual behavior and contraceptive method were obtained for epidemiological analysis. The total CT, UU and/or NG infection rate in the urine samples of 5893 patients was 50.69% (2987/5893), while the infection rate in vaginal secretion samples was 56.22% (3313/5893). The two detection methods were consistent. Patients aged 21-30, service personnel and unemployed persons had the highest rates of CT, UU and/or NG infection, while patients with higher education levels exhibited lower rates. As the number of previous pregnancies, natural births, abortions, sexual partners and the frequency of sexual intercourse increased, the rates of CT, UU and/or NG infection were elevated. Sexual intercourse during the menstruation period, a lack of cleaning before sexual intercourse and the use of intrauterine devices could all lead to an increased rate of CT, UU and/or NG infection. These data revealed that the rate of CT, UU and/or NG infection may be associated with age, education level, occupation, reproductive history, sexual behavior and type of contraceptive method in female patients with UTI in Shanghai. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
The Community broadcasting system poised for start-up in Bangladesh. Long run media-based NGOs, along with other NGOs and the private sector, were attempting to introduce community radio (CR) in Bangladesh. Both the public and private university are also considering a CR station on campus. In CR what will be new and attractive to the learners is…
Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche
. The strong sense of longing for belonging, the emotional connections of family and love to their former gangs, and the socio-economic marginalization, otherness and alienation related to being a poor (former) gang member lacking a legal source of income are the greatest barriers in the process of gang...... of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...
Kincaid, Shannon D.
risk factor for high-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores of 147 or higher and grade point averages of 2.70 or higher). Overall, qualitative data analysis revealed both high-scoring and low-scoring women in STEM disciplines were affected by stereotype threat effect. However, low-scoring women were negatively impacted by stereotype threat and high-scoring women were able to use pressures associated with stereotype threat as motivation for success. Based on results from this study four principal factors were found that influence the success of women in STEM disciplines. These factors include elimination of stereotype threat, enhancement of resilience of female students, expansion of female gender representation on community college campuses, and development of positive instructor-student and advisor-student relationships. While this study does not, and cannot, explain why gender differences in STEM exist, it does provide data and insight that will enable more informed policymaking for community college administrators in order to increase success of women in STEM disciplines. The findings provide definitive evidence of a need to encourage and support women in STEM education with a goal of gender parity.
Sep 12, 2010 ... price and availability being barriers to a healthier diet.22 Rural and urban women in KwaZulu-Natal ..... this input as an important variable, the focus of the Lusikisiki project was on technology transfer, .... the biggest challenges to overcome when implementing community- based gardening activities.54 A ...
community‑based study conducted among 200 women of reproductive age group (15‑45 years) in a rural field practice area, VMKV ... waste management. There is a cyclical causal relationship between the neglect of menstrual hygiene and low levels of awareness amongst communities, practitioners, and policymakers, ...
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn
Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…
Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben
from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction......) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt...... representatives from the public sector (and not only environmental authorities), civil society (women and men), private sector as well as financial institutions. It is envisaged that this work note will be followed by an interdisciplinary workshop in Copenhagen in 2008...
Speizer Ilene S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.
Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S
Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH). Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital) among young women (ages 20-29) was examined. In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.
Profamilia in the Dominican Republic began a program called "Popular Promoters" in 1973 in which rural women were referred to family planning clinics, and in 1976 the community-based distribution program was formally begun. Between October 1974-October 1975, Profamilia had gained experience in the distribution of contraceptives in rural areas of the country. At the start, the community program continued promotion of family planning primarily in rural areas while offering contraceptive directly to those seeking them. By 1977, 105 communities and 12 provinces had been added to the program and 6500 women were being served. 14,500 of the 15,200 couples served in 1980 used pills. There were 23,000 users in 1984, 12,000 of whom were new acceptors. Over 34% of Profamilia's 66,000 clients are in the community-based distribution program. The program also maintains a strong educational component which each year offers over 400 talks in its 170 rural and urban communities on themes related to family planning, including health, education, nutrition, and use of available resources. Among early problems of the program were opposition from physicians, difficulty of recruiting volunteers who met the personality and other requirements, myths and incorrect beliefs of the community regarding family planning, the belief among men that contraception would encourage infidelity among women, and official pronatalist policies. The promoters work directly with the 170 distributors and also parrticipate in other community development activities such as the establishment of community organizations. Large families are seen as just 1 of the problems of the communities, most of which are impoverished, lack employment opportunities, and suffer other disadvantages of underdevelopment. Distributors are chosen by communities for leadership and other personality traits. Acceptance of family planning encourages efforts to assume control of other aspects of life.
Hong, Sun Yi; Jun, Soo Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of community capacity building exercise maintenance program for frail elderly women. A quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design was used with nonequivalent control group. The experimental group (n = 22) received community capacity building exercise maintenance program, whereas the control group (n = 23) received health physical exercise program for 16 sessions over 8 weeks. The data of physical fitness, body compositions, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life were collected three times for both group: before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 8 weeks after the intervention. Analyses were conducted using χ 2 test, t test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measures analysis of variance. Compared to the control group, muscular strength (p = .002), static balance (p = .013), muscular endurance (p = .003), self-efficacy (p building exercise maintenance program. Theses results indicated that a community capacity building exercise maintenance program is feasible, and associated with exercise maintenance among frail elderly women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hollos, Marida; Whitehouse, Bruce
Infertility is a devastating problem around the world, particularly in the high fertility context of sub-Saharan Africa. Regardless of its medical origins, infertility causes African women personal grief and economic deprivation.This research was conducted among the Ijo who are organized into exogamous patrilineal descent groups. Women who marry into a patrilineage are perceived as bearers of sons who will eventually take their place in the lineage's genealogy. Women only figure in the lineage structure as mothers.In addition to extensive ethnographic research in this community, the paper is based on a combination of surveys of 246 women and interviews of 25 fertile and 25 infertile women.Women who have never given birth were characterized as “useless”. Some managed to accumulate wealth or attained education but most feared a marginal old age. Respect was given to women who have had even one child, even if that child died. The biological process of gestation confers an adult status on women allowing them to undergo initiation and to function as mature individuals. In the life course the most prominent periods of suffering are the transition from the stages of ereso (girl) to erera (mature woman), and in the period of old age.
Community-based distribution projects are currently operating in 40 countries, including the program in Oyo State in southwest Nigeria. Such programs utilize volunteer community workers to expand the availability and accessibility of primary health care services, family planning information, and nonprescription contraceptives in rural areas. These workers play a vital role in linking the village with government health facilities. Among the responsibilities of community health workers are promotion of food supply and proper nutrition, adequate supply of safe water and sanitation, maternal and child health care (including family planning, immunization, prevention and control of major endemic diseases, treatment of common diseases, and provision of essential drugs). These workers are nominated by traditional village leaders and selected by public health nurses; priority is given to traditional birth attendants. In Oyo State, community workers participate in an extensive 2-phase learning program followed by refresher courses every 6 months. After 2 years of program services in Oyo State, approval of family planning increased from 20% to 50% and the desire to postpone the next pregnancy beyond the period of postpartum abstinence increased from 15% to 34%. Knowledge of a modern family planning method rose from 24% to 45%. Current use of contraception rose from 1.5% to 4.5%. Despite these gains, there has been a persistence of the traditional viewpoint that regards sex as primarily for the purpose of procreation. An additional barrier is the widespread belief among husbands that if women are protected from conceiving, they will engage in extramarital relations. These strong Yoruba cultural beliefs continue to restrict acceptance of family planning and pose a challenge to health workers.
Jarvie, Jennifer L; Johnson, Caitlin E; Wang, Yun; Wan, Yun; Aslam, Farhan; Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V; Pollin, Irene; Foody, JoAnne M
There are substantial variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and outcomes among women. We sought to determine geographic variation in risk factor prevalence in a contemporary sample of U.S. women. Using 2008-2009 Sister to Sister (STS) free heart screening data from 17 U.S. cities, we compared rates of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)), hypertension (HTN ≥140/90 mm Hg), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C cities had higher rates of hyperglycemia and low HDL-C. In a large, community-based sample of women nationwide, this comprehensive analysis shows remarkable geographic variation in risk factors, which provides opportunities to improve and reduce a woman's CVD risk. Further investigation is required to understand the reasons behind such variation, which will provide insight toward tailoring preventive interventions to narrow gaps in CVD risk reduction in women.
Sustainable community based interventions for improving environment and health for communities in slums of Banda, Kampala City, Uganda : final technical report (2007-2011). Rapports. Eco-Health project start-up/methodological workshop , Sports View Hotel, Kireka, 11th-13th July 2007 : sustainable community based ...
High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.
Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F
This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru. We recruited a group of 510 MSM and 208 TW for a subsequent community-based randomised controlled trial. The presence of CT and NG were evaluated using Aptima Combo2 in pharyngeal and anal swabs. We also explored correlates of these infections. Study end points included overall prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in anal and pharyngeal sites. Overall prevalence of CT was 19% (95% CI 16.1% to 22.1%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% to 6.6%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively, while prevalence of NG was 9.6% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.0%) and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8% to 8.5%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively. The prevalence of each infection declined significantly among participants older than 34 years (p<0.05). Efforts towards prevention and treatment of extraurogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections in high-risk populations like MSM and TW in Lima, Peru, are warranted. NCT00670163; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Bakker, D; Spreeuwenberg, P.
Background: One of the potentially strong points of general-practice-based primary care is that it is accessible within local communities. As the arm of clinical medicine with the broadest reach into the community, primary care clinicians are well-positioned to understand local needs and design programmes that address community health. This paper analyses variations in the degree to which general practices indeed work community based. Geographical factors, patient factors, and practice factor...
Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...
Full Text Available The Community broadcasting system is on the way to start in Bangladesh. The CR installation Operation and Broadcasting Policy-2008 has been announced on 12 March this year. The application for the permission of setting up community radio have been asked through advertisement since 18 March 2008.A total of 400 application form were sold and 178 applicants submitted to The Ministry of Information for the permission of the community radio set up, about 50 community radio station are expected to start soon in Bangladesh and then rest of the 66 station will get permission to start their CR station. Recently Bangladesh Government has approved the regulation of the community radio in Bangladesh To inform the general mass of the country, it has been published in the website of The Ministry of Information. Since long run media based NGOs along with other NGOs and private sector were trying their best to introduce CR in Bangladesh. They have started advocacy in the policy making level. Many studies have been conducted based on the experience of other South Asian country to make it fruitful and more pragmatic to the people of Bangladesh. Total 116 institutions are expected to get this opportunity for two years pilot phase. Initially some of them will start broadcasting their programs for four hours; gradually they have a plan to broadcast their programs for 24 hours depending on the needs and feasibility of the community people. At present the frequency will cover 17 km radius.
Ssetaala, Ali; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nanvubya, Annet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim; Nielsen, Leslie; Kiwanuka, Noah; Seeley, Janet; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano
Introduction Women in fishing communities in Uganda are more at risk and have higher rates of HIV infection. Socio-cultural gender norms, limited access to health information and services, economic disempowerment, sexual abuse and their biological susceptibility make women more at risk of infection. There is need to design interventions that cater for women's vulnerability. We explore factors affecting recruitment and retention of women from fishing communities in HIV prevention research. Met...
Full Text Available Community mobility, defined as "moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation", has a unique ability to promote older peoples' wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons' subjective health.
Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A
Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, Pfluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862
Aweke, Yitagesu Habtu; Ayanto, Samuel Yohannes; Ersado, Tariku Laelago
Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer which Ethiopia put a strategic goal to reduce its incidence and mortality by 2020. Lack of knowledge and poor attitude towards the disease and risk factors can affect screening practice and development of preventive behavior for cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, practices and factors for each domain for cervical cancer among women of child bearing age in Hossana town, Southern, Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study was carried out in June 2015. A total of 583 participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather the data. Data were entered in to Epi Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis. Two hundred seventy (46.3%) of the respondents had poor comprehensive knowledge. Only 58 (9.9%) of participants had been screed for the cervical cancer before the survey. Two hundred three (34.8%) of participants had negative attitude towards selected proxy variables. Not having health seeking behavior for cervical cancer [AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: (1.18, 30.58), P knowledge. Poor knowledge score was associated with poor attitude [AOR: 56.51, 95%CI: (23.76, 134.37), P knowledge, promoting active searching for health information and experiences of receiving information from any information sources regarding cervical cancer. Therefore, it will be essential to integrate cervical cancer prevention strategies with other reproductive health services at all level of health care delivery system.
Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project. (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...
Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...
Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance. During the early 1990s, IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient tool for monitoring poverty and facilitating local level budgeting: the community-based (poverty) monitoring system (CBMS).
Chilcoat, George W.
Discusses the history and reasons for community-based mural art in North America. Describes the steps involved in a community-based mural project for students in which they work in groups to develop a mural theme and a sketch of the mural, paint the mural, document the process, and then present the mural to the class. (CMK)
This paper examines women to women marriages (nyumba ntobhu) and its relation with gender-based violence (GBV) in Serengeti District of Mara Region. It also explores types of gender-based violence and consequences of women to women marriages among women, girls and children in the society. Both quantitative ...
Folta, Sara C; Seguin, Rebecca A; Ackerman, Jennifer; Nelson, Miriam E
Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders' career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising and drifting from their original mission. These findings
Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…
In this article, Marie-Elena Reyes presents the issues faced by women of color in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as they transfer from community colleges to universities. Community colleges offer a great potential for diversifying and increasing participation of underrepresented groups in STEM. Many women of color…
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Steptoe, Leslye Carynn
The experiences of black women offer a unique perspective on how life is lived at the juncture of race and gender in the United States. This case study of an online community for black women centers on the site's potentiality as an online learning community as well as a uniquely black woman's space. It also explores interrelated aspects of…
Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Orza, Luisa; Welbourn, Alice; Bewley, Susan; Crone, Tyler; Vazquez, Marijo
To determine the sexual and reproductive health priorities of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to allow the values and preferences of such women to be considered in the development of new guidelines. A core team created a global reference group of 14 women living with HIV and together they developed a global community online survey. The survey, which contained mandatory and optional questions, was based on an appreciative enquiry approach in which the life-cycle experiences of women living with HIV were investigated. The same set of questions was also used in focus group discussions led by the global reference group. The study covered 945 women (832 in the survey and 113 in the focus groups) aged 15-72 years in 94 countries. Among the respondents to the optional survey questions, 89.0% (427/480) feared or had experienced gender-based violence, 56.7% (177/312) had had an unplanned pregnancy, 72.3% (227/314) had received advice on safe conception and 58.8% (489/832) had suffered poor mental health after they had discovered their HIV-positive status. The sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of women living with HIV are complex and require a stronger response from the health sector. The online survey placed the voices of women living with HIV at the start of the development of new global guidelines. Although not possible in some contexts and populations, a similar approach would merit replication in the development of guidelines for many other health considerations.
Josiah Willock, Robina; Mayberry, Robert M; Yan, Fengxia; Daniels, Pamela
Training community health workers (CHWs) builds a workforce that is essential to addressing the chronic disease crisis. This article describes a highly replicable CHW training program that targets heart disease risk among African American women. African American women suffer disproportionately from heart disease mortality and morbidity. Well-trained CHWs are uniquely positioned to close this disparity gap. Method. We used a Learning Circle approach to train CHWs in heart health education. The curriculum blended web-based, self-directed learning and in-person peer coaching. CHWs learned through (a) peer-to-peer sharing, (b) problem solving and brainstorming, and (c) leadership and experiential activities. Training evaluation measures were CHWs' (a) self-confidence, (b) heart health knowledge, (c) satisfaction with training, (d) training retention, and (e) replication of training within 90 days after training. This training resulted in appreciable effects on four of five outcome measures. Heart health knowledge increased significantly among experienced CHWs (p = .011). CHWs were satisfied with training and retention was 100%. CHWs initiated and subsequently delivered 122 person hours of community heart health education and CHW training in their communities. CHW heart health training using Learning Circles is a practical and replicable method of training CHWs and holds significant potential for building capacity in resource-poor community organizations. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Spry, Nandila; Marchant, Teresa
Gender equity and the empowerment of women is a significant international issue. Successful adult education programs are vital to enhance women's situation. Lessons learned from a personal development program provided for thousands of women are analysed. The program is conducted by community service providers in Australia and internationally, with…
Burgess, Kimberly R.
Women have long since used social networking as a means of coping with their struggles, educating and empowering themselves, engaging in broader social movements, and building international advocacy. Internet communities that are designed and facilitated to be inclusive of women's experiences can be important social spaces where women feel…
Da Pilma Lekettey, Joanita; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aikins, Moses
Background Alcohol consumption among pregnant women is a public health concern, considering its adverse outcomes for both mother and the developing foetus. This study examined factors that facilitate prenatal alcohol consumption, knowledge of adverse outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure and alcohol expenditure among pregnant women in an urban community in Ghana. Methods In June 2014, a survey was conducted among 250 pregnant women sampled from James Town, an urban community in the Greater Ac...
Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth
This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…
Bakker, D. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.
Background: One of the potentially strong points of general-practice-based primary care is that it is accessible within local communities. As the arm of clinical medicine with the broadest reach into the community, primary care clinicians are well-positioned to understand local needs and design
Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Burleson, Joseph A; Nastasi, Bonnie K
Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women's sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities.
Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.
Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.
Background Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders’ career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Results Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising and drifting from their
Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan
To investigate rural parturient women's experiences of obstetric care in the context of the social and economic realities of life in rural, remote, and small urban communities. Data collection for this exploratory qualitative study was carried out in 7 rural communities chosen to represent diversity of size, distance to hospital with Caesarean section capability and distance to secondary hospital, usual conditions for transport and access, and cultural and ethnic subpopulations. We interviewed 44 women who had given birth up to 24 months before the study began. When asked about their experiences of giving birth in rural communities, many participants spoke of unmet needs and their associated anxieties. Self-identified needs were largely congruent with the deficit categories of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which recognizes the contingency and interdependence of physiological needs, the need for safety and security, the need for community and belonging, self-esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization. For many women, community was critical to meeting psychosocial needs, and women from communities that currently have (or have recently had) access to local maternity care said that being able to give birth in their own community or in a nearby community was necessary if their obstetric needs were to be met. Removing maternity care from a community creates significant psychosocial consequences that are imperfectly understood but that probably have physiological implications for women, babies, and families. Further research into rural women's maternity care that considers the loss of local maternity care from multiple perspectives is needed.
Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. JJN Noubiap, WYA Joko, JMN Obama, JJR Bigna ...
is hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified......The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument....... The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....
Anonymous,; Monyo, Emmanuel; Banziger, Marianne
Designed to address the issues that limit the access of small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa to quality, affordable seed of the crops on which they depend for food security and livelihoods, this collection of articles describes successful principles for and experiences in community-based seed production. Among other things, the manuscripts analyze current seed production systems and models; propose ways to design successful community-based seed production schemes; describe proper seed pr...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.
Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin
Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.
Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.
Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Acuña, Cecilia; Ríos, Paulina
Document and analyze Ecuador's experience using active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of information obtained on active community case-finding of pregnant and postpartum women in the catchment areas of 200 primary care facilities of Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. Visits were made to 460 451 homes in 20 provinces; 15 622 pregnant women and 4 014 postpartum women were identified. Of the pregnant women, 89% (13 875) had had at least one prenatal check-up, while 70% of postpartum women (4 014) had had at least one post-delivery or post-caesarean check-up. Potential risk was identified in 29% of pregnant women (4 601). Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces had the lowest percentages of pregnant women with at least one prenatal check-up and the lowest percentages of postpartum women with at least one postpartum checkup. A total of 3 951 brigades were formed at the national level for this activity. Active community case-finding was valuable in identifying pregnant and postpartum women who had not been captured by the health system, especially to detect their risk status, in addition to the advantages of participatory uptake, especially with support from universities with health majors. Low coverage for postpartum check-ups underscores the importance of learning why women do not receive this care. Similar experiences need to be systematized to improve the process.
Coleman, Rosalind; Morison, Linda; Paine, Katie; Powell, Richard A; Walraven, Gijs
Depression is the commonest mental illness in developing countries and impoverished women are most at risk. Formal mental health services in these situations are rare. Depression commonly co-presents with physical symptoms or else is unspectacular, so the condition often goes unrecognised. To strengthen the prevention and management of depression, information is required on easily recognisable correlates of depression. This study explored associations between depression and reproductive health conditions in rural African women of reproductive age. A community-based reproductive health survey among rural women aged 15-54 years in The Gambia, West Africa, included screening with a modified Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), a reproductive health questionnaire and a gynaecological examination. Depression was then assessed clinically and data for 565 women were used to estimate the prevalence of depression and examine associations with reproductive health conditions and demographic factors. The weighted prevalence of depression was 10.3% (95% CI 8.3-12.7). Being depressed was most significantly associated with widowhood or divorce (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 8.42, 2.77-25.57), infertility (3.69, 1.42-9.65) and severe menstrual pain (3.94, 1.52-10.27). There were significant differences between ethnic groups. Being in the postpartum period was not associated with an increased likelihood of depression. This study points to the importance of reproductive potential and reproductive health in maintaining women's mental well-being across different strata of a rural and resource-poor society. It could provide an initial focus for the management of women with depression as well as directing future research in reproductive health and psychiatry.
Rodriguez, Fátima; Wang, Yun; Naderi, Sahar; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M
Prior work has shown significant geographic variation in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. However, little is known about how variations in CV risk impact cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hospitalizations. Community-level CV risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated waist circumference) were assessed from community-wide health screenings sponsored by Sister to Sister (STS) from 2008 to 2009 in 17 major US cities. Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS), CVD hospitalizations were identified based on ICD-9 codes for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and stroke. We linked STS data with HCUP-NIS hospitalizations based on common cities and restricted the analysis to women discharged from hospitals inside the STS cities. Using hierarchical models with city as the random intercept, we assessed the impact of city-specific CV risk factors on between-city variance of AMI, CHF, and stroke. Analyses were also adjusted for patient age and clinical comorbidities. Our analysis yielded a total of 742,445 all-cause discharges across 70 hospitals inside of 13 linked cities. The overall city-specific range proportion of AMI, CHF, and stroke hospitalizations were 1.13 % (0.75-1.59 %), 2.57 % (1.44-3.92 %), and 1.24 % (0.66-1.84 %), respectively. After adjusting for city-specific CV risk factors, between-city variation was no longer statistically significant for all CVD conditions explored. In conclusion, we found that geographic variations in AMI, CHF, and stroke hospitalizations for women may be partially explained by community-level CV risk factors. This finding suggests that interventions to reduce CVD should be tailored to the unique risk profile and needs of high-risk communities.
Inoue, Asao B.
This article attempts to structure student assessment practices in the classroom. Informed by fourth generation evaluation, it discusses a pedagogy based on a recursive framework of writing, assessment, and reflection activities that move students toward productive praxis. Implemented over three semesters at a land grant university in the U.S.,…
Ssetaala, Ali; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nanvubya, Annet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim; Nielsen, Leslie; Kiwanuka, Noah; Seeley, Janet; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano
Women in fishing communities in Uganda are more at risk and have higher rates of HIV infection. Socio-cultural gender norms, limited access to health information and services, economic disempowerment, sexual abuse and their biological susceptibility make women more at risk of infection. There is need to design interventions that cater for women's vulnerability. We explore factors affecting recruitment and retention of women from fishing communities in HIV prevention research. An HIV incidence cohort screened 2074 volunteers (1057 men and 1017 women) aged 13-49 years from 5 fishing communities along Lake Victoria using demographic, medical history, risk behaviour assessment questionnaires.1000 HIV negative high risk volunteers were enrolled and followed every 6 months for 18 months. Factors associated with completion of study visits among women were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Women constituted 1,017(49%) of those screened, and 449(45%) of those enrolled with a median (IQR) age of 27 (22-33) years. Main reasons for non-enrolment were HIV infection (33.9%) and reported low risk behaviour (37.5%). A total of 382 (74%) women and 332 (69%) men completed all follow up visits. Older women (>24 yrs) and those unemployed, who had lived in the community for 5 years or more, were more likely to complete all study visits. Women had better retention rates than men at 18 months. Strategies for recruiting and retaining younger women and those who have stayed for less than 5 years need to be developed for improved retention of women in fishing communities in HIV prevention and research Programs.
Reynolds, William N.; Salter, William J.; Farber, Robert M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Beeman, William O.; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Choi, Joon Nak
"Sociolects" are specialized vocabularies used by social subgroups defined by common interests or origins. We applied methods to retrieve large quantities of Twitter data based on expert-identified sociolects and then applied and developed network-analysis methods to relate sociolect use to network (sub-) structure. We show that novel methods including consideration of node populations, as well as edge counts, provide substantially enhanced performance compared to standard assortativity. We explain these methods, show their utility in analyzing large corpora of social media data, and discuss their further extensions and potential applications.
Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Arthur, Michael W
In the past decade, prevention science has emerged as a discipline built on the integration of life course development research, community epidemiology, and preventive intervention trials [Am. Psychol. 48 (1993) 1013; Am. J. Community Psychol. 27 (1999) 463; Kellam, S. G., & Rebok, G. W. (1992). Building developmental and etiological theory through epidemiologically based preventive intervention trials. In J. McCord & R. E. Tremblay (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior: interventions from birth through adolescence (pp. 162-195). New York: Guilford Press.]. Prevention science is based on the premise that empirically verifiable precursors (risk and protective factors) predict the likelihood of undesired health outcomes including substance abuse and dependence. Prevention science postulates that negative health outcomes like alcohol abuse and dependence can be prevented by reducing or eliminating risk factors and enhancing protective factors in individuals and their environments during the course of development. A growing number of interventions have been found to be effective in preventing adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse, delinquency, violence, and related health risk behaviors by reducing risk and enhancing protection. During the same decade, comprehensive community-based interventions to prevent adolescent health and behavior problems have been widely implemented in the U.S. with federal and foundation support. Despite the advances in the science base for effective preventive interventions and the investments in community-wide preventive interventions, many communities continue to invest in prevention strategies with limited evidence of effectiveness [Am. J. Public Health 84 (1994) 1394; J. Res. Crime Delinq. 39 (2002) 3; J. Community Psychol. 28 (2000) 237; J. Community Psychol. 28 (2000) 237; J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 67 (1999) 590; Eval. Program Plann. 20 (1997) 367.]. Translating prevention science into community prevention systems has
Reese, Jackson L
The purpose of the researchers Masters of Military Arts and Science thesis is to explore the possibility of including women in the Marine Corps CI/HUMINT community without diminishing the overall unit...
Conclusion: Women who were older, had lower subjective UI severity, and who reported only stress or urgency UI tended to delay treatment longer; such patients should be targeted for health education and intervention regarding UI in urban communities.
Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Quiroz González, Byanca Nerea; Alfaro Godinez, Hugo César; May Can, Ana María
to compare the climacteric symptoms between women from Mexico City and those from a Mayan community of the state of Yucatan. In two groups of women, Group I) Spanish-speaking women from Mexico City and Group II) Maya speaking women from the state of Yucatan, 22 climacteric symptoms were evaluated using an analog visual scale (AVS) and the SUMEVA index. For statistical analysis t student test was used as well as Chi squared. 105 women, 50 of Mexico City and 55 of Maxcanu, Yucatan were studied. When comparing the groups no difference was found in age (52.5 +/- 6.5 vs 53.7 +/- 6.2, for group I and II respectively), the body mass index was significantly smaller in group I (29.7 +/- 5.0 vs 34.0 +/- 6.0, p culture influence can be the responsible.
Hamisu M. Salihu
Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.
Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wandelt, Sebastian
Real-world complex systems are often fragile under disruptions. Accordingly, research on network repair has been studied intensively. Recently proposed efficient strategies for network disruption, based on collective influence, call for more research on efficient network repair strategies. Existing strategies are often designed to repair networks with local information only. However, the absence of global information impedes the creation of efficient repairs. Motivated by this limitation, we propose a concept of community-level repair, which leverages the community structure of the network during the repair process. Moreover, we devise a general framework of network repair, with in total six instances. Evaluations on real-world and random networks show the effectiveness and efficiency of the community-level repair approaches, compared to local and random repairs. Our study contributes to a better understanding of repair processes, and reveals that exploitation of the community structure improves the repair process on a disrupted network significantly.
Miller, Michael T.; Creswell, John W.
Explores the beliefs and values of women in two-year college departmental chair positions. Finds that dominant beliefs are related to educational philosophies and program outcomes, while secondary beliefs and values are related to student-centered issues, suggesting that women in chair positions have a traditional view of themselves as internal…
The psychological trauma following the dawn of war devastates most women for the rest of their lives. This study examines the concept of peace among women in Ilaje and Ijaw kingdoms. Besides, it critically examines the relationship between peace and development. In-depth interviews were conducted among two ...
Entrenched socio-cultural stereotypes which tend to undermine women's ability to be leaders and managers cut across the social strata. The experience that informs this article is drawn from an African perspective. Discrimination and prejudice with respect to women's ability to lead and to manage is universal. Feminist ...
Introduction: Malaria infection caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of fever and anaemia in pregnant women resident in hyper endemic areas of. Africa. Basically, this is as a result of reduced immunity to malaria in pregnancy (Klufio, 1992), making the pregnant women prone to severe malaria attack and ...
Grays, Shaefny D.
Over the past few decades, higher education has attempted to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in STEM undergraduate degree programs. Living-learning communities represent one strategy to help address low persistence for women in undergraduate STEM majors. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of undergraduate…
Koch, Jody C.
This study examined the literacy events and practices of Hmong women achieving academic success at a community college. Three women participants were interviewed regarding their past and present literacy events and practices. In addition, each participant took photographs of their own literacy events for five weeks. The photographs provided…
Garcia, Dorothy Yumi
Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…
Bond, Lynne A.; Holmes, Tabitha R.; Byrne, Ciara; Babchuck, Lynne; Kirton-Robbins, Sheila
This research examines women's narratives regarding the experiences that lead to becoming, sustaining, and challenging active community leaders. Seventeen women neighborhood leaders, age 28 to 73 years, completed in-depth interviews. Qualitative thematic content analyses identified prominent themes in participants' responses that were subsequently…
Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.; Weston, Rebecca; Marshall, Linda L.
Possible mediators of sexual abuse severity were tested on the basis of D. Finkelhor and A. Browne's (1985) traumagenic dynamics model with 178 low-income African American, European American, and Mexican American community women interviewed for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women. This subsample reported contact sexual abuse before the age of 18…
Examines the construction of community on a women's ice hockey team, using data from fieldwork and interviews with one Canadian team. Results indicated that the locker room provided a space where players came together as hockey players and women. A common focus on hockey united the diverse group. (SM)
This paper explores the role played by women activists and educators in mobilising community education to support new opportunities for women's activism in the context of Myanmar's political transition. Recent political reorientations in Myanmar which have resulted in a civilian-led democracy
Osaki, Makoto; Tomita, Masato; Abe, Yasuyo; Ye, Zhaojia; Honda, Sumihisa; Yoshida, Shoji; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder. Relationships between knee OA and physical performance have been examined, but mainly in patients with knee OA. Clarifying the relationship between knee OA and physical performance among community-dwelling individuals is thus important. Subjects comprised 563 community-dwelling Japanese women. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence criteria grade 2 or higher. Painful knee OA was defined as radiographic OA combined with knee pain. We evaluated performance-based measures of physical functioning. Student's t tests were used to compare continuous variables. Adjusted means of performance-based measures were compared between groups using general linear modeling methods. Mean age was 64.3 years. Women with radiographic OA were older than those without OA (P women with radiographic OA than in women without OA (P women with radiographic OA displayed worse physical functioning than women without OA, with longer chair stand time, longer walking time, and shorter functional reach. Performance-based measurements with painful OA resembled those with radiographic OA. Age- and BMI-adjusted means of chair stand time and walking time were longer in women with radiographic or painful knee OA than in women without OA (P women with painful knee OA than for women with radiographic knee OA. Women with knee OA showed deteriorated performance of chair stand and walking. Painful knee OA was associated with poorer performance than radiographic knee OA.
The discovery of chemosynthesis-based communities in late 1970s was probably one of the biggest surprises in the marine biology of 20th century. There are three basic types of locations where such communities may develop: hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and vertebrate falls. Also sunken wood communities are partially chemosynthetically fueled. Reports of these unusual aggregation of benthic animals in the deep sea prompted a quest for their counterparts in the fossil record. Soon it has been revealed that a number of exotic carbonate rocks rich in fossils in otherwise siliciclastic deep water facies could easily be interpreted as a result of ancient cold seeps' activity. Later on also numerous hot vent, whale fall, and sunken wood associations have been described from the geological past. The earliest-known chemosynthesis-based association containing metazoan animals has been described from Silurian of Ural Mountains. This and the other Paleozoic chemosynthesis-based associations are dominated by worm tubes, mollusks (monoplacophorans, bivalves, and gastropods), and brachiopods. Nothing is known from the period encompassing Permian and Triassic and the Mesozoic record of chemosynthesis-based communities starts in Jurassic. The Lower Jurassic hydrothermal vent association from California consists of worm tubes, gastropods, and brachiopods which are not really comparable to their counterparts from Recent chemosynthesis-based communities. First associations composed of fossils recollecting animals from the Recent chemosynthesis-based communities appear in Late Jurassic. Oxfordian cold seep deposits from France are dominated by lucinid bivalves and similar deposits from Tithonian of Alexander Island in the Antarctic are known to contain lucinids and mass aggregations of hokkaidoconchids-extinct group of gastropods related to Recent Provannidae. Early Cretaceous is an epoch of rhynchonellide brachiopod Peregrinella which occurs worldwide abundantly at hydrocarbon seep
Sánchez Ares, Rocío
Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…
Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70-79 years. The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.30. This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p = 0.04. Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences.
Devereux, Kathryn; Robertson, Dianne; Briffa, N Kathryn
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a water-based exercise and self-management program on balance, fear of falling, and quality of life in community-dwelling women 65 years of age...
El-Bassel, Nabila; Marotta, Phillip L; Shaw, Stacey A; Chang, Mingway; Ma, Xin; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Hunt, Tim; Johnson, Karen; Goodwin, Sharun; Almonte, Maria; Gilbert, Louisa
Although the incidence of HIV among women on probation, parole and alternatives to incarceration programs is significant to public health, drivers of this concentrated epidemic among women under community corrections remain understudied. This study examined prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and the associations between substance use, socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of biologically-confirmed HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among a sample of 337 substance-using women recruited from community correction sites in New York City. Prevalence of HIV was 13% and sexually transmitted infections was 26% ( Chlamydia, trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea). After adjusting for covariates, HIV-positive women were 1.42 times more likely to use crack/cocaine than HIV-negative women (95% CI = 1.05-1.92). HIV-positive women were 25% less likely than HIV-negative women to report any unprotected vaginal and anal sex with their main partner (95% CI = 0.57-0.99). They were 70% less likely than HIV-negative women to report unprotected vaginal sex with a non-paying casual partner (95% CI = 0.1-0.9) and 22% less likely to report unprotected vaginal sex across all partners (95% CI = 0.61-0.99). Community corrections settings may be optimal venues to launch HIV/sexually transmitted infections prevention that have potential to reach and engage an ever-growing number of substance-using women.
Munaganuru, Nagambika; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Creasman, Jennifer; Subak, Leslee L; Strano-Paul, Lisa; Huang, Alison J
Urinary incontinence is associated with decreased female sexual function, but little is known about the prevalence, predictors, and impact of urine leakage during sexual activity among women in the community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of urine leakage during sex in ethnically diverse, community-dwelling midlife and older women. Urinary incontinence and sexual function were assessed by structured questionnaire in a multiethnic, community-based cohort of women enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system in California. All women were aged 40-80 years and sampled from 1 of 4 racial/ethnic groups (20% black, 20% Latina, 20% Asian, and 40% non-Latina white). Differences in frequency, bother, and fear of urine leakage during sexual activity were examined among women with monthly, weekly, and daily urinary incontinence and across different types of urinary incontinence (stress, urgency, mixed, and other type urinary incontinence), with the use of chi-square tests. Independent risk factors for urine leakage during sexual activity were identified through multivariable logistic regression. Of the 509 women who reported being sexually active and having at least monthly urinary incontinence, 127 of them (25%) reported experiencing any urine leakage during sex during the past 3 months. Nineteen percent of the women reported being subjectively bothered by leakage during sex, and 16% of them reported restricting sexual activity because of fear of leakage. Women with more frequent underlying urinary incontinence were more likely to report experiencing or being bothered by leakage during sex and restricting sexual activity because of fear of leakage (Pconfidence interval, 1.20-3.20), symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.98), mixed vs urgency type urinary incontinence (odds ratio, 3.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-5.88), stress vs urgency type
Ilika, Amobi Linus
Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence.
We propose a new method for detecting communities based on the concept of communicability between nodes in a complex network. This method, designated as N-ComBa K-means, uses a normalized version of the adjacency matrix to build the communicability matrix and then applies K-means clustering to find the communities in a graph. We analyze how this method performs for some pathological cases found in the analysis of the detection limit of communities and propose some possible solutions on the basis of the analysis of the ratio of local to global densities in graphs. We use four different quality criteria for detecting the best clustering and compare the new approach with the Girvan-Newman algorithm for the analysis of two "classical" networks: karate club and bottlenose dolphins. Finally, we analyze the more challenging case of homogeneous networks with community structure, for which the Girvan-Newman completely fails in detecting any clustering. The N-ComBa K-means approach performs very well in these situations and we applied it to detect the community structure in an international trade network of miscellaneous manufactures of metal having these characteristics. Some final remarks about the general philosophy of community detection are also discussed.
We propose a new method for detecting communities based on the concept of communicability between nodes in a complex network. This method, designated as N-ComBa K-means, uses a normalized version of the adjacency matrix to build the communicability matrix and then applies K-means clustering to find the communities in a graph. We analyze how this method performs for some pathological cases found in the analysis of the detection limit of communities and propose some possible solutions on the basis of the analysis of the ratio of local to global densities in graphs. We use four different quality criteria for detecting the best clustering and compare the new approach with the Girvan-Newman algorithm for the analysis of two "classical" networks: karate club and bottlenose dolphins. Finally, we analyze the more challenging case of homogeneous networks with community structure, for which the Girvan-Newman completely fails in detecting any clustering. The N-ComBa K-means approach performs very well in these situations and we applied it to detect the community structure in an international trade network of miscellaneous manufactures of metal having these characteristics. Some final remarks about the general philosophy of community detection are also discussed.
Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie
Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…
Individual v. community-level measures of women's decision-making involvement and child survival in Nigeria. ... in communities with medium DMI (HR 0.84, CI 0.74 - 0.96). Maternal age at child's birth, education, household wealth index and preceding birth interval were significantly associated with under-five mortality.
Participation in community based natural resource management programme and effects on welfare of rural families in Ikwerre, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... and seedlings, fertilizers and reduction in cost of inputs should be taken into cognizance and proper mainstreaming of target beneficiaries of the programme intervention.
Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving Environment and Health in the Banda Slums, Kampala (Uganda). Rapid urbanization is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. About 12 000 people live in Banda parish in eastern Kampala. The area is swampy and prone to episodes of cholera. Incidence ...
Interest in Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) developed as a result of a general despondency with State management of these resources. There is general agreement on the desirability of CNBRM. Numerous programmes and projects currently implemented as CBNRMs bear evidence to this.
ABSTRACT. The study was on participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management. Programme (CBNRMP) and its socio-economic effect on rural families in Ikwerre. Area, Rivers State Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 beneficiaries of the programme. Data collected were subjected to ...
Ecotourism practise is a sustainable management tool targeted at improving livelihood and wellbeing of ... techniques. INTRODUCTION. Community-based natural resource management has been defined as, ―a process by which landholders gain access and use rights to, or ... architects, developers, business people, and.
Describes the Community-Based Arts Project in central New York State, which offers a course through Cornell University that allows students to explore local history and family traditions through storytelling. The steps of story collecting and sharing are a circular transaction of reflecting, listening, telling, and reflecting with the audience,…
and volunteers. The intervention is being implemented in Ngwenya and Kauma. These are squatter settlements, located in the poorest areas in urban Lilongwe. The ESC action research intervention is informed by both participatory and community-based research approaches and involves the active participation of different.
Pun, Kunta Devi; Infanti, Jennifer J; Koju, Rajendra; Schei, Berit; Darj, Elisabeth
Globally, knowledge of health sector options to respond to domestic violence during pregnancy is increasing, but this topic is under-investigated in Nepal. This gap affects the provision of adequate antenatal care services and understanding of factors that influence women's willingness and ability to use available services. It is critical to know more about the social norms in a community that promote and prevent women experiencing domestic violence from seeking antenatal care. To explore community perceptions of domestic violence against pregnant women. A qualitative study was conducted in Dhulikhel municipality, involving 41 men and 76 women in 12 focus group discussions in different gender and family role separated groups. The interviews were recorded, transcribed in verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. A socio-ecological model was used as a theoretical framework to illustrate linkages between individual, relationship, community, and societal influences on perceptions of domestic violence during pregnancy. The community recognized different forms of violence during pregnancy threatening women's physical and psychological health and presenting obstacles to seeking antenatal care. Some types of culturally specific violence were considered particularly harmful, such as pressure to give birth to sons, denial of food, and forcing pregnant women to do hard physical work during pregnancy, which may leave daughters-in-law vulnerable to domestic violence in extended families. A culture where violence is normalized and endurance and family reconciliation are promoted above individual health was perceived to cause women to tolerate and accept the situation. Participants suggested actions and strategies to address continuing violence, which indicated a societal transition toward increased awareness and changing attitudes and practices. Domestic violence during pregnancy needs to be addressed at different levels in Nepal, where women are often dependent on others
Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh
Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle.
Orrell, Catherine; Zwane, Eugene; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin
Summary In a retrospective cohort analysis, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and mortality rates were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant women referred to a community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in South Africa. While there was no significant difference in adjusted mortality rates between the two groups, the pregnant women had a substantially higher risk of LTFU both pre and on-treatment. This finding highlights the need for programmatic interventions to address retention in care for this patient population. PMID:18670232
Folta Sara C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership is critical to making changes at multiple levels of the social ecological model, including the environmental and policy levels, and will therefore likely contribute to solutions to the obesity epidemic and other public health issues. The literature describing the relative leadership styles and strengths of women versus men is mixed and virtually all research comes from sectors outside of public health. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify specific leadership skills and characteristics in women who have successfully created change predominantly within the food and physical activity environments in their communities and beyond. The second purpose of this study is to understand best practices for training and nurturing women leaders, to maximize their effectiveness in creating social change. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 16 women leaders in the public health sector from November 2008 through February 2010. The sample represented a broad spectrum of leaders from across the United States, identified through web searches and through networks of academic and professional colleagues. Most were working on improving the food and physical activity environments within their communities. Questions were designed to determine leaders’ career path, motivation, characteristics, definition of success, and challenges. The initial coding framework was based on the questioning structure. Using a grounded theory approach, additional themes were added to the framework as they emerged. The NVivo program was used to help code the data. Results Respondents possessed a vision, a strong drive to carry it out, and an ability to mobilize others around the vision. Their definitions of success most often included changing the lives of others in a sustainable way. Persistence and communications skills were important to their success. The mentoring they received was critical. Challenges included fundraising
Maxwell, Annette E; Young, Sandra; Rabelo Vega, Roena; Cayetano, Reggie T; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan
Mixtecs and Zapotecs are indigenous populations from Mexico. Many are unable to read and write, and speak only their native nonwritten languages, Mixteco and Zapoteco. About one-half of California's indigenous farm worker population is estimated to be Mixteco-speaking (82,000-125,000), and about 20,000 Mixtecs and a smaller number of Zapotecs live in Ventura County. A community-academic partnership conducted mixed-methods research with the aims of 1) collecting preliminary data on women's health needs, 2) training promotoras to assist with this effort, and 3) engaging community members and obtaining their input through community dialogues. Promotoras who were bilingual in Spanish and either Mixteco or Zapoteco were trained to conduct surveys that included questions on breast feeding and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening examinations. Barriers to and facilitators of women obtaining these cancer screening tests were discussed in small groups. In 2013, 813 Mixtec and Zapotec women completed surveys. Although most women reported breast feeding (94%), and receipt of a pelvic examination (85%) and a breast examination (72%), only 44% of women 40 years and older had ever heard of and 33% had ever had a mammogram. Community members recommended offering free mammograms on the weekend by female providers, having women accompanied by promotoras who can translate, conducting door-to-door outreach, advertising cancer screening on the radio and providing small incentives to women. Trained bilingual promotoras can assist in increasing the capacity of indigenous communities to conduct collaborative research by engaging community members and collecting local data. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Somayaji, Ganesha; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh
This paper is a qualitative study of women's well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women's experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women's reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women's well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community.
Kofi D. Benefo
Full Text Available Using survey and census data for rural Ghana collected in the 1980s, this study examines the ability of women's education to increase interest in fertility regulation and contraception among all women, regardless of their individual and household features. The study finds that, net of her own characteristics, a woman's interest in limiting fertility and using modern contraception increase with the percent of educated women in her community. These results suggest that female education has a greater capacity to introduce novel reproductive ideas and behaviors into rural areas of Africa and thereby transform the demographic landscape in the region than is currently believed. There is also evidence that female education may undermine existing methods of regulating fertility. Other community characteristics that increase women's interest in regulating fertility and contraceptive use in this setting include access to transportation and proximity to urban areas. However, these are not as powerful as women's education in transforming reproductive behavior.
Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L
A community-based participatory research project using social marketing strategies was implemented to promote physical activity among women aged 35 to 54 who were insufficiently active or completely inactive. A variety of media were used to disseminate messages about how to enroll in Step Up. Step Out! This article describes the effectiveness and cost of the recruitment strategies and lessons learned in recruiting the women. Of the total inquiries (n = 691), 430 women were eligible and enrolled in the program. Based on data from questionnaires, the most effective method of recruiting women into Step Up. Step Out! was word of mouth (36%). Newspaper ads accounted for 29% of the women's responses. The least effective method was billboards. Mass media was not as effective in recruiting women for the program as interpersonal efforts such as word of mouth. Interpersonal efforts are a valuable and possibly underrated recruitment and promotion tool.
Lavender, Abraham D.
It is concluded from this data that the American Jewish community deprives itself of many needed talents to the extent that it does not encourage participation in its leadership positions of all individuals, regardless of sex. (Author/AM)
Muzigaba, Moise; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Wong, Fiona
Facility-based and context-specific interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among pregnant women from economically underprivileged communities remain sparse and undocumented in South Africa. This study aimed to generate information about pregnant women's views and experiences of PA during pregnancy, which will later be used to inform the development of a PA-based intervention targeting this group. Qualitative methods were used and framed on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Five focus group discussions were conducted at a Community Health Centre in Cape Town, each comprising a stratified random sample of between 8 and 6 pregnant women living in eight low socioeconomic status communities close to the facility. The participants included primi- and multigravida black and mixed racial ancestry women at different stages of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using a Framework approach. PA was considered important for self and the baby for most participants. However, they reported a number of barriers for translating intentions into action including the lack of supportive environment, fear of hurting oneself and the growing baby, lack of time due to work and family responsibilities, and not knowing which and how much PA is safe to do. Some of the incentives to engage in PA included establishing community-based group exercise clubs, initiating antenatal PA education and PA sessions during antenatal visits. Based on our findings the need for an intervention to promote PA in pregnancy is evident. Such an intervention should, however, aim at addressing barriers reported in this study, particularly those related to the behavioral context.
Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Begum, Shahina; Prakasam, C P
Prevalence of violence by husband against wife is an indicator of women's status at household level. The objective of the study is to understand the relationship between domestic violence and women's empowerment in a slum community in Mumbai, India. Data were collected from a sample of 1,136 married women aged 18 to 39 years having at least one child and reporting of unmet need for family planning. Domestic violence by husband against wife was measured in terms of either physical, sexual, or emotional violence. Three logit regression analyses were carried out using decision-making power, freedom of movement, and justified wife beating as dependent variables separately and socio-demographic and economic variables as independent variables. Furthermore, the relationship between domestic violence and women's decision-making power, freedom of movement, and justified wife-beating index has been explored. About 21% of women had ever experienced violence, and 38% of women had decision-making power with respect to own health care, household purchase, or visiting family and relatives. A little more than one fifth of the women reported freedom of movement to market, health facilities, or places outside the community. Women who justified wife beating were 2.29 (95% CI [1.59, 3.29]) times at risk of experiencing violence than women who disagreed with the wife-beating statements. Women not empowered in decision making were 1.15 (95% CI [0.91, 1.46]) times at risk of experiencing domestic violence than women who were empowered in decision making. Women who are empowered are less likely to be at risk of domestic violence. Programs aimed at empowering women must address socio-cultural norms relating to justification of violence in marriage. © The Author(s) 2015.
Beutel, Manfred E; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Brähler, Elmar
To present data on sexual desire and sexual activity from a representative survey of men and women covering the total age range of the adult German population, as previous studies have usually been based on samples selected for gender (either men or women) and age (ageing populations). A representative sample of 2341 men and women aged 18-93 years were surveyed to determine frequency and intensity of sexual desire and sexual activity, and their social, individual and interpersonal characteristics. Sexual desire declined with advancing age; overall, men reported more frequent and stronger sexual desire than women. However, there were important interactions between gender and age indicating an earlier decline among women. For both men and women, sexual activity in older participants was mostly an issue of the presence of a partnership. There were additional social and personality determinants of a lack of sexual desire and sexual inactivity: in men, sexual desire was compromised by social factors (unemployment, low income), while in women these were previous sexual traumas (childhood sexual abuse, rape). Community surveys elucidate the trajectory of sexual desire and activity across the lifespan. Further research on the determinants and risk factors for a lack of sexual desire and sexual inactivity is recommendable taking gender and age composition of the samples into account.
Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been described as an increase in the number of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria relative to lactobacilli in the vaginal tract. Several undesirable consequences of this community shift can include irritation, white discharge, an elevated pH, and increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections. While the etiology of the condition remains ill defined, BV has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. In order to describe the structure of vaginal communities over time we determined the phylogenetic composition of vaginal communities from seven women sampled at multiple points using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that women with no evidence of BV had communities dominated by lactobacilli that appeared stable over our sampling periods while those with BV had greater diversity and decreased stability overtime. In addition, only Lactobacillus iners was found in BV positive communities.
Women aspiring to be principals and superintendents in the U.S. public school system have little information concerning optimum career paths to leadership. This article considers recent research and theory regarding career planning in the context of K-12 schools, and the different approaches adopted by male and female aspirants. The choice of…
not only of her situation and destiny, but also of the opportunities hitherto denied her, for self-fulfillment. In this regards, this paper examines Zaynab Alkali's portrayal of women as vibrant crusaders in bringing about tangible developments in their immediate environments. With insights into the development of female ...
These included: (1) Women's requirements for information; (1a) nutritional and dietary advice, (1b) how to recognise developing complications, (1c) appropriate fetal development, (1e) importance of ... Policy changes are driven by initiatives that reinforce strengths of current specification and recognise weaknesses.
operators was not too hygienic, we can look for a better way of doing it that to stop it an create problems for our daughters before and after marriage. I think the practice must not be stopped in order to have cultured daughters, wives and mothers. Socio-cultural Dimensions & Attitude of Women... towards Continuation of ...
Uthman, Olalekan A; Lawoko, Stephen; Moradi, Tahereh
Establishing risk factors for intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is crucial for addressing women's health and development. Acceptance of IPVAW has been suggested as one of the strongest predictors of IPVAWs. The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of individual, community, and societal measures of gender inequality in forming women's attitudes toward IPVAW. We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis to Demographic and Health Survey data for 120,467 women nested within 7463 communities from 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We found that women whose husband had higher education (odds ratio [OR] =1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.10) and women whose husband had more than one wife (OR=1.14; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.19) were more likely to accept IPVAW than other women. Unemployed women with an unemployed partner were more likely to justify IPVAW than employed women with working partners (OR=1.32; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.61). Both community and societal measures of gender inequality were associated with women's attitudes toward IPVAW, even after controlling for gender inequality at the individual level. There was evidence of clustering of women's attitudes within communities and within countries. We provide evidence that community and societal forms of gender inequality influence women's attitudes toward IPVAW beyond individual factors. Choices women make are important, but community and society also impose restraints on women's attitudes toward IPVAW. Thus, policies and programs aimed at reducing or eliminating IPVAW must address people, the communities and societies in which they live in order to be successful.
Freund, Anat; Cohen, Miri; Azaiza, Faisal
Studies have shown a lower adherence to health behaviors among women in cultural-ethnic minorities and faith-based communities, especially lower screening attendance for the early detection of breast cancer. This study compares factors related to cancer screening adherence in two distinct cultural-ethnic minorities in Israel: Arab women as a cultural-ethnic minority and Jewish ultra-Orthodox women as a cultural-ethnic faith-based minority. During the year 2014, a total of 398 Jewish ultra-Orthodox women and 401 Arab women between the ages of 40-60, were randomly selected using population-based registries. These women answered questionnaires regarding adherence to mammography and clinical breast examination (CBE), health beliefs and cultural barriers. Arab women adhered more than ultra-Orthodox women to mammography (p faith-based communities. In order to increase adherence, health care professionals and policymakers should direct their attention to the specific nature of each community.
Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140
You, Sungeun; Park, Moran
Suicide prevention efforts in reducing risk factors have been found to be more beneficial to older women than men, suggesting potential gender differences in effective prevention. The study aimed to examine gender difference in resilience for suicidal behavior in a community sample of older adults in Korea. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate resilience and risk factors of suicidal behavior using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as questions regarding physical illness and depression history. After accounting for well-known risk factors, resilience was inversely associated with suicidal behavior, but this protective role of resilience was applicable to men only. The findings of this study indicated gender difference in resilience against suicidal behavior in the elderly population. Gender-specific preventive intervention strategies need to be developed for community-based suicide prevention for older adults.
Bingham, Brittany; Leo, Diane; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate
In Canada, Indigenous women are over-represented among new HIV infections and street-based sex workers. Scholars suggest that Aboriginal women's HIV risk stems from intergenerational effects of colonisation and racial policies. This research examined generational sex work involvement among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women and the effect on risk for HIV acquisition. The sample included 225 women in street-based sex work and enrolled in a community-based prospective cohort, in partnership with local sex work and Aboriginal community partners. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression modeled an independent relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and generational sex work and the impact of generational sex work on HIV infection among Aboriginal sex workers. Aboriginal women (48%) were more likely to be HIV-positive, with 34% living with HIV compared to 24% non-Aboriginal women. In multivariate logistic regression model, Aboriginal women remained three times more likely to experience generational sex work (AOR:2.97; 95%CI:1.5,5.8). Generational sex work was significantly associated with HIV (AOR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.67-4.58) in a confounder model restricted to Aboriginal women. High prevalence of generational sex work among Aboriginal women and three-fold increased risk for HIV infection are concerning. Policy reforms and community-based, culturally safe and trauma informed HIV-prevention initiatives are required for Indigenous sex workers.
Velázquez, Tesania; Fernández, Adriana
This article is the result of a participatory diagnosis about social violence and violence against women carried out with both female and male inhabitants of San Pablo Mirador (SPM), an urban neighborhood located in the upper area of Manchay, Lima. It was requested by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Ruwasunchis, and was carried out by a group of faculties and students of the Master Program in Community Psychology at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. This article reports the conceptions and the dynamics of social violence in SPM, specifically violence against women, and the resources used by its members in order to address this violence in the community.
Drayton-Brooks, Shirlee; White, Neva
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to document health perceptions, beliefs and attitudes, intentions and social pressures that influence health promoting behaviors as expressed by community level aggregates of African American women with faith support. Twenty-six African American women from two large urban congregations with an active health ministry program participated in this study. Focus group interviews guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980 & 1991) were used to identify salient health perceptions, beliefs and attitudes, intentions, and social pressures influencing health-promoting behaviors in African American women with faith-based support. Positive health perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs were identified as important to engaging in a healthy lifestyle. Exercise, well balanced diets, weight reduction and stress management were the most salient health concerns among the respondents. Key referents identified included the pastor, congregational nurses, physicians, and church/family members. Control beliefs among these women reflected salient spiritual and fatalistic beliefs concerning health-promoting behaviors. Trusting relationships, open communication, safe, comfortable, and familiar environments were identified as important considerations when planning health promotion interventions for an African American faith community. Health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are not developed outside of social systems, therefore, the facilitation of healthy lifestyle behaviors may be best assessed and influenced within a context of reciprocal social interaction such as in a faith-based community. In the context of a community level aggregate with faith-based support, behaviors to promote a healthy lifestyle may be positively influenced.
Zheng, Jin; Li, Ji; Song, Lin-Yi; Ni, Shuang; Chen, Ying-Chao; Huang, Shan-di
As perimenopausal syndrome is a particularly disturbing condition to the patient, it is practical and necessary to establish a program of comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for women with perimenopausal syndrome. To observe the therapeutic effects of a comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for women with perimenopausal syndrome in the community. Women with perimenopausal syndrome who met the inclusion criteria in 3 communities of Shanghai were selected for this study. Comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy, including administration of Chinese herbs, auricular point therapy, psychological counseling and the practice of Tai Chi, was applied for these women. The modified Kupperman index was measured once every 4 weeks for 12 weeks; the indexes of menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire were measured before and after the treatment. There was no significant difference in 4 groups of negative conversion ratio of the modified Kupperman index at the 4th, 8th and 12th week, respectively. The indexes of the MENQOL questionnaire showed significant differences in 4 groups before and after the treatment. The overall efficacy rate of the comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy in women with perimenopausal syndrome achieved 97.84% at the 8th and the 12th week. The comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy can achieve significant improvements in women with perimenopausal syndrome who exhibit both physical and psychological symptoms. With such significant clinical effects, the comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy should be promoted in the community.
Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.
Wollersheim, Dennis; Koh, Lee; Walker, Rae; Liamputtong, Pranee
Refugee women have poor psychosocial health as a result of past trauma and difficulties associated with settlement. This study was a pilot to find out how to use mobile phone-based peer support to improve the psychosocial health of, and facilitate settlement in a group of nine Nuer refugee women in Melbourne, Australia. Nine participants recruited by a community leader received peer support training over two five-week periods. They were further provided with mobile phone recharge vouchers to call one another to practice peer support techniques. The fifth and final sessions were focus groups to evaluate the intervention. Notes from the focus groups were thematically analysed. The women reported greater confidence and empowerment as they received more support, had better connections within the group and better access to information. Relationships with friends, family and the community became richer as they adopted and experienced more functional communication patterns. Using mobile phones for peer support helped to re-create community by bridging the geographical distance that separates refugee women. It allowed the women, from similar backgrounds and with similar experiences, to provide mutual support and exchange information through a verbal channel, the form of communication they are most comfortable with. The program demonstrates the positive psychosocial effect of peer support in a refugee community, and provides a viable model for using mobile phones in health promotion interventions. The successful outcomes, as perceived by the participants, are indicative of the potential of using technology to bridge health inequities in a marginalised group.
Ketchen, Bethany; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah
Black women in South Africa are vulnerable with limited power in intimate relationships. This study explored whether stressful life events and/or HIV infection were associated with relationship power and whether the impact was moderated by community resources. One hundred four women living with HIV and 152 women not living with HIV participated in individual interviews. Undesirable life changes were negatively associated with relationship control. HIV infection and women's knowledge of community resources were associated with mutual decision-making, while frequency of family use of community resources was negatively related to female dominated decisions. Women living with HIV perceived their male partners as less dominant when they perceived their community resources to be more helpful. Power in intimate relationships may enhance the quality and length of life for black South African women living with HIV. Knowledge of and perceived helpfulness of community resources are avenues for promoting relationship power.
Luis, Keridwen N
Why is thinness so important among women who have largely rejected mainstream definitions of femininity? The idea of health has great cultural power and has come to symbolize not simply bodily but also spiritual, social, and moral well-being. These ideas permeate U.S. culture, and in women's land communities, the virtue of hunger and the morality of health take on differently inflected but no less potent meanings. Ironically, in a context where women reject many gender restrictions--restrictions increasingly, as Sandra Bartky notes, focused on the female body-the importance of the thin (and thus properly feminine) body persists through the symbolism of health and virtue.
Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included
Roos, Vera; Kolobe, Patricia Stockie; Keating, Norah
This article explores sense of community with a group of older African women, who were forcibly relocated during apartheid. The situation of a marginalised group, with a history of disconnection from younger generations and from place, provides an opportunity to consider the relevance of community in later life. The research was conducted at a day centre for older people in the North West Province of South Africa, more than 50 years after forced relocations took place. Eleven older women (70 years and older) participated. Qualitative data were obtained through visual research methods and group discussions and were thematically analysed. Findings were that place and sense of belonging as well as elements of community were relevant. Participants reported limited connections to place in either childhood or current communities. Post relocation, a sense of belonging was expressed only in relation to a shared-interest community of peers that addressed their needs for safety, emotional support and instrumental care. Also, generational relations were strained, giving rise to a sense of loss of a community where both young and old were responsible for each other. Constrained resource communities have a profound impact on opportunities to create a sense of belonging. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Howren, M Bryant; Suls, Jerry; Martin, René
To examine the roles of depressive symptomatology and neuroticism/negative affect (N/NA) on common physical symptom reporting in a sample of community residents. Community-residing women (n = 108) participated in a combined concurrent-retrospective design. Physical symptoms were assessed concurrently over 21 consecutive days followed by a retrospective assessment of the collective symptom experience for the same time period. Based on evidence of differences in cognitive processing of emotion-relevant material, we predicted and found that depressive symptomatology (at baseline) was a stronger predictor of inflated physical symptom recall than N/NA. Depressive symptomatology was also a stronger, independent predictor of concurrent physical symptoms. Notably, these results were obtained even when physical depressive symptoms in both the physical symptom checklist and the baseline depression assessment were eliminated. The results suggest that the classic symptom perception hypothesis should be refined and operationalized in terms of depressive symptomatology rather than N/NA. This study demonstrates how cognitive-affective processing differences associated with depressive symptomatology can shed additional light on the psychology of symptom perception. Implications for treatment seeking, medical diagnoses, and treatment decisions are discussed.
Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.
Núñez, Ana E; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Weingartner, Rose Malinowski; Bungy, Barbara L
Despite a century of work toward gender equality, sex and gender disparities in health remain. Morbidity and mortality rates as well as quality of care received differ between men and women. The Philadelphia Ujima Coalition for a Healthier Community is composed of 23 academic, social service, wellness, faith-based, governmental, and healthcare organizations. The coalition, funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health, used a community participatory framework to conduct a gender-informed needs assessment of priority areas for women's health. A four-tiered approach was used: 1) Coalition members identified priority areas; 2) we analyzed data from the Southeastern Pennsylvania 2010 Household Health Survey to identify gender differences in health; 3) using a gender analysis framework, we conducted interviews with "key informant" stakeholders; and 4) we conducted a community health assessment including 160 women. We used a participatory process to rank priority areas. Sex and gender disparities in health outcomes and behaviors were observed. Data were used to identify gender barriers and norms that influence health practices and behaviors, defining priority areas for the health of women and girls. Effective health promotion strategies were also identified. A gender-integrated needs assessment of girls and women can reveal priority areas and gender-related objectives that should be included in health promotion programming for girls and women. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fallin-Bennett, Amanda; Parker, Kimberly A; Miller, Alana; Ashford, Kristin; Hahn, Ellen J
The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe the role of smoking in the lives of women in residential SUD treatment; (2) explore perceptions of the facilitators and barriers to tobacco-free policy among women in residential SUD treatment. This was a community engaged study using qualitative descriptive methods. We first recruited women in a residential SUD treatment facility to participate on a community research team. Interviews with staff (N=10) and focus groups with clients (N=42) were conducted using guides informed by the community research team. Interviews and focus groups were analyzed using content analysis. There were two themes related to the role of smoking in the women's lives: (1) smoking facilitates socialization; and (2) smoking as a coping mechanism. There were three themes related to the benefits of tobacco-free policy: (1) improved health; (2) support for continued abstinence from a previous tobacco-free placement (e.g, prison); and (3) less grounds up-keep. Barriers to tobacco-free policy included: (1) lack of an alternative coping mechanism to smoking; (2) fear that a tobacco-free policy would drive clients away; and (3) anticipation of implementation challenges. Many women in residential SUD treatment smoke, which they attribute to the fact that smoking is used to facilitate socialization and cope with stress. Future research is needed to develop and test messages to counter the misperception that smoking is an effective method to cope with stress. Ultimately, evidence based tobacco-free policies are needed to reduce tobacco-related disease among women with SUDs. To promote smoking cessation among women with substance use disorders through evidence based tobacco policy, it is necessary to first understand the role of smoking in their lives as well as facilitators and barriers to tobacco-free policy in residential treatment facilities. Participants reported that smoking facilitated socialization and served as a coping mechanism. Tobacco
Genna, Shimeles; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane
The important role of active Community Based Reproductive Health Services (CBRHS), formerly known us Community Based Distribution (CBD) of family planning program, in increasing contraceptive uptake has been reported from several studies. However, the sustainability of project based services has not been documented in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of community based Family planning services in rural communities of Ethiopia. The study was carried out in three sets of 30 peasant villages selected from five districts of Eastern Showa Zone in Ethiopia. Comparison was made between never former; and current CBRHS areas. Relevant information was collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The respondents were women in the reproductive age groups (15-49 years). Knowledge about contraception was higher in both former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 6.89 (4.69, 10.17) and 12.48 (7.84, 20.25)], respectively. Ever use of modern contraception was significantly greater among women from former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS communities [MH-OR (95% CI) = 3.75 (2.54, 5.97) and 5.72 (3.93, 9.39), respectively]. Current use of modern contraception methods was however significantly better only in current CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 2.42; (1.16, 5.37)]; there was no statistically significant difference with former CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 1.13; (0.51, 2.49)]. Results of this study indicate that the effect of CBRHS in raising the level of modern contraception use in rural communities is transient. In order to sustain the effects of a good community based family planning services appropriate mechanisms must be designed to motivate and enable women to continuously utilize the services.
Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas
Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns...
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.
Pahwa, Avita K; Andy, Uduak U; Newman, Diane K; Stambakio, Hanna; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Arya, Lily A
We determined the association of urinary symptoms with fall risk and physical limitations in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence. We performed an in-depth assessment of daytime and nighttime urinary symptoms, fall risk, physical function, physical performance tests and mental function in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence who had not sought care for urinary symptoms. All assessments were performed in participant homes. We used univariable and multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship of urinary symptoms to fall risk, physical function and physical performance. Of 37 women with a mean ± SD age of 74 ± 8.4 years who had urinary incontinence 48% were at high risk for falls. Nocturnal enuresis was reported by 50% of the women. Increased fall risk was associated with increasing frequency of nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.04), worse lower limb function (p enuresis had significantly lower physical performance test scores than women without nocturnal enuresis (median 7, range 0 to 11 vs 9, range 1 to 12, p = 0.04). In a multivariable regression model including age, nocturnal enuresis episodes and physical function only physical function was associated with an increased fall risk (p enuresis is common in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence. It may serve as a marker of fall risk even in women who do not seek care for urinary symptoms. Interventions targeting upper and lower body physical function could potentially decrease the risk of falls in older women with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Majdi Mohammed Sabahelzain
Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended or unplanned pregnancy has been a distressing reality among females in the reproductive age group particularly in developing countries. The repercussions of such events range from illegal abortions to various health related problems associated with pregnancy in mothers. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community in Khartoum state, to determine the associated factors of unintended pregnancy and to verify the reasons behind unintended pregnancy as perceived by the married women in the area. Methodology: It was a community?based; cross sectional study conducted in Riyadh and Alshekh Elfadni areas in Khartoum state. The sample size was calculated as 341. The study population were married women of reproductive age (15?49 years, selected by multistage stratified sampling. Data was collected by a pre?tested questionnaire and analysed by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to test the association between the dependent and independent variables. Level of significance was determined at 95% (P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Prevalence of unintended pregnancy was high at 30.2% among the study sample. Significant association (95% CI, p<0.05 was seen between unintended pregnancy and education, household size, parity and use of modern contraceptives methods Conclusion: This study concluded that the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in rural and urban communities in Khartoum state is high. The unintended pregnancy increases as the level of education increases. Women with big household size and high parity are more likely to have experienced unintended pregnancy. The most important reason behind unintended pregnancy is less spacing between one pregnancy and the other.
While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a community-based antiretroviral clinic in South Africa. FC Fitzgerald, LG Bekker, R Kaplan, L Myer, SD Lawn, R Wood. Abstract. Objective. To examine the uptake of ART among pregnant women referred to an ART service and the associated rates and risk factors for vertical HIV ...
Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin
In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…
Pablo A. Domene
Conclusion: The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.
Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Williams, Karen Patricia
The few existing economic evaluations of community-based health promotion interventions were reported retrospectively at the end of the trial. We report an evaluation of the costs of the Kin Keeper(superscript SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, a female family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied to increase breast and…
Dworkin, Shari L; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth
Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women's HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women's land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24-30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women's HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women's access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women's property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention.
Sheikhattari, Payam; Apata, Jummai; Kamangar, Farin; Schutzman, Christine; O'Keefe, Anne; Buccheri, Jane; Wagner, Fernando A
Tobacco use remains a major public health problem in the U.S. disproportionately affecting underserved communities. The Communities Engaged and Advocating for a Smoke-free Environment (CEASE) initiative is an intervention to address the problem using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. This study compares quit rates in a peer-led community-based intervention with those achieved in a clinical setting. The intervention consisted of three Phases. Phase I (n = 404) was a clinic-based trial comparing two types of counseling. Phase II (n = 398) and Phase III (n = 163) interventions were conducted in community venues by trained Peer Motivators. Quit rates at 12-week follow-up increased from 9.4 % in Phase I (clinic-based) to an average of 23.7 % in Phases II and III combined (community-based). The main predictor of smoking cessation was delivery of services in community settings (OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.7-4.2) while controlling for possible confounders. A community-based approach can significantly guide and improve effectiveness and acceptability of smoking cessation services designed for low-income urban populations. In addition, CBPR can result in better recruitment and retention of the participants.
Yin, Zhangcai; Wu, Yang; Jin, Zhanghaonan; Zhang, Xu
Community is the basic unit of the city. Research on livable community could provide a bottom-up research path for the realization of livable city. Livability is the total factor affecting the quality of community life. In this paper, livable community evaluation indexes are evaluated based on GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Then the sum-index and sub-index of community livability are both calculated. And community livable evaluation index system is constructed based on the platform of GIS. This study provides theoretical support for the construction and management of livable communities, so as to guide the development and optimization of city.
This paper explores how global aid agendas impact NGO responsibility for Violence Against Women (VAW) community education programmes. VAW is a critical issue in the Pacific region. A reconfiguration of the NGO sector is taking place whereby larger NGOs receive more resources than smaller, more diverse NGOs. This paper examines a regional-national…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Kenney, Cynthia A.
Title IX was enacted over 40 years ago, and although there have been marked increases in the number of girls and women participating in athletics at every level, gender equity in athletics continues to be a concern. This is especially evident at the community college level. Title IX requires equity in the areas of opportunities for participation,…
Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy. Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River ...
Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa
Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…
Visser, Els; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Dekker, Janny H.
Introduction. Knowledge on the sexual health of patients with urinary incontinence in primary care is scarce; therefore, the impact of urinary incontinence on sexual functioning was examined in community-dwelling older women. Aim. The aim of this study was to provide primary health care
Odebode, S. O.; Oladeji, J. O.
Interviews with 120 rural Nigerian women found that 96% participate in self-help community development projects and 68% were engaged in farming. Constrains on participation included domestic responsibilities, lack of funding and resources, male domination, and politics. There was a significant relationship between their sociocultural beliefs and…
Galambos, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sherri Lind
Examined the effects of socialization and participation in community activism on female social work students' development of skills in leadership, influence, power use, and collaboration. Surveys and focus groups indicated that women had few opportunities to develop leadership skills until college and were uncomfortable with their power and…
This article explores how leadership and gender are constructed by women principals of schools located in communities of multiple deprivation in two provinces of South Africa. Analysis of interview data uncovers a hierarchy of goals related to establishing a school, recruiting and retaining learners, ensuring they are ready to learn, developing…
Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M.; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the
Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori
Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals' skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the potential of social norm change
Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Methods: Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. Results: SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals’ skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. Discussion: This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research
... SECURITY Directorate for Management; DHS Diversity Forum: Building a Community for Women in the Federal... Human Capital Officer will host a DHS Diversity Forum: ``Building a Community for Women in the Federal... 20005 in the Elizabeth A. Kasser Board Room. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions...
Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele
Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…
Elsasser, Nan; And Others
The life stories of 21 Hispanic women of New Mexico spanning roughly four generations, are recorded in this book. Four sections ("But I Remember,""The Soul of the Home,""Little by Little," and "A Lighted Fire") develop these central themes: the shift from a rural to an urban environment; the struggle to…
Jaffe, Peter G; Berman, Helene; MacQuarrie, Barb
The importance of Canadian research on violence against women became a national focus after the 1989 murder of 14 women at École Polytechnique in Montreal. This tragedy led to several federal government studies that identified a need to develop centers for applied research and community-university alliances on violence against women. One such center is the Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women and Children. The Centre was founded in London, Canada in 1992 out of a partnership of a university, a community college, and community services. The centre's history and current activities are summarized as a model for the development and sustainability of similar centers.
Murphy, John W
Using the Las Mercedes Project as an example, the aim of this article is to discuss the philosophy and practice of community-based projects. At the core of such projects is a shift in understanding the nature of community. A community, in this case, represents a reality that persons construct that determines the character of rules, norms, and the focus and style of interventions. Additionally, community-based organizations, such as the Las Mercedes Project, are fully participatory, decentered, and carry the imprint of a community's members. Community-based projects, in this regard, improve the likelihood of creating successful interventions.
Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (-18.5±6.6 kg vs -19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS.
Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen
Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.
SIPTF) and the Bodija Market Area Community Development Association, succeeded in sinking a water bore-hole in the market to ease the water problem in the market. It needs to be noted that the SIP is not a government project; it is not a United.
show-cases of the transformation of the rural economy through the creation of a class of progressive smallholder ... while in turn the host community benefits from an enhanced capacity to carry out a diversity of ... and Machinga and tea estate owners in Mulanje and Thyolo would be willing to sell the whole or a portion of ...
Batchelder, A W; Gonzalez, J S; Palma, A; Schoenbaum, E; Lounsbury, D W
Syndemic risk is an ecological construct, defined by co-occurring interdependent socio-environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants. We posited syndemic risk to be a function of violence, substance use, perceived financial hardship, emotional distress and self-worth among women with and at-risk for HIV in an impoverished urban community. In order to better understand these interrelationships, we developed and validated a system dynamics (SD) model based upon peer-reviewed literature; secondary data analyses of a cohort dataset including women living with and at-risk of HIV in Bronx, NY (N = 620); and input from a Bronx-based community advisory board. Simulated model output revealed divergent levels and patterns of syndemic risk over time across different sample profiles. Outputs generated new insights about how to effectively explore multicomponent multi-level programs in order to strategically develop more effective services for this population. Specifically, the model indicated that effective multi-level interventions might bolster women's resilience by increasing self-worth, which may result in decreased perceived financial hardship and risk of violence. Overall, our stakeholder-informed model depicts how self-worth may be a major driver of vulnerability and a meaningful addition to syndemic theory affecting this population.
Scali, Jacqueline; Ryan, Joanne; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure
The impact of hormone therapy use on late-life anxiety disorder in elderly women has not been evaluated. Anxiety disorders were evaluated in 838 community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from electoral rolls. Anxiety disorders were assessed using a standardized psychiatric examination based on DSM-IV criteria, at baseline and as part of the 2- and 4-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, measures of physical health and cognitive impairment, as well as current depressive symptomatology indicated no significant association between hormone therapy and anxiety disorders at baseline or after the 4-year follow-up period, regardless of type of treatment. Compared to women who have never taken hormonal therapy, no significant difference was observed for women taking continuously hormone therapy over the follow-up or those who stopped their treatment. The use of hormone therapy was not associated with improved anxiety symptomatology in elderly postmenopausal women.
Osborne, R. H.; Elsworth, G. R.; Sprangers, M. A. G.; Oort, F. J.; Hopper, J. L.
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is frequently used in cancer studies, yet its utility for comparing people with cancer with people in the community is uncertain. METHODS: HADS scores were obtained from population-based samples of women with (n = 731) and without (n =
Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.
Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…
Collins O. F. Zamawe
Full Text Available Background: Women's group intervention is a community based initiative through which rural women form groups, meet regularly to discuss maternal health issues affecting them, and come up with locally available solutions. This intervention has been associated with reduced maternal and neonatal mortality in limited resource settings. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which women's groups influence maternal health outcomes are uncertain. Because contraception reduces the risk of maternal mortality and women's groups also tackled this issue, we speculated that contraceptive use might be the pathway. Consequently, this study investigated whether participation in women's groups was associated with contraceptive use in Malawi. Design: We examined the use of contraceptives between women who participated in women's groups and those who did not through a community-based cross-sectional study in Mchinji, Malawi. The study involved 3,435 women of reproductive age (15–49 years who were recruited using a multistage sampling approach. Members (treated and non-members (control of women's groups were matched on observed covariates using propensity scores and the counterfactual for the treated individuals was estimated. Results: Crude analysis revealed that women's groups improved uptake of contraceptives by 26% (odds ratio (OR=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.03–1.56; p=0.024. However, using the matched data, uptake of contraceptives was almost the same among members and non-members of women's groups. More precisely, the likelihood of using contraceptives was not significantly different between the members and non-members of women's groups (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.81–1.24; p=0.991. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence of an association between participation in women's groups and contraceptive use among rural Malawian women. The implication is that contraception was not the mechanism through which women's groups contributed to reduced maternal
Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Cullen, John; Racine, Yvonne
Intimate partner violence (IPV) directed towards women is a serious public health problem. Women's education may offer protection against IPV, but uncertainty exists over how it might reduce risk for IPV at the community and individual levels. The objectives of this study are to: (1) disentangle community from individual-level influences of women's education on risk for IPV; (2) quantify the moderating influence of communities on individual-level associations between women's education and IPV; (3) determine if women's attitudes towards mistreatment and living standards at the community and individual levels account for the protective influence of women's education; and (4) determine if the protective influence of education against IPV is muted among women living in communities exhibiting attitudes more accepting of mistreatment. Study information came from 68,466 married female participants in the National Family Health Survey conducted throughout India in 1998-1999. Multilevel logistic regression was used to address the study objectives. IPV showed substantial clustering at both the state (10.2%) and community levels (11.5%). At the individual level, there was a strong non-linear association between women's education and IPV, partially accounted for by household living standards. The strength of association between women's education and IPV varied from one community to the next with evidence that the acceptance of mistreatment at the community level mutes the protective influence of higher education. Furthermore, women's attitudes towards mistreatment and their standards of living accounted for community-level associations between women's education and IPV. Place of residence accounted for substantial variation in risk of IPV and also modified individual-level associations between IPV and women's education. At the community level, women's education appeared to exert much of its protective influence by altering population attitudes towards the acceptability of
Molly A Moor
Full Text Available Anemia is a public health concern among women in rural Baja California, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and community factors contributing to the disproportionately high prevalence of anemia among women in this region.A cross-sectional study of 118 women (15-49 years was performed in a rural colonia (small settlement in Baja California, Mexico in 2012. Participants completed a survey comprised of demographic, socioeconomic, health, and dietary questions and provided a capillary blood sample. A portable HemoCue was used to measure hemoglobin and diagnose anemia. Anemic participants provided a venous blood sample for laboratory testing to elucidate the etiology of anemia. Anemic participants received vitamin supplements and nutritional counseling. Assessments of six local tiendas (community grocery stores were performed to ascertain the types of food available for purchase within the community.Prevalence of anemia was 22% among women; laboratory tests revealed iron deficiency was the primary etiology in 80.8% of anemia cases. Other causes of anemia in women included vitamin B-12 deficiency (11.5% and combined iron and vitamin B-12 deficiency (7.7%. Women from low SES households and women enrolled in the government assistance program Prospera were significantly more likely to be anemic (OR = 3.48, 95% CI 1.35-8.98 and OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.02-6.09, respectively. Vitamin supplementation was significantly more common among non-anemic women (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.94. Dietary assessments showed limited consumption of iron absorption enhancing foods such as fruits and vegetables. Assessments of local tiendas revealed at least one type of meat and citrus fruit available for purchase at each store; however, leafy green vegetables were only available for purchase at one store.All cases of anemia were due to nutritional deficiencies. While vitamin supplementation is a temporary solution, improved individual nutrition
Dhimas Setyo Nugroho
Full Text Available The concept of community-based tourism in the dome house tourism village has succeeded in becoming a tool to trigger the development of the dome house resident and its environment. All of the development can be obviously seen from the economic, social, cultural, environmental and political aspects with a very enthusiastic participation of the resident. The rapid development of the resident and their high participation can emerge a strategy to make the tourist village survive from the tourism industry competition. In this case, the author found that there is a connection between the high level of community participation and the rapid development as the result of it. Therefore, the more the resident willing to participate, the more it will affect the development of the resident and its environment. This research uses qualitative method. The data were obtained by conducting interview, observation, and documentation. After those steps, the data were processed by interactive and SWOT analysis. Then, questionnaire was used to validate the data towards 21 residents.
Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Teal, Randall; Barrett, Nadine; Leighton, Ashely; Steckler, Allan
Many women do not get mammography screenings at the intervals recommended for early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) recommends a range of evidence-based strategies to improve mammography rates. However, nurses and others working in community-based settings make only limited use of these strategies. We report on a dissemination intervention that partnered the University of North Carolina with the Susan G. Komen Triangle Affiliate to disseminate Community Guide breast cancer screening strategies to community organizations. The intervention was guided by social marketing and diffusion of innovation theory and was designed to provide evidence and support via Komen's existing relationships with grantee organizations. The present study reports the findings from a formative evaluation of the intervention, which included a content analysis of 46 grant applications pre- and post intervention and focus groups with 20 grant recipients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Williams, Karen Patricia
The few existing economic evaluations of community-based health promotion interventions were reported retrospectively at the end of the trial. We report an evaluation of the costs of the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, a female family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied to increase breast and cervical cancer screening by enhancing cancer literacy. The cost analysis was performed from the perspective of a health organization with established community partnerships adding the Kin Keeper family intervention in the future to an existing community health worker program. The cost of delivering the Kin Keeper intervention, including two cancer education home visits, was $151/family. Kin Keeper is an inexpensive educational intervention delivered by community health workers to promote breast and cervical screening, with strong fidelity and quality. Prospecting cost evaluations of community-based interventions are needed for making informed timely decisions on the adaptation and expansion of such programs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Objective: To assess opportunities and threats towards the continuity and success of Community based reproductive health service programme in Northeast Ethiopia. Design: Community based comparative cross sectional study. Setting: Two districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia, classified as strong and weak community ...
Community-based tourism: Origins and present trends. ... Understanding the origins of Community Based Tourism helps in mapping its possible trajectories. Past and current trends are important to unlock the possibilities ... from genuine CBT projects. Keywords: Community participation, development, management, tourism.
Da Pilma Lekettey, Joanita; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aikins, Moses
Alcohol consumption among pregnant women is a public health concern, considering its adverse outcomes for both mother and the developing foetus. This study examined factors that facilitate prenatal alcohol consumption, knowledge of adverse outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure and alcohol expenditure among pregnant women in an urban community in Ghana. In June 2014, a survey was conducted among 250 pregnant women sampled from James Town, an urban community in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and descriptive statistics conducted. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among women was determined. Pearson chi-square was used to determine associations between variables where necessary. Fifty-four percent of the pregnant women were aged 20 - 29 years. Seventy-three percent reported that they have ever consumed an alcoholic beverage before pregnancy. Of these, 77% take alcohol "once a while" and 48% reported taking alcohol during pregnancy. Most of the pregnant women (53%) who currently consume alcoholic beverages had it from friends, and their main reason for prenatal alcohol consumption was socialization (39%). Majority of both current alcohol drinkers (78%) and non-current alcohol drinkers (74%) were aware that prenatal alcohol consumption can lead to spontaneous abortion. Additionally, current alcohol drinkers spend averagely GHS 4.54 (SD 4.63) on their favourite alcoholic drink and overall, also spend averagely GHS 4.63 (SD 4.82) on their entire alcoholic beverage weekly. Over two-thirds (63%) of women reported monthly average income of less than GHS200. This study shows high prenatal alcohol consumption in James Town, Accra, despite pregnant women's knowledge of its adverse effects on the developing foetus. Alcohol is usually sourced from friends with socialization noted as a major reason for prenatal alcohol consumption. These results could be used to inform future health advocacies and policies on prenatal
Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda
Depression is one of the significant mental health impacts of intimate partner violence. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the factors associated with depression among abused Chinese women. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with a higher level of depression among abused Chinese women. This was a cross-sectional study with participation of 200 abused Chinese women in a local community center in Hong Kong. The measurement tools used are the Chinese Abuse Assessment Screen, the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory Version II, the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List 12, and the demographic data. Structured multiphase regression analysis was used for data analysis. Factors significantly associated with a higher level of depression in Chinese abused women were low educational level (estimate = -2.49, p = .038), immigration (estimate = 4.99, p = .025), financial support from friends and relatives (estimate = 4.72, p = .006), and chronic psychological abuse (estimate = 0.09, p protective factor against depression is the perception of social support (estimate = -1.11, p < .001). An overwhelming number of abused Chinese women have moderate or severe levels of depression. There is a need for more awareness of the detrimental mental health impact of abuse on women, screening for depression when women are found to be abused, and provision of social support at an earlier stage to minimize depression.
Hrabosky, Joshua I; Grilo, Carlos M
The current study examined body image concerns and eating disordered behaviors in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. In addition, this study explored whether there are ethnic differences in the correlates or in the prediction of body image concerns. Participants were 120 (67 Black and 53 Hispanic) women who responded to advertisements to participate in a study of women and health. Participants completed a battery of established self-report measures to assess body image, eating disordered behaviors, and associated psychological domains. Black and Hispanic women did not differ significantly in their self-reports of body image, eating disordered behaviors, or associated psychological measures. Comparisons performed separately within both ethnic groups revealed significant differences by weight status, with a general graded patterning of greater concerns in obese than overweight than average weight groups. In terms of predicting body image, multiple regression analyses testing a number of variables, including BMI, performed separately for Black and Hispanic women revealed that eating concern and depressive affect were significant predictors of body image concern for both groups. Overall, Black and Hispanic women differed little in their self-reports of body image, eating-disordered features, and depressive affect. Higher weight was associated with a general pattern of increased body image concerns and features of eating disorders in both groups and with binge eating in Black women. Eating concerns and depressive affect emerged as significant independent predictors of body image for both ethnic groups.
Yohanna Kambai Avong
Full Text Available The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV epidemic control is shifting with the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS 90-90-90 benchmarks for epidemic control. Community-based Antiretroviral Therapy (CART models have improved treatment uptake and demonstrated good clinical outcomes. We assessed the feasibility of integrating community pharmacy as a task shift structure for differentiated community ART in Abuja-Nigeria.Stable patients on first line ART regimens from public health facilities were referred to community pharmacies in different locations within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja for prescription refills and treatment maintenance. Bio-demographic and clinical data were collected from February 25, 2016 to May 31st, 2017 and descriptive statistics analysis applied. The outcomes of measure were prescription refill and patient retention in care at the community pharmacy.Almost 10% of stable patients on treatment were successfully devolved from eight health facilities to ten community pharmacies. Median age of the participants was 35 years [interquartile range (IQR; 30, 41] with married women in the majority. Prescription refill was 100% and almost all the participants (99.3% were retained in care after they were devolved to the community pharmacies. Only one participant was lost-to-follow-up as a result of death.Excellent prescription refill and high retention in care with very low loss-to-follow-up were associated with the community pharmacy model. The use of community pharmacy for community ART is feasible in Nigeria. We recommend the scale up of the model in all the 36 states of Nigeria.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...
The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.
Full Text Available Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods: The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS. Results: PCOS (n=508 and non-PCOS (n=508 participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit. A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137 and non-PCOS participants (n=137 (–18.5±6.6 kg vs –19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190. Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08. Conclusion: Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight
This study established the influence of gender-based abuse on women's economic wellbeing and participation in public life. A total of two-hundred and fifty married women from Abeokuta metropolis constituted the sample for the study. Their ages ranged from 25 years to 49 years with a mean age of 37 years and standard ...
Gender based violence (GBV) negatively impacts on women's reproductive health (R.H) and is contrary to human rights and RH statutory instruments. The study triangulates quantitative and qualitative research methods with women in the reproductive age group being the target group. The study noted that 95% of the ...
Hildebrandt, E; Hildebrandt; Ford, Sandra L
Current U.S. welfare policy, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, requires impoverished people to work in order to receive welfare, and it limits cash support to 5 years. Most of the people who have used this program are single-parent women, and a disturbing number have been terminated at 5 years, not having made a successful transition to work. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the barriers to success and the social justice of the program from the perspective of single-parent women who were terminated. In all, 41 women were recruited through community-based purposive sampling, and the primary research methods were a qualitative, narrative interview approach and narrative analysis. Data from the semistructured interview guide are reported here. Findings describe health and socioeconomic burdens, and barriers that lie within the social policy. The study has ethical implications for nursing advocacy, and it informs nursing interventions for impoverished women and their families.
Operario, Don; Burton, Jennifer; Underhill, Kristen; Sevelius, Jae
Although transgender women are acknowledged as a priority population for HIV prevention, there is little knowledge on men who have sex with transgender women (MSTGWs). MSTGWs challenge conventional sexual orientation categories in public health and HIV prevention research, and warrant increased attention from the public health community. This paper used qualitative techniques to analyze how MSTGWs describe their sexual orientation identities, and to explore the correspondence between men's identities and sexual behaviors with transgender women. We conducted in-depth semi-structured individual interviews with 46 MSTGWs in San Francisco. We observed a diversity in the ways participants identified and explained their sexual orientation, and found no consistent patterns between how men described their sexual orientation identity versus their sexual behavior and attraction to transgender women. Findings from this qualitative study question the utility of category-based approaches to HIV prevention with MSTGWs and offer insights into developing HIV interventions for these men.
Lavis John N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together; a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary
Ang Sanu Lama
Full Text Available Studies of migration and gender have focused mostly on changes at the household level, where they have found women's experience to be mixed, with greater autonomy in decision-making but also a greater work burden and increased stress. Little is known about migration's impact on community-level gender relations. This study of 10 forest user groups in 3 districts of Nepal, experiencing different levels of migration, investigated changes within migrant and nonmigrant households and how they impact people's participation in local forest user groups. We found a slight increase in women's participation in the groups' general assemblies, especially among nuclear households with at least 1 migrant member. However, male migration did not seem to increase women's access to those groups' executive committees, where most decisions are made. Traditional gender norms, institutional requirements that privilege literacy and men's networking skills, and men's entrenched control of local forestry institutions continue to limit women's participation in community forestry. Women with migrant husbands also suffer disproportionately from time poverty, which further limits their engagement in activities outside the home.
Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine
Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperand...
Nikokavoura EA; Johnston KL; Broom J; Wrieden WL; Roll; C
Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandroge...
Ingram, Maia; Chang, Jean; Kunz, Susan; Piper, Rosie; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Strawder, Kay
Objectives A community health worker (CHW) is a frontline public health worker who is a trusted member of and/or has an unusually close understanding of the community served. While natural leadership may incline individuals to the CHW profession, they do not always have skills to address broad social issues. We describe evaluation of the Women's Health Leadership Institute (WHLI), a 3-year training initiative to increase the capacity of CHWs as change agents. Methods Pre-/postquestionnaires measured the confidence of 254 participants in mastering WHLI leadership competencies. In-depth interviews with CHW participants 6 to 9 months after the training documented application of WHLI competencies in the community. A national CHW survey measured the extent to which WHLI graduates used leadership skills that resulted in concrete changes to benefit community members. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for covariates compared WHLI graduates' leadership skills to the national sample. Results Participants reported statistically significant pre-/postimprovements in all competencies. Interviewees credited WHLI with increasing their capacity to listen to others, create partnerships, and initiate efforts to address community needs. Compared to a national CHW sample, WHLI participants were more likely to engage community members in attending public meetings and organizing events. These activities led to community members taking action on an issue and a concrete policy change. Conclusions Leadership training can increase the ability of experienced CHWs to address underlying issues related to community health across different types of organizational affiliations and job responsibilities. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Dunn, Sheila F; Lofters, Aisha K; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Meaney, Christopher A; Ahmad, Farah; Moravac, M Catherine; Nguyen, Cam Tu Janet; Arisz, Angela M
Marginalized populations such as immigrants and refugees are less likely to receive cancer screening. Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES), a multifaceted community-based program in Toronto, Canada, aimed to improve breast and cervical screening among marginalized women. This matched cohort study assessed the impact of CARES on cervical and mammography screening among under-screened/never screened (UNS) attendees. Provincial administrative data collected from 1998 to 2014 and provided in 2015 were used to match CARES participants who were age eligible for screening to three controls matched for age, geography, and pre-education screening status. Dates of post-education Pap and mammography screening up to June 30, 2014 were determined. Analysis in 2016 compared screening uptake and time to screening for UNS participants and controls. From May 15, 2012 to October 31, 2013, a total of 1,993 women attended 145 educational sessions provided in 20 languages. Thirty-five percent (118/331) and 48% (99/206) of CARES participants who were age eligible for Pap and mammography, respectively, were UNS on the education date. Subsequently, 26% and 36% had Pap and mammography, respectively, versus 9% and 14% of UNS controls. ORs for screening within 8 months of follow-up among UNS CARES participants versus their matched controls were 5.1 (95% CI=2.4, 10.9) for Pap and 4.2 (95%=CI 2.3, 7.8) for mammography. Hazard ratios for Pap and mammography were 3.6 (95% CI=2.1, 6.1) and 3.2 (95% CI=2.0, 5.3), respectively. CARES' multifaceted intervention was successful in increasing Pap and mammography screening in this multiethnic under-screened population. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cindy H Nakatsu
Full Text Available Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine fecal bacterial community changes in 17 postmenopausal women after a week of diet supplementation with soy bars containing isoflavones, and to determine correlations between microbial community changes and excreted isoflavone metabolites. Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03 before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. However, between subjects comparisons showed high inter-individual variation that resulted in clustering of profiles by subjects. Urinary excretion of isoflavone (daidzein metabolites indicated four subjects were equol producers and all subjects produced O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA. Comparison of relative proportions of 16S rRNA genes from 454 pyrosequencing of the last fecal samples of each treatment session revealed significant increases in average proportions of Bifidobacterium after soy consumption, and Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were significantly greater in equol vs non-S-(-equol producers. This is the first in vivo study using pyrosequencing to characterize significant differences in fecal community structure and composition in postmenopausal women after a week of soy diet-supplementation, and relate these changes to differences in soy isoflavones and isoflavone metabolites.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00244907.
Haley, Danielle F; Golin, Carol; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Hughes, James P; Wang, Jing; Roman Isler, Malika; Mannheimer, Sharon; Kuo, Irene; Lucas, Jonathan; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Justman, Jessica; Frew, Paula M; Emel, Lynda; Rompalo, Anne; Polk, Sarah; Adimora, Adaora A; Rodriquez, Lorenna; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Hodder, Sally
The challenge of identifying and recruiting U.S. women at elevated risk for HIV acquisition impedes prevention studies and services. HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 064 was a U.S. multisite, longitudinal cohort study designed to estimate HIV incidence among women living in communities with prevalent HIV and poverty. Venue-based sampling (VBS) methodologies and participant and venue characteristics are described. Eligible women were recruited from 10 U.S. communities with prevalent HIV and poverty using VBS. Participant eligibility criteria included age 18-44 years, residing in a designated census tract/zip code, and self-report of at least one high-risk personal and/or male sexual partner characteristic associated with HIV acquisition (e.g., incarceration history). Ethnography was conducted to finalize recruitment areas and venues. Eight thousand twenty-nine women were screened and 2,099 women were enrolled (88% black, median age 29 years) over 14 months. The majority of participants were recruited from outdoor venues (58%), retail spaces (18%), and social service organizations (13%). The proportion of women recruited per venue category varied by site. Most participants (73%) had both individual and partner characteristics that qualified them for the study; 14% were eligible based on partner risk only. VBS is a feasible and effective approach to rapidly recruit a population of women at enhanced risk for HIV in the United States. Such a recruitment approach is needed in order to engage women most at risk and requires strong community engagement.
Arshad Khan Khalafzai
Full Text Available In the contemporary world, a revolution in digital technologies has changed our way of life—for better. The role of women is expanding in socio-economic, political and physical spaces; hence their empowerment will contribute toward resilience and capacity building that contributes to sustainability and disaster risk reduction in the long run. In developing nations, especially in rural regions, women empowered with information and communication technologies can enhance their capacity to cope in diverse situations. This paper addresses the vital role of information and communication technologies intervention and resilient communities with the help of a case study carried out in Pakistan.
Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph
The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…
Julian C. Müller
Full Text Available Black women in previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa carry the burden of triple oppression: (a the social engineering policies synonymous with apartheid have marginalised women economically and socially; (b patriarchy, embedded in cultural and religious discourses, has rendered women voiceless and powerless and (c HIV/AIDS targets the most vulnerable: women and children. The authors describe a research experience in Atteridgeville, a historically disadvantaged community in South Africa, with a family of women infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS, about their experiences of care and or the lack thereof. A narrative approach offers useful ideas to facilitate a process in which African women in historically challenged communities can speak out about their experiences of care and or the lack of care.
Parrish, Jared W; Katz, Alan R; Grove, John S; Maddock, Jay; Myhre, Sue
The purpose of this study was to identify unique characteristics for seeking emergency contraception (EC) among sexually active unmarried women who attended a university-based women's health clinic (WHC). Three hundred nine consecutive women who attended the women's health clinic for 3 months of the 2006 spring semester completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Fisher exact and Student t tests were used to assess bivariate associations, and step-wise regression was used to determine independent associations. Women who requested EC were more likely to have previously used EC (P perceive the need for EC use in the next 3 months (P < .001) but were less likely to use hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device (P < .001). Our findings support the need for increased education that would include the use of and access to effective primary contraceptive methods in conjunction with EC awareness.
Krause, Kathleen H; Haardörfer, Regine; Yount, Kathryn M
Our objective was to examine the multilevel correlates of women's justification of wife beating in Bangladesh, a form of intimate partner violence (IPV). We focus on individual-level schooling, community-level media exposure among women and their interaction. A cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Our sample included 17 749 ever-married women 15-49 years in 600 communities. We fit 6 multilevel logistic regression models to examine factors associated with justifying IPV; focusing on a woman's completed grades of schooling; frequent (at least once weekly) community-level media exposure among women via newspaper/magazine, television and radio; and their cross-level interaction. At the individual level, completing more grades of schooling than the community average was negatively associated with justifying IPV (0.95, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97). The main effects of women's community-level media exposure were not significant, but suggested that frequent exposure to newspaper/magazine or television was negatively associated with justifying IPV, while exposure to radio was positively associated. In cross-level interactions, a woman's completed grades of schooling above the community average was protective against justifying IPV, even in communities where women's exposure to radio would otherwise increase the odds of justifying IPV. Different forms of media likely send different messages about gender and IPV. Girls' schooling should remain a priority, given its protective effect against justifying wife beating. Targeting girls and women who do not receive any schooling for intervention may yield the most benefit in terms of normative change regarding IPV against women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Davis, Alissa; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; El-Bassel, Nabila
The United States has a large community supervision population, a growing number of whom are women. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is strongly associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission, particularly among women, but there is a paucity of research on HIV and T. vaginalis co-infection among women under community supervision. This article examines the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection and T. vaginalis and HIV coinfection at baseline among women under community supervision in New York City. It also examines the 12-month outcomes of women treated for T. vaginalis. Women received biological tests for HIV and T. vaginalis at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Of the 333 women tested for sexually transmitted infections, 77 women (23.1%) tested positive for T. vaginalis at baseline and 44 (13.3%) were HIV positive. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive women had significantly higher rates of T. vaginalis infection than HIV-negative women (36.4% vs 21.3%, P ≤ 0.05). Sixteen women (4.8%) were coinfected with T. vaginalis and HIV. Of the 77 women who were positive for T. vaginalis infection at baseline, 58 (75.3%) received treatment by a health care provider. Of those who received treatment, 17 (29.3%) tested positive for T. vaginalis at the 12-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of T. vaginalis among this sample of women, particularly among HIV-positive women, and high levels of reinfection or persistent infection, screening for T. vaginalis among women under community supervision may have a substantial impact on reducing HIV acquisition and transmission among this high-risk population.
M. Claire Horner-Devine
Full Text Available While the biological sciences have achieved gender parity in the undergraduate and graduate career stages, this is not the case at the faculty level. The WEBS (Women Evolving the Biological Sciences symposia go beyond traditional scientific training and professional development to address factors critical to women’s persistence in faculty careers: community and empowerment. Through a series of panel discussions, personal reflections and skills workshops, WEBS creates a community-based professional development experience and a space for participants to grapple with central issues affecting their scientific careers. Longitudinal qualitative survey data suggest that WEBS bolsters the participants’ confidence and empowerment, in addition to providing concrete skills for addressing a range of issues necessary to navigating scientific careers, leading to increased career satisfaction and career self-efficacy (i.e., the belief in one’s capacity to pursue their chosen career. These results highlight the importance and need for programs and opportunities for women in STEM that go beyond training in scientific skills and traditional professional development to include those that create a sense of community and empowerment.
Amowitz, Lynn L; Heisler, Michele; Iacopino, Vincent
To assess the health status of Afghan women and attitudes of these women and their male relatives during the period of Taliban rule toward women's rights and community development needs in Afghanistan. In household residences in two regions in Afghanistan (one Taliban controlled and the other not under the Taliban) and a refugee camp and repatriation center in Pakistan, structured interviews were conducted among a random sample of women and men exposed to Taliban policy and women living in a non-Taliban controlled area (724 Afghan women and 553 male relatives). Major depression was far more prevalent among women exposed to Taliban policies (73%-78%) than among women living in a non-Taliban controlled area (28%). Sixty-five percent of women living in a Taliban-controlled area and 73% of women in Pakistan exposed to Taliban policies expressed suicidal ideation at the time of the study, compared with 18% of those in a non-Taliban controlled area. More than 90% of both women and men expressed support for equal work and educational opportunities, free expression, protection of women's rights, participation of women in government, and the inclusion of women's human rights concerns in peace talks. A majority of both women and men believed that guaranteeing civil and political rights (69%) and meeting basic needs (90%) were important for the health and development of their communities. In Afghanistan under the Taliban, policies restricting women's rights were not the product of years of tradition or of social and economic deprivation. Instead, they were man-made policies as easily and swiftly revoked as they were instituted. Depression rates among women in Afghanistan, especially in Taliban-controlled areas, were extraordinarily high. Current efforts to rebuild Afghanistan must address these high rates of depression and other mental health problems to ensure women's full participation in development.
Mariana Chaves Aveiro
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health promotion policies for encouraging elderly to remain active, independent and, effectively have a positive effect on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of a low-intensity group-based physical therapy program on quality of life among community-dwelling elderly women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was carried out a randomized controlled trial. Seventeen women (67.8 ± 4.9 years old that completed 12-week training program and 10 women (68.9 ± 5.7 years old that were included in control group answered the abbreviated version for World Health Organization Quality of life Questionnaire - WHOQOL-bref at baseline and after 12 weeks. Exercise group performed stretching, resistance and balance training. Intragroup and intergroup analysis was made using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The level of significance used for all comparisons was 5%. Furthermore, it was determined the Reliable Change Index (RCI as part of JT Method. RESULTS: Exercise group presented a significant improvement for Psychological domain (p = 0.047 after 12-week physical therapy program. Otherwise, control group presented a significant worsening for overall (p = 0.01, physical (p = 0.01 and psychological (p = 0.008 domains. Exercise group presented two participants with positive reliable change (PRC for social domain, two participants with PRC for Environment domain. Overall and Physical domain presented three participants with PRC. Psychological domain presented four participants with PRC and one with negative reliable change. CONCLUSION: A low-intensity group-based physical therapy program may contribute in order to maintain quality of life and improve some psychological aspects among community-dwelling elderly women.
Bong Soo Kang
Women's participation in Korea's economic and community development programs has increased since the early 1960s. The Family Planning (FP) Mothers' Club was organized by Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) in rural villages. Early in 1968, PPFK recruited 139 county field officers. They were put into county health centers, one in each county. They helped set up the Mothers' Clubs. Women wanted to have these clubs, but husbands and village elders did not want them to get together and talk about family planning. 12,650 Mothers' Clubs were established in the 1st year; about 2000 clubs were organized annually after that. In 1976, there were 27,292 village-level Mothers' Clubs with 750,000 members. Some 2000 clubs have been disbanded. The purposes of the clubs are to promote practice, to make FP part of everyday life, to foster a cooperative spirit among members, and to push active participation in community development so that productivity is increased and optimal surroundings created. The Mothers' Clubs were classified into: 1) the village and grass roots clubs; 2) their chairpersons, who constituted the Eup and Myon clubs; and 3) the county federation of Mothers' Clubs. Membership is open to all married village women, aged 20 to 45. Each village club has 1 elected chairperson, 1 vice chairperson, and 1 secretary. There was an average of 23 members per club in 1968, but this grew to 30 in 1972. Club programs include social activities, community development, cooperative work, income- generation projects, a Mothers' Bank, and FP. PPFK supports the clubs by financial aid, material aid, technical aid, training, and awards and acknowledgements. Mothers' clubs have promoted FP and served as distribution points for contraceptives. Environments were drastically changed in many villages through the community development work of the Mothers' Clubs. The traditional role of Korean women was early marriage and the production of at least 1 son. The Mothers' Clubs
5,9 ± 1,1 mmHg (women) in the high-intensity intervention town. These reductions were statisti- cally significant with one exception. The changes in the total population in the 3 communities after 4 years of intervention were similar to those found in the hypertensive cohort. Decreases in mean blood pressure were accom-.
Kunta Devi Pun
Full Text Available Background: Globally, knowledge of health sector options to respond to domestic violence during pregnancy is increasing, but this topic is under-investigated in Nepal. This gap affects the provision of adequate antenatal care services and understanding of factors that influence women’s willingness and ability to use available services. It is critical to know more about the social norms in a community that promote and prevent women experiencing domestic violence from seeking antenatal care. Objective: To explore community perceptions of domestic violence against pregnant women. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in Dhulikhel municipality, involving 41 men and 76 women in 12 focus group discussions in different gender and family role separated groups. The interviews were recorded, transcribed in verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. A socio-ecological model was used as a theoretical framework to illustrate linkages between individual, relationship, community, and societal influences on perceptions of domestic violence during pregnancy. Results: The community recognized different forms of violence during pregnancy threatening women’s physical and psychological health and presenting obstacles to seeking antenatal care. Some types of culturally specific violence were considered particularly harmful, such as pressure to give birth to sons, denial of food, and forcing pregnant women to do hard physical work during pregnancy, which may leave daughters-in-law vulnerable to domestic violence in extended families. A culture where violence is normalized and endurance and family reconciliation are promoted above individual health was perceived to cause women to tolerate and accept the situation. Participants suggested actions and strategies to address continuing violence, which indicated a societal transition toward increased awareness and changing attitudes and practices. Conclusions: Domestic violence during pregnancy needs to be
M.Ed. (Educational Management) This study is part of the SANPAD (Southern African Netherlands Partnership for Alternatives in Development) research project. It seeks to answer the research question, how do women principals experience curriculum leadership at schools in disadvantaged communities in the Gauteng East District? The dawn of South African democracy gave rise to many changes and awoke many dormant issues, one of which was the issue of equity in the workplace. This extended into t...
Ubheeram, J.; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S.D.
Summary Objective. The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Methods. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Results. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial gro...
Spears Johnson, C. R.; Kraemer Diaz, A. E.; Arcury, T. A.
This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with…
Background. A collaborative interprofessional research project that involved community members was beneficial to community development. Objective. To draw upon the experiences of academics relating to their involvement in an interprofessional community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods. A Delphi ...
Fasula, Amy M; Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah; Carry, Monique; Gaiter, Juarlyn; Parker, Sharon
Incarcerated women are a critical population for targeted HIV/STI prevention programming; however, there is a dearth of evidence-based, genderspecific behavioral interventions for this population. Systematically adapting existing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) can help fill this gap. We illustrate the adaptation of the HIV/STI prevention EBI, Project Safe, for use among incarcerated women and delivery in prisons. Project POWER, the final adapted intervention, was developed using formative research with prison staff and administration, incarcerated and previously incarcerated women, and input of community advisory boards. Intervention delivery adaptations included: shorter, more frequent intervention sessions; booster sessions prior to and just after release; facilitator experience in prisons and counseling; and new videos. Intervention content adaptations addressed issues of empowerment, substance use, gender and power inequity in relationships, interpersonal violence, mental health, reentry, and social support. This illustration of the adaption process provides information to inform additional efforts to adapt EBIs for this underserved population.
Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.
Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C
The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting
Dunst, Carl J.; Herter, Serena; Shields, Holly; Bennis, Leslie
This article explains the use of a community mapping methodology to identify natural learning environments and inclusion opportunities for young children with disabilities. Four steps are discussed: (1) selecting kinds of learning opportunities for mapping; (2) gathering information about community learning sources; (3) developing an informational…
Kc, N P; Kc, A; Sharma, N; Malla, H; Thapa, N; Aryal, K; Vitrakoti, R; Bhandari, R M
A number of studies on community mobilization for maternal and newborn health have demonstrated that community participation is of profound importance in the delivery of community based survival interventions for mother, newborn and children and a cost effective way to reduce mortality. However, the lessons learnt from the efficacy trials have not been tested within the health systems. Nepal is well known for its public health programmes and wide successes in campaign based interventions as a result of active involvement of volunteers and organizations based in the community. This paper analyzes the degree of community participation and mobilization in community-based maternal, newborn and child health programmes and its potential implication in acceleration towards achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The study is based on analysis of the existing national community based maternal, neonatal and child health programmes in terms of degree of community mobilization and participation for ownership and sustainability of programmes. Furthermore, a qualitative assessment was carried out to assess the level of engagement of community structures in community based maternal, newborn and child health programme. None of the national community based maternal, newborn and child health programmes used the community action cycle approach and there was minimal level of involvement of community networks. The mother's groups had been least engaged in identifying and solving the maternal, newborn and child health problems and Female community health volunteer were engaged in delivering messages at household level and not through the mother's groups. Though the Community Action Cycle was studied in Nepal and it was found effective to achieve the objectives, getting its lessons into practice to design community health programs were lacking. The mother's groups need to be revitalized to ensure their active participation in identifying, analyzing and agreeing on steps to solve
Steven Allender; Brynle Owen; Jill Kuhlberg; Janette Lowe; Phoebe Nagorcka-Smith; Jill Whelan; Colin Bell
Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connec...
Dias, S P; Brouwer, M C; Bijlsma, M W; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D
To investigate sex-based differences in clinical features, causative pathogens, outcome and treatment of adult community-acquired meningitis. From January 2006 to July 2014, we prospectively investigated sex-based differences in clinical features, causative pathogens, outcome and treatment of adult community-acquired meningitis in a nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. Sex was analysed along with known predictors of unfavourable outcome using logistic regression. We evaluated 1412 episodes of meningitis, 707 (50%) in men. Men more often presented with a history of remote head injury (41/667 (6%) versus 14/658 (2%) women, p 0.0002) or alcoholism (61/652 (9%) versus 21/660 (3%) women, p meningitis. Male sex is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. It is possible that sex-based differences in immune reaction could determine a distinct response to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Konishi, S; Parajuli, R P; Takane, E; Maharjan, M; Sharma, S; Tachibana, K; Jiang, H; Pahari, K; Pandey, B D; Watanabe, C
The high prevalence of anemia and underweight among reproductive age women is a serious health concern in Nepal. The objective of the present study was to describe anemia prevalence and nutritional status of married women in Nepal. Total of 278 women were included in the present analysis. The five communities included an urban commercial area (W) in Kathmandu, an agricultural village (K) in Lalitpur District, an agricultural village in Chitwan District (C) and one in Ilam District (I) with intensive cash cropping, and another rural village in Kaski District (P) with high number of international out-migration of males. The study procedure included anthropometric measurements, blood collection for hemoglobin measurement, and stool collection for examination of hookworm infection, and a structured interview on their reproductive history including contraceptive use. The altitude adjusted prevalence of anemia was 65%, 23%, 16%, 49% and 58% in communities C, I, K, P and W respectively. The hookworm prevalence of each community was not associated with the anemia prevalence. In the urban well-off community W, although 38% of the women had BMI > or = 25 and only 2% of women had BMI<18.5, 58% of the women were anemic. A logistic regression analysis on the anemia risk at the individual level showed no effect of helminth infection, but a significant negative effect of Depo-Provera (depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate) use. Causes of high anemia prevalence among the women resided in the urban well-off area should be investigated in future studies.
Durowade, Kabir A; Omokanye, Lukman O; Elegbede, Olusegun E; Adetokunbo, Stella; Olomofe, Charles O; Ajiboye, Akinyosoye D; Adeniyi, Makinde A; Sanni, Taofik A
Globally, unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) persist as a significant threat to women's reproductive health. In Nigeria, despite huge resources committed to family planning programs by stakeholders, contraceptive use has been very low. This study aimed at unraveling the barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Ise-Ekiti community, Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. This study was a cross sectional study among women aged 15-49 years. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in the recruitment of respondents from the community. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. Although contraceptive awareness among respondents was high 496(98.6%), only 254 of the 503 respondents were using modern contraceptive methods giving a Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of 50.5%. Among those not using any form of contraceptives, some identifiable barriers to contraceptive use includes desire for more children, 62(39.5%), partner disapproval, 40(25.5%), and fear of side-effects, 23(14.6%). Factors associated with contraceptive uptake include marital status (p=0.028), educational level (p=0.041) and religion (p=0.043) with traditional worshippers having the least uptake. This study showed that awareness to modern forms of contraceptives does translate into use. The identified barriers to contraceptive uptake suggest the need to improve uptake of contraceptives through a community-based and culturally acceptable intervention as doing this will go a long way in addressing some of these barriers.
Jacinto, Ana; Mobaracaly, Mahomed Riaz; Ustáb, Momade Bay; Bique, Cassimo; Blazer, Cassandra; Weidert, Karen; Prata, Ndola
Mozambique has witnessed a climbing total fertility rate in the last 20 years. Nearly one-third of married women have an unmet need for family planning, but the supply of family planning services is not meeting the demand. This study aimed to explore the safety and effectiveness of training 2 cadres of community health workers-traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs) (polyvalent elementary health workers)-to administer the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and to provide evidence to policy makers on the feasibility of expanding community-based distribution of DMPA in areas where TBAs and APEs are present. A total of 1,432 women enrolled in the study between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority (63% to 66%) of women in the study started using contraception for the first time during the study period, and most women (over 66%) did not report side effects at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up visits. Very few (less than 0.5%) experienced morbidities at the injection site on the arm. Satisfaction with the performance of TBAs and APEs was high and improved over the study period. Overall, the project showed a high continuation rate (81.1%) after 3 injections, with TBA clients having significantly higher continuation rates than APE clients after 3 months and after 6 months. Clients' reported willingness to pay for DMPA (64%) highlights the latent demand for modern contraceptives. Given Mozambique's largely rural population and critical health care workforce shortage, community-based provision of family planning in general and of injectable contraceptives in particular, which has been shown to be safe, effective, and acceptable, is of crucial importance. This study demonstrates that community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives can provide access to family planning to a large group of women that previously had little or no access. © Jacinto et al.
Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Seo, Da Hea; Lee, Seung Won; Choi, Han Sol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Chang Oh; Rhee, Yumie
Sarcopenia is considered to be a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, which is a major health problem in elderly women. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of sarcopenia, with regard to muscle mass and function, with prevalent vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited 1281 women aged 64 to 87 years from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study. Muscle mass and function were measured using bioimpedance analysis and jumping mechanography. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and jump power were used as an indicator of muscle mass and function, respectively. Among the participants, we observed 282 (18.9%) vertebral fractures and 564 (44.0%) osteoporosis. Although age, body mass index, and prevalence of osteoporosis increased as both SMI and jump power decreased, prevalence of vertebral fracture increased only when jump power decreased. In univariate analysis, compared with the highest quartile of jump power, the lowest quartile had a significant odds ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.79-4.36) for vertebral fracture. This association between jump power and vertebral fracture remained significant, with an odds ratio of 3.04 (95% CI 1.77-5.23), even after adjusting for other risk factors including age, bone mineral density, previous fracture, and cognitive function. In contrast, there was no association between SMI and vertebral fracture. Based on our results, low jump power, but not SMI, is associated with vertebral fracture in community-dwelling elderly Korean women. This finding suggests that jump power may have a more important role than muscle mass itself for osteoporotic fracture.
Amy J. Martin
Full Text Available The role of women in the Intelligence Community has evolved over time and captures the use of their skills to further assist, perpetuate, and lead intelligence operations globally. This paper serves as a historical overview of some of the techniques of the early female spies and highlights the successes of the modern woman’s contributions to the intelligence mission. Emerging female operations officers often face obstacles: dealing with bias within the bureaucracy, issues of female equality within certain cultures, and experiencing slower rates of promotion. This has meant a lack of females in competitive leadership positions. Female mentors and former intelligence members explore avenues for surviving and thriving within the CIA. Women must have high standards of performance and professionalism and grasp the politics of advancement in a male-dominated hierarchical agency. Communication in leadership training and awareness is key, as seen in the CIA's 1991 “glass ceiling” study and 2013 Director’s Advisory Group on Women in Leadership (DAG report on the statistics of the lack of women in senior management. The current trend of women serving in top positions in intelligence organizations should offer encouragement and promote further changes within the American culture.
Branch, L G; Guralnik, J M; Foley, D J; Kohout, F J; Wetle, T T; Ostfeld, A; Katz, S
Active life expectancies (ALEs) were calculated using increment-decrement life table techniques for 10,000 Caucasian men and women from three geographic areas. This technique is more appropriate than the single decrement model originally used, and resulting ALE was substantially greater among initially independent men and women aged 65 years: from 9.3 for men and 10.6 for women to 11.3 to 13.0 for men and 15.5 to 17.1 for women. These increases may be attributable to factors other than the change of method, however, including the change in time from 1975 to 1982 and the change from one state to three communities. The sex differences suggest that the added years of life that women have enjoyed over men are neither solely added years of vigor nor solely added years of disability, but added years with the same mix of independence/dependence that the shorter-lived males experience. The age patterns suggest that at any age the future presents a relatively constant expectation of the total duration of dependency, and concordantly, as one ages, there is a relatively uniform decrease in the proportion of active life to remaining years.
Burgos, Delia; Canaval, Gladys E; Tobo, Natalia; Bernal de Pheils, Pilar; Humphreys, Janice
Identifying the incidence and severity of types of intimate partner violence against women exposed to this in their communities and the pertinent socio-demographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 150 women suffering intimate partner violence. The Severity of Violence Against Women Scale was used to explore demographic variables, e.g. age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status and occupation. Mean age was 37 years, 74 % were mestizos, 68 % were living in socioeconomic groups 2 and 3, 43 % were living with a permanent partner and 31 % had experienced violence by other people than their intimate partner. There was high exposure (96.3 %) to more than one type of violence; 88% had suffered physical and 53 % sexual threats. All types were correlated with each other (r ranged from 0.42 to 0.84 (p violence (p>violence (p>violence other than physical ones means protecting women and reducing the harm being done to them and alleviating their suffering. It is vital that interventions should be undertaken for preventing different types of violence according to socioeconomic group and accompany women and their assailants in recognising such violence and seeking help.
Rhonda C. Boyd
Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1 screening and referral, (2 facilitators to referral, (3 barriers to referral, (4 culture and language, (5 life events, and (6 support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services.
O'Mara, Ben; Gill, Gurjeet K.; Babacan, Hurriyet; Donahoo, Daniel
Objective: To report the processes and outcomes of a case study on digital technology, diabetes and culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Design: The qualitative study was based on a literature review, consultations and testing of a framework through workshops and an interactive information session. Setting: Consultations,…
Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird
Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses the translation of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, using a CBPR approach, with an urban Native American community. This article highlights not only how the CBPR process facilitates the successful translation of the Stanford program but also how CBPR is used within this community to build community capacity.
Marios A Pappas
Full Text Available The utilization of ICTs in creating new jobs and eliminating gender based inequalities in employability and entrepreneurship, employs increasingly more researchers, governments and organizations around the world. In this article we analyze the current situation regarding the impact of ICTs, social networks and media on creating new opportunities for the employability of women. We also present the new market requirements, the new e-skills that will be acquired by women in order to take advantage of new labor market opportunities. Finally special reference is made to new trends in women's entrepreneurship as well as the supportive role of ICTs.
Cynthia W Geary
Full Text Available ARV-based HIV prevention methods available in pill, gel or ring formulations (broadly referred to as microbicides offer the possibility of protection against HIV for women who find it difficult because they cannot ask their partners to use condoms or even refuse sex. Partial efficacy of ARV-based medications has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials around the world among various populations, building the evidence that ARV-based technologies will contribute to reducing the AIDS epidemic worldwide. Disappointing results, however, from two trials in sub-Saharan Africa, where poor adherence contributed to study closure due to futility, have raised questions about whether women at the centre of the epidemic are able to effectively use products that require routine use. Also, there are fears by some of risk compensation by decreased condom use because of the availability of microbicides when only partial efficacy has been demonstrated in microbicide trials to date. Of note, sub-analyses of biologic measures of adherence in trials where this was possible have shown a strong correlation between good adherence and efficacy, reinforcing the necessity of good adherence. Research conducted in conjunction with clinical trials and post-trials in advance of possible rollout of ARV-based products have examined social and cultural factors, gender-related and otherwise, influencing adherence and other aspects of women's use of products. These include HIV stigma, women's perception of risk, partner and community influences and the differing needs of women in various stages of life and in different circumstances. It is the purpose of this supplement to give voice to the needs of women who can benefit from woman-initiated methods by presenting research results and commentary to contribute to the global conversation about optimizing women's experience with ARV-based prevention.
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Weaver, James; Navia, Daniela; Este, David
Limited research has evaluated interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) vulnerability among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women, and other women who have sex with women. The Queer Women Conversations (QWC) study examined the effectiveness of a group-based psycho-educational HIV/STI intervention with LBQ women in Toronto and Calgary, Canada. We conducted a nonrandomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a pre-test, post-test, and 6-week follow-up. The primary outcome was sexual risk practices, while secondary objectives included intrapersonal (self-esteem, STI knowledge, resilient coping, depression), interpersonal (safer sex self-efficacy), community (community connectedness, social support), and structural (sexual stigma, access to healthcare) factors. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov. Forty-four women (mean age 28.7 years) participated in a weekend retreat consisting of six consecutive sessions tailored for LBQ women. Sessions covered a range of topics addressing behavioral and social-structural determinants of HIV/STI risk, including STI information, safer sex negotiation skills, and addressing sexual stigma. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, sexual risk practices (β2=-2.96, 95% CI -4.43, -1.50), barrier use self-efficacy (β2=1.52, 95% CI 0.51, 2.53), STI knowledge (β2=4.41, 95% CI 3.52, 5.30), and sexual stigma (β2=-2.62, 95% CI -3.48, -1.75) scores showed statistically significant changes 6 weeks post-intervention. Initial increases in safer sex self-efficacy, social support, and community connectedness were not sustained at 6-week follow up, highlighting the need for booster sessions or alternative approaches to address social factors. Study results may inform HIV/STI prevention interventions, sexual health care provision, and support services tailored for LBQ women.
Belinson, Jerome L; Wang, Guixiang; Qu, Xinfeng; Du, Hui; Shen, Jingjing; Xu, Jiajia; Zhong, Liqun; Yi, Ji; Yi, Xin; Wu, Ruifang
To develop and implement a community based model for cervical cancer prevention that allows the communities to manage the screening and the healthcare system to focus resources on evaluation and management of the positives. Using self-sampling and the concepts founded in Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR), we progressively developed a model to efficiently reach the women, especially rural communities; and collect the volume of samples needed to support high throughput centralized low cost per case processing. 8382 eligible women, ages 35 to 59, in 130 rural communities participated. The screening was organized by the local government administration and conducted by the community leaders (CLs). The model used was progressively designed through detailed assessment of key elements at 6 decision points in 26 workshops that were used to train the CLs and the local promoters. The communities were able to accurately conduct the screening; in the final model a local medical worker conducted a 50-minute workshop featuring instructional posters and structured role-play. A manual and a workshop DVD were created for distribution to and implementation by local governments. The average callback rate was 84.3%, without involvement of the local doctors in the management of the positives. An efficient community based model capable of massive screening events was developed. We believe that the callback rate will be further improved when local doctors are trained in the management of the positives. Many elements impact coverage and further research is needed to define the influence of the identified key variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hardy, Margaret C; Desselle, Mathilde R
During a week-long celebration of science, run under the federally supported National Science Week umbrella, the Catch a Rising Star: women in Queensland research (CaRS) programme flew scientists who identify as women to nine regional and remote communities in the Australian State of Queensland. The aim of the project was twofold: first, to bring science to remote and regional communities in a large, economically diverse state; and second, to determine whether media and public engagement provides career advancement opportunities for women scientists. This paper focuses on the latter goal. The data show: (i) a substantial majority (greater than 80%) of researchers thought the training and experience provided by the programme would help develop her career as a research scientist in the future, (ii) the majority (65%) thought the programme would help relate her research to end users, industry partners or stakeholders in the future, and (iii) analytics can help create a compelling narrative around engagement metrics and help to quantify influence. During the week-long project, scientists reached 600 000 impressions on one social media platform (Twitter) using a program hashtag. The breadth and depth of the project outcomes indicate funding bodies and employers could use similar data as an informative source of metrics to support hiring and promotion decisions. Although this project focused on researchers who identify as women, the lessons learned are applicable to researchers representing a diverse range of backgrounds. Future surveys will help determine whether the CaRS programme provided long-term career advantages to participating scientists and communities.
Desselle, Mathilde R.
During a week-long celebration of science, run under the federally supported National Science Week umbrella, the Catch a Rising Star: women in Queensland research (CaRS) programme flew scientists who identify as women to nine regional and remote communities in the Australian State of Queensland. The aim of the project was twofold: first, to bring science to remote and regional communities in a large, economically diverse state; and second, to determine whether media and public engagement provides career advancement opportunities for women scientists. This paper focuses on the latter goal. The data show: (i) a substantial majority (greater than 80%) of researchers thought the training and experience provided by the programme would help develop her career as a research scientist in the future, (ii) the majority (65%) thought the programme would help relate her research to end users, industry partners or stakeholders in the future, and (iii) analytics can help create a compelling narrative around engagement metrics and help to quantify influence. During the week-long project, scientists reached 600 000 impressions on one social media platform (Twitter) using a program hashtag. The breadth and depth of the project outcomes indicate funding bodies and employers could use similar data as an informative source of metrics to support hiring and promotion decisions. Although this project focused on researchers who identify as women, the lessons learned are applicable to researchers representing a diverse range of backgrounds. Future surveys will help determine whether the CaRS programme provided long-term career advantages to participating scientists and communities. PMID:29134069
Stahler, Gerald J; Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, MaryLouise E
The purpose of the present study was to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of a faith-based treatment adjunct for cocaine-using homeless mothers in residential treatment. The Bridges intervention utilizes various Black church communities to provide culturally-relevant group activities and individual mentoring from volunteers. Eighteen women who were recent treatment admissions were randomly assigned to receive Standard Treatment plus Bridges or Standard Treatment with an Attention Control. Participants were assessed at intake and three and six months after intake. Bridges treatment resulted in significantly better treatment retention (75% vs. 20% at six months) than standard residential treatment alone. In addition, Bridges produced superior outcomes at the six month follow-up assessment on a secondary measure of cocaine abstinence. Creating a community of social support through Black churches appears feasible and promising, and may be a cost-effective means of providing longer-term post-treatment support for cocaine-addicted women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.
Tulloch, Olivia; Theobald, Sally; Morishita, Fukushi; Datiko, Daniel G; Asnake, Girum; Tesema, Tadesse; Jamal, Habiba; Markos, Paulos; Cuevas, Luis E; Yassin, Mohammed A
The Ethiopian TB control programme relies on passive case finding of TB cases. The predominantly rural-based population in Ethiopia has limited access to health facilities creating barriers to TB services. An intervention package aimed to bring TB diagnosis and treatment services closer to communities has been implemented through partnership with health extension workers (HEWs). They undertook advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) activities, identified symptomatic individuals, collected sputum, prepared smears and fixed slides at community level. Field supervisors supported HEWs by delivering smeared slides to the laboratory, feeding back results to the HEWs and following up smear-negative cases. Patients diagnosed with TB initiated treatment in the community, they were supported by supervisors and HEWs through the local health post. Case notification increased from 64 to 127/100,000 population/year. This qualitative study assessed community members' treatment seeking behaviour and their perceptions of the intervention. In-depth interviews (n=36) were undertaken with participants in six districts. Participants were clients of the community-based intervention, currently on TB treatment or those screened negative for TB. Transcripts were translated to English and a thematic analytical framework was developed guided by the different steps symptomatic individuals take within the intervention package. Coding was done and queries run using NVivo software. Prior to the intervention many patients with chronic cough did not access TB services. Participants described difficulties they faced in accessing district level health facilities that required travel outside their communities. Giving sputum samples and receiving results from within their home communities was appreciated by all participants. The intervention had a high level of acceptability; particularly clear benefits emerged for poor women and men and those too weak to travel. Some participants
Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques
Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and β-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708
Varkey, Prathibha; Mbbs; Kureshi, Sarah; Lesnick, Timothy
Empowerment and opportunities to experience power and control in one's life contribute to health and wellness. Although studies have assessed specific factors related to women's empowerment and their influence on health outcomes, there is a dearth of published literature assessing the relationship of the empowerment of women with the overall health of a community. By means of this article, we aim to assess the relationship of women's empowerment with health in 75 countries. We used the gender empowerment measure (GEM), a composite index measuring gender inequality in economic participation and decision making, political participation and decision making, and power over economic resources. All 75 countries with GEM values in the 2006 Human Development Report (HDR) were included in the study. Association between the GEM values and seven health indicators was evaluated using descriptive statistics, scatter plots, and simple and multiple linear regression models. We also controlled for gross domestic product (GDP) as a possible confounding factor and included this variable in the multiple regression models. When GDP was not considered, GEM had a statistically significant association with all health indicator variables except for proportion of 1-year-olds immunized against measles (correlation coefficient 0.063, p = 0.597). After adjusting for GDP, GEM was significantly associated with low birth weight, fertility rate, infant mortality, and age empowerment of women is associated with several key health indicators at a national level. Further research is necessary to determine the cause-effect relationship of these factors, confounding factors that may influence the relationship, and specific aspects of empowerment of women that effectively influence the health of the larger community.
Pratama, A. Y.; Sariffuddin, S.
This article aimed to review community-based disaster management in terms of its independent coordination and disaster management. Community resilience was tested during disaster emergency. While panic, the community is required to be viable and able to evacuate, manage logistic, collect data on damage and the victim, and coordinate with outsiders independently. The community in Gununglurah Village, Banyumas Regency which was hit by a landslide in 2015 provides a lesson learned about community based disaster management. This research used qualitative descriptive methodology with in-depth interview with 23 informants from the community, donor institution, village officers, and government officers. Through traditional and informal methods, the community implemented disaster management that was categorized into 3 mechanisms that were social, functional, and sequential mechanism. These mechanisms controlled different portion in which social mechanism holds the most important role in disaster management, then functional mechanism and sequential mechanism. Various community activities in the village equipped the community with organizational experience to manage logistic, human resource and other coordination. In 2007, in fact, there was vulnerability risk assessment done by the local government, which recommended efforts to be done by the community to reduce the disaster risk, yet it was not implemented. It was interesting to note that in spite of the independent disaster management there was a scientific assessment neglected. Based on this research, a new discussion on how to synchronize the endogenous knowledge with scientific modern knowledge was opened.
Fish, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in a nationwide community-based cohort of Japanese men and women the JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) Study.
Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Date, Chigusa; Fukui, Mitsuru; Wakai, Kenji; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Akiko
The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that fish or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intakes would be inversely associated with risks of mortality from ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, heart failure, stroke, and total cardiovascular disease. Data on associations of dietary intake of fish and of omega-3 PUFA with risk of cardiovascular disease among Asian societies have been limited. We conducted a prospective study consisting of 57,972 Japanese men and women. Dietary intakes of fish and omega-3 PUFA were determined by food frequency questionnaire, and participants were followed up for 12.7 years. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated according to quintiles of fish or omega-3 PUFA intake. We observed generally inverse associations of fish and omega-3 PUFA intakes with risks of mortality from heart failure (multivariable hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for highest versus lowest quintiles = 0.76 [0.53 to 1.09] for fish and 0.58 [0.36 to 0.93] for omega-3 PUFA). Associations with ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction were relatively weak and not statistically significant after adjustment for potential risk factors. Neither fish nor omega-3 PUFA dietary intake was associated with mortality from total stroke, its subtypes, or cardiac arrest. For mortality from total cardiovascular disease, intakes of fish and omega-3 PUFA were associated with 18% to 19% lower risk. We found an inverse association between fish and omega-3 PUFA dietary intakes and cardiovascular mortality, especially for heart failure, suggesting a protective effect of fish intake on cardiovascular diseases.
Stevenson, E G J; Ambelu, A; Caruso, B A; Tesfaye, Y; Freeman, M C
Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to 'improved' sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1) whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2) whether water interventions affect women's psychological distress, and (3) the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality. Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women's psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline); 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI's -3.15, -0.84). We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women's psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p <0.01), independent of household food security and the quality of the previous year's harvest. These results contribute to the construct validity of our
E G J Stevenson
Full Text Available Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to 'improved' sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1 whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2 whether water interventions affect women's psychological distress, and (3 the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality.Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women's psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline; 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI's -3.15, -0.84. We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women's psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p <0.01, independent of household food security and the quality of the previous year's harvest.These results contribute to the construct validity
Full Text Available In response to the low levels of skilled birth attendance in rural Pakistan, the government introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs in 2006. Assessments to-date have found that these CMWs have yet to emerge as significant providers for a number of sociocultural, geographic and financial reasons. However, a small number of CMWs have managed to establish functional practices in the private sector in conservative, infrastructure-challenged rural contexts. With an objective to highlight "what are the successful CMWs doing right given their context?" this paper adopts an asset-based approach to explore the experiences of the Pakistani CMWs who have managed to overcome the barriers and practice. We drew upon ethnographic data that was collected as part of a larger mixed methods study conducted in 2011-2012 in districts Jhelum and Layyah, Pakistan. Thirty eight CMWs, 45 other health care providers, 20 policymakers, 78 women, 35 husbands and 23 older women were interviewed. CMW clinics and practices were observed. Our data showed that only eight 8 out of 38 CMWs sampled were active providers. Poverty as a push factor to work and intrinsic individual-level characteristics that enabled the CMWs to respond successfully to the demands of the midwifery profession in the private sector emerged as the two key themes. Household poverty pushed the CMWs to work in this perceived low-status occupation. Their families supported them since they became the breadwinners. The successful CMWs also had an intrinsic sense of what was required to establish a private practice; they exhibited professionalism, had strong business sense and provided respectful maternity care. The study provides insight into how the program might improve its functioning by adapting its recruitment criteria to ensure selection of right candidates.
Mumtaz, Zubia; Levay, Adrienne V; Bhatti, Afshan
In response to the low levels of skilled birth attendance in rural Pakistan, the government introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs) in 2006. Assessments to-date have found that these CMWs have yet to emerge as significant providers for a number of sociocultural, geographic and financial reasons. However, a small number of CMWs have managed to establish functional practices in the private sector in conservative, infrastructure-challenged rural contexts. With an objective to highlight "what are the successful CMWs doing right given their context?" this paper adopts an asset-based approach to explore the experiences of the Pakistani CMWs who have managed to overcome the barriers and practice. We drew upon ethnographic data that was collected as part of a larger mixed methods study conducted in 2011-2012 in districts Jhelum and Layyah, Pakistan. Thirty eight CMWs, 45 other health care providers, 20 policymakers, 78 women, 35 husbands and 23 older women were interviewed. CMW clinics and practices were observed. Our data showed that only eight 8 out of 38 CMWs sampled were active providers. Poverty as a push factor to work and intrinsic individual-level characteristics that enabled the CMWs to respond successfully to the demands of the midwifery profession in the private sector emerged as the two key themes. Household poverty pushed the CMWs to work in this perceived low-status occupation. Their families supported them since they became the breadwinners. The successful CMWs also had an intrinsic sense of what was required to establish a private practice; they exhibited professionalism, had strong business sense and provided respectful maternity care. The study provides insight into how the program might improve its functioning by adapting its recruitment criteria to ensure selection of right candidates.
30 sept. 2009 ... Beyond Propietorship: Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Book cover Beyond Propietorship: Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern. Directeur(s) : B.B. Mukamuri, J.M. Manjengwa, and S. Anstey. Maison(s) ...
30 sept. 2009 ... Beyond Propietorship : Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Couverture du livre Beyond Propietorship : Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in. Directeur(s) : B.B. Mukamuri, J.M. Manjengwa, et S. Anstey. Maison(s) ...
Introduction: A Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme (CBHI) is any program managed and operated by a community-based organization that provides resource pooling and risk-sharing to cover the costs of health care services. CBHI reduces out of pocket expenditure and is the most appropriate insurance model for ...
Community-based tourism and its potential to improve living conditions among the Hananwa of. Blouberg (Limpopo Province), with particular reference to catering services during winter. ISSN 0378-5254 Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe, Vol 35, 2007. Community-based tourism and its potential to.
A community-based rural development programme by Volunteers Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO), a local NGO in central Uganda, was used as a case to critically explore the community-based environmental education processes. The programme aimed to empower smallholder farmers economically and ...
in home-based care and the implications on people living with HIV/AIDS/TB, their family mem- bers and the CHW. Participants for this qualitative study were drawn from four community home-based care organizations in four marginalized communities in Durban providing care to. HIV/AIDS/TB ... this affects the work of CHW.
Denmark in urban settings (3). Since 85% of the country's population live in rural areas, information from rural community-based morbidity surveillance is essential for health planners. A one-year community based study of under-ﬁves in rural Butajira in 1991 showed. ARI and acute diarrhea to be the most common diseases ...
Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.
In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…
Community-based participatory approach has been used for decades in rural sociology and the humanities in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development and intervention projects. Community-based medical and health education paradigm has become the accepted standard for undergraduate ...
Muth, John W.; Senesh, Lawrence
This guide is designed to aid social studies classroom teachers develop and implement programs using the community as a social sciences laboratory. The document describes how to prepare a social profile of the community. Based upon the Colorado System-Based Social Science Project which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the study…
Jesmin, Syeda S
One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR=4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link.
Mayorga, Magaly Noblega
This article shows risk and protective factors for both physical and emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The study was carried out in a shanty town of Lima, Peru, which has a strong community organization. One hundred ninety-two women between 25 and 59 years old (M = 34.09, SD = 6.5) were interviewed; 44.3% had secondary…
This study examines trends and differences in premarital sex prevalence from 1993 to 2003 among young women aged 15-24 in Kenya and the Philippines in relation to household and community membership. Using population-based Demographic and Health Surveys from these two countries, multilevel logistic models were used to estimate the relationships between premarital sex, community-level factors, and individual/household backgrounds. The results show a significant decline in premarital sex prevalence in Kenya but a significant increase in this in the Philippines, although, overall, premarital sex is more prevalent in Kenya than in the Philippines. Multilevel analyses further found dramatic differences in premarital sex risks across household and community membership and countries. The large difference in premarital sex risks across these countries suggests that policies aimed at promoting reproductive and sexual health among young women should be context specific. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study investigated the strategies for inculcating Home Economics based life (survival) skills among rural women as a panacea for poverty alleviation. The study was a descriptive survey that was based on two research questions. From a population of 1,815 respondents, purposive sampling was used to select a sample ...
Full Text Available Purpose: Women who experience homelessness during pregnancy have poorer birth outcomes than the general population. This exploratory research describes the needs assessment of homeless women currently living at a shelter in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to identify unmet needs related to maternal and infant perinatal health as the first step in designing a mutually beneficial patient-centered service-learning program for medical students to address these needs. Methods: Two 1-hour focus groups were held at a shelter for women who are homeless and/or victims of domestic violence. A total of 13 women participated in each session; four medical students and a physician served as facilitators and scribes at each session. The facilitators alternated asking predetermined open- and close-ended questions, followed by discussion among participants. Questions elicited experiences during pregnancy, what went well, what women living in the shelter struggled with, and what support they wished for but did not have. Scribes captured the conversation through hand-written notes and used content analysis in order of frequency. Results: Thirteen themes were identified. The 5 most frequently identified themes were a need for pregnancy education, access/transportation, baby care, advocacy, and material necessities. Participating shelter residents and the medical students expressed interest in working with one another and forming a long-term partnership with the shelter. Conclusions: Results of this needs assessment will inform the creation of a new shelter-based medical education program that will meet homeless women’s needs while preparing medical students for patient-centered, community-responsive care.
Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie
In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCloskey, Laura A
The aim of this research is to understand how gender-based violence across the life-course affects the likelihood of abortion. Women outpatients (n = 309) revealed their exposure to four different forms of gender-based abuse: child sexual abuse (25.7 percent), teenage physical dating violence (40.8 percent), intimate partner violence (43.1 percent), and sexual assault outside an intimate relationship (22 percent). Logistic regressions revealed that no single form of gender-based abuse predict...
Affonso, D D; Mayberry, L J; Graham, K; Shibuya, J; Kunimoto, J
Given the problems of access, retention, and relevant prenatal care content, supplements to existing programs for health-care delivery during pregnancy and after birth are necessary. This article describes a community-based approach to prenatal and postpartum care that has been developed to address these issues. Culturally sensitive strategies were created for use with Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese women living on the island of Hawaii. Six nursing care and community outreach interventions were used. Local public health nurses assisted in developing the program and are responsible for its coordination and implementation.
Stacy, Elizabeth; Wisener, Katherine; Liman, Yolanda; Beznosova, Olga; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Ho, Kendall; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra
Rural communities, particularly Aboriginal communities, often have limited access to health information, a situation that can have significant negative consequences. To address the lack of culturally and geographically relevant health information, a community-university partnership was formed to develop, implement, and evaluate Aboriginal Community Learning Centres (CLCs). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the community-based research process used in the development of the CLCs. It focuses on the process of building relationships among partners and the CLC's value and sustainability. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including principal investigators, community research leads, and supervisors. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an open-coding process to identify themes. Key challenges included enacting shared project governance, negotiating different working styles, and hiring practices based on commitment to project objectives rather than skill set. Technological access provided by the CLCs increased capacity for learning and collective community initiatives, as well as building community leads' skills, knowledge, and self-efficacy. An important lesson was to meet all partners "where they are" in building trusting relationships and adapting research methods to fit the project's context and strengths. Successful results were dependent upon persistence and patience in working through differences, and breaking the project into achievable goals, which collectively contributed to trust and capacity building. The process of building these partnerships resulted in increased capacity of communities to facilitate learning and change initiatives, and the capacity of the university to engage in successful research partnerships with Aboriginal communities in the future.
Arcaya, Mariana; Reardon, Timothy; Vogel, Joshua; Andrews, Bonnie K; Li, Wenjun; Land, Thomas
Community-based approaches to preventing chronic diseases are attractive because of their broad reach and low costs, and as such, are integral components of health care reform efforts. Implementing community-based initiatives across Massachusetts' municipalities presents both programmatic and evaluation challenges. For effective delivery and evaluation of the interventions, establishing a community typology that groups similar municipalities provides a balanced and cost-effective approach. Through a series of key informant interviews and exploratory data analysis, we identified 55 municipal-level indicators of 6 domains for the typology analysis. The domains were health behaviors and health outcomes, housing and land use, transportation, retail environment, socioeconomics, and demographic composition. A latent class analysis was used to identify 10 groups of municipalities based on similar patterns of municipal-level indicators across the domains. Our model with 10 latent classes yielded excellent classification certainty (relative entropy = .995, minimum class probability for any class = .871), and differentiated distinct groups of municipalities based on health-relevant needs and resources. The classes differentiated healthy and racially and ethnically diverse urban areas from cities with similar population densities and diversity but worse health outcomes, affluent communities from lower-income rural communities, and mature suburban areas from rapidly suburbanizing communities with different healthy-living challenges. Latent class analysis is a tool that may aid in the planning, communication, and evaluation of community-based wellness initiatives such as Community Transformation Grants projects administrated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a serious public health issue with recognizable direct health consequences. This study assessed the association between IPV and traumatic physical health consequences on women in Nigeria, given that communities exert significant influence on the individuals that are embedded within them, with the nature of influence varying between communities. Methods Cross-sectional nationally-representative data of women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used in this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between IPV and several forms of physical health consequences. Results Bruises were the most common form of traumatic physical health consequences. In the adjusted models, the likelihood of sustaining bruises (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.05 - 3.46, wounds (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.31 - 4.95, and severe burns (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.63 - 6.28 was significantly higher for women exposed to IPV compared to those not exposed to IPV. However, after adjusting for individual- and community-level factors, women with husbands/partners with controlling behavior, those with primary or no education, and those resident in communities with high tolerance for wife beating had a higher likelihood of experiencing IPV, whilst mean community-level education and women 24 years or younger were at lower likelihood of experiencing IPV. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that exposure to IPV is associated with increased likelihood of traumatic physical consequences for women in Nigeria. Education and justification of wife beating were significant community-level factors associated with traumatic physical consequences, suggesting the importance of increasing women's levels of education and changing community norms that justify controlling behavior and IPV.
Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ≥40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity. PMID:22195529
Okafor, I M; Okpokam, D C; Antai, A B; Usanga, E A
Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy. Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were significantly higher (prural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among pregnant women from Okoyong when compared to those from Calabar. It was also shown that pregnant women in their third trimesters and multigravidae had the highest prevalence of iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia while prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia were higher in primigravidae and the pregnant women in their second trimester. In conclusion, this
Melinda K Munos
Full Text Available Like many developing countries, Mali has few sources of mortality data. High quality mortality estimates are available from household surveys, such as the demographic and health surveys (DHS, approximately every five years, making it difficult to track progress in reducing mortality. The Rapid Mortality Monitoring (RMM project in Mali aimed to address this issue by testing a community-based approach to measuring under-five mortality on a yearly basis.Seventy-eight community-based workers (relais were identified in 20 villages comprising approximately 5,300 households. The relais reported pregnancies, births, and under-five deaths from July, 2012 to November, 2013. Data were double-entered, reconciled, cleaned, and analyzed monthly. In November-December 2013, we administered a full pregnancy history (FPH to women of reproductive age in a census of the households in the project villages. We assessed the completeness of the counts of births and deaths, and the validity of under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates from the community-based method against the retrospective FPH for two rolling twelve-month periods. Monthly reporting by relais was high, with reports on pregnancies, births, and deaths consistently provided from all 78 relais catchment areas. Relais reported 1,660 live births and 276 under-five deaths from July, 2012 to November, 2013. The under-five mortality rate calculated from the relais data was similar to that estimated using the validation survey, where the overall ratios of the community-based to FPH-based mortality rates for the reporting periods were 100.4 (95% CI: 80.4, 120.5 and 100.8 (95% CI: 79.5, 122.0.On a small scale, the community-based method in Mali produced estimates of annualized under-five mortality rates that were consistent with those obtained from a FPH. The community-based method should be considered for scale-up in Mali, with appropriate measures to ensure community engagement, data quality, and cross
Jiao, Pengfei; Lyu, Haodong; Li, Xiaoming; Yu, Wei; Wang, Wenjun
To understand time-evolving networks, researchers should not only concentrate on the community structures, an essential property of complex networks, in each snapshot, but also study the internal evolution of the entire networks. Temporal communities provide insights into such mechanism, i.e., how the communities emerge, expand, shrink, merge, split and decay over time. Based on the symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF), we present a dynamic model to detect temporal communities, which not only could find a well community structure in a given snapshot but also demands the results bear some similarity to the partition obtained from the previous snapshot. Moreover, our method can handle the situation that of the number of community changes in the networks. Also, a gradient descent algorithm is proposed to optimize the objective function of the model. Experimental results on both the synthetic and real-world networks indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-art methods for temporal community detection.
Laura J. Samuel
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between financial strain, or difficulty acquiring necessities, and malnutrition risk in a community dwelling sample of frail and nonfrail women aged 70–79 in the Women’s Health and Aging Study (n=679. Malnutrition risk was measured with a modified version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF and defined as a score <11, financial strain was measured by (1 sufficiency of money on a monthly basis and (2 adequacy of income for food, and income was measured by ordinal categories. Mean (SD modified MNA-SF score was 12.2 (1.80, and 14.7% of women had malnutrition risk. Women who usually did not have enough money to make ends meet had more than four-fold increased odds of malnutrition risk (OR=4.54; 95% CI: 2.26, 9.14 compared to their counterparts who had some money left over each month. This was only slightly attenuated after control for income and education, (OR=4.08; 95% CI: 1.95, 8.52 remaining robust. These results show an association between financial strain and malnutrition risk, independent of income, in older women. Self-reported financial strain may be preferable to income as a screener for malnutrition risk in older adults in clinical and research settings.
This grant will support a capacity-building and applied research project on community wireless networking in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Researchers will review, update and adapt 18 existing online thematic modules, and design seven new ones. A group of wireless experts with expertise in the social impacts ...
The Carnegie and W.K. Kellogg Foundations, European Union, UK and Canadian research councils, and the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada have promoted CBR partnerships as higher education engagement strategies. Community-university research partnerships are evolving internationally, with ...
Consequently,. LEK may be seen as the means by which indigenous people interact sustainably with their surrounding environment. In improving the sustainable use of natural resources by local communities, the transmission of LEK has become an important consideration in natural-resource management, the reason ...
Fantl, J A; Wyman, J F; McClish, D K; Bump, R C
Descriptive data on 145 community-dwelling older women with urinary incontinence are presented. Assessment included history, physical and functional examinations, and urodynamic and severity evaluations. Patients were 67 +/- 8 years old, mentally and functionally intact, predominantly white, and of middle-to-upper socioeconomic strata. Specific urodynamic criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of sphincteric incompetence and detrusor instability. Fifteen (10%) did not fulfill either criteria, 90 (62%) had sphincteric incompetence, 17 (12%) had detrusor instability, and 23 (16%) had both. Detrusor and urethral function variables showed some impairment in all patients. Impairment was least in subjects without demonstrable diagnosis and worst in those with both disorders (p less than 0.01). The findings suggest that detrusor and urethral functions are impaired in all incontinent women and that the degree of impairment varies. The impairment seems worse when both urodynamic diagnoses are demonstrable. The data support the pathophysiologic association of urethral and detrusor dysfunctions.
Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman’s perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%, discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.
Laganà, Luciana; Bloom, David William; Ainsworth, Andrew
Urinary Incontinence (UI) affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman's perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%), discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.
Johnson, Katherine M; Paley, Frances M; Modest, Anna M; Hacker, Michele R; Shaughnessy, Sabine; Ricciotti, Hope A; Scott, Jennifer
To describe the relationship between resilience and mental health and psychosocial characteristics in the prenatal period. A prospective cohort pilot study was conducted among English-speaking women aged 18 years or older with singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks' duration who received prenatal care at an urban community health center in the USA between March and October 2014. Surveys were administered and a retrospective chart review was conducted. Resilience and depression were measured using validated scales and anxiety was self-reported. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Thirty women participated. The median resilience score was 82.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 74.0-92.0). Median resilience scores were significantly lower among women with a history of depression (73.0 [IQR 66.0-81.0]) than among those without a history (85.0 [IQR 79.0-92.0]; P=0.007). A history of using medication for anxiety, depression, or insomnia before pregnancy was also associated with lower resilience (median 74.0 [IQR 64.5-80.0] vs 83.5 [IQR 79.0-92.0]; P=0.029). Neither anxiety nor substance use was associated with resilience. Higher resilience was associated with religious affiliation and having adequate financial resources (both Presilience in pregnancy. These data inform a strengths-based approach to prenatal care and future research endeavors. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.
Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.
Bruner, B G; Chad, K E
Overweight and obesity are increasing concerns among Aboriginal women, and lifestyle behaviours (i.e. dietary patterns and physical activity) are considered to be contributing factors. The present study aimed to explore the social, cultural, behavioural and environmental factors influencing diet intake from a trans-generational perspective and to characterise the dietary practices among Woodland Cree women. A mixed methods design using a concurrent triangulation approach explored the factors influencing diet intake and healthy eating among First Nations women on a reserve community in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Dietary practices were assessed using 24-h recalls. Dietary analysis revealed low intake of fruits and vegetables and milk and alternatives in the sample, with high intake of 'other' foods. Limited amounts of traditional food (TF) were reported. Taste primarily influenced food choice, with a preference for TF highlighted among older participants. Healthy eating was considered to be a health-promoting behaviour, yet a lack of availability, high costs and difficulties accessing various foods were the most noted barriers to healthy eating. The dietary practices in this sample indicate the limited consumption and variety of TF and fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of 'other' foods, which suggests inadequate intakes of various vitamins and nutrients. The findings from a trans-generational perspective highlight various barriers across the age groups that can substantially impact food choices, and reinforces the need for community and age-specific strategies to address issues of exposure, accessibility and affordability to nutritious foods that improve the diet and preserve cultural identity among residents living in reserve communities. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
In any community you can find people--often a lot of people--who value the arts and support the idea of providing a place where young people can share in creating artistic products. Community-based arts programs support positive youth development in city neighborhoods and in smaller towns across America. Research has found connections between…
An increasing number of community colleges (CCs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are now working in partnership to develop education and training programs enabling low-income workers to gain the education and skills necessary to obtain higher-wage jobs and develop a foundation for lifelong learning and career advancement. The following…
Litwack-Harrison, Stephanie; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Kado, Deborah M.; Deyo, Richard A.; Makris, Una E.; Carlson, Hans L.; Nevitt, Michael C.
Background. Back pain and falls are common health conditions among older U.S. women. The extent to which back pain is an independent risk factor for falls has not been established. Methods. We conducted a prospective study among 6,841 community-dwelling U.S. women at least 65 years of age from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Baseline questionnaires inquired about any back pain, pain severity, and frequency in the past year. During 1 year of follow-up, falls were summed from self-reports obtained every 4 months. Two outcomes were studied: recurrent falls (≥2 falls) and any fall (≥1 fall). Associations of back pain and each fall outcome were estimated with risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable log-binomial regression. Adjustments were made for age, education, smoking status, fainting history, hip pain, stroke history, vertebral fracture, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results. Most (61%) women reported any back pain. During follow-up, 10% had recurrent falls and 26% fell at least once. Any back pain relative to no back pain was associated with a 50% increased risk of recurrent falls (multivariable RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Multivariable RRs for recurrent falls were significantly elevated for all back pain symptoms, ranging from 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) for mild back pain to 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) for activity-limiting back pain. RRs of any fall were also significantly increased albeit smaller than those for recurrent falls. Conclusions. Older community-dwelling women with a recent history of back pain are at increased risk for falls. PMID:26757988
Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.
Alcohol use and related problems can be influenced by a wide variety of prevention interventions, including efforts that focus on changing the community alcohol environment—for example, by reducing underage access to alcohol, decreasing alcohol availability among adults, and increasing awareness of alcohol-related issues. Examples of environmental-based community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems are Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol, the Communi...
N. P. Taukobong
Full Text Available Backgound: The aim of community based clinical training is tproduce graduates who are responsive to the health needs of their communit It is envisaged that upon completion of training graduates would go back an serve their respective communities following exposure to community need Program evaluation should therefore allow students to express the inadequacie and strengths of the program.Aim: To evaluate the community-based clinical program through student's experiences.Methodology: A qualitative research design was used. End of block students reports for both third (8 and fourth (15 year physiotherapy students (n = 23 were used to collect the data. Responses in the reports were grouped into the following categories for purpose of data analysis: feeling about the block, suggestion/s and supervision.Results: The students described the community based clinical program as an unique learning experience which equipped them with the understanding of life within communities. Sixty five percent (65% expressed satisfaction with the supervision given. The main complaints were amounts of paper work involved and clinical workload.Conclusion: The student's experiences indicated that the community-based clinical program within the MEDUNSA physiotherapy department realizes the goal of community-based clinical training as determined by WHO, except for inclusion of some multi-professional approaches and adaptation of the supervision provided.
Carvalheira, Ana; Leal, Isabel
Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reported incidence between men and women. The goal of this study was to explore (a) the age at initiation and frequency of masturbation, (b) the associations of masturbation with diverse variables, (c) the reported reasons for masturbating and associated emotions, and (d) the relation between frequency of masturbation and different sexual behavioral factors. Participants were 3,687 women who completed a web-based survey of previously pilot-tested items. The results reveal a high reported incidence of masturbation practices among this convenience sample of women. Among the women in this sample, 91% indicated that they had masturbated at some point in their lives, and 29.3% reported having masturbated within the past month. Masturbation behavior appears to be related to a greater sexual repertoire, more sexual fantasies, and greater reported ease in reaching sexual arousal and orgasm. Women reported many reasons for masturbation and a variety of direct and indirect techniques. A minority of women reported feeling shame and guilt associated with masturbation. Early masturbation experience might be beneficial to sexual arousal and orgasm in adulthood. Further, this study demonstrates that masturbation is a positive component in the structuring of female sexuality.
This paper highlights the findings pertaining to profiles of abortion seekers, reasons for induced abortions and methods used, and treatment for post-abortion complications (PACs). This paper is a review of community studies on induced abortion in Pakistan between 1969 and 2010, including the Induced Abortion Survey (IAS) 2010, in which the author took part. Findings from the review show that the profile of abortion seekers has remained by and large that of uneducated women aged over 30 with at least three children. A predominant reason for seeking abortion was contraceptive failure. Providers fall into both trained and untrained categories, yet complication rates are high even when women believe that they are going to safe providers in clinics or hospital settings. Dilation and curettage (D&C) (or evacuation) predominates among methods used while the use of folk methods may be on the decline. The IAS shows that women seek assistance for complications sooner than earlier studies have found. The review shows that despite a perceived stigma around the subject, community-level research is possible and further studies need to be done in other parts of the country. The paper concludes with suggestions for more community studies to explore these findings further and capture the diversity of the Pakistani context. It also suggests that advocacy and further research into the role of "semi-safe" providers be explored.
Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T; Post, Douglas M; Paskett, Electra D
To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18-26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture.
Piskorowski, Wilhelm A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Mastey, Jerry; Krell, Rachel E
Increasing the use of community-based programs is an important trend in improving dental education to meet the needs of students and the public. To support this trend, understanding the history of programs that have established successful models for community-based education is valuable for the creation and development of new programs. The community-based education model of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry (UMSOD) offers a useful guide for understanding the essential steps and challenges involved in developing a successful program. Initial steps in program development were as follows: raising funds, selecting an outreach clinical model, and recruiting clinics to become partners. As the program developed, the challenges of creating a sustainable financial model with the highest educational value required the inclusion of new clinical settings and the creation of a unique revenue-sharing model. Since the beginning of the community-based program at UMSOD in 2000, the number of community partners has increased to twenty-seven clinics, and students have treated thousands of patients in need. Fourth-year students now spend a minimum of ten weeks in community-based clinical education. The community-based program at UMSOD demonstrates the value of service-based education and offers a sustainable model for the development of future programs.
Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.
Objectives To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in older women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Four US clinical centers. Participants 3045 community-dwelling women ≥70 years. Measurements Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as “normal” (0–2, referent), “some depressive symptoms” (3–5), or “depressed” (≥6). Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, there were graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and both worse subjective sleep quality and more subjective daytime sleepiness (p-trends depressive symptoms (OR 1.82, CI 1.48–2.24) and depressed (OR 2.84, CI 2.08–3.86) women had greater odds of reporting poor sleep (PSQI>5). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.97, CI 1.47–2.64) and depressed women (OR 1.70, CI 1.12–2.58) had greater odds of reporting excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS>10). There were also graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and objectively measured wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p-trend = 0.030) and long wake episodes >5 minutes (p-trend 0.006). Depressed women had modestly increased odds of WASO ≥1 hour (OR 1.37, CI 1.03–1.83). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.49, CI 1.19–1.86) and depressed women (OR 2.04, CI 1.52–2.74) had greater odds of being in the highest quartile for number of nap episodes >5 minutes. No associations between depressive symptom level and prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, or reduced or increased total sleep time were found. Conclusion Greater depressive symptom levels were associated with more subjective sleep disturbance and objective evidence of sleep fragmentation and napping. PMID
Rissel, Chris E; New, Carolyn; Wen, Li Ming; Merom, Dafna; Bauman, Adrian E; Garrard, Jan
.... The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC) Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses...
Richerson, Julia; Pendleton, Amber; Davis, Deborah Winders
Early childhood is an important period for development. Parents play an important role in structuring children's physical and psychosocial environments. Much remains unknown about the best methods for engaging parents in health promotion programs. It is critical that programs meet the needs of the families while encouraging the use of positive parenting strategies. The article describes how one pediatrician used the American Academy of Pediatrics' Community Access to Child Health grant program to develop and implement The Arts of Parenting program with input from predominantly low-income families. A community mapping and needs assessment was conducted as well as stakeholder interviews and parent focus groups to determine the needs of the families with preschoolers. Family programs that are centered in play and the arts provide families with a supportive environment in which to engage their children and learn about their child's socioemotional development, and build a network with neighborhood peers.
Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K; Dean, Kyle C; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M; Romeo, Edna
Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines the impact of community violence on a school-based research program. It is also a brief summary of the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence on psychological and academic functioning and health outcomes. An example of the impact of community violence on the implementation of a school-based asthma program will be addressed. Implications for school nurses will be discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger; Zhang, Jiapeng; Li, Virginia; Li, Jianhua
This study evaluated a community-based program in China to prevent initiation of drug use in young men. Similar intervention and control areas were selected. Village leaders, teachers, and women and youth leaders were recruited to participate in the program. Community activities were organized and intervention activities in schools were implemented. Incidence of new drug users was estimated. There was a 2.7-fold greater reduction in drug use initiation in the intervention area (1.59% vs 0.60%). Reduction was highest among males aged 15 to 19, single men, illiterate men, and the Jingpo minority. HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes and recognition of drug problems were all significantly better in the intervention area. Community-based intervention programs to prevent drug use can be successful in rural areas of China.