WorldWideScience

Sample records for communities case studies

  1. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  2. Issues for Community Development: Some Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Quintin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Community Development in Areas of Political and Social Conflict" (Oliver); "Women and Development in Peru" (Barrig); "Some Reflections on Community Development Experiences in Brazil" (O'Gorman); "Informal Networks for Pre-School Children in a Black Community in South Africa" (Lines); "The…

  3. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  4. Collaborative Communities Through Coproduction : Two Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, Margreet A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.; Stokman, Frans N.

    2014-01-01

    Many local councils aim to (re)connect citizens to public planning. This article presents the Collaborative Communities through Coproduction (3C) method as a way to establish cooperation between residents and professionals in improving neighborhood livabiliy. The authors describe common challenges t

  5. Community Development Strategic Planning with a Focus on Social Variables, Case study: Tollab Community of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mafi

    2012-01-01

    and strategic planning and systemic planning displaced. Strategy means having central long term aims and thinking about their access methods. Strategic planning is a systematic planning method in making continuity among priority action by considering pros and cons (abilities and resources of organization and opportunities and threats (outer factors and affective cases on organization with essential procedure to reach organization mission. This study tries to reply three following questions:-. Where are we now?-. Where do we want to go?-. How do we reach that?Various models are introduced for strategic planning procedure, but their communal property is their cycling and planning process, at this manner that they begin from inner and outer periphery recognition and after underpinning the strategies lead to executive phase and all phases evaluate and feedback affects are checked. SWOT model in terms of date consequence is last model in underpinning strategic planning that is one of the most efficient among qualitative models. From this model᾿s point of view, an appropriate strategy makes strengths and opportunities extreme and weaknesses and threats at least. In executive phase of SWOT avoiding of weaknesses and threats is necessary and must consider the weaknesses as potential to making strength and threats as a power to making opportunity.2-2- Community DevelopmentOne of the negative effects of traditional comprehensive plans is gravitating toward totalism and incorporating the methods and solutions and for reaction to compensate this basic deficient, the strategic planning trends to planning and designing in small scales and human tangible subjects in community domain. Thus, nowadays urban planning and management attention assigned to lower and more objective levels of urban life, community is most appropriate base to access to urban sustainable development, cause ecologic relationships to general experiences and under community covenant and stakeholder moral

  6. Demystifying Virtual Communities of Practice: A Case Study of IBM

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    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study is to empirically explore the nature of virtual communities of practice (CoP) in a global organisation within the context of its International Corporate Volunteer (ICV) Program. This study investigates whether and how the use of virtual CoP evolves and becomes embedded within this organization. Following…

  7. Ecotourism and community development: case studies from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mike; Wall, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    The connections between people, parks, and tourism have received significant attention in recent years, recognizing the potential for mutually beneficial relationships. Ecotourism has been promoted and widely adopted as a strategy for funding conservation initiatives, while at the same time contributing to the socioeconomic development of host communities and providing for quality tourism experiences. Parks are among the most common ecotourism destinations. Employing interviews, observations and secondary sources, this study assesses the current status of ecotourism at two protected areas in Hainan, China, where it is being promoted as a strategy for balancing regional economic growth and conservation objectives. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage at both study sites. Socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been limited and tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date. Community residents, nevertheless, generally support conservation and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. In light of the study findings and the salient literature, planning direction is offered with the intention of enhancing the capacity of ecotourism to generate benefits for both communities and the parks, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally. Lessons derived have broad applicability for ecotourism destinations elsewhere.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study in Community Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Henry, James

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a collaborative approach to the case management of child sexual abuse. Data from 323 criminal court files found a sex offense confession rate of 64 percent and plea rate of 70 percent. Fifteen cases went to trial and in six the offender was convicted. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Establishing a Learning Community to Support Research and Scholarly Training: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of learning communities as defined in the literature. An existing case study is described, and the issues that facilitated and constrained the development of this learning community are considered and discussed. Strategies to address threats to the ongoing viability and usefulness of a learning community to support…

  10. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  11. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community college…

  12. Rural Governance, Community Empowerment and the New Institutionalism: A Case Study of the Isle of Wight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Southern, Rebekah; Beer, Julian

    2007-01-01

    This article compares two different institutional models--state-sponsored rural partnerships and community-based development trusts--for engaging and empowering local communities in area-based regeneration, using the Isle of Wight as a case study. Following a critical review of the literature on community governance, we evaluate the effectiveness…

  13. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of legitimac

  14. Case Study: Nashville. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  15. Case Study: Philadelphia. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  16. A 17-Year Case Study of an Elementary School's Journey: From Traditional School to Learning Community to Democratic School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, Jean McGregor; Vaughn, Courtney Ann; O'Hair, Mary John

    2006-01-01

    This case study explores one elementary school's 17-year evolution from a traditional Title I elementary school into a learning community and, eventually, a high-achieving democratic school community. The investigation adds specificity and context to the existing theoretical framework outlining this change process. The school's journey is…

  17. Bacterial communities in tetrachloroethene-polluted groundwaters: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, Michael; Davidová, Anna; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-06-01

    The compositions of bacterial groundwater communities of three sites contaminated with chlorinated ethenes were analyzed by pyrosequencing their 16S rRNA genes. For each location, the entire and the active bacterial populations were characterized by independent molecular analysis of the community DNA and RNA. The sites were selected to cover a broad range of different environmental conditions and contamination levels, with tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) being the primary contaminants. Before sampling the biomass, a long-term monitoring of the polluted locations revealed high concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), which are toxic by-products of the incomplete bacterial degradation of PCE and TCE. The applied pyrosequencing technique enabled known dechlorinators to be identified at a very low detection level (study revealed that only a few species dominated the bacterial communities, with Albidiferax ferrireducens being the only highly prominent member found at all three sites. Only a limited number of OTUs with abundances of up to 1% and high sequence identities to known dechlorinating microorganisms were retrieved from the RNA pools of the two highly contaminated sites. The dechlorinating consortium was likely to be comprised of cDCE-assimilating bacteria (Polaromonas spp.), anaerobic organohalide respirers (mainly Geobacter spp.), and Burkholderia spp. involved in cometabolic dechlorination processes, together with methylotrophs (Methylobacter spp.). The deep sequencing results suggest that the indigenous dechlorinating consortia present at the investigated sites can be used as a starting point for future bioremediation activities by stimulating their anaerobic and aerobic chloroethene degradation capacities (i.e. reductive dechlorination, and metabolic and cometabolic oxidation).

  18. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  19. Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a

  20. A Community Case Study on Underage Drinking Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    The National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives (NAGHSR), with funding from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), pilot tested a comprehensive underage drinking prevention program in a number of communities across the country. In 1995, NAGHSR launched the effort in five communities, which received…

  1. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality.

  2. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  3. Project-Based Learning Communities in Developmental Education: A Case Study of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alison; Christofili, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This case study tracks the application of project-based learning (PBL) during four separate college terms at Portland Community College in Portland, Oregon. Each term follows a different learning community of first-term college students enrolled in a program of developmental education (DE), reading, writing, math, and college survival and success…

  4. How Macromedia Used Blogs to Build Its Developers' Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    Business organizations are using blogs as a conversational technology to help build a community of practice where knowledge exchange and sharing actively take place. This case study examines how Macromedia used blogs to build its developers' communities and become more organizationally effective. Four major types of interactions between the…

  5. Cultural Capital and Innovative Pedagogy: A Case Study among Indigenous Communities in Mexico and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorcic, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…

  6. Auditing and Evaluating University-Community Engagement: Lessons from a UK Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Angie; Northmore, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The growing importance of community and public engagement activities in universities has led to an increasing emphasis on auditing and evaluating university-community partnerships. However, the development of effective audit and evaluation tools is still at a formative stage. This article presents a case study of the University of Brighton's…

  7. Leadership to Build a Democratic Community within School: A Case Study of Two Korean High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the…

  8. Digital Technology, Diabetes and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Case Study with Elderly Women from the Vietnamese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Ben; Gill, Gurjeet K.; Babacan, Hurriyet; Donahoo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To report the processes and outcomes of a case study on digital technology, diabetes and culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Design: The qualitative study was based on a literature review, consultations and testing of a framework through workshops and an interactive information session. Setting: Consultations,…

  9. Community College Budgeting and Financial Planning Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Soon after his election in 1995, Kentucky governor Paul E. Patton instituted a plan to restructure the commonwealth's system of postsecondary education to create a more efficient system designed to prepare Kentuckians for jobs in the new era. While Patton looked at all of postsecondary education, he focused on the 29 community and technical…

  10. Case Study of Capacity Building for Smoke-Free Indoor Air in Two Rural Wisconsin Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Mahon, MS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite national declines in smoking prevalence, disparities that pose challenges to tobacco control efforts exist among rural manufacturing populations. This community case study sought to better understand the dynamics and nuances that facilitate or impede capacity-building efforts in rural communities.ContextTwo rural manufacturing communities in Wisconsin with similar demographic characteristics were chosen for study. One represented farming communities with close proximity to a metropolitan area, and the other represented more isolated communities.MethodsThe qualitative case study used a collaborative approach to collect data in four areas of research: 1 community context, 2 coalition functioning, 3 partnerships, and 4 strategy implementation. Data were analyzed using standard content analysis and triangulated for clarity and consistency.ConsequencesAlthough not all the factors found to influence capacity-building efforts were unique to rural environments, the effects were impacted by rural isolation, small population sizes, local attitudes and beliefs, and lack of diversity and resources. Differences in coalition leadership and strategy implementation influenced the effectiveness of the capacity-building efforts in each community, bringing attention to the unique nature of individual contexts.InterpretationImplementing capacity-building efforts in rural communities requires skilled and dedicated local leaders who have ready access to training and support (i.e., technical, emotional, and financial. Pairing of rural communities with greater use of distance technologies offers a cost-effective approach to reduce isolation and the constraints of financial and human resources.

  11. The Teacher and the Community: A Case Study of Teacher-Community Relations among the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…

  12. Innovation technological energetics in rural communities. Case of study community of “Manantiales”, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Olalde Font

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is framed in the analysis of impacts in the local development starting from the taking of decisions on projects of rural energy in Cuban communities that have as economic main activity the agricultural sector, illustrated the results of a case study where the technological most viable options are selected under the optics of the improvement of indicators of community resources. The methods and used materials are characteristic of a field work with application model are characterized for the taking of decisions in the energy area and their sources SURE, as geographical region the community isolated rural “Manantiales” linked to the agrarian sector in the republic of Cuba and the present period review in the thematic one approached. The main indicators are sketched in each resource of the rural community under the optics of the SURE in their version 3.0, as well the characterization of the prediction of the impacts at each technological option on the resources, is exhibited a mean of impacts and the classification of the technologies according to the level of achievements contribute to the indicators of community resources, obtaining as a result that the hydro energy technology is the most viable option with a value of 100 points in the scale from 0 to 100, followed by the GRID with 91.11 and of the photovoltaic systems based on silicon panels with 90.57, in this case all technologies contribute a significant level of achievements to the local community development.

  13. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  14. Probing community nurses' professional basis: a situational case study in diabetic foot ulcer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun; Laursen, Anders Christian; Bermark, Susan; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian

    2017-03-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers.

  15. Resettlement of communities The case study of Jaguaribara: A resilient community (Northeast of Brazil

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    Isabelle Amorim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the displacement of the inhabitants of Jaguaribara (Northeast Brazil who were resettled due to the construction of the “Castanhao”. #e Government planned a new city to shelter the inhabitants from “Old Jaguaribara” that was $ooded due to the over$owing of the dam. #e case of Jaguaribara provides another perspective for analysing the consequences of the resettlement of the community, elucidating - besides the impoverishment risks - the protective factors that came up during the process of resistance against the construction of the dam, in the light of the concept of resilience. In order to capture the various dimensions of this process, qualitative primary data were used as the main source, together with documentation made by NGOs and professionals involved during the process of resistance against the construction of the dam, as well as semi-structured interviews. #e enhancement of resilience in Jaguaribara represented the possibility to transform isolated individuals into a powerful integrated group that could combine forces, catalyse collective gains as well as articulate and defend common interests.

  16. A Case Study of How Professional Learning Communities Influence Morale and Rigor in the Classroom

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    McDonough, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how professional learning communities influence teacher morale and rigor in the classroom. Participants of the study consisted of six to eight core subject teachers from two 4-A high school campuses in southeast Texas. Two focus group interviews were conducted, one at each school, and…

  17. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

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    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  18. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

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    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

  19. The keys to governance and stakeholder engagement: the southeast michigan beacon community case study.

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    Des Jardins, Terrisca R

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals.

  20. Innovative community services for rape victims: an application of multiple case study methodology.

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    Campbell, R; Ahrens, C E

    1998-08-01

    A qualitative multiple case study design was used to examine communities across the United States that have developed coordinated community-based programs to assist rape victims. Previous studies have suggested that coordinated community programs help victims obtain needed resources and services. This study provided a follow-up examination of how and why these programs are helpful to rape victims. In-depth interviews were conducted with rape victim advocates, rape crisis center directors, police officers, prosecutors, doctors, nurses, and rape survivors from 22 communities with coordinated programs. A comparison sample of 22 communities with fewer coordinated programs was also obtained. Results indicated that the high coordination communities had three types of programs to address sexual assault: coordinated service programs, interagency training programs, and community-level reform groups. Although not all of these programs directly address service delivery for rape victims, they help create a community culture that is more responsive to victims' needs. The research team and participants developed an explanatory model of why these program are effective in addressing rape victims' needs. This model hypothesizes that coordinated programs reflect an understanding of the multiple contexts of service delivery and embody that knowledge in services that are consistent with victims' needs. Narrative data from the interviews with service providers and rape survivors are used to develop and support this model.

  1. The Hannibal Community Survey; A Case Study in a Community Development Technique.

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    Croll, John A.

    Disturbed by the community's negative attitude toward its prospects for progress, the Hannibal (Missouri) Chamber of Commerce initiated a community self-survey to improve the situation. The questionnaire survey concentrated on felt needs relationg to city government, retail facilities and services, recreation, religion, education, industrial…

  2. The value of community participation in disease surveillance: a case study from Niger.

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    Ndiaye, Serigne M; Quick, Linda; Sanda, Ousmane; Niandou, Seydou

    2003-06-01

    A team of researchers, including one behavioral scientist (S.M.N.) and three epidemiologists (L.Q., O.S. and S.N.) conducted community analyses to assess the social and cultural factors that affect the detection and reporting of disease cases in a surveillance system, using acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Niger as a case study. Over a 60-day period in the country, the research team reviewed written field reports and interviewed epidemiologists, nurses, community members and persons in governmental and non-governmental organizations. Overall, we found that the logistical difficulties of travel and communication, which are common in developing countries, constrain the conventional surveillance system that relies on epidemiologists visiting sites to discover and investigate cases, particularly in rural areas. Other challenges include: community members' lack of knowledge about the possible link between a case of paralysis and a dangerous, communicable disease; lack of access to health care, including the low number of clinics and health care workers; cultural beliefs that favor seeking a local healer before consulting a nurse or physician; and health workers' lack of training in AFP surveillance. The quality of surveillance in developing countries can improve if a community-based approach is adopted. Such a system has been used successfully in Niger during smallpox-eradication and guinea worm-control campaigns. In a community-based system, community members receive basic education or more extensive training to motivate and enable them to notify health care staff about possible cases of disease in a timely fashion. Local organizations, local projects and local leaders must be included to ensure the success of such a program. In Niger we found sufficient quantities of this type of social capital, along with enough local experience of past health campaigns, to suggest that a community-based approach can improve the level of comprehensiveness and sensitivity

  3. Community Participation and Policy in Educational Reform Efforts: A Case Study of Knott County, Kentucky.

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    Dixon, Marion W.

    A case study of an economically distressed rural Kentucky school district examined the theory that educational policy can enable community participation and that participation can enable policy implementation by affecting school governance and expanding the services provided. Primary data were gathered via interviews with four parent participants,…

  4. Community of Practice or Affinity Space: A Case Study of a Professional Development MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle M. L.; Stephens, Michael; Branch-Mueller, Jennifer; de Groot, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have brought about new questions regarding the construction of virtual learning environments and course delivery systems. One such question that researchers and instructors alike are considering is the role of community in learning spaces. This paper uses a professional development (PD) MOOC as a case study to…

  5. The Impact of Management Decision-Making on Student Success in Community Colleges: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Albert G.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined a multi-college community college district in northern California in a primarily rural area, to understand how their practices compared to management best practices designed to improve student success, barriers that may exist in implementing best practices, and how the institution may improve its own practices. The problem…

  6. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  7. Relationship Depth in Community Food Security: Lessons from a Case Study of the Campus Kitchens Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelheber, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an instrumental case study of one branch of the nationally networked food recovery and redistribution program, the Campus Kitchens Project (CKP). Inquiry is focused on developing a better understanding of the relationship between this CKP branch and its community partners, as well as recognizing the potential for CKP branches…

  8. EMERGENCE OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AS MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: A Case Study On Virtual Health Care Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; ARGAN, Metin; Idil K. SUHER

    2011-01-01

    Today, like in all areas, the Internet has had an important effect in the area of health as well. With the development of the Internet many new and different applications have developed and one of the most important of these are probably virtual communities. Virtual communities, which are used as a tool for providing information and word of mouth communication, have become a widely used marketing tool in the area of healthcare services in recent years. A virtual community is a group that does...

  9. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers: A Focus Group Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers’ situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients’ personal autonomy. The case managers’ reasoning emphasised situational...

  10. Stakeholders' perceptions of integrated community case management by community health workers: a post-intervention qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Buchner

    Full Text Available Integrated community case management (iCCM involves delivery of simple medicines to children with pneumonia, diarrhea and/or malaria by community health workers (CHWs. Between 2010 and 2012, an iCCM intervention trial was implemented by Healthy Child Uganda. This study used qualitative tools to assess whether project stakeholders perceived that iCCM improved access to care for children under five years of age.The intervention involved training and equipping 196 CHWs in 98 study villages in one sub-county in Uganda in iCCM. During the eight-month intervention, CHWs assessed sick children, provided antimalarials (coartem for fever, antibiotics (amoxicillin for cough and fast breathing, oral rehydration salts/zinc for diarrhea, and referred very sick children to health facilities. In order to examine community perceptions and acceptability of iCCM, post-intervention focus groups and key respondent interviews involving caregivers, health workers, CHWs and local leaders were carried out by experienced facilitators using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques.Respondents reported increased access to health care for children as a result of iCCM. Access was reportedly closer to home, available more hours in a day, and the availability of CHWs was perceived as more reliable. CHW care was reported to be trustworthy and caring. Families reported saving money especially due to reduced transportation costs, and less time away from home. Respondents also perceived better health outcomes. Linkages between health facilities and communities were reportedly improved by the iCCM intervention due to the presence of trained CHWs in the community.iCCM delivered by CHWs may improve access to health care and is acceptable to families. Policymakers should continue to seek opportunities to implement and support iCCM, particularly in remote communities where there are health worker shortages.

  11. Impact of Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining on Community Health: Kahama Case Study, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwani, Jumanne Daudi; Fumbuka, Colorine

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the main research carried out in 2010 which investigated social economic impact of uncontrolled artisanal mining on local communities and the environment using a case study of sampled gold mining sites in selected villages in Lunguya and Segese wards in Kahama District, Tanzania. The methodology involved a study sample size of 210 households, forming 70% of the targeted mining villages. They were interviewed on various social economic variables related to artisanal minin...

  12. Leadership style in the deaf community: an exploratory case study of a university president.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm-Larew, Deborah; Stanford, Jevetta; Greene, Robert; Heacox, Christopher; Hodge, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative mini-case study of I. King Jordan and his leadership style explores the influence of a transformational leader on Gallaudet University and the Deaf community. The study features a template-style semistructured interview with Jordan regarding his perceptions of leadership and his personal insights. The study highlights the attributes of transformational leadership and encourages further research into leadership as a tool for change in the Deaf community and the disability rights movement. This exploration of the leadership style of Gallaudet's first Deaf president is especially timely; the study was conducted between Jordan's retirement announcement and the Gallaudet Board of Trustees' decision to rescind an offer to his announced successor to become the university's next president. That tumultuous transition accentuated the disconnect between Jordan's transformational, charismatic leadership style, which affected generations of the Deaf community, and his followers' dissatisfaction with his management and successor planning.

  13. Exploring the conceptualization of program theories in Dutch community programs: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; van Assema, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether the limited effectiveness of most community programs intended to prevent disease and promote health should be attributed to the quality of the conceptualization of their program theories. In a retrospective multiple case study we assessed the program theories of 16 community programs (cases) in the Netherlands (1990-2004). Methods were a document analysis, supplemented with member checks (insider information from representatives). We developed a community approach reference framework to guide us in reconstructing and evaluating the program theories. On the whole, programs did not clearly spell out the process theories (enabling the implementation of effective interventions), the program components (interventions) and/or the impact theories (describing pathways from interventions to ultimate effects). Program theories usually turned out to be neither specific nor entirely plausible (complete and valid). The limited effectiveness of most community programs should most probably be attributed to the limited conceptualization of program theories to begin with. Such a failure generally also precludes a thorough examination of the effectiveness of the community approach as such.

  14. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors.

  15. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  16. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  17. What do you see? A case study of community college science pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Chantae M.

    Community colleges educate almost half of all American undergraduates. These students include but are not limited to under-prepared high school graduates, and individuals who are working full-time while attending school, as well as students of diverse cultural, socioeconomic, and ethnic backgrounds. With such a diverse student population, science educators may find it difficult to teach science, especially since the language of science is exceptional and contains some inner hierarchy that most other disciplines do not (Osborne, 2002). This qualitative case study examined a community college science faculty member notion's learning to use visual illustrations in science instruction through a collaborative professional development approach. Through this study, insights were gained on how to implement relevant science pedagogy at this community college. Narratives are used to tell the story of a community college science instructor's experience using visual illustrations through science concepts (e.g. cell structure, cellular transport, and metabolism) taught. Narratives reflect the science instructor's story leading to further studies in multiliteracies, professional development, and student perception of visual images in community college setting.

  18. The Role of Emotions in Contributors Activity: A Case Study on the GENTOO Community

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the relation between the emotions and the activity of contributors in the Open Source Software project Gentoo. Our case study builds on extensive data sets from the project's bug tracking platform Bugzilla, to quantify the activity of contributors, and its mail archives, to quantify the emotions of contributors by means of sentiment analysis. The Gentoo project is known for a period of centralization within its bug triaging community. This was followed by considerable changes in co...

  19. Community-based case-control study of childhood stroke risk associated with congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CK; Sidney, S.; Fullerton, HJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : A better understanding of the stroke risk factors in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) could inform stroke prevention strategies. We analyzed pediatric stroke associated with CHD in a large community-based case-control study. METHODS - : From 2.5 million children (aged 30-fold (odds ratio, 31; confidence interval 4-241) increased risk of stroke in children with CHD when compared with controls. After excluding periop...

  20. A comprehensive HIV stigma-reduction and wellness-enhancement community intervention: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Heleen; Greeff, Minrie; Watson, Martha J; Doak, Coleen M

    2015-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a comprehensive HIV stigma-reduction and wellness-enhancement community intervention that focused on people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as people living close to them (PLC) from six designated groups. A holistic multiple case study design was used in urban and rural settings in the North West Province, South Africa. Purposive voluntary sampling was used to recruit the PLWH group; snowball sampling was used for the PLCs. Data were analyzed by means of open coding and text document analysis. The comprehensive nature of the intervention ensured enhancement in relationships in all groups. The increase in knowledge about stigma, coping with it, and improved relationships led to PLWH feeling less stigmatized and more willing to disclose. PLCs became aware of their stigmatizing behaviors and were empowered to lead stigma reduction in their communities. Many community members were reached through these initiatives.

  1. Using community development theory to improve student engagement in online discussion: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Skinner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online discussion can be designed to develop the skills and confidence of students as well as providing an opportunity for constructing knowledge. If students decide not to participate or join too late, they put their own development and the quality of the learning community at risk. This article reflects on a first term undergraduate experience of a series of online discussion activities which failed to inspire timely and constructive participation. The case study identifies flaws in the design of the discussion, constructed using Salmon's five-stage model, and shows how easy it is to miss the point when designing an online activity. Participation is a pre-requisite for developing community so this article discusses how professional community development workers identify and overcome barriers to participation strengthening engagement in a community by stimulating personal and emotional interests. In the case study, discussion topics failed to strike a personal chord with many students. This has implications for designing activities that engage each student's interest from the outset so that participation in the discussion becomes a truly creative experience.

  2. The Fatigue of Compassionate Service-Learning: A Qualitative Case Study in Community Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gemignani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In service-learning university courses, it is often difficult to support an effective and healthy balance between performance in the field and students’ engagement in their community service. Based on the author’s teaching experience, this article presents a qualitative case study on the experiences of compassion, fatigue, responsibilization, and identification as they were reported by students and observed in the field. I conceptualize these experiences as linked to three main themes: the students’ first practical use of psychology-related knowledge, the social construction of their professional identity, and the perceived effectiveness of their field work. This study concludes with an argument to consider experiences of compassion as constructive although challenging components of service-learning courses. I suggest interpreting psychological and relational challenges as occasions for self-knowledge, engagement with the field, and understanding of the limits of power and responsibility in community service.

  3. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT : a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khatiwada, Prabesh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Khatiwada, Prabesh. Social entrepreneurship as an approach to community development: a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal. 66 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2014. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelors of Social Services, Focus in Community Development Work. This is a qualitative and descriptive study. The aim of the research is to study the role of social entrepreneurship in community devel...

  4. Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia) Ekaterina Maksimova Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Applied Ecology, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation Institute of Ecology of Volga basin, Togljatty city, Russian Federation Soils, affected by catastrophic wildfires in 2010, were investigated in pine woods of Togljatty city, Samara region with the special reference to soil biological parameters. The analysis of microbial community of pine wood soils was carried out. It was revealed that wildfires have a negative impact on structure and functional activity of the microbial community postpyrogenic soils. In particular, they influence on values of eukaryotes-prokaryotes ratios, on CO2 emission intensity and on microorganisms functional state (as it was determined by microbial metabolic quotient) after wildfires. It has been revealed that microbial biomass values and basal respiration rate shows the trend to decrease in case of postfire sites compared with control (in 6.5 and 3.4 times respectively). The microbial biomass and basal respiration values have annual natural variability that testifies to a correlation of this process with soil hydrothermal conditions. However, it was also noted that wildfires don't affect on measured microbiological parameters in layers situated deeper than top 10 cm of soil. An increasing of the values, mentioned above, was observed 2-3 years after wildfires. Zone of microorganisms' activity has been moved to the lowermost soil layers. A disturbance of soil microbial communities' ecophysiological status after the fire is diagnosed by an increase of microbial metabolic quotient value. The metabolic activity of the microbial community decreases in a row: control→crown fire→ground fire. That testifies to certain intensive changes in the microbial community. High-temperature influence on microbial community has a significant effect on a total amount of bacteria, on a length of actinomycetes

  5. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness.

  6. The ethnographically contextualized case study method: exploring ambitious achievement in an American Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P; Alcántara, Carmela

    2010-04-01

    This article demonstrates the empirical viability of the Ethnographically Contextualized Case Study Method (ECCSM) for investigating interrelationships between cultural and psychological processes. By juxtaposing two relevant forms of data--original interview material from a single respondent and existing ethnographic evidence--the inherent idiographic limitations of the case study approach for pursuing the psychological study of culture might be transcended. Adoption of the ECCSM for the exploration of cultural ideals among an elderly Native American respondent revealed both the personal and cultural significance of ambitious achievement within this tribal community, calling into question the conventional wisdom within multicultural psychology that Native Americans are culturally disposed to passive, submissive and noncompetitive psychological orientations. This application of the proposed methodology demonstrates how important empirical insights may be obtained in unusually efficient and nuanced ways at the confluence of culture and psychology.

  7. How does community context influence coalitions in the formation stage? a multiple case study based on the Community Coalition Action Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honeycutt Sally

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community coalitions are rooted in complex and dynamic community systems. Despite recognition that environmental factors affect coalition behavior, few studies have examined how community context impacts coalition formation. Using the Community Coalition Action theory as an organizing framework, the current study employs multiple case study methodology to examine how five domains of community context affect coalitions in the formation stage of coalition development. Domains are history of collaboration, geography, community demographics and economic conditions, community politics and history, and community norms and values. Methods Data were from 8 sites that participated in an evaluation of a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local coordinators and coalition leaders. Cross-site analyses were conducted to identify the ways contextual domains influenced selection of the lead agency, coalition membership, staffing and leadership, and coalition processes and structures. Results History of collaboration influenced all four coalition factors examined, from lead agency selection to coalition structure. Geography influenced coalition formation largely through membership and staffing, whereas the demographic and economic makeup of the community had an impact on coalition membership, staffing, and infrastructure for coalition processes. The influence of community politics, history, norms and values was most noticeable on coalition membership. Conclusions Findings contribute to an ecologic and theory-based understanding of the range of ways community context influences coalitions in their formative stage.

  8. Cultural Relevance for Rural Community Development in China: A Case Study in Bai, Jingpo and Huyaodai Communities of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.

  9. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  10. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  11. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  12. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  13. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  14. The Role of Emotions in Contributors Activity: A Case Study on the GENTOO Community

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the relation between the emotions and the activity of contributors in the Open Source Software project Gentoo. Our case study builds on extensive data sets from the project's bug tracking platform Bugzilla, to quantify the activity of contributors, and its mail archives, to quantify the emotions of contributors by means of sentiment analysis. The Gentoo project is known for a considerable drop in development performance after the sudden retirement of a central contributor. We analyse how this event correlates with the negative emotions, both in bilateral email discussions with the central contributor, and at the level of the whole community of contributors. We then extend our study to consider the activity patters on Gentoo contributors in general. We find that contributors are more likely to become inactive when they express strong positive or negative emotions in the bug tracker, or when they deviate from the expected value of emotions in the mailing list. We use these insights to develop a Bayes...

  15. Community involvement in health services at Namayumba and Bobi health centres: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane F. Namatovu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community involvement has been employed in the development of both vertical and horizontal health programmes. In Uganda, there is no empirical evidence on whether and how communities are involved in their health services.Aim and Setting: The aim of this study was to establish the existence of community involvement in health services and to identify its support mechanisms in Namayumba and Bobi health centres in Wakiso and Gulu districts, respectively.Methods: Participants were selected with the help of a community mobiliser. Key informants were selected purposively depending on their expertise and the roles played in their respective communities. The focus group discussions and key informant interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analysed manually for emerging themes and sub-themes.Results: Several themes emerged from the transcripts and we categorised them broadly into those that promote community involvement in health services and those that jeopardise it. Easy community mobilisation and several forms of community and health centre efforts promote community involvement, whilst lack of trust for health workers and poor communication downplay community involvement in their health services.Conclusion: Community involvement is low in health services in both Namayumba and Bobi health centres.

  16. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Categorizing Bugs with Social Networks: A Case Study on Four Open Source Software Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bug triaging procedures are an important precondition for successful collaborative software engineering projects. Triaging bugs can become a laborious task particularly in open source software (OSS) projects with a large base of comparably inexperienced part-time contributors. In this paper, we propose an efficient and practical method to identify valid bug reports which a) refer to an actual software bug, b) are not duplicates and c) contain enough information to be processed right away. Our classification is based on nine measures to quantify the social embeddedness of bug reporters in the collaboration network. We demonstrate its applicability in a case study, using a comprehensive data set of more than 700,000 bug reports obtained from the Bugzilla installation of four major OSS communities, for a period of more than ten years. For those projects that exhibit the lowest fraction of valid bug reports, we find that the bug reporters' position in the collaboration network is a strong indicator for ...

  18. VOICES AGAINST EXTREMISM: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED CVE COUNTER-NARRATIVE CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Macnair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.

  19. Community Cognition Investigation and Research on Tourists Disaster of Mountain Tourism-taking Taibai Moutain as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jian-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study focus on the community cognition to disasters of tourism taking the disasters frequently happens in Taibai Mountains as the case. The research covers people’s cognition in tourist destination, which is closely related to the development and the economy in tourism. The age, education, occupation, income and the degree of relation to the tourism are also the important factors. The cognition of the community is the disasters influence, the disasters avoidance, the disasters knowledge and the disasters research. It is found that the elderly, higher education and income groups in community have more requirements to tourism development; community young people, local people and engaged in tourism business or management groups are not satisfied with the community benefits which gets through the development of tourism at present; more elderly, civil servants and workers staff in community know about the influence of the tourism disasters to social, economic and cultural in scenic spots; the young people, local and engaged in tourism business and management groups of community know more about prevention work of tourism disaster; higher education and youth groups in community have more knowledge of tourism disaster; more community civil servants are skeptical to the study of tourism disaster. Analyzing the results from the tourist areas, this research can offer advice to local governments and the administrations of the tourism, esp. develop the community avoidance ability in order that the system of the avoidance administration could be established.

  20. Service-Learning and Emergent Communities of Practice: A Teacher Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Jennifer Cutsforth; Letwinsky, Karim Medico

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the unexpected emergence of a community of practice in a middle level mathematics and science methods course. The authors describe how preservice teacher participation in a collaborative, project-based service-learning experience resulted in the formation of a community of practice characterized by teamwork, meaningful…

  1. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization.

  2. Mathematical decision theory applied to land capability: a case study in the community of madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, J M; Saa-Requejo, A; Grau, J B; Gallardo, J; Díaz, M C; Andina, Diego; Sanchez, M E; Tarquis, A M

    2014-03-01

    In land evaluation science, a standard data set is obtained for each land unit to determine the land capability class for various uses, such as different farming systems, forestry, or the conservation or suitability of a specific crop. In this study, we used mathematical decision theory (MDT) methods to address this task. Mathematical decision theory has been used in areas such as management, finance, industrial design, rural development, the environment, and projects for future welfare to study quality and aptness problems using several criteria. We also review MDT applications in soil science and discuss the suitability of MDT methods for dealing simultaneously with a number of problems. The aim of the work was to show how MDT can be used to obtain a valid land quality index and to compare this with a traditional land capability method. Therefore, an additive classification method was applied to obtain a land quality index for 122 land units that were compiled for a case study of the Community of Madrid, Spain, and the results were compared with a previously assigned land capability class using traditional methods based on the minimum requirements for land attributes.

  3. Unethical Leadership in Higher Education and the Precarious Journey to Recovery: A Case Study of the Alabama Community College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent events of the Alabama Community College System are examined as an historical organizational case study. Critical events are noted along with associated professional literature related to those events and actions. While the study attempts to explain the organizational culture that allowed the rise of unethical leadership, the primary focus…

  4. A Case Study of Teacher Reflection: Examining Teacher Participation in a Video-Based Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeg, Susanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) constitute worthwhile spaces in which to study teacher participation in the reflective practices that have potential to shift their teaching. This qualitative case study details the interactions between dual-language and ELL teachers in a grade-level PLC as they met together to confer over video-clips of…

  5. Determinants of skilled attendance for delivery in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Zelalem Birhanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal calls for a reduction of maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. A key indicator to measure this goal is the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel. The maternal mortality ratio of Ethiopia is 676 deaths per 100,000 live births. Skilled birth attendance is correlated with lower maternal mortality rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proportion of births with a skilled attendant is only 10% in Ethiopia. Therefore identifying the determinants of skilled attendance for delivery is a priority area to give policy recommendations. Methods A community based nested case control study was conducted from October 2009 – August 2011 at the University of Gondar health and demographic surveillance systems site located at Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the infant mortality prospective follow up study conducted to identify the determinants of infant survival. A pretested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data on the different variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of skilled birth attendance. Strength of the association was assessed using odds ratio with 95% CI. Results A total of 1065 mothers (213 cases and 852 controls were included in the analysis. Among the cases, 166 (77.9% were from urban areas. More than half (54% of the cases have secondary and above level of education. Secondary and above level of education [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.29, 3.68] and urban residence [AOR (95%CI = 8.8 (5.32, 14.46] were associated with skilled attendance for delivery. Similarly, women who had ANC during their pregnancy four or more times [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.56, 4.98] and who own TV [AOR (95%CI = 2.5 (1.32, 4.76] were more likely to deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Conclusions Women’s education, place of residence, frequency of antenatal

  6. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention.

  7. The iSchool Community: A Case Study of iConference Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Greifeneder, Elke

    2016-01-01

    A fair review process is essential to the success of any scientific conference. In this paper we present an analysis of the reviewing process of the 2014-2015 iConferences as well as a demographic analysis of the iConference community as a whole. The results show a clear need for making...... cover all the aspects represented by the review scores. The results of our study provide the iSchool community with a descriptive analysis of its community and a better understanding of its review process....... the reviewer pool more representative of the iSchool community as a whole by including more women and more researchers from Asian institutions. Other recommendations are to improve the continuity of the reviewer pool and to provide clearer instructions to reviewers to ensure that written reviews explicitly...

  8. Eco-Preferences and Actors Behind: Case Study on Academic Community in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dagiliute

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption induces various environmental impacts, therefore change of consumption patterns, and decrease in related environmental burden are key issues of sustainable consumption. Promotion of environment friendly local products is related with willingness to pay for such products and factors behind. This paper examines willingness to pay and preferences within product attributes like price, quality and origin of young consumers in Lithuania. Survey results reveal that the majority of respondents are willing to buy environmentally friendly products, but in some cases the price might negatively influence consumer decision. Particular product analysis has shown that if not environment friendly then local products have preference. Nevertheless, results also indicate the need for further improvement in the education of academic community on the impact of goods and services on the environment. Revising the content of the study programmes and inner sustainability policies of universities could be the options for the improvement in this field and in sustainability in general.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.65.3.4801

  9. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Bilbao, Bibiana A; Berardi, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Fire plays an increasingly significant role in tropical forest and savanna ecosystems, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and impacting on biodiversity. Emerging research shows the potential role of Indigenous land-use practices for controlling deforestation and reducing CO2 emissions. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that Indigenous lands have the lowest incidence of wildfires, significantly contributing to maintaining carbon stocks and enhancing biodiversity. Yet acknowledgement of Indigenous peoples' role in fire management and control is limited, and in many cases dismissed, especially in policy-making circles. In this paper, we review existing data on Indigenous fire management and impact, focusing on examples from tropical forest and savanna ecosystems in Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We highlight how the complexities of community owned solutions for fire management are being lost as well as undermined by continued efforts on fire suppression and firefighting, and emerging approaches to incorporate Indigenous fire management into market- and incentive-based mechanisms for climate change mitigation. Our aim is to build a case for supporting Indigenous fire practices within all scales of decision-making by strengthening Indigenous knowledge systems to ensure more effective and sustainable fire management.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  10. Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory to Understand Community Partnerships: A Historical Case Study of One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Although the value of school-community partnerships is unquestioned, the reasons for success and failure are not sufficiently understood. This mixed-methods case study examines 60 years of partnering at one urban high school, using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to better understand the effect on student development as measured by…

  11. Public health and health services development in postconflict communities: a case study of a safe motherhood project in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Penny; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2009-10-01

    Armed conflict causes suffering in many countries; it contributes to poor health and hinders health services development. The effects of conflict are evidenced by weakened community structures and can make reconstruction efforts challenging. East Timor has a history of prolonged conflict and saw a resurgence of internal violence in 2006. This participant observation study discusses considerations for implementing public health and health systems development projects in postconflict settings using a case study of a maternal and child health project. It illustrates the importance of appreciating the historical context and community dynamics when implementing development projects. The sequelae of conflict are often characterized by reduced human resource development capacity, distrust of hierarchy, and limited capacity for resource mobilization. Working in such postconflict communities requires flexibility in program design, stronger efforts for community capacity building, and rebuilding trust between various stakeholders.

  12. What is the role of a case manager in community aged care? A qualitative study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of case managers about their roles in providing community aged care in Australia. Purposeful sampling was used and 33 qualitative semi-structured interviews with 47 participants were conducted. Participants were drawn from a list of all case managers working in aged care organisations that provided publicly funded case-managed community aged care programmes in the State of Victoria, Australia. Participant selection criteria included age, gender, job titles, professional backgrounds, practice locations, organisational attributes and organisational size. Data collection was implemented between September 2012 and March 2013. Thematic analysis was performed. Participants believed that case managers performed diverse roles based on clients' needs. They also articulated 16 important roles of case managers, including advisors, advocates, carers, communicators, co-ordinators, educators, empowering clients, engaging clients and families, liaising with people, managing budgets, navigators, negotiators, networking with people, facilitators, problem solvers and supporters. However, they were concerned about brokers, mediators and counsellors in terms of the terminology or case managers' willingness to perform these roles. Moreover, they perceived that neither gatekeepers nor direct service provision was case managers' role. The findings of this study suggest that case managers working in community aged care sectors may be more effective if they practised the 16 roles aforementioned. With the value of helping rather than obstructing clients to access services, they may not act as gatekeepers. In addition, they may not provide services directly as opposed to their peers working in medical care settings. The findings will also assist organisations to design job descriptions specifying case managers' roles and associated job responsibilities. Clear job descriptions will further benefit the organisations in staff recruitment, orientation

  13. A Study on the Innovation of Multi-ethnic Community Governance---Taking North Houquan Road Community in Urumgi as A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xue; Liang Linyun; Meng Xiaoning; Zhang Weibo

    2015-01-01

    At present,our society is in a criti-cal period of rapid development and transformation of the social structure.Hence, all kinds of social contradictions have emerged which have become barriers for social development.As the capital of the ethnic minority autonomous region in northwest China,Urumqi's grass-root governance has become a key for safeguarding its social stability and build-ing a harmonious society.Community is an impor-tant unit of the urban construct.Therefore,a study on the innovation of the community governance sys-tem will bring about new theories and practical support for community governance.The author of this article believes that the innovativeness of the model of a community governance system can be gained through a study on the development of ur-ban community governance,and the study of urban multi-ethnic community governance especially has more practical meaning.Taking the practice of gov-ernance in the multi-ethnic community of Urumqi as an example, this article analyzes the status and insufficiency of urban multi-ethnic communities, explores the innovative path of community govern-ance in these areas,and puts forward the following suggestions concerning the innovativeness govern-ance in urban multi-ethnic communities.

  14. Designing Program Roadmaps to Catalyze Community Formation: A Case Study of the Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmapword

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brent; Hanson, Duane; Matthern, Gretchen

    2003-02-27

    A number of broad perspective technology roadmaps have been developed in the last few years as tools for coordinating nation-wide research in targeted areas. These roadmaps share a common characteristic of coalescing the associated stakeholder groups into a special-interest community that is willing to work cooperatively in achieving the roadmap goals. These communities are key to roadmap implementation as they provide the collaborative energy necessary to obtain the political support and funding required for identified science and technology development efforts. This paper discusses the relationship between roadmaps and special-interest communities, using the recently drafted Department of Energy's Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap as a case study. Specific aspects this roadmap's design facilitated the development of a long-term stewardship community while specific realities during roadmap development impacted the realization of the design.

  15. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  16. Case Study IV: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Networked Improvement Communities (NICs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is a nonprofit, operating foundation with a long tradition of developing and studying ways to improve teaching practice. For the past three years, the Carnegie Foundation has initiated three different Networked Improvement Communities (NICs). The first, Quantway, is addressing the high…

  17. Measuring the Cost of a College Degree: A Case Study of a SUNY Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Richard M.; Losinger, Regina; Millard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by a white paper produced by the Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity, and Accountability, this study uses different measures of calculating the cost of a college degree at an upstate community college in New York. Departmental cost per credit hour, direct instructional costs, and full costs are all explained. A…

  18. Fostering Teacher Learning Communities: A Case Study of a School-Based Leadership Team's Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth Brian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how a school-based leadership team identifies and alters school conditions to foster the development of TLCs. Many educators, school leaders, and politicians have embraced teacher learning communities (TLCs) as a vehicle for school reform. Despite the considerable documentation of the capability for TLCs to…

  19. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  20. Role of local community in tourism development: Case study village Zabrega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belij Маrija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies and researches on the role of a local community in tourism development of rural areas emphasize the significance of inhabitants’ attitudes about the state and perspectives of this activity. In this context, in the professional literature, the term CBT (community-based tourism is used, which implies the involvement of local communities and planning of tourism development. The aim of the study is to determine the local population’s influence on starting an initiative for a tourist arranging of the village Zabrega in the Municipality of Paraćin, especially the sacral objects in the Crnica River Gorge. The following methods were applied: method of direct observation, analysis, synthesis, interview and survey in which the questions were of a closed and open type. Results of the research survey were analyzed in the software package for statistical processing and analysis of the data SPSS 20.00. It has been stated that the population has a positive attitude about the Society Petrus, which is the main organizer of the activities when the prosperity of the village Zabrega is in question, and that the local community is interested in engaging in the tourist activities, as demonstrated by numerous practical examples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017 i br. 176008

  1. Community involvement in the development of an environmental education programme: the Tswaing meteorite crater conservation area as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Swanepoel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the relevance of applied research in education is its actual impact on society. A case study was undertaken to determine how research insights could be implemented by involving a local community in the design and implementation of environmental education programmes in their environment. The Tswaing Meteorite Crater conservation area project was undertaken with the active participation of teachers, learners and education officers from the communities living around Tswaing, as well as subject specialists. Issues which should be considered in the development of similar programmes were also highlighted.

  2. Case study of a solid-waste-scavenger community with respect to health and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun.

    1991-01-01

    This study was an investigation of a solid waste scavenger community at the On-Nooch Dump Site in Bangkok, Thailand. The purpose was to identify the dimensions of the public health conditions of solid waste scavengers and their community. Cross-sectional field surveys and measurements were undertaken to characterize the distribution and magnitude of health-related problems and environmental conditions. Scavengers were found to be exposed to hazardous conditions due to the waste materials at the dump site. Cuts and punctures from sharp materials were the most common complaints among scavengers. Health symptoms like headache, diarrhea, respiratory illness, skin diseases and back pain were also reported. There was a high prevalence of childhood respiratory illness especially among those children of households where cigarette smoking was present. Children had poor nutritional status and were commonly infected by intestinal protozoa and helminths. An appreciable proportion of adult respondents was below the normal range for lung function performance. Seroprevalence of HBV infection was found to be high among male respondents in addition to six respondents that had possible HIV infections. The quality of the community water supply was low. Air pollution measurements showed acceptable ambient air levels except for particulate levels (TSP and RSP). Levels of indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure NO{sub 2} were found to be similar. Data for an inner-city project apartment community named Din-Dang were also collected for comparison. A priority rating index and recommendations for public health condition improvements were presented.

  3. Risk factors for levofloxacin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-I; Song, J-H; Kim, S H; Chung, D R; Peck, K R; So, T M; Hsueh, P-R

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical features of community-onset levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia and to identify risk factors for levofloxacin resistance. Using the database of a surveillance study of community-acquired pneumococcal infections in Asian countries, we conducted a nested case-control study to identify risk factors for levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Of 981 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, 46 (4.7 %) had levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of whom 39 evaluable cases were included in the analysis. All cases were from Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Among patients with levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, 490 controls were selected based on patient country. Of the 39 cases of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia, 23 (59.0 %) were classified as healthcare-associated, while 164 (33.5 %) of the 490 controls of levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (P = 0.001) were classified as healthcare-associated. Multivariate analysis showed that previous treatment with fluoroquinolones, cerebrovascular disease, and healthcare-associated infection were significantly associated with levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia (all P < 0.05). Levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococci pose an important new public health threat in our region, and more information on the emergence and spread of these resistant strains will be necessary to prevent spread throughout the population.

  4. Reproductive Choices in Gibraltar: A Case Study of a Community In Transition, 1960-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Stacie D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTimes of social disruption and change unsettle community equilibrium and represent important transition points. This research examines the 15-year border closure between Spain and Gibraltar and its subsequent reopening in 1985 in reshaping the community opportunity structure, particularly women's employment, education, and housing. The study examines 3284 births which occurred in the community between 1960 and 1996, noting a general rise in premarital conceptions in the community. This research compares life course decisions among marital and premarital conceivers over time, stressing important changes in the community's ecological setting and the powerful role of political disturbances in structuring those changes.FrenchLes périodes de bouleversements sociaux déstabilisent les communautés etreprésentent des points de transition importants. Cette étude examine les 15 ansde la fermeture de la frontière entre l’Espagne et Gibraltar et sa réouverture en1985 ainsi que son rôle dans la réorganisation de la structure d’opportunité de lacommunauté, particulièrement pour ce qui est de la participation des femmes àla main d’oeuvre, l’éducation et le logement. L’étude examine 3284 naissancesde la communauté entre 1960 et 1996, et y remarque une hausse des grossessesprénuptiales. Cette recherche compare les décisions de parcours de vie chez lespersonnes enceintes mariées et non mariées au fil du temps, en soulignant leschangements importants dans le cadre écologique de la communauté et le rôlecrucial des perturbations politiques dans la structuration de ces changements

  5. The Interplay of Virtual Communities: A Multiple Case Study of E-Retailers in Yahoo E-Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Zhi-Xian Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how businesses operate e-shops in a transaction-oriented virtual community. This research employed a multiple case study approach by observing three cases of e-retailers, as being new e-commerce initiates, operating their businesses on the Yahoo! e-auction website. The results showed that e-shops displaying amusing stories can attract site visitors and “spick and span” e-shop design format can be helpful for converting visitors into buyers.

  6. The Implementation of IGE and Related Home-School-Community Relations Programs and Activities: Seven Case Studies. Theoretical Paper No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; And Others

    Each of the seven case studies in this report describes the school and community, the implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE) programs, and home-school-community relations programs and activities, and analyzes the home-school-community relations programs and activities. The selection of the seven schools was primarily based on the…

  7. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  8. Income and nutritional status of the fishing community residing in coastal bay of Bengal: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Baidyanath; Chattopadhyay, Manabendu; Maity, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Barun; Gupta, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    This is part of a project on the disadvantaged, marginalized, vulnerable/weaker section of the population and their survival strategy. The paper presents the results of a survey carried out during 2006-07 with the objective of throwing light on the life and living conditions of an economically weaker community such as 'fishing community' residing in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal in West Bengal and Orissa, India, in the context of global scenario. Various scientists have conducted quite a large number of studies to ascertain the income and nutritional status of people in rural India. Very few attempts, however, have been made to investigate in detail regarding the living standards of some specific communities, which are very often referred to, as the 'weaker section' of the people. The people belonging to fishing community are, by and large, not only economically weak in terms of earning and availability of work, the majority of them are not able to procure the minimum nourishment. The present study shows that some notable elements of living conditions such as food, shelter, health etc. matters much more than the conventional income or calorie deficiency. Commonly, the social scientists equate poverty with income or calorie deficiency which may not be the case as is evident from this study. We have hinted some measures to be undertaken to ameliorate the sufferings of the fishing community.

  9. Merging and scoring molecular interactions utilising existing community standards: tools, use-cases and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaveces, J M; Jiménez, R C; Porras, P; Del-Toro, N; Duesbury, M; Dumousseau, M; Orchard, S; Choi, H; Ping, P; Zong, N C; Askenazi, M; Habermann, B H; Hermjakob, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The evidence that two molecules interact in a living cell is often inferred from multiple different experiments. Experimental data is captured in multiple repositories, but there is no simple way to assess the evidence of an interaction occurring in a cellular environment. Merging and scoring of data are commonly required operations after querying for the details of specific molecular interactions, to remove redundancy and assess the strength of accompanying experimental evidence. We have developed both a merging algorithm and a scoring system for molecular interactions based on the proteomics standard initiative-molecular interaction standards. In this manuscript, we introduce these two algorithms and provide community access to the tool suite, describe examples of how these tools are useful to selectively present molecular interaction data and demonstrate a case where the algorithms were successfully used to identify a systematic error in an existing dataset.

  10. Consideration of Regional Informatization Practices in Japan: A Case Study on a Civic Organization Operating Community Media

    OpenAIRE

    Togo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Kosei

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] The aim of this article is to investigate Japanese regional informatization from the viewpoint of practices with use of a progressive case study. This article focuses attention on a civic organization that has been taking the lead in promoting regional informatization in city A, and elucidates how the civic organization of a community media operator reconsidered its own practices, and then transformed both its own organizational structure and practices. This article starts with a ...

  11. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....

  12. Rural community tourism in western Sichuan's Qiang nationality:a case study of Wulong Stockade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the local economy of the development of tourism resources in China's relatively underdeveloped minority areas is already common knowledge in academic and business circles. However, it's necessary to research more on specific patterns of tourism development in these ethnic' minority areas. This paper studies Wulong Stockade in Beichuan County in Sichuan Province and examines the distinctive experience of the local Qiang community about developing local tourism resources and the local funding of the development, It notes how the introduction of new re-afforestation laves of 1999 affected the traditional, agriculture-based economy and how a member of the community was a key motivator in initiating tourism as a new economic resource. It has also explored changes in the economic conditions of Qiang peasants since tourism began in Wulong Stockade, where local incomes have increased considerably. This paper focuses on a characteristic Qiang area in the mountains of western Sichuan, demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of community tourism development, and suggests that other ethnic minority mountain villages in rural areas draw lessons from Wulong Stockade's experience.

  13. Investigation of acute effects of graphene oxide on wastewater microbial community: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Rodrigues, Debora F

    2013-07-15

    The market for graphene-based products, such as graphene oxide (GO), is projected to reach nearly $675 million by 2020, hence it is expected that large quantities of graphene-based wastes will be generated by then. Wastewater treatment plants will be one of the ultimate repositories for these wastes. Efficient waste treatment relies heavily on the functions of diverse microbial communities. Therefore, systematic investigation of any potential toxic effects of GO in wastewater microbial communities is essential to determine the potential adverse effects and the fate of these nanomaterials in the environment. In the present study, we investigate the acute toxicity, i.e. short-term and high load, effect of GO on the microbial functions related to the biological wastewater treatment process. The results showed that toxic effects of GO on microbial communities were dose dependent, especially in concentrations between 50 and 300mg/L. Bacterial metabolic activity, bacterial viability, and biological removal of nutrients, such as organics, nitrogen and phosphorus, were significantly impacted by the presence of GO in the activated sludge. Furthermore, the presence of GO deteriorated the final effluent quality by increasing the water turbidity and reducing the sludge dewaterability. Microscopic techniques confirmed penetration and accumulation of GO inside the activated sludge floc matrix. Results demonstrated that the interaction of GO with wastewater produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be one of the responsible mechanisms for the toxic effect of GO.

  14. Community relations and child-led microfinance: a case study of caregiving children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.

  15. The "Boom" and "Bust" Patterns of Communities within the Energy Rich Region of West Virginia: A Case Study of Moundsville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Brandon S.

    The increasing worldwide demand for energy will provide Energy Rich Regions (ERRs) the opportunity to increase their wealth and quality of living. However, a reoccurring pattern of boom and bust cycles in ERRs suggests the need for more sustainable development strategies. A mixed methods approach (case study) is employed to explore the "wicked human problems" occurring in one community, Moundsville, WV and to discover development patterns that might inform sustainable development strategies for the future. This study explores briefly the distant past development patterns, and in greater detail the pre-boom and most current boom in natural gas. First, data will be derived from a conceptual "Energy Rich Region Template" that explores the sustainability of development from the inclusive wealth forms of natural, human, and physical capital. The qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA) is used to systematically collect and organize data and information into a community-wide knowledge base (specifically the seven years of city council minutes). This framework can assist future research dedicated to similar cases. Furthermore, this case may support communities and or policymakers in the development of a programming guide for converting the natural capital into other reproducible capital forms, thus avoiding the development cycle of boom and bust.

  16. Community Role in Heritage Management and Sustainable Turism Development: Case Study of the Danube Regionin Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra TERZIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Destinations and cultural resources that are used and respected by both residents and tour-ists are the ultimate goal of sustainable tourism development. The sustainable tourism as an emerging paradigm seems to enhance the exist-ing conceptual frameworks on tourism planning and development by making the residents its focal point. In that sense, opinions and attitudes of residents on the protection of cultural heritage and the possibilities of tourism development in their environment are very important. The Dan-ube region in Serbia is recognized as a region of high quality natural characteristics and cultural resources which gives an outstanding opportuni-ty for tourism development. The purpose of the study is to examine the current state of the heri-tage management in the Danube region in Serbia and to outline the tourism development potentials of the area. The objective of the study is to ex-amine the role of the local communities in these aspects.  The methods used in the study were a public opinion survey, a focus group interview of 12 experts and the evaluation of the sustainable cultural tourism development indicators. The results have shown that local population in the Danube region in Serbia has, in general, a posi-tive opinion and initial enthusiasm when it comes to tourism development, but their role is margin-alized in the process. This is the key proposition to start an initiative for the local communities to actively participate in tourism development.

  17. Factors Associated With Weight Change in Online Weight Management Communities: A Case Study in the LoseIt Reddit Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio; Couto Silva, Ana Paula; Meira Jr, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that of the 72% of American Internet users who have looked for health information online, 22% have searched for help to lose or control weight. This demand for information has given rise to many online weight management communities, where users support one another throughout their weight loss process. Whether and how user engagement in online communities relates to weight change is not totally understood. Objective We investigated the activity behavior and analyze the semantic content of the messages of active users in LoseIt (r/loseit), a weight management community of the online social network Reddit. We then explored whether these features are associated with weight loss in this online social network. Methods A data collection tool was used to collect English posts, comments, and other public metadata of active users (ie, users with at least one post or comment) on LoseIt from August 2010 to November 2014. Analyses of frequency and intensity of user interaction in the community were performed together with a semantic analysis of the messages, done by a latent Dirichlet allocation method. The association between weight loss and online user activity patterns, the semantics of the messages, and real-world variables was found by a linear regression model using 30-day weight change as the dependent variable. Results We collected posts and comments of 107,886 unique users. Among these, 101,003 (93.62%) wrote at least one comment and 38,981 (36.13%) wrote at least one post. Median percentage of days online was 3.81 (IQR 9.51). The 10 most-discussed semantic topics on posts were related to healthy food, clothing, calorie counting, workouts, looks, habits, support, and unhealthy food. In the subset of 754 users who had gender, age, and 30-day weight change data available, women were predominant and 92.9% (701/754) lost weight. Female gender, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, high levels of online activity, the number of upvotes

  18. The Avalon Gardens Men's Association: A Community Health Psychology Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mark B

    2002-05-01

    This article follows the development and progress of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's 'Healthy and Safe Communities' initiative as it was implemented by a community empowerment organization during a four-year community revitalization project in the aftermath of the Los Angeles riots. The author explores practical aspects of Community Health Psychology through assessing the ways in which its organizing principles were manifest in community-wide processes of individual and community change in one low-income housing project in South Central Los Angeles called Avalon Gardens. Specifically highlighted is how a group of African American and Latino men in the community created a group forum that helped foster, support and sustain an empowerment process that supported health promotion, health consciousness and significant health improvement in the community.

  19. A Community Organizing Case Study: An Analysis of Cap-It's Strategy to Prevent the Location of a Toxic Waste Incinerator in Their Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J

    1992-01-01

    With the great proliferation of chemical manufacturing in the past half-century, the dilemma of dealing with the waste produced has become an increasing problem facing communities. One method that is gaining increased acceptance by both government and industry is incineration. Many citizens have formed groups to protest these facilities because of their concerns about health risks, especially exposure to carcinogens. This case study profiles one such group, CAP-IT, a collection of middle-class residents living in a small working-class town and their successful battle to prevent the siting of a hazardous waste incinerator. CAP-IT's strategy will be critiqued using methods advanced by Lee Staples, Nicholas Freudenburg and Kurt Lewin to demonstrate the power of community organizing activities.

  20. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  1. "It Really Comes Down to the Community": A Case Study of a Rural School Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Communities, schools, their music programs, and the individuals who participate in these groups are tied to the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they reside. Schools are often connected to their communities, and are often deeply cherished in rural communities. School music programs hold the potential to influence a small…

  2. Managing an E-Mentoring Community to Support Students with Disabilities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstahler, Sheryl; Crawford, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to mentor, near-peer, and peer support as they apply to promoting the academic and career success of young people with disabilities. The authors discuss specific benefits of mentoring and document access challenges encountered by students with disabilities. They present a case study of a successful…

  3. Social responsibility and educational communication in communities accessed by the works: a case study. IEGA - enterprise implementations for gasene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Elisangela Assis de; Farias, Aline Marianne Magalhaes [LP Empreendimentos, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Yanna Oliveira [Cia. Nacional de Dutos (Conduto S/A), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Penido, Rita de Cassia [Sinopec Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Construction and assembly in a gas pipeline project is a constant study of realities and in some cases situations which involve interferences in communities, the company's interests must be wholly integrated with the primary need of the project which is to construct with Social-Environmental Responsibility, establish a good relationship, respect the communities values in which the project passes through and around and surround itself with measures guaranteeing safety, information about the activities and cause minimal impact in the day to day lives of the residents. At Spread 2A of the Pipeline project Cacimbas-Catu, the necessity to develop a specific project for the communities surrounding the access areas was elaborated principally because the topography only permitted the transportation of pipes, equipment and personnel to pass through these areas. This unique situation was drafted based on the transit of vehicles and heavy machinery, through communities with a low IDH (Human Development Index), dangerous living conditions and a high demographic density. Preventive and pacifying actions for Communities and Social responsibility were drafted and developed, involving a multidisciplinary collective effort with other sectors of the project, applying a global theme to ensure safety for the residents around the access areas, also to divulge information in regards to project activities, establish ethical and transparent communication and implement measures that assist in building a solid relationship between the enterprise and community, anticipating risky situations and possible conflicts. This Case Study has as an objective to present projects that were developed in the area of Communication and Social Responsibility in the Access Communities and that, proved effective, became standard within the entire work force's Trainings and Daily Safety, Environmental, and Occupational Health Dialoguing. During the development of the Project 'Street of Leisure

  4. Are Stakeholders in Slovakia Ready for Community-Led Local Development? Case Study Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbalová Monika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the EU new programming period 2014-2020 the Leader approach become part of community-led local development (CLLD. Under Slovak conditions, partnerships, which intend to get the legal status of local action group (LAG, are currently in the process of preparing and formulating their CLLD Strategies. Leader approach is characterised by 7 principles, which should be horizontally presented throughout the implementation process. The multilevel governance presented in the implementation of Leader approach includes the management and implementation of rural development programme, through which the Leader is implemented, as well as, formation of LAGs, as the mediators of the approach at local level. Both levels may have supporting or constraining effects on the application of Leader principles in the Leader delivery. The paper focuses on analysing the differences between theory and practice in the conditions of the Slovak Republic when answering the evaluation question: Are stakeholders in Slovakia ready for community led local development? To answer the question, six LAGs were assessed using the focus group as the assessment tool. Representatives of the national authorities were interviewed in order to complete the picture of the evaluated topic. The study pointed out several shortcomings in basic preconditions allowing smooth application of the CLLD.

  5. Digital Communication and a Concern with the Community: A Case Study in a Cooperative Credit Araguaina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeninng Abrantes Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address the attributes of Digital Communication used by a cooperative of Credit to meet the seventh cooperative principle of Concern for Community. The same occurred in a credit union in the city of Araguaina Tocantins, with the aim of identifying the digital communication developed by the cooperative. The article begins with a literature review on the emergence of cooperative, then the conceptualization of the credit union and its history in Brazil, then the cooperative principles and their evolution, conceptualizations of concern for the community, digital communication, social marketing and the presentation and analysis of results. The methodology was based on the case study, which according to Yin (2001 it is important because it is the reality studied. The research showed that the performance of the cooperative is geared entirely to their members and do not have a lot of focus related to social actions, but it promotes actions to attract members and to promote community development through digital media. Another important result of the research was that the principle addressed is one of the goals of the cooperative that aims to meet the interests, promote the welfare of members and the entire community where the cooperative operates.

  6. The GeoCitizen-approach: community-based spatial planning - an Ecuadorian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmanstorfer, Karl; Resl, Richard; Eitzinger, Anton; Izurieta, Xiomara

    2014-05-27

    Over the last years, geospatial web platforms, social media, and volunteered geographic information (VGI) have opened a window of opportunity for traditional Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) to usher in a new era. Taking advantage of these technological achievements, this paper presents a new approach for a citizen-orientated framework of spatial planning that aims at integrating participatory community work into existing decision-making structures. One major cornerstone of the presented approach is the application of a social geoweb platform (the GeoCitizen platform) that combines geo-web technologies and social media in one single tool allowing citizens to collaboratively report observations, discuss ideas, solve, and monitor problems in their living environment at a local level. This paper gives an account of an ongoing participatory land-zoning process in the Capital District of Quito, Ecuador, where the GeoCitizen platform is applied in a long-term study.

  7. Attachment to community and civic and political engagement: a case study of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Shelley; Brailey, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    Youth's low level of civic and political engagement may detrimentally affect the health of communities and the democratic system. This paper examines the role of community attachment in explaining youth's levels of civic and engagement. This examination requires an evaluation of existing measures of community attachment and their relevance for understanding youth's experiences. The paper uses a student sample, highlighting a group of youth who have a degree of variation in their experiences of community attachment. We find that subjective measures of community attachment are related to volunteering and voting, but the objective measure of community attachment, that is, years of residence, affects voting and not volunteering. Different mechanisms explain civic engagement versus political engagement. As such, different strategies are required to combat low levels of civic versus political engagement.

  8. Enabling Innovation and Collaboration Across Geography and Culture: A Case Study of NASA's Systems Engineering Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topousis, Daria E.; Murphy, Keri; Robinson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, NASA faced major knowledge sharing challenges due to geographically isolated field centers that inhibited personnel from sharing experiences and ideas. Mission failures and new directions for the agency demanded better collaborative tools. In addition, with the push to send astronauts back to the moon and to Mars, NASA recognized that systems engineering would have to improve across the agency. Of the ten field centers, seven had not built a spacecraft in over 30 years, and had lost systems engineering expertise. The Systems Engineering Community of Practice came together to capture the knowledge of its members using the suite of collaborative tools provided by the NASA Engineering Network (NEN.) The NEN provided a secure collaboration space for over 60 practitioners across the agency to assemble and review a NASA systems engineering handbook. Once the handbook was complete, they used the open community area to disseminate it. This case study explores both the technology and the social networking that made the community possible, describes technological approaches that facilitated rapid setup and low maintenance, provides best practices that other organizations could adopt, and discusses the vision for how this community will continue to collaborate across the field centers to benefit the agency as it continues exploring the solar system.

  9. Immortality of Prejudice in Striving Ubuntu: Case Studies of Community Managed Schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…

  10. Developing a Culture of Assessment through a Faculty Learning Community: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitz, Stephanie A.; O'Connor, Margaret; Pang, Yanhui; Stryker, Deborah; Markell, Stephen; Krupp, Ethan; Byers, Celina; Jones, Sheila Dove; Redfern, Alicia King

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how a diverse, interdisciplinary team of faculty formed a topic-based faculty learning community. Following an introduction to faculty learning communities and a brief discussion of their benefit to faculty engaged in the process of adopting new technology, we explain how our team, through a competitive mini-grant…

  11. Identifying Success Factors of ICT in Developing a Learning Community: Case Study Charles Sturt University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew; Uys, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A learning community has been developing in a distributed environment amongst the members of the Centre for Enhancing of Learning and Teaching (CELT) located in the Bathurst, Goulburn and Orange campuses of Charles Sturt University. This group is known by the acronym of GDMOB, with the purpose of the community to facilitate the…

  12. The Caring Business: Lynch Community Homes, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Robert

    This paper, one of a series of reports describing innovative practices in integrating people with disabilities into community life, describes the Lynch Community Homes in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Lynch Homes is a for-profit organization that provides homes and supportive services for approximately 75 people with severe and profound…

  13. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  14. Student-Created Musical as a Community of Practice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Research on the improvement of learning shifted from a focus on the learner as individual to the concept of sociocultural learning in communities of learning, communities of practice or learning cultures during the 1990s. A similar shift in the focus of the development of a single construct of individual musical creativity to socially situated…

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility: Case Study of Community Expectations and the Administrative Systems, Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogula, David

    2012-01-01

    Poor community-company relations in the Niger Delta have drawn attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region. Since the 1960s, transnational oil corporations operating in the Niger Delta have adopted various CSR strategies, yet community-company relations remain adversarial. This article examines community…

  16. Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: a case study from Skid Row, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth.

  17. Professional Learning Communities as a Leadership Strategy to Drive Math Success in an Urban High School Serving Diverse, Low-Income Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Scheurich, James Joseph; Morgan, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a qualitative case-study design, this study explored how a mid-sized urban high school professional learning community was used as a reform effort to increase student achievement in mathematics on standards-based assessments. From a year-long interaction with the math professional learning community, which consisted of 3 school leaders…

  18. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  19. Economic Status of Farmers on Disaster Prone Community: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie DC Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has started to significantly affect agriculture and rural landscapes. The Province of Pangasinan including Bayambang is highly vulnerable to natural disaster like flood (NSO, 2010. Farming is one of the sources of income and considering the status of the lands cultivated by the farmers, tenancy and income on invested capital, this study described the economic status of farmers in Tanolong, identified their needs and at the same time address to the fourth fold program of Pangasinan State University which is the extension and community service through a proposed Contingency Logistic Plan as intervention measures to create awareness and prepare farmers relative to climate change. The study used the descriptive method of research. It was found out that farmers have minimal capital that resulted to adverse effect on their income; do not own the land cultivated, there is poor production; and decreased the number of harvested crops .The used fertilizers does not guarantee good production of crops. The fruit bearing trees are out of season due to climate change. The crops were damaged by off season-flood and heavy rains. Climate change brought destruction to crops which could not easily adapt to the soil and strange insects appeared accompanied by disease. Thus, there is a need to partake a Contingency Logistic Plan that serves as the planning framework for the farmers on production, capital flows, control system, communication required in today’s farming environment.

  20. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-08

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  1. The Potential of GIS as a Management Tool for Avenue Trees Population in Small Communities; a Case Study of Idi-Shin Community, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokeogun, O. S.; Akintola, O. O.; Abodunrin, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a management tool for avenue trees (Street trees) populations in small communities (using Idi-Ishin community, Ibadan, Nigeria as a case study). GIS is a decision support system which integrate data or set of data from different sources, bringing them under the same referencing system in a computer system. An Ikonos Imagery (1m Spatial Resolution) of the study area was digitized to produce a digital map using ArcGIS 10.1 version. The avenue trees species ≥ 5cm diameter at breast height (DBH) was selected for enumeration. These trees were then measured and tagged. The Height, Girth and Geographic location (X &Y coordinate) of the trees were measured with Haga altimeter, Girthing tape and Hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) respectively. The species and families of the trees enumerated were also identified. Data were analysed for basal area (BA) and volume (V). A total number of 43 avenue trees were assessed in Idi-Ishin Community. Roystonea regia accounted for the majority of the avenue trees (25.58%), followed by Polyanthia longiflora (23.26%), Gliricida seprium (20.93%), Eucalyptus toreliana (13.95%), Delunix regea (6.98%). However Terminalia catapa, Terminalia radii, Azadrachita indica and Newbodia levis had the same abundance of 2.33%. It was also observed that the benefits derived from these avenue trees includes; Carbon sequestration, Beautification, Wind break and shade. A spatial relational database was created for the assessed avenue trees using ArcCatalog of ArcGIS 10.1 version. Based on the findings from the study (which serves as baseline information for the management of the avenue trees in the study area), it was therefore recommended that subsequent assessment should be carried out at 3-5 year interval in other to ensure proper and continuous monitoring and updating of the data.

  2. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  3. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

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    Abegaz TM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear power plant siting: a case study of two New England communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    An examination is presented of the social, economic and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. The work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy-generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing.

  5. The Impact of Tribal Colleges in the Economic Development of Tribal Communities: A Case Study

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    Grob, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines a fairly new phenomenon in American Education: Tribal Colleges. As unique institutions of higher learning, established to specifically address educational and cultural needs of American Indians, they play a pivotal role in individual student and tribal community empowerment. It will be illustrated in-depth how one particular Tribal College – Salish Kootenai College – positively impacts and greatly contributes to the economic development of its tribal community.

  6. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

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    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests.

  7. Development of sustainability indicators by communities in China: a case study of Chongming County, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W; James, P; Hodgson, K; Hutchinson, S M; Shi, C

    2003-07-01

    Public participation as a means of identifying sustainability indicators for Chongming County, Shanghai, China was evaluated by an international group drawing on established best practice. An initial 'long list' of 86 sustainability indicators, based on previous indicator systems developed in China, was identified. This 'long list' was reduced via consultations with local academics and local-government officers from Shanghai City and Chongming County to a 'short list' of 17 indicators. This short-list was subjected to further community consultation involving 159 local-government officers, teachers, students (aged 12-14 years), farmers and workers. Data from the consultations indicated differences in the understanding of sustainable development among the different sectors. By combining the data from the different sectors it was possible to identify a consensus around 4 core and 7 additional indicators. These are proposed as indicators which could be used to steer local activities directed towards sustainable development. The list of indicators produced by the people of Chongming Island was compared to local indicator systems in Europe. In comparison with European lists the Chongming list was found to have a greater emphasis on economic development but a similar level of concern for environmental matters. This study has special significance as it reports on the implementation of a process involving local resident participation in the process of sustainable development in China.

  8. Sharing best practices through online communities of practice: a case study

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    Johnson Peter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The USAID-funded Capacity Project established the Global Alliance for Pre-Service Education (GAPS to provide an online forum to discuss issues related to teaching and acquiring competence in family planning, with a focus on developing countries' health related training institutions. The success of the Global Alliance for Nursing and Midwifery's ongoing web-based community of practice (CoP provided a strong example of the successful use of this medium to reach many participants in a range of settings. Case description GAPS functioned as a moderated set of forums that were analyzed by a small group of experts in family planning and pre-service education from three organizations. The cost of the program included the effort provided by the moderators and the time to administer responses and conduct the analysis. Discussion and evaluation Family planning is still considered a minor topic in health related training institutions. Rather than focusing solely on family planning competencies, GAPS members suggested a focus on several professional competencies (e.g. communication, leadership, cultural sensitivity, teamwork and problem solving that would enhance the resulting health care graduate's ability to operate in a complex health environment. Resources to support competency-based education in the academic setting must be sufficient and appropriately distributed. Where clinical competencies are incorporated into pre-service education, responsible faculty and preceptors must be clinically proficient. The interdisciplinary GAPS memberships allowed for a comparison and contrast of competencies, opportunities, promising practices, documents, lessons learned and key teaching strategies. Conclusions Online CoPs are a useful interface for connecting developing country experiences. From CoPs, we may uncover challenges and opportunities that are faced in the absorption of key public health competencies required for decreasing maternal

  9. Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java

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    IDHAM SAKTI HARAHAP

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pribadi T,Raffiudin R,HarahapIS (2011Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java. Biodiversitas 12: 235-240. Termites ecological behaviour is much affected by land use change and disturbance level. Their variation in diversity can be used as bioindicator of environmental quality. However, termite community response to land use changes and habitat disturbance in highland ecosystems remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the response of termite community to land use intensification and to explore their role as environmental bioindicator in Mount Slamet. A standard survey protocol was used to collect termites in five land use typesof various disturbance levels,i.e. protected forest, recreation forest, production forest,agroforestry, and urban area. It was found two termite families i.e. Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae with seven species, i.e Schedorhinotermes javanicus, Procapritermes sp, Pericapritermes semarangi, Macrotermes gilvus, Microtermes insperatus, Nasutitermes javanicus, and N. matanganensis. Termite species’ richness and evenness, Shannon-Wiener index, relative abundance, and biomass of termite were declined along with the land use types and disturbance level from protected forest to urban area. Habitat disturbance was the main declining factor of termite diversity. Termite composition changed along with the land use disturbance level. Soil feeding termites were sensitive to the disturbance – they were not found in urban area. Hence, their presence or absence can be used as environmental bioindicator to detect habitat disturbance.

  10. Case Study Report: Community-Based Monitoring Systems for REDD+ in Guyana

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    Helen Bellfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental component of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+; will be the development of robust and cost-effective measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV instruments for national forest monitoring and safeguard information systems. It is increasingly recognized that community-based monitoring (CBM offers a positive model for greater participation and engagement of indigenous and forest-dependent communities within a REDD+ framework. Yet plans for CBM within REDD+ MRV systems remain limited, and there are currently relatively few concrete examples of CBM informing national forest monitoring systems. This paper outlines findings from a community MRV project with Amerindian communities in the North Rupununi, Guyana; and demonstrates that a CBM approach can enable key REDD+ requirements: in understanding local deforestation drivers and measuring carbon stocks; and for providing information on safeguards through social and environmental assessments. In addition, the authors discuss community capacity-building on smartphone technology for monitoring as a challenging yet viable pathway for scaling the use and adoption of indigenous knowledge and local skills for REDD+ programs.

  11. Understanding community receptivity to water re-use: Ku-ring-gai Council case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R R; Davies, P

    2007-01-01

    This social research project investigated community receptivity to using rainwater and greywater as alternative domestic water sources. It was focused in the Ku-ring-gai local government area in northern Sydney, and involved a household questionnaire followed by community leader interviews and resident focus groups. Trends, such as a prolonged drought and increasing population, compound the current crisis and concern facing Sydney's available water supply. Substitution of domestic potable water has been promoted as part of the solution. The research results revealed that community receptivity was highest for external uses, such as watering gardens and flushing toilets, and progressively decreased with increasing personal contact. Receptivity to greywater reuse fell more rapidly with the community believing there was a higher health risk associated with its use. Gender and cultural background were revealed as significant variables and give insight into the design of strategies to target these demographic groups. This evidence provides a reliable stocktake of current receptivity revealing that the community has good awareness and positive association with water reuse for many household activities. This now needs to be harnessed through programs targeted at developing skills, resources and motivation for new water reuse practices and technologies across diverse social groupings.

  12. Redefining "Community" through Collaboration and Co-Teaching: A Case Study of an ESOL Specialist, a Literacy Specialist, and a Fifth-Grade Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Hersi, Afra; Horan, Deborah A.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the development of a professional learning community through a case study of three teachers--an ESOL specialist, a literacy specialist, and a fifth-grade teacher--who engaged in co-teaching and collaboration. The emerging community of practice offered these teachers a space to learn and problem-solve by utilizing their…

  13. Community Involvement in Tourism Development: A Case Study of Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site

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    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the empirical relationship between the economic impact and community involvement in the Lenggong Valley. Recommendations for improvement in development effectiveness through the development of a community centre for economic and social activities, with specific attention given to types of activity and community involvement stimulating the economic development in the Lenggong Valley. Heritage tourism development is a tourism in which arts, culture and heritage form a key attraction for visitors and it can be represented as an area of significant economic benefit to heritage sites. The tourism industry in Hulu Perak became more widespread after Lenggong Valley is recognized as a World Heritage Site. There is shown a positive effect on the development and economic prosperity.

  14. Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Community-level Decision-Making: A San Juan, Puerto Rico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program is developing tools and approaches to incorporate ecosystem goods and services concepts into community-level decision-making. The San Juan Community Study is one of a serie...

  15. The Coast Guard Intelligence Program Enters the Intelligence Community. A Case Study of Congressional Influence on Intelligence Community Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    development; Carole Weinraub, human resource management expert; and retired U.S. Navy Captain Roger Messersmith, a joint intelligence, surveillance and...Commission, a civilian federal advisory group, was chartered in 1998 by the Secretary of Defense to study U.S. national security and 234 Reese ...of Intelligence, GDIP budget manager, 1998-2001. Interview by author, 26 June 2003. Madsen, Reese , Commander USCG. Coast Guard Liaison Offi cer to

  16. Contamination of Community Potable Water from Land Grabbing: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

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    Serena Arduino

    2012-06-01

    The paper discusses the direct causes of water contamination (the use of fertilisers and pesticides and the presence of cattle and the indirect causes (unclear administrative boundaries, lack of participation and transparency, procedures not followed and limited resources. The negotiation process and its outcomes are described. From this study we conclude that stakeholder communication and transparency are key elements in anticipating and preventing the arising of such situations. Often, these are in short supply when large land deals occur. In this case, ex-post solutions were arrived at. Finally, the paper looks at the broader dimensions of land deals that pollute the water feeding a water supply scheme. Such situations are a clear violation of the human right to safe drinking water – an issue that has not yet been sufficiently documented in the literature and which merits further attention.

  17. Empowering communities in combating river blindness and the role of NGOs: case studies from Cameroon, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda

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    Meredith Stefanie E O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control of onchocerciasis is not only a major success story in global health, but also one of the best examples of the power of public-private partnership at the international level as well as at the national level. The onchocerciasis story is also a leading example of the contribution of a group of called Non-Governmental Development Organizations (NGDO to operational research which resulted in important changes in treatment strategies and policies. The four case studies presented here illustrate some key contributions the NGDOs made to the development of “community directed treatment with ivermectin” –CDTI, in Africa, which became the approved methodology within the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC. The partnership between the international, multilateral, government institutions and the NGDO Coordination Group was the backbone of the APOC programme’s structure and facilitated progress and scale-up of treatment programmes. Contributions included piloting community–based methodology in Mali and Nigeria; research, collaboration and coordination on treatment strategies and policies, coalition building, capacity building of national health workforce and advocacy at the national and international level. While the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP and APOC provided leadership, the NGDOs working with the national health authorities played a major role in advocacy evolving the community methodology which led to achieving and maintaining- treatments with ivermectin for at least 20 years and strengthening community health systems.

  18. Impacts of community forests on livelihoods in Cameroon: Lessons from two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beauchamp, E.; Ingram, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Community forestry is considered a tool for decentralisation and devolution and as efficient strategy to achieve the multiple goals of sustainable resource management and poverty alleviation. However, evidence worldwide has shown mixed results. A financial, economic and environmental cost-benefit an

  19. The Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis: A Case Study of Academic Library Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Scott; Morris, Cele; Sutherland, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper details community engagement activity of an academic library coordinated within a broader university strategic plan. The Anderson Library at Indiana University Northwest (IU-Northwest) supports a service called the Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis. Created in 1996 with funding made available from the Indiana University…

  20. Institutional Commitment to Community Engagement: A Case Study of Makerere University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabi, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Although the earliest medieval universities began as teaching-only institutions, the university as an institution has since experienced revolutions in the way its functions are conceived. Currently, the university embraces three functions: teaching, research and community engagement. Although the teaching and research functions of the university…

  1. The Community Science Workshop Network Story: Case Studies of the CSW Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Community Science Workshops (CSWs)--with funding from the S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation--created a network among the CSW sites in California. The goals of the CSW Network project have been to improve programs, build capacity throughout the Network, and establish new sites. Inverness Research has been…

  2. Community Participation and Barriers in Rural Tourism: A Case Study in Kiulu, Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velnisa Paimin N. F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation on local community participation and barriers in rural tourism. It identifies two sides of community participation in tourism as identified by Timothy [5], which are; the benefits point of view and from the decision making process perspective. It also identifies the communities’ barriers in engaging in tourism and uses Tosun’s [18] approach in examining the barriers. A total of eighty-three questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from seven villages in Kiulu, Sabah, Malaysia. Respondents involved in tourism were mainly engaged as river guides, homestay operators and Tagal participants. Their involvement in the decision making process were limited to attending meetings and giving ideas and opinions only. The main barriers to participate in tourism were related to their limited knowledge about tourism, lack of capital, unable to communicate well in English, lack of information about tourism development in Kiulu, and limited incentives or support from the government for tourism development. The findings have significant implication to community participation in tourism especially in rural settings. More efforts should be made to ensure many more communities participate in tourism so as to share the benefits of tourism.

  3. Role-Playing Simulation as a Communication Tool in Community Dialogue: Karkonosze Mountains Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolikowska, Karolina; Kronenberg, Jakub; Maliszewska, Karolina; Sendzimir, Jan; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Dunajski, Andrzej; Slodka, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a process of role-playing simulation (RPS) as it was used during an educational exercise in community dialogue in the Karkonosze Mountains region of southwest Poland. Over the past decade Karkonosze National Park, a regional tourist magnet, has provided an excellent example of environmental conflict emerging from the…

  4. Constructing a Community Response Grid (CRG): The Dublin, Ohio Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, John F., III.

    2012-01-01

    During an emergency, information availability is critical to preserving life and minimizing damages. During the emergency response, however, information may not be available to those who need it. A community response grid (CRG) can help ameliorate this lack of availability by allowing people to document and distribute emergency information to…

  5. Online Learning Community: A Case Study of Teacher Professional Development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Eunice Ratna

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the concept of online learning community (OLC) to address the issues of teacher professional development practice in twenty-first-century Indonesia. Teachers in Indonesia are trained in a "conventional way", hence, not ready to prepare the younger generations for entrance into the twenty-first-century complex life…

  6. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  7. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  8. Teacher and student actions to construct biology literacy at a community college: A bounded case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesel, Patricia

    2000-10-01

    Science content area literacy, particularly literacy development in college level biology, is the focus of this study. The study investigates the actions and activities of an instructor and six students over the course of 16 weeks. The study is in response to interest in the literate practices in science classes (NSES, 1996) and to the call for contextual studies that facilitate the learning of science (Borasi & Siegel, 1999; Moje, 1996; Nist & Holschuh, 1996; Prentiss, 1998). A collaborative study between the biology teacher and the researcher, this study investigates the practices believed to be effective for the development of biology literacy. Data sources, in the qualitative bounded case study (Bogdin & Biklin, 1982; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Miles & Huberman, 1994), include: field notes of classroom observations, in-depth interviews (Seidman, 1992), class surveys, and literate artifacts. The data were coded and analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The six students reveal similarities and differences regarding the actions, patterns, practices and use of materials and their beliefs about effective practice in the development of biology literacy. The results indicate that a variety of actions and activities are needed to facilitate the development of biology literacy. The common themes to develop from the students' data about effective teacher actions are the following: (a) involves and engages students in inquiry learning through group projects, hands-on, and group discussions; (b) relates examples, experiences, and stories; (c) exhibits expertise; (d) encourages a relaxed classroom atmosphere; (e) facilitates and coaches students; and (f) credits creativity. Further, students report their teacher to be an expert, in terms of science knowledge and literate practices, and that her expertise contributes to their understanding of biology literacy. The teachers' data reveals three themes embedded in her classroom actions: science as

  9. Community participation in improving environmental situation--a case study of Panchkhal. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, D P

    1983-01-01

    During 1980, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project initiated the construction of 5 low-cost toilets in the rural Panchkhal Project area of Nepal for demonstration purposes on a subsidy basis. On recommendation from the members of the cooperation committee, these toilets were constructed within school premises located in different Village Panchayats. The overall strategy adopted during the parasite control program was to generate community participation in latrine construction. In the fiscal year 1981, 30 more subsidized sanitary toilets were built in the pilot area. With a view to determine how many families would be interested in constructing sanitary toilets on a subsidy basis towards the later part of 1981, the Project invited applications from the people of the pilot area. This was done to check people's attitudes towards the program. The response was encouraging. By the end of 1981, there were 300 applications; interest would have increased if the Project could aid all of the potential applicants. UNICEF has been involved in latrine construction by granting money and aiding in latrine design. The Panchkhal experience shows that community people are prepared to spend as much as 75% of the building costs for constructing sanitary toilets, when they are convinced that their health will improve as a result. Those who can afford the toilets will pay Nepal Rs25 (about US$1.90); those who cannot pay cash will provide labor to make the cement slabs. The very poor sector of the community, upon recommendation of members of the cooperation committees, may be given squatting slabs free of charge, if they are interested in constructing latrines. Constraints to the program include: difficult geography for constructing latrines; deforestation and dried-up wells; high illiteracy; lack of higher education facilities; and lack of appropriate technology. Recommendations call for distribution of materials at a nominal charge; casting the slabs over the

  10. Developing an Interventional Pulmonary Service in a Community-Based Private Practice: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kim D; Desai, Neeraj R; Diamond, Edward; Kovitz, Kevin L

    2016-04-01

    Interventional pulmonology (IP) is a field that uses minimally invasive techniques to diagnose, treat, and palliate advanced lung disease. Technology, formal training, and reimbursement for IP procedures have been slow to catch up with other interventional subspecialty areas. A byproduct of this pattern has been limited IP integration in private practice settings. We describe the key aspects and programmatic challenges of building an IP program in a community-based setting. A philosophical and financial buy-in by stakeholders and a regionalization of services, within and external to a larger practice, are crucial to success. Our experience demonstrates that a successful launch of an IP program increases overall visits as well as procedural volume without cannibalizing existing practice volume. We hope this might encourage others to provide this valuable service to their own communities.

  11. ECSCHOOL Model: A Case Study of Building Learning Support Community in ICT Promotion Project in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to concerns about the digital divide based on age, an ICT promotion project named “e-namokun” was started in Nagoya, Japan to support the Internet use by senior citizens. In the project, a learning support community system named ECSCHOOL (www.ecschool.org for senior citizens and ICT novices was developed to help them gain computer and Internet-related knowledge. The ECSCHOOL model has the following features: learning contents for different users, suitable communication and support tools, introduction of field research results, participation of ICT volunteers, an easy-to-use interface, and low development cost. The ECSCHOOL scheme is a new operational model for promoting e-learning in lifelong learning fields. This paper discusses the ECSCHOOL model, the system’s structure, its main functions, its learning content, and the formation of communities.

  12. Valuing and Sustaining (or Not the Ability of Volunteer Community Health Workers to Deliver Integrated Community Case Management in Northern Ghana: A Qualitative Study.

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    Karen Daniels

    Full Text Available Within the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM programme, the traditional health promotion and prevention role of community health workers (CHWs has been expanded to treatment. Understanding both the impact and the implementation experience of this expanded role are important. In evaluating UNICEF's implementation of iCCM, this qualitative case study explores the implementation experience in Ghana.Data were collected through a rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during a field visit in May 2013 to Accra and the Northern Region of Ghana. We sought to understand the experience of iCCM from the perspective of locally based UNICEF staff, their partners, researchers, Ghana health services management staff, CHWs and their supervisors, nurses in health facilities and mothers receiving the service. Our analysis of the findings showed that there is an appreciation both by mothers and by facility level staff for the contribution of CHWs. Appreciation was expressed for the localisation of the treatment of childhood illness, thus saving mothers from the effort and expense of having to seek treatment outside of the village. Despite an overall expression of value for the expanded role of CHWs, we also found that there were problems in supporting and sustaining their efforts. The data showed concern around CHWs being unpaid, poorly supervised, regularly out of stock, lacking in essential equipment and remaining outside the formal health system.Expanding the roles of CHWs is important and can be valuable, but contextual and health system factors threaten the sustainability of iCCM in Ghana. In this and other implementation sites, policymakers and key donors need to take into account historical lessons from the CHW literature, while exploring innovative and sustainable mechanisms to secure the programme as part of a government owned and government led strategy.

  13. Assessing the educational and support needs of nursing staff serving older adults: a case study of a community coalition/university partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tam E; Ziemba, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Given the expected changes in demography and dependent care ratios, communities are preparing for the needs of older populations. Sometimes, communities form coalitions to address health-care needs. This case study evaluates a coalition/university partnership formed to assess the educational and support needs of nursing staff who are taking care of older adults across all service settings in one geographically defined community. A 17-member community-based coalition contracted with researchers from an external university to determine the perceptions of three key stakeholder groups: older adults and their families, all levels of nursing staff, and agency administrators. By applying principles of Participatory Action Research (PAR), this case study presents the challenges faced in the community-based coalition/university research team partnership. This coalition/research partnership is unique, differing from most academic examples of PAR because nursing professionals initiated the partnership.

  14. A Case Study of Open Source Physics (OSP) Learning Community (LC)

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    Kwan, Lyna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how the Open Source Physics at Singapore learning community of teachers, loosing connected as creators, adapters and users, is projected to be able to self sustain, through the 3Ps scaling-up framework, of Product, Process and People. References were made to another project called WiMVT Web-based iMVT and now known as Collaborative Science Inquiry (CSI), a formalize Ministry of Education (MOE) effort to spread out good practices. Having a vision, reason, and passion-emotion are factors that the authors argue can fuel and propel the spreading of those good teaching and learning practices.

  15. A case study of a distance-based public health nursing/community health nursing practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine; Block, Derryl

    2005-01-01

    Facilitating a distance-based public health/community health nursing practicum for RN to BSN students posed challenges and opportunities. Challenges included time involved in arranging the practicum, relationship building with agencies and staff, communicating with students, and the need for flexible practicum scheduling. Exposure to practice models from across the nation allowed students to compare and contrast these public health nursing models. Programs planning to offer this type of course should consider faculty workload particularly during the semester prior to teaching the practicum.

  16. Local Community Versus Globalization Tendencies: Case Study of Czech Villages in Romanian Banat Region

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    Šantrůčková Markéta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research question is the relationship between the local community and globalization tendencies and transformation or maintenance of local traditions. The research area is a specific locality of a Czech village in Romanian Banat. The local community has evolved in a relative isolation. Agriculture was the most important activity despite the fact that a mining factory was opened there. Agriculture was and in many features still is traditional, self-supplying, and hard-work. The life-style has always been environmentally friendly as it has been without modern technologies. Nevertheless, modernization exploded dramatically in these villages after 1989, when the communist policies collapsed along with Romania's isolation. People from the Czech Republic have rediscovered Romanian Banat and a rather busy (agro tourism has developed there. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports development projects for making living conditions in the village better. Simultaneously, strong migration from Banat to the Czech Republic has started. People find living conditions in the Czech Republic easier and leave hard work, poverty and unemployment. It brings huge land cover changes because people who remain cannot use all arable land, which is thus abandoned and left for the natural process. One of the distinct manifestations of globalization tendencies is the build-up of wind power plants.

  17. ESIP Federation: A Case Study on Enabling Collaboration Infrastructure to Support Earth Science Informatics Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E.; Meyer, C. B.; Benedict, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    A critical part of effective Earth science data and information system interoperability involves collaboration across geographically and temporally distributed communities. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) is a broad-based, distributed community of science, data and information technology practitioners from across science domains, economic sectors and the data lifecycle. ESIP's open, participatory structure provides a melting pot for coordinating around common areas of interest, experimenting on innovative ideas and capturing and finding best practices and lessons learned from across the network. Since much of ESIP's work is distributed, the Foundation for Earth Science was established as a non-profit home for its supportive collaboration infrastructure. The infrastructure leverages the Internet and recent advances in collaboration web services. ESIP provides neutral space for self-governed groups to emerge around common Earth science data and information issues, ebbing and flowing as the need for them arises. As a group emerges, the Foundation quickly equips the virtual workgroup with a set of ';commodity services'. These services include: web meeting technology (Webex), a wiki and an email listserv. WebEx allows the group to work synchronously, dynamically viewing and discussing shared information in real time. The wiki is the group's primary workspace and over time creates organizational memory. The listserv provides an inclusive way to email the group and archive all messages for future reference. These three services lower the startup barrier for collaboration and enable automatic content preservation to allow for future work. While many of ESIP's consensus-building activities are discussion-based, the Foundation supports an ESIP testbed environment for exploring and evaluating prototype standards, services, protocols, and best practices. After community review of testbed proposals, the Foundation provides small seed funding and a

  18. "People at the Heart of Our Processes", a Case Study of How a Nursery School and Children's Centre Promotes Community Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan Bio, Martine

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a doctoral case study of how an English integrated nursery school and children's centre fulfils its legal duty to promote community cohesion. The provocation for the enquiry derives from the author's growing unease over the perceived limitations of a target-driven culture currently pervading English schools. A case is made…

  19. Audience Participation in Television Websites: a case study of the public broadcasting corporations of the autonomous communities in Spain

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    AYERDI, Koldobika Meso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of Internet and the Web 2.0 have multiplied the possibilities available to the television audience for dialoguing with the medium, beyond the television screen. This is in spite of the fact that interactivity in television is not something new. Participatory forms like electronic mail, chat, SMSs, forums, virtual meetings, surveys, blogs or social networks are acquiring a special relevance. At present, these tools are being preferentially incorporated by televisions and aimed at the younger public, given its special predilection for changes and for the use of new technologies. This communication analyses the incorporation of these new forms on the basis of a case study centred on the public televisions of the autonomous communities in Spain.

  20. Mixed Supply Model of Public Service Provision in “Village to Residence” Community: An Empirical Case Study in Jinan

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    Chunlei Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China is experiencing rapid transition of urbanization. From the 1980s till now, the transformation of “village to residence” has become a prominent approach for numerous villages in the urban-fringe areas of China. This paper discusses the mixed supply model of public service provision, on the basis of an empirical study of two cases in Jinan City, by illustrating the transformation of urbanization and how public services in the communities are delivered. The paper also considers existing challenges in the model and accordingly provides a series of policy suggestions, including defining responsibilities of government, speeding up the joint-stock reform of collective assets and innovating the public service provision mechanism.

  1. The Vanishing People and Vanishing Community- A Case Study in Bangladesh

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    Drs Chandan Kumar Sarkar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development, inequality and poverty are perhaps the most important issues in Bangladesh. Politicians, academics, NGO leaders, concern citizens—all try to emphasize the need to enhance the resilience of the poor by reducing their marginalization and vulnerability. The majority of indigenous people are poor, particularly in India and Bangladesh; they constitute a significant proportion of the rural poor and are the most vulnerable and marginalized in category. The following concept can play an important role in reducing poverty by addressing indigenous people’s development needs. These concepts highlight the problems and challenges faced by the (nomadic/ bede people. As most (nomadic / Bede people live in marginal areas where property rights are ill-defined, secure access to land, forests and water is necessarily a major issue. It is also important to address nomadic e.g. Bede community basic human rights to food, health, education, culture, dignity and peace.

  2. Pedestrian Zones As Important Urban Strategies in Redeveloping the Community - Case Study: Alba Iulia Borough Park

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    Oana Elena BLAGA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem  and continuous attractiveness for investment and  tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.

  3. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  4. Sheltering and Housing after Major Community Disasters: Case Studies and General Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the permanent homes of the disaster victims, as occurred in the case of some Sicilian earthquake survivors in 1968. Years after the disaster, some...beets--1 the primary crop in the days before widespread irrigation. Agriculture remains the economic mainstay. Corn, soybeans, wheat , and livestock are

  5. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM: a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

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    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions

  6. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

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    Grills Nathan J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of

  7. Informal care for people with chronic psychotic symptoms: four case studies in a San community in South Africa.

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    den Hertog, Thijs N; Gilmoor, Andrew R

    2017-03-01

    Despite the internationally recognised importance of informal care, especially in settings with limited services, few studies focus on the informal care for people with mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Making informal care visible is important for understanding the challenges and identifying the needs to be addressed. This ethnographic case study explored the dynamics of informal care for people with chronic psychotic symptoms in a group of San living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in a township near Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014 and included semi-structured interviews, informal conversations and observations. Using local terminology, four individuals with chronic psychotic symptoms were identified and selected during the research process. A total of 33 semi-structured interviews took place with their caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive, interpretive and pattern coding to identify core themes and interrelations across the four cases. Results indicate that informal care is characterised by shared and fragmented care structures. Care was shared among family members from various households and unrelated community members. This allowed for an adaptive process that responded to local dynamics and the care recipients' needs. However, informal care was fragmented as it was generally uncoordinated, which increased the recipients' vulnerability as caregivers could redirect care-giving responsibility and withdraw care. Specific challenges for providing care were related to poverty and care resistance. To improve the living conditions of people suffering from psychosis-related mental health problems, community-based mental healthcare should broaden its scope and incorporate local strengths and challenges.

  8. Blessings for All? Community-Based Ecotourism in Bali Between Global, National, and Local Interests – A Case Study

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    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine

  9. Challenges to translating new media interventions in community practice: a sexual health SMS program case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cassandra J C; Leinberger, Kaytlyn; Lim, Megan S C

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Herein we discuss translational challenges for new media interventions, using the Sexual Health & Youth (SHY) short message service (SMS) project to illustrate particular challenges relating to recruitment and evaluation. Methods Following the delivery of an SMS sexual health program, available documents (progress reports, communications with project staff, ethics submissions and reporting) were analysed thematically to elucidate the barriers to recruitment, implementation and evaluation. Results Despite being framed by evidence-based research, the project had little impact on the intended population. Only 119 of an expected 5100 young people (2%) enrolled to receive SMS messages. Program documents highlighted the difficulty of recruiting participants for new media interventions. Key issues identified in recruitment included under-resourcing, delays waiting to receive ethics approval and challenges of school-based recruitment. Conclusion The minimal impact of the SHY program illustrates the need for improved research translation in the field of new media interventions. It is important that recruitment procedures align with the convenience and appeal of mobile phone-based interventions. So what? New media research is not always easily translated into community settings. Large-scale recruitment requires adequate resourcing and careful planning, even for low-cost mobile interventions. Stronger formative research, documentation and use of partnerships are essential for successful implementation. Researchers must also consider translation in planning and disseminating their work.

  10. Social equity and livelihood implications of REDD+ in rural communities – a case study from Nepal

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    Mohan Poudel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing international consensus that the use of the policy instrument REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries could be an effective way to reduce carbon emissions from the forestry sector and support bio-diversity with livelihood benefits, there are a range of unresolved issues, including potential implications for rural livelihoods. This paper presents results from recent research that examines social equity and livelihood implications of the piloting of REDD+ through Nepal’s community forestry system, within selected villages in the Gorkha district of Nepal. The research reveals the varying experiences of households, closely correlated to the socio-economic attributes of the households. Despite the ‘no harm and equitable’ policy, this research indicates that not everyone is experiencing the anticipated benefits of REDD+. Although poorer, women-headed and marginalized households are targeted in some ways (e.g. seed grants, the support is limited, and inadequately compensates the loss they have experienced in other ways (e.g. limited access to forests. Households bundling by caste may not necessarily address equity, but is likely to increase intra-caste marginalization.

  11. What do regions want?: A case study of university-community relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Charles; DeLaurier, Gregory F; Silka, Linda

    2003-01-01

    We hear more and more about the necessity of "sustainable regional development" as an alternative to and defense against globalization. While we certainly agree with this notion, we ask what might prevent it from becoming yet another "top-down" development scheme with good intentions but dubious results. We would argue that no road to development is sustainable if it is not deeply democratic and reliant on an informed, concerned public; the expressed needs of the public must be an essential aspect of regional development. Our focus here is on the university, the main supplier of the experts and technologies utilized by the undemocratic processes of globalization, but it might also be a partner in a democratic process of regional sustainable development. To do this, however, experts in academia must resist the temptation to assume they know what is best and work in concert with community forces to define and create sustainable development. To put it simply, if experts and planners in the university want to know what a region wants and needs, they have to ask. What follows is a report on the experience of one university's attempt to do just that.

  12. Forest cognition by local communities: a case study in the Trento municipality (Italy

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    Betta A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The work illustrates the methodology and initial results of research into how the inhabitants of the Municipality of Trento perceive the woods, research which will be subsequently extended to other municipalities in the Trentino (central-east Alps. The chosen method of survey is the self-reported questionnaire, using a random sample of 1000 families selected from the local Registry Office. The article describes in detail the method of formulation, verification and proposal to the respondents, method that revealed itself an instrument well-suited to the reality of the territory surveyed. Also discussed are the possibilities of extending its use to other territorial areas. The results of the descriptive analysis relative to certain themes dealt with in the survey, and set out in the work, clearly demonstrate the strong bond between population and territory; the appreciation of the mountain landscape typical of the Trentino, a solid knowledge of the woods of the province and the recognition of the importance of these in the characterisation of the landscape. The work underlines the importance of taking into consideration not only the values that are commonly attributed to the forest ecosystem, but also those that involve the emotive sphere and the sense of cultural identity of the population. Lastly, the usefulness to those responsible for the protection and management of the natural resources that are part of the region’s heritage, and the possible spin-offs to be gained from a survey of this type, are discussed, further emphasizing the importance of opening channels of dialogue between community and administrator.

  13. Changing Mindsets: A Case Study of a Community of Practice between Charter and Traditional Public School Leaders in the School Leaders Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Manuel N., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the essential elements of a community of practice intended to increase communication and collaboration between traditional public and charter school leaders. Members of the Los Angeles Cohort of the School Leaders Network participated in this study. This case study triangulated observation, interview, and…

  14. A Multiple Case Study Discovering Part-Time Faculties' Perceptions of Their Professional Needs, Working Conditions, Social Network, and Job Satisfaction at Three Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner-Harlee, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This study employed a multiple case study design to evaluate the perspectives of part-time faculties at three community colleges in the Northeast. The purpose of this study was to discover how needs, working conditions, and social networks influence the part-time faculties' job satisfaction. Maslow (1954), Bourdieu (1986), and Herzberg, Mausner,…

  15. A Case Study of Two Teachers Attempting to Create Active Mathematics Discourse Communities with Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Craig Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of two English-dominant mathematics teachers, who I refer to as "monolingual" because they speak only English and do not speak competently or extensively the cultural language of their students. This study explores how these teachers plan, implement, and reflect upon lessons with respect to their bilingual,…

  16. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda: A cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, C.M.; Kateera, F.; Hakizimana, E.; Rulisa, A.; Muvunyi, C.; Mens, P.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Mutesa, L.; Vugt, M. van; Borne, B. van den; Alaii, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (HH)

  17. Building a Culture of Evidence: A Case Study of a California Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jill H.; Sax, Caren L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the practices associated with building a culture of evidence and to identify the factors influencing the success of such an endeavor. By definition, a culture of evidence is based upon practices employing data and research to inform decision making at all levels of the institution, with the…

  18. Social Networking Tools and Teacher Education Learning Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking tools have become an integral part of a pre-service teacher's educational experience. As a result, the educational value of social networking tools in teacher preparation programs must be examined. The specific problem addressed in this study is that the role of social networking tools in teacher education learning communities…

  19. The Ministering Community as Context for Religious Education: A Case Study of St. Gabriel's Catholic Parish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara J

    2006-01-01

    Based on interviews and surveys of two groups of lay pastoral leaders at one predominantly African-American Catholic Parish, this qualitative study explores the "learning organization" dynamics of the congregation based Peter Senge's (1990) description of the five disciplines of learning organizations (personal mastery, shared vision,…

  20. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  1. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

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    Effah Kwabena Antwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  2. A Case Study of Job Satisfaction in Surgical Services at Martin Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    positively influencing as many of aspects of the worker’s job as possible. However, employee motivation is intricately complex (Shortell & Kaluzny). What...equally influence employee motivation . In fact, other content theorists have demonstrated that individuals are likely to prioritize their needs in some...generality of previous studies will prove applicable to subject. As presented in the literature review, however, employee motivation is often a very

  3. Coal Mining and Indigenous Communities: А Case Study of Jharia Coalfields

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    Sribas Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mining is indispensable for the individual, for the society, and for the development of the nations. Unfortunately, mining procedures and operations are often associated with health hazards and environmental deterioration. Present study has been attempted from a socio-economic point of view and the dynamics of the environment of the coal-mining region has been focused upon while keeping in mind what Gerasimov has said, "The purview of ecological approach has been enlarged to digest relevant information and results of studies in biology, sociology and anthropology etc. under such a changed set-up, Geography has equally emphasized aspects of spatial variation and relationship and biological science are no more the sole custodian of ecological approach it has rather displayed a well-marked tendency to become in other fields of science". This study has come up with issues related to harmful effects of mining and how trace elements influence the local environment and may affect human health in the vicinity of the mining area.

  4. Ritual works and practices: a case study from a Muslim community in Cambodia

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    Ing-Britt Trankell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ritual is to assert a transcendental power over everyday experience and rituals therefore tend to be formalized, repetitive and conservative events. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance for ritual studies of ritualised strategies for the negotiation of power and influence. Here, research on a spirit possession cult among the Muslim Cham in Cambodia will serve as an empirical basis for a discussion of the open-ended and unbounded features of ritual in contemporary society, since the performances of this cult may be seen both as a kind of "state ritual" and as exorcism. Through the cult, the Cham tend to take refuge in their memories of the distant past rather than in their more immediate memories of terror and political violence, during the civil war and the Khmer Rouge regime. Rephrased as songs of the spirits, the present and the past intermingle in narrating the difficulties, the conflicts and the struggle in the world of the spirits who live next to, and mingle in, the world of ordinary human beings.

  5. New Whole-House Case Study: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts. The company has been developing strategies for cost-effective super-insulated homes in the New England market since 2006. After years of using various construction techniques, it has developed a specific set of assemblies and specifications that achieve a 44.9% reduction in energy use compared with a home built to the 2009 International Residential Code, qualifying the houses for the DOE’s Challenge Home. The super-insulated houses provide data for several research topics in a cold climate. BSC studied the moisture risks in double stud walls insulated with open cell spray foam and cellulose. The mini-split air source heat pump (ASHP) research focused on the range of temperatures experienced in bedrooms as well as the homeowners’ perceptions of equipment performance. BSC also examined the developer’s financing options for the photovoltaic (PV) systems, which take advantage of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates, local incentives, and state and federal tax credits.

  6. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  7. A comparison of the migration process to an urban barrio and to a rural community: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, W L; Cartano, D G

    1970-01-01

    The results of 2 case studies on migration in Colombia are outlined and compared. The 1st study examines inmigration to a shantytown, El Carmen, in Bogota. The 2nd study involves inmigration to a community in the eastern interior of Colombia, Granada. Migrants' motives, paths of migration, and personal characteristics are examined, suggesting hypotheses for future studies. Economic reasons were most often listed as motives for moving by both the residents of Granada and El Carmen. The type of economic motives varied greatly between the 2 communities. Reasons such as "looking for land," "establishing a business," or "to find a better life" ranked high in importance among Granada residents. These motives, along with the flight from violence, indicate that the independence provided by land and small business affords the inmigrants to Granada a certain security. Inmigrants to El Carmen were seeking employment. Only 34% of the migrants to El Carmen made 1 or more moves before settling in Bogota. 90% of the rural to rural migrants made 1 or more stops before moving to Granada. 68% of the migrants to El Carmen were born within 100 miles of Bogota while only 18% of the migrants to Granada were born within a 100 mile radius of the community. The usual pattern of the migrant to Granada was to move to a neighboring village, town, or city regardless of whether it was closer to Granada or not. The majority of inmigrants to Granada moved from distances greater than 100 miles. Over 70% of the inmigrants were born in towns and villages of more than 2000 population. If a nucleus of 10,000 inhabitants or more are considered urban, then 46% of the rural to rural migrants resided in urban areas prior to moving to Granada. This suggests that a sizable proportion of the migration to Granada is really urban to rural frontier. Studies done in Colombia and Brazil indicate that migrants to rural areas have a lower educational level than migrants to urban areas. Data from El Carmen and

  8. Towards a "Learning Community": The Case of Rana Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocklin, Barry

    1997-01-01

    Case study of a small elementary school in rural New South Wales (Australia) found that the community's history, the size of the school, and the relationship between school staff, students, and stakeholders contributed to development of a learning community. Suggests that becoming a learning community involves an ongoing, developmental, and…

  9. Oil & Community Welfare: A Case Study on People Oil Mining in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Trisnu Brata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually in the oil mining area was exploited by oil company that under licensed from the state. Nevertheless on an oil mining field in East Java Province in Indonesia there is people oil mining that exploited and distributed by the people. They are working on the people oil mining area. Working is a phenomenon inherent to adults in satisfying their needs. People work for a multitude of motivation. Working may lead a particular worker to occupy certain social status within the society. This paper aims to examine the phenomenon of people working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining  to consumer. More specifically, this study aims to describe the impacts of working in the oil mining on the miners’ social and economic life. The method used in this research is ethnography. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews, note taking, and recording. The location of research is in a petroleum artisanal mining area in East Java Province. The results showed that the impact of working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining to consumer is the generation of income used to meet the basic needs, to purchase personal means of transportation, to purchase some piece of land, and to pay for the children’s education.Biasanya ladang minyak dieksploitasi perusahaan yang memperolehy ijin dari negara. Akan tetapi ada ladang minyak di Jawa Timur yang dieksploitasi oleh masyarakat. Mereka bekerja pada ladang seperti  itu. Pekerja memiliki motivasi bermacam-macam dalam pekerjaanya. Bekerja membantu seseorang memperoleh status tertentu dalam masyarakat. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menelaah fenomena pekerja ladang minyak. Pertanyaan yang ingin dijawab dalam penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengapa orang bekerja di ladang minyak?; (2 bagaimana kesejahteraan mereka?; dan (3 bagaimana pengaruh bekerja di ladang minyak pada kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi para pekerja?. Penelitian menggunakan metode etnografi. Penelitian dilakukan di Jawa

  10. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug

  11. Enabling the development of Community Extensions to GI-cat - the SIB-ESS-C case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, L.; Meier, N.; Boldrini, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2009-04-01

    class: the mechanism used to create GI-cat components) to support a custom community catalog/inventory service in GI-cat. In general, all the terminal nodes of a GI-cat configuration chain are in charge of mediating between the GI-cat common interfaces and a backend, so we implemented a default behavior in an abstract class, termed Accessor, to be more easily subclassed. Moreover, we identified several typical backend scenarios and provided specialized Accessor subclasses, even simpler to implement. For example, in case of a coarse-grained backend service, that responds its data all at once, a specialized Accessor can retrieve the whole content the first time, and subsequently browse/query the local copy of the data. This was the approach followed for the development of SibesscAccessor. The SIB-ESS-C case study is also noticeable because it requires mediating between the relational and the semi-structured data models. In fact, SIB-ESS-C data are stored in a relational database, to provide performant access even to huge amounts of data. The SibesscAccessor is in charge of establishing a JDBC connection to the database, reading the data by means of SQL statements, creating Java objects according to the ISO 19115 data model, and marshalling the resulting information to an XML document. During the implementation of the SibesscAccessor, the mix of technologies and deployment environments and the geographical distribution of the development teams turned out to be important issues. To solve them, we relied on technologies and tools for collaborative software development: the Maven build system, the SVN version control system, the XPlanner project planning and tracking tool, and of course VOIP tools. Moreover, we shipped the Accessor Development Kit (ADK) Java library, containing the classes needed for extending GI-cat to custom community catalog/inventory services and other supporting material (documentation, best-practices, examples). The ADK is distributed as a Maven

  12. Abriendo Caminos Para La Educacion: A Case Study of a Parent Outreach Initiative Building on the Knowledge, Skills, and Resources of the Latina/o Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Informed by research studies that demonstrate a positive relationship between parent engagement and student academic attainment, state and national parent outreach initiatives have aimed to bridge the gap between Latina/o parents and schools. Such was the case with the Latina/o Family, School and Community "Avanzando" Project, which…

  13. Examining the Transition to a Four-Day School Week and Investigating Post-Change Faculty/Staff Work-Life Balance: A Community College Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    This single descriptive embedded case study examined the process of implementing a four-day work/school week at a community college and investigated post-change faculty/staff work-life balance. All of the students attending this college live at home. The change was implemented due to state funding shortfalls, increasing college utility expenses…

  14. A Case Study Examining How Students Make Meaning out of Using Facebook as a Virtual Learning Community at a Midwestern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how peer mentors make meaning out of using Facebook as a virtual learning community. With the prevalence of Facebook usage by college students, and the introduction of Facebook into academic settings by educators, program facilitators, administrators, and recruiters, researchers have begun…

  15. Abriendo Caminos Para La Educacion: A Case Study of a Parent Outreach Initiative Building on the Knowledge, Skills, and Resources of the Latina/o Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Informed by research studies that demonstrate a positive relationship between parent engagement and student academic attainment, state and national parent outreach initiatives have aimed to bridge the gap between Latina/o parents and schools. Such was the case with the Latina/o Family, School and Community "Avanzando" Project, which supported the…

  16. A history of the working group to address Los Alamos community health concerns - A case study of community involvement and risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Otway; Jon Johnson

    2000-01-01

    In May 1991, at a Department of Energy (DOE) public hearing at Los Alamos, New Mexico, a local artist claimed there had been a recent brain tumor cluster in a small Los Alamos neighborhood. He suggested the cause was radiation from past operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from the Laboratory's extensive environmental monitoring program gave no reason to believe this charge to be true but also could not prove it false. These allegations, reported in the local and regional media, alarmed the community and revealed an unsuspected lack of trust in the Laboratory. Having no immediate and definitive response, the Laboratory offered to collaborate with the community to address this concern. The Los Alamos community accepted this offer and a joint Community-Laboratory Working Group met for the first time 29 days later. The working group set as its primary goal the search for possible carcinogens in the local environment. Meanwhile, the DOE announced its intention to fund the New Mexico Department of Health to perform a separate and independent epidemiological study of all Los Alamos cancer rates. In early 1994, after commissioning 17 environmental studies and meeting 34 times, the working group decided that the public health concerns had been resolved to the satisfaction of the community and voted to disband. This paper tells the story of the artist and the working group, and how the media covered their story. It summarizes the environmental studies directed by the working group and briefly reviews the main findings of the epidemiology study. An epilogue records the present-day recollections of some of the key players in this environmental drama.

  17. Partner's engagement in community-based health promotion programs: a case study of professional partner's experiences and perspectives in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahraminejad, Nasrin; Ibrahim, Faisal; Riji, Haliza Mohd; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hamzah, Azimi; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran

    2015-12-01

    Community-based health promotion requires effective participation and partnership of diverse and numerous stakeholders from community as well as external professional organizations. Although effective partnership of stakeholders is often the key for success of health promotion practice and research, but this has proved to be a complex and challenging task. This study is an exploratory study to identify professional stakeholder's perspectives and experiences toward the partner's engagement challenges in community-based participatory research conducted in Population Research Centers in Iran. A qualitative study design with in-depth semi-structured interviews as data collection method was chosen. Using purposeful sampling technique, policy-makers and managers (mainly academics) involved in community-based participatory research in these centers were invited to be interviewed. Data were collected to the point where no new information was forthcoming. All interviews were taped and transcribed. To provide answers for research questions, qualitative content analysis was employed to extract emerging main themes from numerous cods. Findings were categorized in three main themes as Partnership's relationship and trust issues, Partnership's individual issues and Partnership's system issues. Although community-based participatory research in Iran benefits from more than a decade history and some physical infrastructures, but it seems that public health experts and researchers and other partner organizations are lagging behind in terms of capacities and competencies required to effectively utilize the available structure and opportunities. Hence, capacity development, both among professional partners and community may be the main way forward to tackling the future challenges for strengthening community actions but should include both levels of individuals and systems.

  18. Photovoltaic energy supply in communities of the Xingo program: Case study: Gualte community-Brazilian Northeast Methodology for natural climatization of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Elielza M. de S; Tiba, Chigueru [Universidad Federal de Pernambuco-UFPE (Brazil); Silva Junior, Ramiro; Ferreira, Fabiana M; Carvalho, Maria A. P [Xingo Program (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The Xingo Program is a multidisciplinary initiative, developed jointly by the CNPq-Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and CHESF- Hydroelectric Power Company of the Sao Francisco River. Its main objective is to promote the development of a semi-arid region through actions undertaken in different areas; more specifically, to seek energetic solutions on suitable techniques in the region and at the same time identify local demands and business opportunities that may lead to the introduction of enterprises in the region, principally focusing social and citizenship development. Eight rural communities located in the perimeter of Xingo program were selected for implementing the first pilot projects. This paper describes a technical and social diagnosis, and a conceptual project that were made for each community, considering the resources and the local available potentialities, prioritizing energy supply to schools, health centers and the supply of drinking water. In particular, the case study describes the process of energy supply to Guatle community, an old farm without any education/health infrastructure and water is supplied by means of trucks, in which there was a significant increase in the number of families after being occupied by activists of the Landless movement. In this community a school unit was built and electrified (school and park illuminated, TV, refrigerator), a 12 m{sup 3}/day water supply system was installed in and old and abandoned well, the water of which showed an excellent quality and quantity, 6 m{sup 3}/h, a very rare occurrence in that region. Later, literacy courses were given to young people and adults, the natural aptitude of the inhabitants. With the arrival of water, the first conflicts for the management of these resources emerged. The experience in Gualte, in spite of the successes and failures, could be considered as a lesson that should be learned. The feeling of citizenship of the needy community

  19. Attitude Differences between Male and Female Students at Clovis Community College and Their Relationships to Math Anxiety: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Richard Lane

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…

  20. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  1. The relative influence of the community and the health system on work performance: a case study of community health workers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S A; Larsen, D E

    1990-01-01

    A central component of the primary health care approach in developing countries has been the development and utilization of community-based health workers (CHWs) within the national health system. While the use of these front line workers has the potential to positively influence health behavior and health status in rural communities, there continues to be challenges to effective implementation of CHW programs. Reports of high turnover rates, absenteeism, poor quality of work, and low morale among CHWs have often been associated with weak organizational and managerial capacity of government health systems. However, no systematic research has examined the contribution of work-related factors to CHW job performance. The research reported in this paper examines the relative influence of reward and feedback factors associated with the community compared to those associated with the health system on the performance of CHWs. The data are drawn from a broader study of health promoters (CHWs) conducted in two departments (provinces) in Colombia in 1986. The research was based on a theoretical model of worker performance that focuses on job related sources of rewards and feedback. A survey research design was employed to obtain information from a random sample of rural health promoters (N = 179) and their auxiliary nurse supervisors about CHW performance and contributing factors. The findings indicate that feedback and rewards from the community have a greater influence on work performance (defined as degree of perceived goal attainment on job tasks) than do those stemming from the health system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Humidifier Disinfectants Are a Cause of Lung Injury among Adults in South Korea: A Community-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyuk Park

    Full Text Available An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD. However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study's findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury.Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years, sex, residence, and history of childbirth since 2006 (for women. Environmental risk factors, which included type and use of humidifier and HD, were investigated using a structured questionnaire during August 2011. The exposure to HD was calculated for both cases and controls, and the corresponding risks of lung injury were compared.Among 28 eligible cases, 16 patients agreed to participate, and 60 matched controls were considered eligible for this study. The cases were more likely to have been exposed to HD (odds ratio: 116.1, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-2,063.7. All cases were exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate, and the risk of lung injury increased with the cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and exposure per day.This study revealed a statistically significant exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Therefore, continuous monitoring and stricter evaluation of environmental chemicals' safety should be conducted.

  3. Long-term community responses to droughts in the early modern period: the case study of Terrassa, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Grau-Satorras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New challenges posed by global environmental change have motivated scholars to pay growing attention to historical long-term strategies to deal with climate extremes. We aim to understand long-term trends in community responses to cope with droughts, to explain how many preindustrial societies coevolved with local hydro-climatic dynamics and coped with climate extremes over time. The specific goals of this work are: (1 to analyze how local communities experienced droughts over long periods of time and (2 to document the spectrum of recorded community responses to drought. Our research covers over one century (1605-1710 of responses to drought in the community of Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. Data were collected through archival research. We reviewed and coded 2076 village council minutes. Our results show that the local community adopted a mixture of symbolic, institutional, and infrastructural responses to drought and that drought-related decisions varied through time. We discuss adaptation strategies on the basis of the distinct physical signals of drought propagation and the role of nonclimatic historical factors, such as warfare and public debt, in shaping responses. We conclude that long-term perspectives on premodern history and comparable empirical studies are fundamental to advance our understanding of past social responses to hydro-climatic extremes.

  4. Benthic community response to habitat variation: A case of study from a natural protected area, the Celestun coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Daniel; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis; Hernández-Guevara, Norma A.

    2007-12-01

    Little information currently exists on spatial and temporal benthic community variations in tropical coastal lagoons. Here, the benthic community response to habitat variation in the Celestun coastal lagoon, northwest Yucatan peninsula, was seasonally examined during the 1994-1995 climatic cycle into a grid of 12 sampling sites distributed along the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Habitat variation was assessed through physical factors associated both to the water column (e.g. salinity) and the bottom sediment (e.g. sand, silt and clay fractions). The benthic community response was assessed through species diversity measures and abundance. Under the influence of climatic seasonality, variations in habitat conditions followed by changes in the benthic community characteristics were expected. Results from two-way ANOVAs showed that for the period of study, Celestun lagoon was more heterogeneous along the spatial axis of variability than along the temporal one. Multiple regression analysis showed that salinity was spatially the main factor influencing the benthic community characteristics. Temporally, the sediment characteristics were observed to exert significant effects on the species diversity characteristics but not on abundance. Other variables assessed (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and water column transparency) exhibited no significant covariance with species diversity and abundance. Since generated from historical data, these results have the potential to be useful as a benchmark to the establishment of monitoring programs in the light of the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the natural resources of the lagoon and surrounding coastal area.

  5. Retrospective qualitative analysis of ecological networks under environmental perturbation: a copper-polluted intertidal community as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Garay-Narváez, Leslie; Medina, Matías H

    2012-01-01

    The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped into trophic groups) belonging to the Chañaral intertidal community that, being directly affected by copper pollution, contributed primarily to the generation of the observed changes in community structure. These groups of species were called initiators. We applied a qualitative modelling approach based only on the sign and direction of effects among species, and present a formula for predicting changes in equilibrium abundances considering stress on multiple variables simultaneously. We then applied this technique retrospectively to identify the most likely set of initiators. Our analyses allowed identification of a unique set of four initiators in the studied intertidal system (a group of algae, sessile invertebrates, a group of herbivores and starfish), which were hypothesized to be the primary drivers of the observed changes in community structure. In addition, a hypothesis was derived about how the perturbation affected these initiators. The hypothesis is that pollution affected negatively the population growth rate of both algae and sessile invertebrates and suppressed the interaction between herbivores and starfish. Our analytic approach, focused on identifying initiators, constitutes an advance towards understanding the mechanisms underlying human-driven ecosystem disruption and permits identifying species that may serve as a focal point for community management and restoration.

  6. A Different Result of Community Participation in Education: An Indonesian Case Study of Parental Participation in Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…

  7. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate

  8. Culture and Poverty: A Case Study of a Girl with Special Educational Needs from a Poor Community in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Neetha

    2015-01-01

    Girls with disabilities from lower economic homes are disadvantaged (in terms of gender, disability and poverty) in India, and are often regarded as useless by their communities. There is a need to improve and provide a chance for self-sufficiency among women with disabilities in India. The purpose of this study was to examine the life-chances…

  9. The Fundamental Lifestyle of a University Community: A Case Study of Higher Education in a Malaysian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Mey, See Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study identified the fundamental lifestyles adopted by a university community in Malaysia. Rapid growth and expansion of higher education in Malaysia is inevitable as the country moves from a production-based economy to one that is innovative and knowledge-based, requiring the development of a highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce.…

  10. Designing a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method: a case study from central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene McNaughton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for

  11. Connecting Distance Learning Communities to Research via Virtual Collaboratories: A Case Study from Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    This case study reports on patterns of participation in a virtual collaboratory organised around goals associated with the involvement of graduate students in research and writing projects. Traditionally, distance learning classrooms have been devoted to teaching content matter (in a virtual context) yet this case study reports on the use of…

  12. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities: a case study in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study

  13. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty.

  14. Influences on Case-Managed Community Aged Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-10-01

    Case management has been widely implemented in the community aged care setting. In this study, we aimed to explore influences on case-managed community aged care practice from the perspectives of community aged care case managers. We conducted 33 semistructured interviews with 47 participants. We drew these participants from a list of all case managers working in aged care organizations that provided publicly funded case management program(s)/packages in Victoria, Australia. We used a multilevel framework that included such broad categories of factors as structural, organizational, case manager, client, and practice factors to guide the data analysis. Through thematic analysis, we found that policy change, organizational culture and policies, case managers' professional backgrounds, clients with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and case management models stood out as key influences on case managers' practice. In the future, researchers can use the multilevel framework to undertake implementation research in similar health contexts.

  15. Post licensing case study of community effects at two operating nuclear power plants. Final report, March 1975--March 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, B.J.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Mattingly, T.J. Jr.; Soderstrom, J.; DeVault, R.C.

    1976-06-01

    The social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities are studied. The report includes discussions of the study design and objectives, profiles of the towns of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut, and analysis of the social, economic, and political impacts as observed by members of the ORNL staff. Results are presented from an attitude survey as well as a social impact classification schema devised as a methodological tool.

  16. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  17. The use of case studies to drive bottom-up leadership in community-oriented integrated care and health promotion (COIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfey, John

    2017-01-01

    London Journal of Primary Care is supporting a collaborative network of multidisciplinary colleagues with an interest in community-oriented health care and health promotion (COIC). Case study methodology is well suited to generating knowledge from the frontline of health and social care service delivery and is a much under-developed resource. It is most effective when dealing with wicked problems, namely, the sort of complex, entangled and multi-faceted problems that successful COIC programmes must overcome. Used collaboratively, it supports effective networking across professional and community boundaries.

  18. The use of case studies to drive bottom-up leadership in community-oriented integrated care and health promotion (COIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfey, John

    2017-01-01

    London Journal of Primary Care is supporting a collaborative network of multidisciplinary colleagues with an interest in community-oriented health care and health promotion (COIC). Case study methodology is well suited to generating knowledge from the frontline of health and social care service delivery and is a much under-developed resource. It is most effective when dealing with wicked problems, namely, the sort of complex, entangled and multi-faceted problems that successful COIC programmes must overcome. Used collaboratively, it supports effective networking across professional and community boundaries.

  19. Secure land tenure as prerequisite towards sustainable living: a case study of native communities in Mantob village, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkapis, Gaim James

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable livelihoods, once enjoyed by native communities, are often threatened and in danger of extinction when new regulations and other forms of restrictions are introduced. These restrictions are often promoted with intended purposes, such as protecting the environment or securing resources from encroachment. However, these acts are slowly replacing the traditional adat (customs and traditions), which are used to define the rights attached to the use of communal and ancestral land. This is especially true when comes to access to forest products and land, in which native communities have used for generations. What the natives see as legitimate and traditional use, the state sees as an encroachment of property; and it has now become illegal to utilise these resources. This paper presents how native communities have adapted to such restrictions and continued to live in a sustainable manner through an adaptive strategy that is in line with state policy changes. A combination of quantitative and qualitative method is used to understand the dynamics of the strategy used by the native communities to adapt to these policy changes. The findings reveal how the natives have employed an adaptive strategy in response to state policy changes. The lessons learned from this study can provide useful pointers as to how state policies, in relation to highland settlements in the state of Sabah, Malaysia, can be improved.

  20. [The power of the notion of resistance in the mental health field: a case study on the life of rural communities whitin the Colombian armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias López, Beatriz Elena

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to identify individual, family and/or community responses of resistance within protracted armed conflict. We conducted a case study with members of rural communities in the municipality of San Francisco, in the eastern area of Antioquia, Colombia, combining biographical and ethnographical approaches. The primary results show that, along with the suffering generated by the experience of armed conflict, rural community members also display a repertoire of multiple and diverse resistance strategies. Resistance is for them an active response and a way to re-weave the fabric torn by the experience. As a type of affirmative opposition, resistance is a powerful category for the entire mental health field, in that it highlights the creativity and capacity for transformation of individuals. In this way, the category allows for overcoming the limits of the conventional biomedical view that tends to pathologize individual and social responses in scenarios of severe distress.

  1. Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively.

  2. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  3. Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Begna, Zenebu; Assegid, Sahilu; Kassahun, Wondwosen; Gerbaba, Mulusew

    2013-01-01

    Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yabal...

  4. A decision model for selecting sustainable drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems for developing communities with a case study in Cimahi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Justin J; Louis, Garrick E

    2011-01-01

    Capacity Factor Analysis is a decision support system for selection of appropriate technologies for municipal sanitation services in developing communities. Developing communities are those that lack the capability to provide adequate access to one or more essential services, such as water and sanitation, to their residents. This research developed two elements of Capacity Factor Analysis: a capacity factor based classification for technologies using requirements analysis, and a matching policy for choosing technology options. First, requirements analysis is used to develop a ranking for drinking water supply and greywater reuse technologies. Second, using the Capacity Factor Analysis approach, a matching policy is developed to guide decision makers in selecting the appropriate drinking water supply or greywater reuse technology option for their community. Finally, a scenario-based informal hypothesis test is developed to assist in qualitative model validation through case study. Capacity Factor Analysis is then applied in Cimahi Indonesia as a form of validation. The completed Capacity Factor Analysis model will allow developing communities to select drinking water supply and greywater reuse systems that are safe, affordable, able to be built and managed by the community using local resources, and are amenable to expansion as the community's management capacity increases.

  5. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers

  6. Concept and Method of Asset-Based Community Development Planning: A Case Study on Minlecun Community in Chongqing’s Yuzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.

  7. The butterfly community of an urban wetland system - a case study of Oussudu Bird Sanctuary, Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murugesan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a study on the butterfly community of the Oussudu (Ousteri Bird Sanctuary and its environs at Puducherry, a total of 63 butterfly species belonging to 47 genera under five families were recorded which included two endemics and three Schedule I species. Nymphalidae was the most diverse and abundant butterfly family of the area followed by Pieridae. The paper also discusses the abundance and species assemblage pattern in the local butterfly fauna along with their legal/protection status and distribution patterns in the study area.

  8. Reviewing the concept of healthy communities in traditional neighborhoods of Iran (Case study: Imamzade Yahya neighborhood of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, in developed countries the harmful consequences of modern urban development and urban sprawl phenomenon on the health of human beings is known. In this regard, attention on revitalizing urban neighborhoods and emphasizing their role in urban planning policies to enhance social capital and self-sufficient and walkable neighborhoods is important. In the majority of Traditional neighborhoods, you can see adherence of physical system to social system, possibility of face to face interaction, and proximity to market centers, relatively good access to public transport services, the low permeability of the access network for the riding, which are the capabilities of traditional neighborhoods toward achieving a healthy community. The current lack of attention to unique features of traditional neighborhoods has led to physical exhaustion, migration and decline in health indicators. Thus, continuing the current condition is not only a serious threat against the health of residents but also lead to the loss of opportunities for achieving sustainable development.2- Theoretical basesResearches of the World Health Organization indicate that in addition to age, sex and genetic variables that have a definite impact on health, personal factors, lifestyle, social effects and the local environment, workplace and general economic, social, environmental and cultural status have a major impact. Scientific studies also show that physical and mental health of people in urban neighborhoods, as the dual physical and social concepts which are formed as a result of urban planning decisions, is strongly influenced by its characteristics such as housing conditions, environmental quality, function of land uses and transportation network and the way residents perceive the environment. Thus, urban planning with different areas of interventions can play an important role in improving health indicators in an urban neighborhood.3– Discussion

  9. Recruitment Campaigns as a Tool for Social and Cultural Reproduction of Scientific Communities: A case study on how scientists invite young people to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria; Hansson, Lena

    2014-08-01

    Young people's interest in pursuing science and science-intense educations has been expressed as a concern in relation to societal, economic and democratic development by various stakeholders (governments, industry and university). From the perspective of the scientific communities, the issues at stake do not necessarily correspond to the overall societal aims. Rather, initiatives to recruit young people to science are also ways for the scientific community to engage in the social and cultural reproduction of itself. For a community to survive and produce a future, it needs to secure regeneration of itself in succeeding generations. The aim of this study is to, from a perspective of social and cultural production/reproduction, shed light on an initiative from the scientific community to recruit young people to science education. This is a case study of one recruitment campaign called the Chemistry Advent calendar. The calendar consists of 25 webcasted films, produced and published by the science/technology faculty at a university. The analysed data consist of the films and additional published material relating to the campaign such as working reports and articles published about the campaign. The analysis focussed on what messages are communicated to potential newcomers. The messages were categorised by means of a framework of subjective values. The results are discussed both from a perspective of how the messages mirror traditions and habits of the scientific community, and in relation to research on students' educational choices.

  10. Linking case management and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carol D; McClelland, Robert W; Gursansky, Di

    2006-01-01

    Case management, in various forms, is now institutionalized as a core part of policy and programs designed to deliver home- and community-based services to older adults. The case management role, in theory, requires attention to both client and system goals, although in practice the system goals that have received most attention have been gatekeeping and resource allocation. While case managers have been admonished to find and develop resources in the community, this has primarily taken the form of including informal services in individual client care plans. What has been missing is focused attention to the potential of the community as a nurturing environment with the capacity to support older adults and their caregivers. Sustainable care for older adults cannot be achieved by formal service and family support alone. This article proposes the creation of linkages between case managers, who build the service arrangements for older people, and community developers, who are responsible for building community capacity and social capital. It is argued that this linkage is essential for establishing the foundations of a caring community with the capacity to support older people.

  11. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  12. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: h.ngo@uts.edu.au [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Miechel, Clayton [Port Macquarie-Hastings Council, Port Macquarie, NSW 2444 (Australia); O' Halloran, Kelly [Gold Coast Water, Gold Coast, MC 9726 (Australia); Muthukaruppan, Muthu [City West Water, Sunshine, VIC 3020 (Australia); Listowski, Adnrzej [Sydney Olympic Park Authority, Sydney Olympic Park, NSW 2127 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ{sup 2} = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ{sup 2} = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water.

  13. Environmental changes on freshwater fish communities in South America in the last five decades: a case study in northeast Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Volpedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes together with other stressors, such as habitat destruction, may cause widespread extinctions, decrease in biodiversity and disrupt natural communities, resulting in novel species assemblages. South America has a large diversity of freshwater fishes with complex evolutionary histories, mainly due to the presence of a wide variety of aquatic environments. Argentina has experienced an increase in rainfall in the last five decades leading to important climatic and hydrological changes. These changes caused the displacement of the isohyets towards the west. This study reports changes in the composition of freshwater fishes in northeast Argentina during the last five decades, and investigated a causal relationship between the variation in fish assemblages and climate change. The changes in the distribution and composition of fish communities between 1962 and 2010 were analyzed in 22 stations. These stations were agrouped in relation to the ichthyogeographic provinces: Great Rivers province (GRp and Pampean province (Pp. The correlation between rainfall in relation to the number total species from each of the studied provinces showed a significant positive correlation in Pp and not correlation in GRp. The annual mean river discharge and the number of total species from each ecoregion showed a significant positive correlation in GRp, and not correlation in Pp. The results of this study strongly suggest that the rainfall variations and river discharges observed in northeast Argentina induced changes in the composition of fish assemblages that lead to the redistribution of fish species among ichthyogeographic provinces.

  14. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford James

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community food programs (CFPs, including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94 were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would

  15. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  16. The institutional space of community initiatives for renewable energy: a comparative case study of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteman, M.I.; Wiering, M.A.; Helderman, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community initiatives for renewable energy are emerging across Europe but with varying numbers, success rates and strategies. A literature overview identifies structural, strategic and biophysical conditions for community success. Our analysis focuses on institutional structure, as we de

  17. Conservation, livelihoods and tourism: A case study of the Buhoma-Mukono Community-based Tourism Project in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore, p

  18. Assessing the Relationship between Community Education, Political Efficacy and Electoral Participation: A Case Study of the Asylum Seeking Community in Cork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clodagh; Murphy, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between community education and internal political efficacy. In particular it examines the association between voter/civic programmes run in advance of the 2009 local elections in Ireland and internal political efficacy amongst the asylum seeking community in Cork. A survey is used to test this relationship.…

  19. The Educational Community and the School: A Case Study, by Means of the Combination of Different Techniques, of a Public Secondary School in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Giacobbe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Research projects in which qualitative and quantitative techniques are combined entail the difficulty of an integral interpretation of the results, due to the particular characteristics of these two approaches. In this article the methodology applied in a case study carried out in an educational institution is described. The study was especially directed towards discovering the particular elements of teacher training which can hinder a constructive teaching practice, ascertaining the role that each of the educational actors performs in the construction of their school, and identifying the characteristics of the educational community that shape the performance of the institution. The study involved the collection, processing and analysis of materials relating to students, teachers, parents and administrators. Each group is addressed methodologically in a different way. Low levels of school performance and difficulties in the integration of the educational community were found. Some proposals for rectifying them are presented here.

  20. The Use of Facebook to Build a Community for Distance Learning Students: A Case Study from the Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, George; Fribbance, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Social media platforms such as Facebook are commonplace throughout society. However, within higher education institutions such networking environments are still in the developmental stage. This paper describes and discusses case study data from the Open University's Faculty of Social Science Facebook page. It starts by giving an overview of the…

  1. "Beyond the Four Walls of My Building": A Case Study of #Edchat as a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Virginia G.; Paulus, Trena

    2016-01-01

    Although Twitter and other social media sites have grown in popularity with educators, we still do not know what is happening within this online space or how it supports teachers. The purpose of this case study of #Edchat, a group of educators who meet weekly on Twitter, was to investigate informal professional development through the lens of…

  2. Renegotiating Relations among Teacher, Community, and Students: A Case Study of Teaching Roma Students in a Second Chance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian; Carapanait, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Prejudice and systematic discrimination have often been mentioned as major causes for the chronic underachievement of Roma students. In this paper we present a case study of a Romanian teacher involved in Second Chance, an educational program implemented in Romania in 2004 for the benefit of disadvantaged groups such as the Roma population. Since…

  3. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  4. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strachan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This

  5. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K; Counihan, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in-country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre-agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a

  6. Community Tourism as Practiced in the Mountainous Qiang Region of Sichuan Province, China-a Case Study in Zhenghe Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianbin; LIU Kaibang

    2008-01-01

    In China, community tourism is still a relatively new phenomenon, but the villagers of a small Qiang village in the Qiang Autonomous County of Beichuan in Southwestern Sichuan have initiated tourism in a way which conforms to the basic theory of community tourism development. This demonstrates that community tourism possesses a strength and vitality that can promote the development of tourism in the rural and mountainous areas. In the district of Zhenghe Village, the tourism industry, based on the community tourism model, is the mainstay of its economy. The practice of community tourism in the village not only promotes the economic development of the village community, but also leads to the protection of the mountainous natural environment and of the culture of the Qiang people. This paper investigates the development process of community tourism in Zhenghe and shows how the local residents participate in this process. It also looks at how profits have been distributed within the community. It demonstrates that community tourism is a correct choice by the Zhenghe people as they have clearly been moving from poverty to prosperity, while the local ecology and environment have been simultaneously protected. The authors hope that other minority villages with similar local conditions and natural resources will be able to use this example to develop their own community tourism.

  7. A community-based case-control study of asthma and chronic bronchitis in relation to occupation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, D.; Donan, P.T.; Cowie, H.A.; Miller, B.G.; Soutar, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    A community-based epidemiological study was conducted in the West Lothian and Central Regions of Scotland in 1994 by postal questionnaire to investigate the associations between occupations previously held and prevalent symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. 50% of the 34,000 questionnaires were returned. The prevalence of asthma was estimated to be 8% and that of chronic bronchitis was 15%. The prevalence of asthma and of chronic bronchitis related to work was estimated to be 0.5% and 2.2% respectively. Clinical assessments of a sample of respondents confirmed the reliability of diagnoses of asthma using a self-administered questionnaire, but suggested that the work-relatedness of asthma was less reliably diagnosed. Asthma symptoms were particularly implicated with employment in the food processing, catering and textiles industries. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with dusty jobs such as coal mining metal processing and manufacturing of electrical products.

  8. Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: A case study of UK South Asian communities

    OpenAIRE

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Adab, Peymane

    2012-01-01

    Objective An advocated approach to childhood obesity prevention research is the use of local community knowledge to inform intervention development. This paper demonstrates the value of accessing such local knowledge, and discusses how this information fits with existing conceptual models of childhood obesity. Methods A series of 9 focus groups were run in 2007 with 68 local community stakeholders (including parents, school staff, community leaders and health and local government representati...

  9. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  10. Investigating the social configuration of a community to understand how networked learning activities take place: The OERu case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Bieke; Van den Beemt, Antoine; Prinsen, Fleur; De Laat, Maarten; Witthaus, Gaby; Conole, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    Examining how OER (Open Educational Resources) communities come to live, function or learn can support in empowering educators in the use of open educational resources. In this paper we investigate how an OER community functions through its networked learning activities. Networked learning activitie

  11. A Global Approach to School Education and Local Reality: A Case Study of Community Participation in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwana, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    In post-Jomtien phase, community participation in school education management has appeared as one of the most prominent features in all educational development programmes at global level. In line with this trend, India has also placed a significant focus on local communities in school management through various programmes such as LokJumbish,…

  12. Influences on the Commitment to and Focus of Community Engagement at Colleges and Universities: A Multiple-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Melissa McIlroy

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities have embraced the importance of community engagement, not only as a tool for student development but also, as a responsibility of the institution to address societal needs and problems. Research is lacking, however, on how institutions with varying missions, histories and cultures perceive their role in the community,…

  13. Agent-oriented approach to develop context-aware applications : a case study on communities of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, Luiz Olavo; Guizzardi-Silva Souza, Renata; Sinderen, van Marten

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the use of an agent-oriented context-aware platform to support the interactions of the participating actors of communities of practice in the health care domain. Our work is based on a scenario where communities of practice are applied in a hospital to enhance the k

  14. Project Coach: A Case Study of a College-Community Partnerships as a Venture in Social Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam M.; Siegel, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Project Coach is an after school program developed and directed by the authors. The program, which is set in a high-need urban community in Springfield, Massachusetts, teaches high school and middle school students to be sport coaches and then to run youth sport leagues for elementary-aged youth in underserved neighborhoods in their own community.…

  15. The contribution of informal water development in improving livelihood in Swaziland: A case study of Mdonjane community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyatsi, A. M.; Mwendera, E. J.

    A study was undertaken to determine the technologies used by households to abstract and convey water for irrigation and domestic uses, as well as the contribution of the water in improving their livelihood. The Mdonjane area, where the study was carried is situated in the rural upper middleveld of Swaziland, below steep hills that have several springs with streams draining to the Usuthu River. The study involved conducting a field survey to determine the water use activities within the area as well as water abstraction and conveyance methods. A questionnaire was developed and administered to homesteads to ascertain information on their utilisation of water and the contribution of irrigation to their livelihood. A total of 210 homesteads were identified within the community, and interviews were conducted to all the homesteads. The results showed that treated domestic water was not available to all the homesteads. About 32% of the homesteads used pipes to convey water for domestic purposes from streams and springs located at altitudes higher than the homesteads. Thirty one percent and 16 percent of the homesteads obtained water for domestic purposes directly from springs and streams, respectively. A total of 101 homesteads (48%) practised irrigated agriculture. Over 74% of homesteads that irrigated some crops did so on land holdings less than a quarter of a hectare. The dominant crops irrigated were spinach (96 homesteads), cabbages (69 homesteads), beetroots (60 homesteads) and tomatoes (36 homesteads). The majority of the homesteads (53 homesteads) sold their agricultural produce within the farms, with 15 homesteads selling theirs on market stalls situated along the main road. The results also showed that irrigation contributed to poverty alleviation by generating income and provision of food to households. About 25% of the homesteads (52 homesteads) obtained more than 50% of their household food production from irrigation, with nine percent (18 homesteads) getting

  16. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between the species composition of flower visitors and plants in the semi-natural xerothermic grasslands in southern and central Poland. Thirty 10 × 10 m permanent plots were laid out in total, mainly in nature reserves. The vegetation units studied were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet system; these were phytocoenoses of the Festuco-Brometea classes Inuletum ensifoliae, Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati and the transitional plant community. Entomological research was performed using the Pollard method within the same plots. A particular site was visited only once and different sites were studied between April and August 2008. We applied, among others, co-correspondence-analysis Co-CA, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and redundancy analysis (RDA to investigate the co-occurrence patterns of plants and flower visitors and their biotopic requirements. We found that the species composition of flower visitors cannot be predicted by floristic composition when the duration of the study is restricted to one day (but under similar weather conditions; however, there is a positive relationship between the species richness of insects and plants and a positive relationship between the number of plant species and the abundance of flower visitors. The Ellenberg moisture index and the cover of meadow species significantly explained the species composition of insects. The three various vegetation units and five dominant xerothermic species, i.e. Adonis vernalis, Anemone sylvestris, Inula ensifolia, Linum hirsutum and Carlina onopordifolia that were studied across time differed in the species richness of insects. Our results demonstrate that possible patterns in the species composition and the assembly rules of flower visitors are not apparent when the Pollard method is applied. Based on the data obtained using this method, the flower visiting assemblages seem not to be driven by competition and they primarily

  17. LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND INCOME: A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITIES RESIDENT ALONG THE KIRI DAM, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amurtiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analysed livelihood diversifi cation and income in resident communities along the Kiri Dam, Adamawa state, Nigeria. The specifi c objectives of the study were: to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assess the level of livelihood diversifi cation of the respondents, analyse income of the respondents, identify factors associated with varying levels of income, and identify constraints to livelihood diversifi cation in the area. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 120 respondents from the study area. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The results showed that the majority of the respondents were male (78%, married (76%, educated (70%, below 60 years of age (93% and employed in agricultural activities (83%. The Simpson index of diversifi cation shows that 43% of the respondents diversify at an average level. The majority (60% of the respondents’ annual income is over ₦ 200,000. The ordinary least square estimation shows that age, marital status, education, irrigation activities, fi shing, farm size and level of diversifi cation aff ect income level in the area. The main constraints to diversifi ed livelihood in the area were a lack of basic social infrastructure, a hippopotamus menace and fl ooding. The study recommended the provision of social infrastructure and the control of hippopotamuses. 

  18. Community perceptions of state forest ownership and management: a case study of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anjan Kumer Dev; Alam, Khorshed; Gow, Jeff

    2013-03-15

    The Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) is the world's largest mangrove forest and it provides livelihoods to 3.5 million forest-dependent people in coastal Bangladesh. The first study aim was to analyse the efficacy of the state property regime in managing the forest through a close examination of the relationship between property rights and mangrove conservation practices. The second study aim was to explore forest-dependent communities' (FDCs) perceptions about their participation in management and conservation practices. The Schlager and Ostrom theoretical framework was adopted to examine the role of potential ownership variations in a common property resource regime. A survey of 412 FDC households was undertaken. Current management by the Bangladesh Forest Department (BFD) does not result in implementation of mandated mangrove conservation practices. It was found that allocation of property rights to FDCs would be expected to increase conservation practices. 92% of respondents expressed the view that the evidenced rapid degradation over the past 30 years was due primarily to corruption in the BFD. About half of FDCs (46%) surveyed are willing to participate in mangrove conservation through involvement in management as proprietors. Consistent with Schlager and Ostrom's theory, the results indicate the necessity for de facto and de jure ownership and management change from a state to common property regime to ensure FDCs' participation in conservation practices.

  19. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gérald; Bouchez, Agnès; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy, Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copolymer coatings [SPC], including four commercial ones) were quantitatively studied, after 1 month of immersion in summer in the Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France), by using flow cytometry (FCM), microscopy, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FCM was used after a pretreatment to separate cells from the biofilm matrix, in order to determine densities of heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria, and pico- and nanoeukaryotes on these coatings. Among diatoms, the only microphytobenthic class identified by microscopy, Licmophora, Navicula, and Nitzschia were determined to be the dominant taxa. Overall, biocide-free coatings showed higher densities than all other coatings, except for one biocidal coating, whatever the group of microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria always showed the highest densities, and diatoms showed the lowest, but the relative abundances of these groups varied depending on the coating. In particular, the copper-free SPC failed to prevent diatom settlement, whereas the pyrithione-free SPC exhibited high picocyanobacterial density. These results highlight the interest in FCM for antifouling coating assessment as well as specific selection among microbial communities by antifouling coatings. PMID:24907329

  20. Appraisal of cooperation with a palliative care case manager by general practitioners and community nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, A.G.M. van der; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Vissers, K.C.; Deliens, L.; Jansen, W.J.J.; Francke, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how general practitioners and community nurses value the support that they receive from a nurse case manager with expertise in palliative care, whether they think the case manager is helpful in realizing appropriate care and what characteristics of the patient and case managemen

  1. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community, Ithaca, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community and builder AquaZephyr in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community-scale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments, and 25 single family residences that range in size from 1,250 ft2–1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 to $235,000. The community is pursing DOE Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH), US Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold, and ENERGY STAR certifications for the entire project.

  2. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    of several DHSs. Furthermore ?Udspil? was chosen for being a non-formal learning activity based on individual participation, even though linked to institutionalized learning practices, which were carried out in cooperation between several local institutions.Last but not least, the project represents...... that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day......Learning for democratic citizenship is embedded in the general popular education ideal(folkeoplysning), which is the primary source of inspiration for the Day High Schools (DHSs). DHSs are private institutions supported by local authorities, that host primarily low educated and unemployed young...

  3. Factors affecting the use of male-oriented contraceptives: a case study of the Mukarati community, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyo S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stanzia Moyo,1 Alfred Zvoushe,2 Oswell Rusinga31Centre for Population Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; 2Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture, Kadoma District, Zimbabwe; 3Department of Physics, Geography and Environmental Science, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, ZimbabweAbstract: The subject of male sexuality has long been shrouded by silence and secrecy in Zimbabwe. As such, where contraceptive uptake has featured as part of social studies inquiry, it has tended to do so in the context of a development discourse that focused exclusively on the experiences of women. Marshaling evidence from the survey, key informant interviews, and focus-group discussions (FGDs, this study unearthed factors underlying the uptake of male-oriented contraceptives from men's perspectives. This was done through an exploration of men's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to male-oriented contraceptives and an assessment of the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and affordability of male-oriented contraceptives. The results indicated that despite the fact that men are knowledgeable about male-oriented contraceptives, such knowledge is not being translated into practice. Social construction of masculinity is the primary encumbering block to the uptake of male-oriented contraceptives. In addition, unavailability and unaffordability of vasectomy services in the Mukarati community results in no men opting for the method. The study has thus recommended that the government and other relevant stakeholders may formulate policies that promote information, education, and communication pertaining to male-oriented contraceptives in order to foster the utilization of contraceptives by men.Keywords: contraceptives, masculinity, sexuality, reproductive health

  4. Implementation Of The National Program Comunity Empowerment Plan Strategic Community Development RESPEK Case Studi In Sota Disctrict Merauke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Tjilen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine how the preconditions of policy implementation to support policy implementation Respect Program and how communication between organizations resources executive attitudes and bureaucratic structures that occur in the implementation of policy in the Respect program Sota District Merauke. The method used is descriptive qualitative research. Source of data obtained are from interviews observation and documentation of research focusing on the implementation of the Respect in Sota District. The results showed precondition Respect program delivery policy implementation in general fall into the category of pretty but still so many things that need to be addressed. Dissemination activities have been carried out but implementation at the village level results are not optimal. Community participation is still passive and complementary. Communication between organizations constrained limits of authority between provincial and district governments resources available adequate but are constrained by the rules of the rules that limit. The attitude of the implementing agencies in accordance with the requirements and have high motivation fragmentation does not cause bottlenecks in policy. Bureaucratic structure has been prepared in accordance with the PTO but is still constrained in the monitoring and evaluation system is not running properly.

  5. Citizenization of Native Villagers after Redeveloped Urban Village:A Case Study of Liede Community in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuqi; LIU Ye; LI Zhigang; SHI Ke

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative data from in-depth interviews,participative observation,and literature study,this paper aims to get insights into the patterns and process of the citizenization of native villagers living in Liede Community,which is the first redeveloped urban village in Guangzhou.Investigation on villagers’ citizenization level is carried out to examine how the redevelopment project affects villagers’ citizenization.Our finding reveals that the redevelopment project has improved villagers’ living conditions and income levels remarkably,has facilitated the mixed housing patterns of diversified social groups,and has increased their chances to be integrated into urban social life.Nevertheless,as villagers kept their traditional mode of thinking,behavioral habits,and lifestyles,the citizenization process made little progress in terms of land ownership,management mode,mode of livelihood,and citizen identity.Therefore,the Liede redevelopment project has turned out to be a "passive citizenization" process,i.e.,villagers merely received socio-economic benefits from the redevelopment passively but remained isolated from the socio-economic and cultural system of the city.Finally,this paper proposes some policy suggestions to promote the citizenization from both conceptual and practical perspectives.

  6. Public facility planning in urban villagers' community based on Public Participation GIS: a case study of Wuhan new urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang

    2009-10-01

    As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.

  7. Incorporating Community Knowledge to Lahar Hazard Maps: Canton Buenos Aires Case Study, at Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Polio, C.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano is an active composite volcano located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located in western part of El Salvador, Central America. The volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and the second (Santa Ana, 13 km) and fourth (Sonsosante, 15 km) largest cities of the country. On October 1st, 2005, the volcano erupted after months of increased activity. Following the eruption, volcanic mitigation projects were conducted in the region, but the communities had little or no input on them. This project consisted in the creation of lahar volcanic hazard map for the Canton Buanos Aires on the northern part of the volcano by incorporating the community's knowledge from prior events to model parameters and results. The work with the community consisted in several meetings where the community members recounted past events. They were asked to map the outcomes of those events using either a topographic map of the area, a Google Earth image, or a blank paper poster size. These maps have been used to identify hazard and vulnerable areas, and for model validation. These maps were presented to the communities and they accepted their results and the maps.

  8. The introduction of 10% renewable energy in every building. Possibility or probability? Case study: Granville plus community Centre London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitnidis, Petros

    This thesis investigates the ways of producing 10% of the energy consumed in a site from renewable energy sources. It analyses how this can be accomplished by considering the general frame of the subject and referring to the general problem of climate change and its effects on the planet. Special attention is paid to architecture and an attempt is made to answer the question how the built environment can cope with this problem. Reference is also made to the UK's latest guidelines on the issue. The introduction of the 10% renewable energy use in buildings, known as the "Merton Rule", is one of the most pioneering guidelines towards sustainability. The thesis is continued with the post-occupancy assessment on a four year-old building, part of a much older community center complex that has been built with very advanced design and strict environmental targets but suffers from lack of care and management. The building does not achieve optimum performance as there are difficulties with various stakeholders in the buildings management. This thesis, therefore, examines possible solutions and suggests ways of improvement. The study concludes with remarks and suggestions based on simulation and assessment procedures. New ventilation strategies are proposed to be introduced to the building together with a series of ways to reduce the highest internal temperatures of the first floor. Extensive reference is also made to the initial sustainable approach of the design. The interventions proposed have as a target the improvement of the energy performance and the minimization of the carbon footprint of the building. Keywords: environmental design, sustainable architecture, granville plus, Merton Rule.

  9. Community participation in the management of wetland nature reserve: a case study of Nanjishan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more conflicts have emerged in the management of nature reserves, of which the main problem is that how to carry out the campaign of conservation along with the promotion of development of local economics. To resolve the actual problem in Nanjishan National Wetland Nature Reserve and explore the idiographic method of the management of the wetland reserve, some studying methods including face-to-face interviews, informal discussion with local leaders and officials, group discussion with local fishers, questionnaire, and job of the conversation station have been carried out. The results show that the education level of the local people is low; only 5% of the local people have an opportunity to the junior college; the main income of the local people is fishing, which accounts for 70%more or less; and the income is coming down year by year because of the unreasonable way of fishing. To cope with the problems, some reformative way of management and the development of the reserve are introduced, such as establishing an NOG that constitutes of local fishermen to achieve the goal of community co-management, developing Bed and Breakfiast and so on. Through practice of the management of the participation of the local people, we draw the conclusion that the local people have a great desire to improve their life level, and to make the co-management of the reserve easy,it is important for the managers to play the role of pilot including engrafting the new ideas, giving some subsidy to encourage the local people to take part in the management. In addition, making local people perceive value of the reserve and the close relation between reserve conservation and the promotion of level of their life. On this basis, they incline to take part in the management of the reserve.

  10. Numerical evaluation of community-scale aquifer storage, transfer and recovery technology: A case study from coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jessica L. B.; Hassan, Md. Mahadi; Sultana, Sarmin; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Robinson, Clare E.

    2016-09-01

    Aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (ASTR) may be an efficient low cost water supply technology for rural coastal communities that experience seasonal freshwater scarcity. The feasibility of ASTR as a water supply alternative is being evaluated in communities in south-western Bangladesh where the shallow aquifers are naturally brackish and severe seasonal freshwater scarcity is compounded by frequent extreme weather events. A numerical variable-density groundwater model, first evaluated against data from an existing community-scale ASTR system, was applied to identify the influence of hydrogeological as well as design and operational parameters on system performance. For community-scale systems, it is a delicate balance to achieve acceptable water quality at the extraction well whilst maintaining a high recovery efficiency (RE) as dispersive mixing can dominate relative to the small size of the injected freshwater plume. For the existing ASTR system configuration used in Bangladesh where the injection head is controlled and the extraction rate is set based on the community water demand, larger aquifer hydraulic conductivity, aquifer depth and injection head improve the water quality (lower total dissolved solids concentration) in the extracted water because of higher injection rates, but the RE is reduced. To support future ASTR system design in similar coastal settings, an improved system configuration was determined and relevant non-dimensional design criteria were identified. Analyses showed that four injection wells distributed around a central single extraction well leads to high RE provided the distance between the injection wells and extraction well is less than half the theoretical radius of the injected freshwater plume. The theoretical plume radius relative to the aquifer dispersivity is also an important design consideration to ensure adequate system performance. The results presented provide valuable insights into the feasibility and design

  11. Risk factors associated with the community-acquired colonization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive Escherichia Coli. an exploratory case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Leistner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive (+ Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. In contrast with many other multidrug-resistant bacteria, it is suspected that they predominantly spread within the community. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with community-acquired colonization of ESBL (+ E. coli. METHODS: We performed a matched case-control study at the Charité University Hospital Berlin between May 2011 and January 2012. Cases were defined as patients colonized with community-acquired ESBL (+ E. coli identified <72 h after hospital admission. Controls were patients that carried no ESBL-positive bacteria but an ESBL-negative E.coli identified <72 h after hospital admission. Two controls per case were chosen from potential controls according to admission date. Case and control patients completed a questionnaire assessing nutritional habits, travel habits, household situation and language most commonly spoken at home (mother tongue. An additional rectal swab was obtained together with the questionnaire to verify colonization status. Genotypes of ESBL (+ E. coli strains were determined by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors associated with ESBL (+ E. coli colonization were analyzed by a multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 85 cases and 170 controls, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, speaking an Asian language most commonly at home (OR = 13.4, CI 95% 3.3-53.8; p<0.001 and frequently eating pork (≥ 3 meals per week showed to be independently associated with ESBL colonization (OR = 3.5, CI 95% 1.8-6.6; p<0.001. The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-1 with 44% (n = 37, CTX-M-15 with 28% (n = 24 and CTX-M-14 with 13% (n = 11. CONCLUSION: An Asian mother tongue and frequently consuming certain types of meat like pork can be independently associated with the colonization of ESBL-positive bacteria. We found neither frequent consumption

  12. Urbanization breaks up host-parasite interactions: a case study on parasite community ecology of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites.

  13. The Participation and Decision Making of "At Risk" Youth in Community Music Projects: An Exploration of Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, recent years have witnessed a considerable growth in youth participation activities that seek to involve children and young people in various forms of decision-making. One such form of youth participation to benefit from increased government support since the late 1990s concerns community arts activities, especially those targeting…

  14. An Evaluative Case Study of the Dilemmas Experienced in Designing a Self-Assessment Strategy for Community Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The Dearing Report's (1997) radical proposals challenged lecturers in higher education to develop innovative assessment strategies. This paper explores the dilemmas experienced by one teaching team in designing and implementing a student self-assessment strategy within a community nursing degree programme. The paper reviews the impact on students'…

  15. Managing Dynamics of Power and Learning in Community Development: A Case Study of Iowan Farmers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Lauer; Owusu, Francis Y.

    2015-01-01

    Extension professionals facilitate community development through the strategic manipulation of learning and power in peer-to-peer learning partnerships. We discuss the relationship between empowerment and power, highlight relevant literature on the difficulties power presents to learning and the efficacy of service learning tools to facilitate…

  16. Strategy: A Case Study of a Community College and the Dynamic Forces at Work in Its Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    Past research on strategic planning has been confined largely to for-profit organizations; there is limited research on the strategic planning of nonprofit, public organizations such as institutions of higher education (IHEs), particularly nonprofit, public community colleges. Seminal scholars on strategy have associated social movements,…

  17. Indigenous management systems as a basis for community forestry in Tanzania: a case study of Dodoma urban and Lushoto districs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajembe, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the nature of both indigenous and professionally sponsored community forest management systems in two districts in Tanzania. It describes various types of internally generated forest and tree management systems. It demonstrates that a gap exists between indige

  18. Exploring Local Perspectives for Conservation Planning: A Case Study from a Remote Forest Community in Indonesian Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam van Heist

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconciling conservation and livelihoods is a concern wherever forests are important in local people’s lives. We plead for engaging these people in survey activities to clarify what is important to them, as a first step in conservation planning. This will help to address their priorities and gain their guidance and support for interventions. This paper presents the results of such a survey with the community of Kwerba in Mamberamo, a remote and little known part of Indonesian Papua. Views and priorities were explored through interviews, scoring exercises, community mapping and a field survey. Whereas small gardens provided most staple food, culture and livelihoods were linked to the forest. People scored primary forest highest for nearly all use categories. Primary forest was particularly highly valued as a source of construction materials, ornaments and rituals, and as a hunting place. We developed a list of the overall most important plants and animals. Many natural resources were used, but few were commercially exploited. The community had rules to control access to certain areas and resources. Taboos to restrict access to sacred places were also maintained. Our evaluation identified opportunities to achieve conservation outcomes jointly with the Kwerba people. In follow-up activities, the community presented local government with a land-use plan for their territory. The government recognized the value of our approach and requested training to implement it more widely in the region.

  19. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  20. Community-based river management in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia: a case study of the Bau-Bau River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, A; Ibrahim, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explain the current condition of the Bau-Bau River, examine community participation for management of the river system, and consider options for improving the institutional capacity for a community-based approach. This assessment is based on a research project with the following objectives: (1) analyse the biophysical and socio-economic condition of the river as a basis for future planning; (2) identify current activities which contribute waste or pollution to the river; (3) assess the status and level of pollution in the river; (4) analyse community participation related to all stages of river management; and (5) identify future river management needs and opportunities. Due to the increasing population in Bau-Bau city, considerable new land is required for housing, roads, agriculture, social facilities, etc. Development in the city and elsewhere has increased run-off and erosion, as well as sedimentation in the river. In addition, household activities are generating more solid and domestic waste that causes organic pollution in the river. The research results show that the water quality in the upper river system is still good, whilst the quality of water in the vicinity of Bau-Bau city, from the mid-point of the watershed to the estuary, is not good, being contaminated with heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and organic pollutants. However, the levels of those pollutants are still below regulatory standards. The main reasons for pollution in the river are mainly lack of management for both liquid and solid wastes, as well as lack of community participation in river management. The government of Bau-Bau city and the community are developing a participatory approach for planning to restore and conserve the Bau-Bau River as well as the entire catchment. The activities of this project are: (1) forming institutional arrangements to support river conservation; (2) implementing extension initiatives to empower the community; (3) identifying a specific location to

  1. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  2. Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Xu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage protection in China has long been considered as the responsibility of the government. However, over the last 20 years, a number of heritage projects, mainly in ethnic minority regions, have attempted to engage with local communities. These seem to be an attractive alternative to top-down approaches. This paper explores the implications of a bottom-up approach for Chinese ethnic minority heritage management through an examination of the Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village project in Xianrendong in Yunnan province. It is a result of my fascination with the project’s concept and my desire to understand its key characteristics, application and potential for future development in China. After a discussion of cultural performance, modernisation and inside/outside encounters, I conclude by suggesting that well-planned and well-informed community participation, with realistic control, contributes to reconciling tourism and cultural heritage conservation.

  3. The Linkage of Business Community (Case Study of Rattan Industries in the Village of Trangsan, Gatak, Sukoharjo

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    Priyono Priyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian industry is likely to snap because it relies on the monopolitic conglomerate’s industry so that it cause the inter relationship between big and smaller units of industry to become weak. The weakness of the industrial relationship is caused by the units independetly. This is different from the industry which is based on community concept emphasizing a main priority to close inter relationship between the units. This research was arried out in Trangsan, Gatak, Sukoharjo, Central Java. Where there is a industrial community which has been a close inter relationship since long time ago. The goal of this research is to know the type and the nature of unit inter relationship in rattan industrial community in Trangsan, and know the strategy how it faced a nationally economical crisis. This research used a survei method. The number of the population was 110 entrepreneurs from Trangsan. The sample was obtained with stratied into three categories, based on number of labour force. Every category was taken 20% as sample based on homogeneity sample, ana the respondent was examined with random sampling. The collected data were presented in frequency and cross table. The analysis of qualitative data used logical rationale, deductive – inductive, analogy and comparison, while the analysis of quantitative data used the analysis of frequency and cross table. The use of these two analysis was the result of the research. These are the result of the research: 1 a inter relationship among small – scalled businesses; 2 there is a weak inter relationship between small and medium scaled industries; 3 the business inter relationship of rattan industries is subcontract in which a part of the big scaled industry’s job is reponsible for the small saled one; 4 the form of the business inter relationship is cooperative; 5 the main strategy of rattan industry community to face nationally economical orisis strengthens their business inter relationship.

  4. Case Study on a Container Gardening Program:  Can Home Food Production Impact Community Food Security in Rural Appalachia?

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Elizabeth Rose

    2016-01-01

    Home gardening has historically been a subsistence or supplemental form of food procurement worldwide and promoted as a food security project in times of economic hardship. Qualitative research was used to investigate container gardening's potential to provide the impetus for further agricultural activities within low-income, low-food-access, rural Appalachian Virginia, thereby impacting community food security, food choices of individuals, and the local food system. Ethnography and phenomen...

  5. Evaluation of the application of the triple bottom line. case study: caldeirão de SANTA CRUZ community (CEARÁ

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    Artur Gomes de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Triple Bottom Line, composed by the Environmental, Social and Economic dimensions, has been widely accepted since its implementation will involve the maintenance or development of factors that lead to sustainability. When defining this concept, Elkington (2012 quoted the director of the Environmental Management Program at the University of Michigan, Stuart Hart, who said that large corporations would be the only organizations that could achieve sustainability. The aim of this work is to verify if sustainability, at a given site, can be achieved without the aid of large organizations. Specifically, the objective is to check the status of the Caldeirão de Santa Cruz Community, located in the state of Ceará / Brazil, in the period between 1926 and 1937. For this evaluation, it was used the Triple Bottom Line model proposed by Elkington (2012. The results indicated that the concept known as Triple Bottom Line was implied in the Caldeirão de Santa Cruz community’s way of living and that was achieved through the work carried out in the community, without the help of any organization. The results also showed that the behavior and the way of living and working of the community bothered some sectors of society.  Keywords: Sustainability; Triple Bottom Line; Caldeirão de Santa Cruz; Ceará.

  6. Rapid Cultural Change: A Case Study of Polyandry Marriage System among the Gurung Community from Upper Mustang, Nepal

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    Juddha Bahadur Gurung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is multi ethnic, multi lingual and multi cultural country. In Upper Mustang polyandry is practiced by Loba communities. However, the condition of polyandry is dying out at present. The young are not in favor of this system. Socio-economic, political, seasonal migration, tourism and developmental factors have played crucial role in this regards. From conservation perspective polyandry played crucial role to manage local resources and in population dynamics in the past. This paper is based on field survey carried out in two different time periods (1998 and 2008 in order to compare or understand changing pattern of polyandry. In last couple of years, polyandry system has changed very rapidly in Loba communities of Upper Mustang. Rising community awareness, multiple economic opportunities, improve communication, foreign employment, modern education, open tourism, road access and other visual and in visual forces has lead society from close to open and more wider side or increase the horizon of young generation. Polyandry system is directly affected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8480 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 75-106

  7. Identification of multi-attribute functional urban areas under a perspective of community detection: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jiao, Pengfei; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Identifying functional urban areas is a significant research of considerable interest in many important fields such as city planning and facility location problem. Traditionally, we identify the function of urban areas from the macro-level perspective. With the availability of human digital footprints, investigation of functional urban areas from a micro-level perspective becomes possible. In this paper, we identified the functional urban areas of a metropolitan city in China by some metrics of community detection based on the social network of mobile phone users. The result shows that there are close relations between urban area and individual communication network, which can help us identify the function of areas more conveniently.

  8. Response of macroinvertebrate communities to temporal dynamics of pesticide mixtures: A case study from the Sacramento River watershed, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chih; Hunt, Lisa; Resh, Vincent H

    2016-12-01

    Pesticide pollution from agricultural field run-off or spray drift has been documented to impact river ecosystems worldwide. However, there is limited data on short- and long-term effects of repeated pulses of pesticide mixtures on biotic assemblages in natural systems. We used reported pesticide application data as input to a hydrological fate and transport model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate spatiotemporal dynamics of pesticides mixtures in streams on a daily time-step. We then applied regression models to explore the relationship between macroinvertebrate communities and pesticide dynamics in the Sacramento River watershed of California during 2002-2013. We found that both maximum and average pesticide toxic units were important in determining impacts on macroinvertebrates, and that the compositions of macroinvertebrates trended toward taxa having higher resilience and resistance to pesticide exposure, based on the Species at Risk pesticide (SPEARpesticides) index. Results indicate that risk-assessment efforts can be improved by considering both short- and long-term effects of pesticide mixtures on macroinvertebrate community composition.

  9. Resilience and adaptability of rice terrace social-ecological systems: a case study of a local community's perception in Banaue, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Castonguay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems of rice terraces across Southeast Asia are the result of centuries of long-term interactions between human communities and their surrounding ecosystems. Processes and structures in these systems have evolved to provide a diversity of ecosystem services and benefits to human societies. However, as Southeast Asian countries experience rapid economic growth and related land-use changes, the remaining extensive rice cultivation systems are increasingly under pressure. We investigated the long-term development of ecosystem services and the adaptive capacity of the social-ecological system of rice terrace landscapes using a case study of Banaue (Ifugao Province, Northern-Luzon, Philippines. A set of indicators was used to describe and assess changes in the social-ecological state of the study system. The resilience of the rice terraces and the human communities that maintain them was examined by comparing the current state of the system with results from the literature. Our findings indicate that, although the social-ecological system has not yet shifted to an alternative state, pressures are increasing and some cultural ecosystem services have already been lost.

  10. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  11. Knowledge Contribution in a Non-Formal Virtual Setting through a Social Constructionist Approach: A Case Study of an Online Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Myra Gail

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an online learning community in a non-formal educational setting and the process participants used in order to share, create, and construct knowledge through their interactions in the online community. Participants in the study were college interns who were part of a grant that focused on providing professional development for…

  12. Implementing "lean" principles to improve the efficiency of the endoscopy department of a community hospital: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Karen; Baumgartner, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Many endoscopy units are looking for ways to improve their efficiency without increasing the number of staff, purchasing additional equipment, or making the patients feel as if they have been rushed through the care process. To accomplish this, a few hospitals have looked to other industries for help. Recently, "lean" methods and tools from the manufacturing industry, have been applied successfully in health care systems, and have proven to be an effective way to eliminate waste and redundancy in workplace processes. The "lean" method and tools in service organizations focuses on providing the most efficient and effective flow of service and products. This article will describe the journey of one endoscopy department within a community hospital to illustrate application of "lean" methods and tools and results.

  13. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  14. ESD and lifelong learning: a case study of the Shangri-la Institute's current engagement with the Bazhu community in Diqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Constable, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    This article argues that ESD should be integrated into lifelong learning and provides an example of how this might be done. It draws on a case study of a joint project between the Shangri-la Institute and the Bazhu community in Diqing, southwest China, to analyse a community-based approach to Education for Sustainable Development and assess its implications for lifelong learning. The article examines the different knowledge, skills and values needed for ESD across the life span and asserts the need for these competencies to be informed by the local context. The importance of linking ESD with local culture and indigenous knowledge is emphasised. The article goes on to propose methods for integrating ESD into lifelong learning and underscore the need for learning at the individual, institutional and societal levels in formal, non-formal and informal learning settings. It calls for institutional changes that link formal, non-formal and informal learning through the common theme of ESD, and establish platforms to share experiences, reflect on these and thereby continually improve ESD.

  15. The political economy of corporate social responsibility and community development: a case study of Norway's Snoehvit natural gas complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klick, Matthew T.

    2009-07-01

    This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company's stated 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snoehvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of 'socially responsible' approaches to development to internalize negative externalisation and promote positive 'spin-offs'. Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry. (Author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  16. The efficiency of a risk reduction program for debris-flow disasters – a case study of the Songhe community in Taiwan

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    S. C. Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A risk reduction program was developed after debris-flow disaster analysis is conducted using mitigation structures, evacuation measures and community restrained expansion strategy. The risk assessment method delineates hazard zones and analyzes vulnerability and the resilient capacity of an affected area, allowing the prediction of losses of properties and lives, and the corresponding risk. It can also be used to evaluate performance of a risk reduction program. The proposed method was applied to the Songhe community as a case study to assess debris-flow risk and performance of reduction programs consisting of mitigation structures, evacuation measures and a restrained expansion strategy. Total annual risk decreased to $0.01 million from $0.72 million for the No. 1 Torrent and to $0.36 million from $1.22 million for the No. 2 Torrent after mitigation structures were installed, and evacuation measures were implemented based on restrained expansion. Although mitigation structures are costly, they can reduce the size of hazard zones. Delimitating the Designated Soil and Water Conservation Area restrains community expansion and decreases possible losses. Although evacuation measures cannot reduce the size of hazard zones, they effectively increase the resilient capacity of residents. The benefit-cost ratio for mitigation structures exceeds 1.0 for both torrents with an average of 3.87; the benefit-cost ratio for evacuation measures is markedly greater than 1.0. Combining mitigation structures and evacuation measures increases the total benefit with a benefit-cost ratio of 4.38. Analytical results showed that the risk reduction program is cost-effective.

  17. Legal Pluralism: Interactions Between Official and Unofficial Laws: The Case Study of a Multi-ethnic Community Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Farinha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-ethnic community farm, located in California, was created in 2011 to be commonly exploited by refugees and emigrants from different countries.This paper aims to describe, as an observable fact, how distinct non-state normativities behave and relate in their dynamic process of interaction, surpassing the usual state/local law bases of analysis.The farm was approved by the state authorities and the NGO has created its regulations. Concomitantly, the distinct communities of farmers have defied and transformed the farm’s regulations by incorporating their competing legal land tenure regimes and legal postulates in the same structure of the unofficial law of the farm, through a common frame of meaning and the enactment of the “autonomy rule”. This has allowed the growers to follow their normativities inside the farm. However, its creation process and daily practice also exposes the relevance of the official law in its constitution, shape and function. En 2011 se creó en California una granja multiétnica comunal, para que fuera explotada en comunidad por refugiados y emigrantes de diferentes países. Este artículo pretende describir, como hecho observable, cómo se comportan y se relacionan normativas no estatales en un proceso dinámico de interacción, superando las bases de análisis estado/local habituales del derecho. Las autoridades estatales aprobaron la granja, y la ONG creó su propia normativa. Al mismo tiempo, las diferentes comunidades de agricultores han desafiado y transformado el reglamento de la granja, incorporando sus regímenes legales de tenencia de tierras vigentes, y los postulados legales en la misma estructura del derecho no oficial, a través de un marco común de significado y la promulgación de la “norma de autonomía”. Esto ha permitido a los productores seguir sus normativas dentro de la finca. Sin embargo, su proceso de creación y práctica diaria también pone de manifiesto la importancia del

  18. Orientation and community participation of ecological development: a case study of Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zi; Zhou Yingzi; Han Bing

    2007-01-01

    Entrusted to by Shijiazhuang municipal Party committee and government,Shanghai Tongji University finished "The General Planning of Ecological Development Project of Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang City".It aims to build Hutuo River into a wind-breaking and sand-fixing barrier and ecological protect district in the north of Shijiazhuang based on the recovery of natural ecology to improve the environment of Shijiazhuang city.It also intends to develop the district lightly and build it into a nature beauty spot and big park.After the construction for several years,the general environment of this district has been greatly improved.But during the development,the man-made landscapes are highlighted excessively,which deviates from the construction of nature landscape.The currency of constructing big leisure park gradually comes into being,so the recovery of nature ecological is slow.So,this paper intends to make the orientation to ecological development of Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang city and puts forward the community participation to promote the future development of ecotourism in Shijiazhuang.

  19. Site Preparation Drives Long-Term Plant Community Dynamics in Restored Tallgrass Prairie: A Case Study in Southeastern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikin, Alice R.; Jarchow, Meghann E.; Olmstead, Karen L.; Krentz, Rustan E.; Dixon, Mark D.

    2016-10-01

    Most tallgrass prairies have been destroyed or altered, making restoration an important component to their conservation. Our goal was to evaluate progress 12-years post-restoration at Spirit Mound Historic Prairie and determine whether the outcomes varied based on different land use and restoration histories across the site. We examined changes in plant diversity, richness, evenness, non-native species relative abundance, and community composition from 2004 to 2013. Areas with different restoration treatments and land-use histories showed divergent results. Seventy percent of the site, previously annual row crop, was reconstructed using herbicide application followed by native seeding (hereafter reconstruction). Areas that were previously grazed, 15 % of the site, were restored with only partial seeding and no herbicide treatment (hereafter rehabilitation). Species richness and diversity increased over 40 % in the reconstruction since 2004 and remained over 1.9 times higher in the reconstructed areas than rehabilitated areas. Diversity did not change in the rehabilitation, but richness increased 47 % since 2004. Evenness decreased 11-26 % over time in both areas. Non-native species relative abundance did not change from 2004 to 2013, and remained five times higher in the rehabilitation than the reconstruction. Native C4 grass and forb abundance increased over time in the reconstruction, whereas non-native C3 grasses remained dominant in the rehabilitation. These results showed that restoration outcomes were radically different 12-years post-restoration among areas with different prior land uses that were subjected to different restoration practices. Long-term assessments are important to accurately determine restoration progress and inform management decisions.

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation: the case study of Teiman-Oyarifa Community, Ga East Municipality, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ackah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural purposes was assessed in a predominantly farming and sprawling settlement in the Ga East Municipality (Ghana. Various water quality parameters were determined to assess groundwater quality of 16 wells in Teiman-Oyarifa community. Standard methods for physicochemical determinations were employed. Hand-dug wells, boreholes and pipe borne water samples were collected within the locality and analysed. Results showed the temperature range of 19.5 oC-26.7 oC, pH range of 4-7.4, conductivity range of 214-2830 uS/cm, total dissolved solids, 110-1384 mg/L, bicarbonate, 8.53-287.7mg/L, chloride, 28.41-813.8 mg/L, Flouride, below detection limit -0.4667mg/L, Nitrate 1.9-4625 mg/L, sulphate, 16.35-149.88mg/L. Results of analysis carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry showed metal concentrations of Fe ranging from 0.212-3.396 mg/L, Mn 0.01-0.1 mg/L, Ca 0.39-9.97 mg/L. The ionic dominance for the major cations and the anions respectively were in these order; Na+ >K+ >Mg+ >Ca+ and Cl- >HCO3- >SO4- >NO3 -. Most of the samples analyzed were within the Guidelines set by both national and international bodies for drinking water. Most of the groundwater samples fell in the US Salinity Laboratory Classification of C2-S1(medium salinity-low SAR.

  1. Factors Affecting Seasonal Walkability in a Cold Climate Community: A Case Study of East Lansing, Michigan, in Collaboration with Michigan State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. WESTPHAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At its most basic level, community involvement has as its primary goal the betterment of the community. In this study, we investigated how community involvement (a form of social capital interrelates with seasonal walkability, cycling, and running in a cold climate community like East Lansing, Michigan. A head of household survey (of 505 individuals in three different neighborhoods was conducted that asked residents about their weekly exercise patterns, and their personal service involvement with others in their neighborhoods. Poor walkability in a community is thought to be an important limiting factor to human health and a contributing factor to obesity due to an increased dependency on the automobile. Previous studies show strong correlations between physical characteristics of the built environment and the incidence of obesity in a community. In this study, we integrated dimensions of seasonal weather phenomena, socio-demographic characteristics of neighborhoods (including current levels of physical activity, and expressions of social capital into a social-environmental model of the built environment and human health. Results of this communityuniversity partnership suggest ways to enhance the city’s ability to mobilize community resources, and prioritize its own resources, in creating a more pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly environment for its citizens. It also provides insight into how, when and why citizens engage in community life, and what public officials can do to improve long-term citizen involvement in issues affecting health and quality of life in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

  2. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  3. Factors affecting the use of male-oriented contraceptives: a case study of the Mukarati community, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo S; Zvoushe A; Rusinga O

    2012-01-01

    Stanzia Moyo,1 Alfred Zvoushe,2 Oswell Rusinga31Centre for Population Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; 2Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture, Kadoma District, Zimbabwe; 3Department of Physics, Geography and Environmental Science, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, ZimbabweAbstract: The subject of male sexuality has long been shrouded by silence and secrecy in Zimbabwe. As such, where contraceptive uptake has featured as part of social studies inquiry, it has tended to...

  4. RESEARCH ON INDIGENOUS BUILDING TECHNOLOGY OF COTU MINORITIES IN CENTRAL VIETNAM - Case study of traditional community houses in Thuong Quang and Thuong Lo commune, Thua Thien-Hue province -

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The traditional community house named "Guol" is a unique architecture of Cotu minorities living upland area of central Vietnam. Two community houses in Nam Dong district, Thua Thien Hue province show the typical "Guol" and are surveyed for case studies of indigenous building technology. The building technology can be understood as their conventional design methodology and construction technique. The field research was conducted by interview and measurement to obtain the information relating t...

  5. Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power

  6. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Community-Level Environmental Projects as Learning Tools for Planners: A Case Study of Graduate Planning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E.; Teff-Seker, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential environmental impact of urban planning, there is little research on Environmental Education (EE) in the context of urban planning curricula. This study follows graduate planning students' learning experience during group projects assigned as part of a planning course at the Technion--Israel Institute of Technology. These…

  8. Ecomorphology as a predictor of fish diet: a case study on the North Sea benthic fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, W.P.

    2006-01-01

    A methodological approach based on fish ecomorphology was chosen to predict potential fish diet. This study tests a method used in earlier research on a marine ecosystem containing phylogenetically diverse organisms: the North Sea. Fish feeding morphology imposes constraints on feeding options. A bo

  9. Trophic relationships in demersal communities of Western Mediterraneo occidentale: case studies from coastal and deep-sea ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Fanelli, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    327 pages.-- PhD Tesis carried out at the Universitá degli Studi di Viterbo "La Tuscia", Dipartimento di Ecologia e Sviluppo Sostenibile, at the Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC) and at the Laboratorio di Ecologia Marina, IAMC-CNR.

  10. Exploring Content Management Issues in Air Force On-Line Communities of Practice: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    CoPs will come with an automated content management system . The default setting on the content management system for content review on the... content management system , the APQC found “conducting a content audit was strongly correlated with every category of improved performance in content...the CoPs. Finally, a researcher could perform a more in-depth study to determine if a commercially available content management system would be

  11. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gerald; Bouchez, Agnes; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy , Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copoly...

  12. Benthic Communities of Low-Order Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainages: A Case Study from Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Svitok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Only little attention has been paid to the impact of acid mine drainages (AMD on aquatic ecosystems in Central Europe. In this study, we investigate the physico-chemical properties of low-order streams and the response of benthic invertebrates to AMD pollution in the Banská Štiavnica mining region (Slovakia. The studied streams showed typical signs of mine drainage pollution: higher conductivity, elevated iron, aluminum, zinc and copper loads and accumulations of ferric precipitates. Electric conductivity correlated strongly with most of the investigated elements (weighted mean absolute correlation = 0.95 and, therefore, can be recommended as a good proxy indicator for rapid AMD pollution assessments. The diversity and composition of invertebrate assemblages was related to water chemistry. Taxa richness decreased significantly along an AMD-intensity gradient. While moderately affected sites supported relatively rich assemblages, the harshest environmental conditions (pH < 2.5 were typical for the presence of a limited number of very tolerant taxa, such as Oligochaeta and some Diptera (Limnophyes, Forcipomyiinae. The trophic guild structure correlated significantly with AMD chemistry, whereby predators completely disappeared under the most severe AMD conditions. We also provide a brief review of the AMD literature and outline the needs for future detailed studies involving functional descriptors of the impact of AMD on aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Barriers to Repatriation of Afghan Refugees (A Case Study of Afghan Community at Shah and Khusar Colony Board Area Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the barriers to the repatriation of Afghan refugees. The data were collected from board area Peshawar from 76 respondents selected through simple random sampling technique and were interviewed. The study shows that Afghan refugees migrated to Pakistan mainly due to Soviet invasion in Afghanistan in year 1979. Despite having stay of almost three decades in Pakistan they have to repatriate to Afghanistan, but a large majority of the respondents had no intentions to repatriate while small number of respondents reported intention to repatriate mainly due to strict policies of Pakistan government. Those had no intention pointed out the political reasons such as lack of peace and stability in Afghanistan and bad law and order situation, they had no property/ land in Afghanistan, supplemented by lack of job opportunities while they have livelihood sources and better socioeconomic conditions in Pakistan. Socially in Afghanistan a new culture has been developed mostly favoring those like war. Social services are completely destroyed and many refugees called the new culture as alien for them especially to the new generation of Afghan refugees who have been grown in Pakistan. Many of them especially women and children enjoyed a life style that did not exist even before 1979 in Afghanistan. Refugees consider themselves more the part of Pakistani culture and hesitate to go back home. The overall impact shows that those people who had intention to repatriate mainly due to the use of force by government, destruction of houses and shops in camps. Study recommends that the repatriation process can be enhanced if peace and stability in Afghanistan is improved along with the availability of social services and job opportunities.

  14. Self-Assessment of Adherence to Medication: A Case Study in Campania Region Community-Dwelling Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditto, Enrica; Guerriero, Francesca; Orlando, Valentina; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Illario, Maddalena; Morisky, Donald E.; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess self-reported medication adherence measure in patients selected during a health education and health promotion focused event held in the Campania region. The study also assessed sociodemographic determinants of adherence. Methods. An interviewer assisted survey was conducted to assess adherence using the Italian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Participants older than 18 years were interviewed by pharmacists while waiting for free-medical checkup. Results. A total of 312 participants were interviewed during the Health Campus event. A total of 187 (59.9%) had low adherence to medications. Pearson's bivariate correlation showed positive association between the MMAS-8 score and gender, educational level and smoking (P < 0.05). A multivariable analysis showed that the level of education and smoking were independent predictors of adherence. Individuals with an average level of education (odds ratio (OR), 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–4.52) and nonsmoker (odds ratio (OR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–3.35) were found to be more adherent to medication than those with a lower level of education and smoking. Conclusion. The analysis showed very low prescription adherence levels in the interviewed population. The level of education was a relevant predictor associated with that result. PMID:26346487

  15. Self-Assessment of Adherence to Medication: A Case Study in Campania Region Community-Dwelling Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Menditto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess self-reported medication adherence measure in patients selected during a health education and health promotion focused event held in the Campania region. The study also assessed sociodemographic determinants of adherence. Methods. An interviewer assisted survey was conducted to assess adherence using the Italian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Participants older than 18 years were interviewed by pharmacists while waiting for free-medical checkup. Results. A total of 312 participants were interviewed during the Health Campus event. A total of 187 (59.9% had low adherence to medications. Pearson’s bivariate correlation showed positive association between the MMAS-8 score and gender, educational level and smoking (P<0.05. A multivariable analysis showed that the level of education and smoking were independent predictors of adherence. Individuals with an average level of education (odds ratio (OR, 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.08–4.52 and nonsmoker (odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–3.35 were found to be more adherent to medication than those with a lower level of education and smoking. Conclusion. The analysis showed very low prescription adherence levels in the interviewed population. The level of education was a relevant predictor associated with that result.

  16. The Transition of Cultural Ecology in Beidong District of Guizhou–A Case Study of Tianzhu Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; ZHAO; Baoling; DONG; Yingzi; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Beidong minorities living together in Qingshui River valley are deeply influenced by Jing and Chu culture. Their ethnic and traditional culture was developed in the process of collision with foreign culture. In the several great social transformations,their cultural ecology was not imbalanced,but evolved and developed. Through the study on local knowledge of cultural ecology including agricultural production,ancestral hall and local- style dwelling house,full- scale drama and Yang Drama,genealogical system,marriage customs,religious belief,sacrificial rites and funeral rites,it is expected to reveal reasons and rules of transition of Beidong ethnic culture,favorable for correctly understanding cultural connotation and promote cultural and tourism development in ethnic minority areas.

  17. Protected Area Safeguard Tree and Shrub Communities from Degradation and Invasion: A Case Study in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Carter Ingram, J.; Flynn, Dan F. B.; Razafindrazaka, Rova; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina

    2009-07-01

    Despite their prevalence in both developed and developing countries, there have been surprisingly few field assessments of the ecological effectiveness of protected areas. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a key protected area in eastern Madagascar, Ranomafana National Park (RNP). We established paired 100 × 4-m vegetation transects (400 m2) within RNP and in remnant forests in the park’s peripheral zone. In each 400-m2 plot, all woody stems >1.5 cm in diameter at breast height were measured and identified to species. All species were also identified as native or non-native. We identified utilitarian species within all transects and they were sorted into use category. We calculated plot-level taxonomic biodiversity and functional diversity of utilitarian species; the latter was calculated by clustering the multivariate distances between species based on their utilitarian traits, and all metrics were tested using paired t-tests. Our results showed that there was significantly higher biodiversity inside RNP than in remnant forests and this pattern was consistent across all diversity metrics examined. Forests not located within the park’s boundary had significantly higher non-native species than within RNP. There was no statistically significant difference in functional diversity of utilitarian species inside RNP vs. remnant forests; however, the overall trend was toward higher diversity inside park boundaries. These findings suggested that RNP has been effective at maintaining taxonomic diversity relative to surrounding unprotected areas and restricting the spread of non-native plants. The results also suggested that low functional redundancy of forests outside of RNP might be of concern, because residents in surrounding villages may have few other substitutes for the services provided by species that are of critical importance to their livelihoods. This study highlights the challenges of trying to reconcile biodiversity conservation with human use

  18. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  19. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  20. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  1. Water storage capacity of the natural river valley - how sedge communities influence it. Case study of Upper Biebrza Basin (Poland) based on ALS and TLS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Marcin; Chormański, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The exact determination of water storage capacity in river valley is an important issue for hydrologists, ecologist and flood modellers. In case of natural river valley, the dense and complexity vegetation of the natural ecosystems can influence the proper identification of the water storage. Methods considered to be sufficient in other cases (urbanized, agricultural) may not produce correct results. Sedge communities in natural river valleys form characteristic tussocks, built from the species roots, other organic material and silt or mud. They are formed due to partial flooding during the inundation, so the plants can survive in hard, anaerobic conditions. They can growth even up to 0.5 meters, which is not so visible due to very dense vegetation in the valleys. These tussocks form a microtopography or a river valley. Currently, the most commonly used technology to register the terrain topography is an Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), but in the case of the tussocks and the dense vegetation it generates high errors on elevation in the areas of the sedges (Carex appropinquata). This study concerns the Upper Biebrza Valley which is located in the northeastern Poland. For purpose of our work we used Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technology to determine microtopography of selected fields. Before measurements, the green part of the sedge was cut in selected measurements fields. It make possible to register only tussocks shape. Next, step was collection of the airborne ALS data of the valley with density of 8 points/sq m. The experimental field was divided on two sub-fields: one was cut and scanned using TLS before ALS collection, while the second after. Data collected as ALS and the TLS were then compared. The accuracy of the ALS data depends on the land cover of an area, while TLS accuracy is around 2 millimeters (when georeferenced it depends on the accuracy of reference points - in our case it was made using GPS RTK which gave us accuracy of few centimeters). The

  2. Emerging issues on the sustainability of the community based rural water resources management approach in Zimbabwe: A case study of Gwanda District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulani Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable on-going debate about the suitability and sustainability of community based water resources management (CBWRM in Africa as a water provision strategy, evidence shows that this approach has gone a long way in promoting access to clean water amongst rural African communities. CBWRM provides an alternative approach to water provision for rural communities. This paper examines how the strategy has been operationalised in Gwanda District in Zimbabwe. The paper examines the experiences of rural communities in using CBWRM. Data was collected using focus group discussions, key informant in-depth interviews and a survey of 685 households in Gwanda district across five wards. The findings of this study are that 67% of the surveyed rural communities in Gwanda depended on community managed water resources mostly in the form of boreholes and protected wells. High rates of nun-functional sources were reported at 60-70% in most wards. Several system weaknesses were noted in the current CBWRM set-up including a depletion of committee memberships, inadequate community resources, limited agency and government support. This paper makes several recommendations on strengthening the capacity of CBWRM in Zimbabwe and Africa.

  3. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  4. User fluctuation in communities: a forum case

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushyna, Zinayida

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fluctuation of users help stakeholders to provide a better support to communities. Below we present an experiment where we detect communities, their evolution and based on the data characterize users that stay, leave or join a community. Using a resulted feature set and logistic regression we operate with models of users that are joining and users that are staying in a community. In the related work we emphasize a number of features we will include in our future experiments to enhance train accuracy. This work represents a ?first from a series of experiments devoted to user fluctuation in communities.

  5. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  6. Influence of habitat and climate variables on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community distribution, as revealed by a case study of facultative plant epiphytism under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas, E; Torres, P; Alguacil, M M; Querejeta, J I; Roldán, A

    2013-12-01

    In semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm). In this study, we focused on Sonchus tenerrimus L. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in P. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. Our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in these peculiar habitats and to relate AMF communities with climatic variations. We investigated the AMF community composition of epiphytic and terrestrial S. tenerrimus plants along a temperature and precipitation gradient across 12 localities. Epiphytic roots were colonized by AMF, as determined by microscopic observation; all of the epiphytic and terrestrial samples analyzed showed AMF sequences from taxa belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota, which were grouped in 30 AMF operational taxonomic units. The AMF community composition was clearly different between epiphytic and terrestrial root samples, and this could be attributable to dispersal constraints and/or the contrasting environmental and ecophysiological conditions prevailing in each habitat. Across sites, the richness and diversity of terrestrial AMF communities was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the most recent growing season. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between climate variables and AMF richness and diversity for epiphytic AMF communities, which suggests that the composition of AMF communities in epiphytic habitats appears to be largely determined by the availability and dispersion of fungal propagules from adjacent terrestrial habitats.

  7. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  8. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P  Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.

  9. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T;

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs).......Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...

  10. Implementation of a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety in a community health center: results from a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghaneyan BH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brittany H Eghaneyan,1 Katherine Sanchez,2 Diane B Mitschke2 1Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2School of Social Work, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Background: The collaborative care model is a systematic approach to the treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care settings that involves the integration of care managers and consultant psychiatrists, with primary care physician oversight, to more proactively manage mental disorders as chronic diseases, rather than treating acute symptoms. While collaborative care has been shown to be more effective than usual primary care in improving depression outcomes in a number of studies, less is known about the factors that support the translation of this evidence-based intervention to real-world program implementation. The purpose of this case study was to examine the implementation of a collaborative care model in a community based primary care clinic that primarily serves a low-income, uninsured Latino population, in order to better understand the interdisciplinary relationships and the specific elements that might facilitate broader implementation. Methods: An embedded single-case study design was chosen in order to thoroughly examine the components of one of several programs within a single organization. The main unit of analysis was semi-structured interviews that were conducted with seven clinical and administrative staff members. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the interviews. Line-by-line initial coding resulted in over 150 initial codes, which were clustered together to rebuild the data into preliminary categories and then divided into four final categories, or main themes. Results: Four unique themes about how the implementation of a collaborative care model worked in this setting emerged from the interviews: organizational change, communication, processes and outcomes of the program, and barriers to

  11. Exploring impacts of multi-year, community-based care programs for orphans and vulnerable children: a case study from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Wambua, Nancy; Masila, Juliana; Wangai, Susan; Rohr, Julia; Brooks, Mohamad; Bryant, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO) program operated in Kenya during 2006-2010. In Eastern Province, the program provided support to approximately 3000 orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) living in 1500 households. A primary focus of the program was to support savings and loan associations composed of OVC caregivers (typically elderly women) to improve household and OVC welfare. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2011 from 1500 randomly selected households from 3 populations: program participants (CBCO group, n=500), households in the same villages as program participants but not in the program (the local-community-group = Group L, n=300), and households living in nearby villages where the program did not operate (the adjacent-community-group, Group A, n=700). Primary welfare outcomes evaluated are household food security, as measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access instrument, and OVC educational attainment. We compared outcomes between the CBCO and the subset of Group L not meeting program eligibility criteria (L-N) to investigate disparities within local communities. We compared outcomes between the CBCO group and the subset of Group A meeting eligibility criteria (A-E) to consider program impact. We compared outcomes between households not eligible for the program in the local and adjacent community groups (L-N and A-N) to consider if the adjacent communities are similar to the local communities. In May-June 2011, at the end of the OVC program, the majority of CBCO households continued to be severely food insecure, with rates similar to other households living in nearby communities. Participation rates in primary school are high, reflecting free primary education. Among the 18-22 year olds who were "children" during the program years, relatively few children completed secondary school across all study groups. Although the CBCO program likely provided useful services and benefits to program participants, disparities

  12. Development and evaluation of local communities incentive programs for improving the traditional forest management:A case study of North-ern Zagros forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Henareh Khalyani; Manouchehr Namiranian; S. M. Heshmatol Vaezin; Jahangir Feghhi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local community incentive programs to improve traditional forest management in three forested villages in Baneh city, Kurdistan province in the northern Zagros forests of western Iran. Zagros forests cover 6.07 million ha and support rich plant and animal diversity. Changes in local community social and economic sys-tems and the inefficiency of traditional forest management led to a criti-cal situation in the stability of forest regeneration in recent decades. Due to a shortage of productive and arable lands and resulting unemployment and poverty, people overexploited the Zagros forests. Outside interven-tion in traditional forest management creates conflicts between local peoples and forest management organizations. To achieve sustainable forest management, including forest resources conservation and im-provement of natural resource based livelihoods of communities, it is desirable to implement Forestry Incentive Programs (FIP) based on the important functions of forests. Detailed information on the so-cio-economics of communities, the effect of forests on local livelihoods, and lists of products extracted from the forest were obtained from a sur-vey of local communities though questionnaire, interview and observa-tion. We studied 276 households in three villages and completed 76 ques-tionnaires by householders in the quantitative analysis. Sampling was performed by simple random sampling (SRS). The needs of rural com-munities, such as livestock husbandry, mainly arise from the characteris-tics and environmental features of villages. We identified the driving forces, pressures, status, impacts and responses (DPSIR) to design incen-tive programs, by DPSIR analysis and interaction analysis. Evaluation of local community benefits from forests showed that in order to improve forest management, 319 dollars per year would be needed by each family as an incentive in 2010 to prevent lopping and firewood collecting, the main causes of forest degradation.

  13. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  14. Case Study of Leadership Practices and School-Community Interrelationships in High-Performing, High-Poverty, Rural California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Marcia; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Many rural California high schools are impacted by the disadvantages of poverty, non-English speaking students, limited resources, changing demographics, and challenges of the rural context. Focusing on contemporary leadership theories and school-community interrelationships, this qualitative study examines the practices of educational leaders in…

  15. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission in households of infected cases : a pooled analysis of primary data from three studies across international settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, J; Van Rijen, M; Uhlemann, A-C; Miller, M; Hafer, C; Vavagiakis, P; Shi, Q; Johnson, P D R; Coombs, G; Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M; Kluytmans, J; Bennett, C M; Lowy, F D

    2015-01-01

    Diverse strain types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause infections in community settings worldwide. To examine heterogeneity of spread within households and to identify common risk factors for household transmission across settings, primary data from studies conducted in New

  16. Revealing the relationship between microbial community structure in natural biofilms and the pollution level in urban rivers: a case study in the Qinhuai River basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    River pollution is one of the most challenging environmental issues, but the effect of river pollution levels on the biofilm communities has not been well-studied. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the biofilm communities were investigated in the Qinhuai River basin, Nanjing, China. Water samples were grouped into three clusters reflecting their varying pollution levels of relatively slight pollution, moderated pollution, and high pollution by hierarchical cluster analysis. In different clusters, the biofilm communities mainly differed in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. As the dominant classes of Proteobacteria, Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria seemed to show an upward trend followed by a small fluctuation in the abundance with the escalation of water pollution level. Results of redundancy analysis demonstrated that temperature, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios (TN/TP) and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and TN were mainly responsible for the variation in bacterial community structure. The occurrences of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely associated with higher temperature, higher concentrations of NH3-N and TN and a lower TN/TP ratio. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the water pollution control and ecological restoration in urban rivers under different pollution levels.

  17. Cholera and household water treatment why communities do not treat water after a cholera outbreak: a case study in Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    Mudau, Lutendo Sylvia; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Paul Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholera is one of the common diseases in developing countries caused by consumption of contaminated and untreated drinking water. A study was conducted 7 months after a cholera outbreak in Vhembe district, Limpopo, South Africa. The aim of the study was to assess if the communities were still conforming to safe water practices after an outbreak of cholera. Methodology: One hundred and fifty-two (152) participants from 11 villages were recruited to form 21 focus groups, with a mean...

  18. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  19. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCT UTILIZATIONS AND AWARENESS OF SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN FOREST COMMUNITIES-A CASE STUDY IN EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Nur Nirmala Sari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A lack of livelihood to meet the needs has been one reason why forest communities have utilized non-timber forest products (NTFPs. For some communities living in or around forest areas, NTFPs have been a basic support for their small-scale industries, which could contribute to better income. This study focused on the utilization of NTFPs by forest communities and their awareness in terms of utilizing such products for handicrafts in small-scale industry. This study examined the NTFPs potentials, markets, and social benefits at the five villages in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The villages-surveyed were Batu Lidung, Punan Bengalun, Sesua, Mendupo, and Seputuk which were located in and near forest areas managed by PT Intracawood Manufacturing as a forest concessionaire. The method used was Participatory Rural Appraisal Techniques, and the data collection was based on primary data and household survey. The result suggested that among the five villages, the most remote area was Punan Bengalun. Forest community of Punan Bengalun has started selling the handicrafts made from NTFPs only in the last few years. Among the five villages-sur veyed, the forest community in Seputuk tended to be more active in utilizing NTFPs for small-scale industry rather than those in four other villages. Awareness in utilizing the NTFPs had been mostly depended on factor of forest distance from the villages. People living close to the district capital (where there was a wider variety of employment opportunities had less motivation to utilize NTFPs although there were available.

  20. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  1. A case study on knowledge communication based on friends-list links in the science blogging community at Sciencenet.cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping; QIU; Feifei; WANG; Houqiang; YU

    2011-01-01

    Sciencenet.cn is the leading online portal serving the Chinese scientific community.This paper intends to analyze the interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary knowledge communication patterns based on friends-list links in the blog community at Sciencenet.cn by using hyperlink analysis and social network analysis.The major findings are:1)More bloggers have an academic background in management science and life science;2)there are some core actors in co-inlink network and co-outlink network,who take the lead in engaging with knowledge exchange activities and produce a great influence on interdisciplinary communication;3)interactive relationships commonly exist between a blogger and those on his/her friends list,and the most linked-to blogs usually play a key role in generating interactive communication;4)management science has the highest co-inlink count with life science or information science and it has the highest co-outlink count with life science or mathematical and physical science;5)management science and life science have the greatest impact on information science and the interdisciplinary knowledge communication will also produce relatively significant influence on the development of information science discipline.It is our hope that this research can serve as a reference source for the future studies of academic virtual communities,and the development of mechanisms for facilitating increased engagement in knowledge exchange activities in academic virtual communities.

  2. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS.

  3. Case Management in Community Corrections: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew; Hardcastle, Lesley; Birgden, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Case management is commonly regarded as the foundation of effective service provision across a wide range of human service settings. This article considers the case management that is offered to clients of community corrections, identifying the distinctive features of case management in this particular setting, and reviewing the empirical evidence…

  4. Effects Due to Rhizospheric Soil Application of an Antagonistic Bacterial Endophyte on Native Bacterial Community and Its Survival in Soil: A Case Study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of research findings from laboratory to agricultural fields is essential for the success of biocontrol or growth promotion trials employing beneficial microorganisms. The rhizosphere is to be viewed holistically as a dynamic ecological niche comprising of diverse microorganisms including competitors and noxious antagonists to the bio-inoculant. This study was undertaken to assess the effects due to the soil application of an endophytic bacterium with multiple pathogen antagonistic potential on native bacterial community and its sustenance in agricultural soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was employed as a model system considering its frequent isolation as an endophyte, wide antagonistic effects reported against different phytopathogens and soil pests, and that the species is a known human pathogen which makes its usage in agriculture precarious. Employing the strain ‘GNS.13.2a’ from banana, its survival in field soil and the effects upon soil inoculation were investigated by monitoring total culturable bacterial fraction as the representative indicator of soil microbial community. Serial dilution plating of uninoculated control versus P. aeruginosa inoculated soil from banana rhizosphere indicated a significant reduction in native bacterial cfu soon after inoculation compared with control soil as assessed on cetrimide- nalidixic acid selective medium against nutrient agar. Sampling on day-4 showed a significant reduction in P. aeruginosa cfu in inoculated soil and a continuous dip thereafter registering >99% reduction within 1 week while the native bacterial population resurged with cfu restoration on par with control. This was validated in contained trials with banana plants. Conversely, P. aeruginosa showed static cfu or proliferation in axenic-soil. Lateral introduction of soil microbiome in P. aeruginosa established soil under axenic conditions or its co-incubation with soil microbiota in suspension indicated significant adverse effects by

  5. Assessment of Coastal Communities' Vulnerability to Hurricane Surge under Climate Change via Probabilistic Map - A Case Study of the Southwest Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Shen, S.

    2014-12-01

    The US coastline, over the past few years, has been overwhelmed by major storms including Hurricane Katrina (2005), Ike (2008), Irene (2011), and Sandy (2012). Supported by a growing and extensive body of evidence, a majority of research agrees hurricane activities have been enhanced due to climate change. However, the precise prediction of hurricane induced inundation remains a challenge. This study proposed a probabilistic inundation map based on a Statistically Modeled Storm Database (SMSD) to assess the probabilistic coastal inundation risk of Southwest Florida for near-future (20 years) scenario considering climate change. This map was processed through a Joint Probability Method with Optimal-Sampling (JPM-OS), developed by Condon and Sheng in 2012, and accompanied by a high resolution storm surge modeling system CH3D-SSMS. The probabilistic inundation map shows a 25.5-31.2% increase in spatially averaged inundation height compared to an inundation map of present-day scenario. To estimate climate change impacts on coastal communities, socioeconomic analyses were conducted using both the SMSD based probabilistic inundation map and the present-day inundation map. Combined with 2010 census data and 2012 parcel data from Florida Geographic Data Library, the differences of economic loss between the near-future and present day scenarios were used to generate an economic exposure map at census block group level to reflect coastal communities' exposure to climate change. The results show that climate change induced inundation increase has significant economic impacts. Moreover, the impacts are not equally distributed among different social groups considering their social vulnerability to hazards. Social vulnerability index at census block group level were obtained from Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute. The demographic and economic variables in the index represent a community's adaptability to hazards. Local Moran's I was calculated to identify the clusters

  6. The necessary contradictions of 'community-led' health promotion: a case study of HIV prevention in an Indian red light district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Flora; Ghosh, Riddhi

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion interventions with marginalised groups are increasingly expected to demonstrate genuine community participation in their design and delivery. However, ideals of egalitarian democratic participation are far removed from the starting point of the hierarchical and exploitative social relations that typically characterise marginalised communities. What scope is there for health promotion projects to implement ideals of community leadership within the realities of marginalisation and inequality? We examine how the Sonagachi Project, a successful sex-worker-led HIV prevention project in India, has engaged with the unequal social relations in which it is embedded. Our ethnographic study is based on observation of the Project's participatory activities and 39 interviews with a range of its stakeholders (including sex worker employees of the Project, non-sex-worker development professionals, brothel managers, sex workers' clients). The analysis shows that the project is deeply shaped by its relationships with non-sex-worker interest groups. In order to be permitted access to the red light district, it has had to accommodate the interests of local men's clubs and brothel managers. The economic and organisational capacity to run such a project has depended upon the direct input of development professionals and funding agencies. Thus, the 'community' that leads this project is much wider than a local grouping of marginalised sex workers. We argue that, given existing power relations, the engagement with other interest groups was necessary to the project's success. Moreover, as the project has developed, sex workers' interests and leadership have gained increasing prominence. We suggest that existing optimistic expectations of participation inhibit acknowledgement of the troubling work of balancing power relations. Rather than denying such power relations, projects should be expected to plan for them.

  7. RESEARCH AND INFESTATION OF CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.

  8. Study on Yunnan Province minority community tourism development and the construction of harmonious community---Based on the analysis of some typical cases%云南省少数民族社区旅游开发与和谐社区建设的研究--基于几个典型案例的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,in research and development work in the community tourism,development of minority community tourism is an important research content,but only consider the community tourism development is far from enough,community construction is a must consider the research content. Therefore,development of minority community tourism and the construction of harmonious community combined research,emphasizing community participation,community residents benefit assignment problem,the construction of a harmonious community has more practical value and significance. An empirical study on the typical case of community tourism development and construction of harmonious community based,is to focus on these problems.%近年来,在社区旅游的开发研究中,少数民族社区旅游开发是一个重要的研究内容,但仅仅考虑社区旅游开发是远远不够的,社区建设也是一个必须考虑的研究内容。因此,将少数民族社区旅游开发与和谐社区建设结合起来进行研究,强调社区参与、社区居民利益分配问题、和谐社区建设更具有现实的价值和意义。基于典型案例的社区旅游开发与和谐社区建设的实证研究,就是围绕这些问题进行的。

  9. Community study suggests segmentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, A

    1989-01-01

    Results of a sample survey commissioned by a voluntary health organization in a major metropolitan area describes why individuals give their time and money to charitable organizations and what approaches are likely to result in such donations. Within demographic subgroups, the variables of age and income proved to be important factors with respect to why people gave and what appeals they prefer. The variables of gender and education were found to be of somewhat less importance. Findings were compared with a national Gallup study conducted in 1987. In an era of increasingly specialized marketing for all organizations, the findings offer voluntary and fund-raising organizations a basis for determining appropriate appeals for demographic segments in a community.

  10. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2012 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…

  11. An Applied Local Wisdom to Manage Water for Developing Riverside Community: A Case Study of the Lam Ta Kong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapong Kongsat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An integrated water resource management is accepted technique to solve the water resource problems both water shortage and flood plane in order to improve human life. The combination between local wisdom and modern technology by farmer participation is a main part of integrated management. The mentioned techniques had been being applied for human life in the northeast region of Thailand. Approach: This study investigated the local wisdom of water resource management and an application of the local wisdom to manage water resource for developing the economic, society and culture of Lam Ta Kong’s community, Nakhorn Ratchasima province, Thailand. Information was investigated from relevant document and field survey including questionnaire and interview. Results: The result founded that there were two types of the local wisdoms including an original local wisdom on water management and a combination of original and modern science local wisdom to manage available water. For original wisdom, there were earth dam, rock dam, rocks dyke, wooden weir, waterwheel and shallow well that were found in source and midst of the river basin. They constructed the dams and weirs barrier flow river along the Lam Ta Kong River in order to storage water for using purposes in dry season and to mitigate flood plane during rainy season as an early age of the local wisdom. The waterwheel was used to bail water from river to their community. For the combination of original and modern science, there were concrete dam, Watergate, irrigating tube, irrigation channel, water pump, water pump dynamo and underground water drilling that were found at the source, midst and tide tail of the river basin. These combined local wisdoms are considered as a current apparatus in water resource management of the area. The stored water was managed with annual rainfall for cultivation, industrial, family activity and residences for the necessaries of life. Conclusion

  12. Effects due to rhizospheric soil application of an antagonistic bacterial endophyte on native bacterial community and its survival in soil: A case study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa from banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious eThomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective translation of research findings from laboratory to agricultural fields is essential for the success of biocontrol or growth promotion trials employing beneficial microorganisms. The rhizosphere is to be viewed holistically as a dynamic ecological niche comprising of diverse microorganisms including competitors and noxious antagonists to the bio-inoculant. This study was undertaken to assess the effects due to the soil application of an endophytic bacterium with multiple pathogen antagonistic potential on native bacterial community and its sustenance in agricultural soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was employed as a model system considering its frequent isolation as an endophyte, wide antagonistic effects reported against different phytopathogens and soil pests, and that the species is a known human pathogen which makes its usage in agriculture precarious. Employing the strain ‘GNS.13.2a’ from banana, its survival in field soil and the effects upon soil inoculation were investigated by monitoring total culturable bacterial fraction as the representative indicator of soil microbial community. Serial dilution plating of uninoculated control versus P. aeruginosa inoculated soil from banana rhizosphere indicated a significant reduction in native bacterial cfu soon after inoculation compared with control soil as assessed on cetrimide- nalidixic acid selective medium against nutrient agar. Sampling on day-4 showed a significant reduction in P. aeruginosa cfu in inoculated soil and a continuous dip thereafter registering >99% reduction within one week while the native bacterial population resurged with cfu restoration on par with control. This was validated in contained trials with banana plants. Conversely, P. aeruginosa showed static cfu or proliferation in axenic-soil. Lateral introduction of soil microbiome in P. aeruginosa established soil under axenic conditions or its co-incubation with soil microbiota in suspension indicated

  13. Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziatelli Gaia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of

  14. An Articulated Pan-Canadian Core Curriculum: Are We Dreaming in Colour? The Tourism Learning System. An Association of Canadian Community Colleges Sponsored Sectoral Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Geoffrey; Hood, Terry; White, Brian

    This paper offers findings from a case study of western Canada's Tourism Learning System (TLS) initiative. TLS aims to facilitate possible adoption of a national tourism learning system, as well as adaptation of development principles to other industries. The tourism industry now accounts for more than 25% of the world's trade and nearly 10% of…

  15. A survey study on motivations for citation: A case study on periodicals research and library and information science community in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Feng; WU; Yishan

    2009-01-01

    A large number of theoretical and empirical studies on citation behavior have been conducted internationally.Although some theoretical studies on such topic have been carried out in China,few studies have focused specifically on this area from an empirical perspective,resulting in the lack of literature on the findings of actual surveys.To address this challenge,we conducted two questionnaire surveys to understand the motivations of the researchers on citation.One survey covers the authors who published articles in Chinese Journal of Scientific and Technical Periodicals,while the other targets the most productive and most cited Chinese authors in library and information science.The results show that citation behavior is not only motivated by rational factors,but also by other social factors.

  16. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  17. Case-control study of the relationship of functioning to suicide in a community-based sample of individuals with schizophrenia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, John; Liu, Nancy; Phillips, Michael R

    2012-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia. Some studies indicate that increased difficulties in functioning are associated with suicidality in persons with schizophrenia. We conducted a secondary analysis of 74 suicides (cases) and 24 accidental deaths (controls) among persons with schizophrenia identified in a national psychological autopsy study in China. Between cases and controls, we compared the effect of schizophrenia on work, daily activities, emotions, social relationships and self-care at the time the illness was most severe. There was no difference in the overall maximum dysfunction associated with the illness between groups. None of the 5 measures (work, activities, emotions, relationships, self-care) were different between the two groups. This study of individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia who died by suicide in a non-western culture only partially supports findings from clinical studies in western cultures.

  18. Optimal Decision Model for Sustainable Hospital Building Renovation-A Case Study of a Vacant School Building Converting into a Community Public Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yi-Kai; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Perng, Yeng-Horng; Castro-Lacouture, Daniel

    2016-06-24

    Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient.

  19. Optimal Decision Model for Sustainable Hospital Building Renovation—A Case Study of a Vacant School Building Converting into a Community Public Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yi-Kai; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Perng, Yeng-Horng; Castro-Lacouture, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient. PMID:27347986

  20. A Semiotic Analysis of Cyber Emoticons (A Case Study of Kaskus Emoticons in the Lounge Forum at Kaskus-the Largest Indonesian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Sukyadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaskus emoticons have been used widely in cyber, whether in Kaskus forum or blogs and other Instant Messengers (IMs. The use of emoticon in the forum is believed to be the latest way in communication among members. The use of emoticons is necessary to overcome the constraints of online communication, the need of being expressive and time limited. Kaskus emoticons are culturally unique because they are created by Indonesian online users without resorting to western style emoticons. Even though emotion is something universal, the way of how certain community represents it through emoticons is interesting to note. This study is aimed at exploring the significance of Kaskus emoticons in the Lounge forum at Kaskus, the Largest Indonesian Community. The analysis is rooted on semiotics, particularly Roland Barthes’ orders of signification involving five emoticons appearing in the Lounge forum at the site. The findings show that the emoticons have meaning and functions as a way to communicate, particularly in the online forum. It serves as a means of (visual communication between users to emphasize the statement in online communication, and to show mood of one’s state of feeling so that others can easily acquaint his thoughts. More to the point, emoticons are treated as alteration for some words and their meanings are associated with linked circumstances.

  1. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): A case study of the Bai River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingguo Cui; Baoqing Shan; Wenzhong Tang

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V,Cr,Co,Ni,Cu,Cd,and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C.chinensis) in the Bai River watershed.The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae,filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms.The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C.chinensis.The V,Cr,Co,Ni,and Cd content of C.chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased,but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton.Mechanisms of V,Cr,and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms,while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C.chinensis.The accumulation of Cu in C.chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior.The metal:P stoichiometry revealed that Cr,Ni,and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem.V and Co were considered to be relatively safe,regardless of the periphyton P content.Finally,Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels,and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals,but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred.

  2. Risk Assessment and Community Participation Model for Environmental Asthma Management in an Elementary Public School: A Case Study in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rivera-Rentas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a rapidly growing chronic disease in the general population of the world, mostly in children. Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of children with asthma among the Hispanic community in the US and its territories. Asthma and air quality are becoming a significant and potentially costly public health issue in Puerto Rico. The CDC has reported that in Puerto Rico, 320,350 adults have asthma and this number represents 11.5% of the island adult population. The north east municipality of Carolina, Puerto Rico, has the highest asthma prevalence in the 0 to 17 year old range (2001 data. In this study, we address the potential relationship between anthropogenic and naturally occurring environmental factors, and asthma prevalence in an urban elementary public school in Carolina in an effort to empower and engage communities to work on their environmental health issues. We integrated geographic information systems (GIS data of anthropogenic activities near the school as well as the natural resources and geomorphology of the region. We found that as Carolina is close by to Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque, this together with the temperature and precipitation cycles in the zone creates the ideal environmental conditions for increased humidity and pollen, mold and fungi development through out the year. We also collected health and socio economic data to generate an asthma profile of the students, employees and parents from the school community, and through a survey we identified perceptions on environmental asthma triggers, and indoor air quality in the school and homes of the students and employees. Finally, we implemented a workshop on indoor air quality designed to engage the school community in managing asthma triggers and the school environment. Our results showed that nearly 30 % of its student’s population has asthma, and from this group 58% are males and 42% are female students. Of all asthmatic children, only 43

  3. 社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率调查%Prevalence of dementia in diabetics: a community-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云云; 赵倩华; 郭起浩; 罗剑锋; 丁玎; 洪震

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率,计算年龄别、性别患病率,并与非糖尿病组相比较.方法 对上海市某社区50岁以上常住居民中糖尿病患者及与其年龄、性别相匹配1:1对照的非糖尿病患者进行调查.运用问卷采集人口学及病史资料,MMSE筛查认知功能.对于文盲≤19分、小学≤21分、初中及以上文化程度≤24分者,进一步给予成套神经心理学量表检查,依据DSM-Ⅳ诊断痴呆.结果 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率[4.75%(23/484),95%CI:3.03%~7.04%]高于非糖尿病患者[2.24%(11/490),95%CI:1.13%~3.98% X~2=4.54,P=0.03].糖尿病组60~69、70~79和80岁以上各年龄段的痴呆患病率分别为1.94%(2/103)、4.43%(9/203)和14.12%(12/85)(趋势X~2=18.04,P<0.01);非糖尿病组相应年龄段痴呆患病率分别为1.43%(2/140)、2.86%(6/210)和5.00%(3/60,趋势X~2=4.58,P:0.03).糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为6.55%(19/290)和2.06%(4/194,X~2=5.18,P=0.02);非糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为3.01%(9/299)和1.05%(2/191).结论 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率显著高于非糖尿病患者,2组痴呆患病率均随年龄增大而升高,并且女性痴呆患病率高于男性.%Objective To determine prevalence of dementia in diabetics and non-diabetics, and in different age and gender groups. Methods A case-control study was conducted among participants aged 50 and over in Jing' an temple community in Shanghai. Subjects in diabetics group were matched to non-diabetics groups for age and sex with 1:1 matching. Personal information and case history were collected through questionnaire. The subjects were screened for dementia using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects that screened positively (indicated by an MMSE score below 19, 21 and 24 among those with illiteracy, elementary school and above junior middle school education, respectively) were subsequently examined by a series of neuropsychological tests. Based

  4. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  5. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  6. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  7. Diversity and community composition of butterflies and ordonates in an ENSO-induced fire affected habitat mosaic: a case study from East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Mooers, A.O.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.; van Tol, J.; de Jong, R.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the diversity of tropical animal communities in recently fireaffected environments. Here we assessed species richness, evenness, and community similarity of butterflies and odonates in landscapes located in unburned isolates and burned areas in a habitat mosaic that was severel

  8. Local Community Studies In Social Studies Course: An Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Selanik Ay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Studies can be defined as “bonding process based on verification with social reality and dynamic information obtained as a result of this process”. In this context, it is essential to unify the Social Studies course with the real life and to benefit from the society in teaching-learning process in order to enable the learned information to be applied in the real life. In the Social Studies course, students should encounter with the real life itself. Thus, students can produce multidimensional alternative solutions for the cases they encounter and they can explain the best solution with justifications. Considering these arguments, it can be claimed that involving the subjects and studies related to the society and near environment in the Social Studies courses increases the effectiveness of Social Studies teaching. Local community studies, which are associated with the Social Studies program by means of a detailed and good plan, can draw students’ attention and thus permanent learning can occur. In this sense, teachers should benefit from the local community studies in the Social Studies course which reflects the real life.The aim of this study is to determine how local community studies will be applied in Social Studies course in the primary education schools. In line with this aim, the following research questions were addressed:1. How can the activities ofa. benefitting from institutions and organizations in local communitiesb. benefitting from people in local communitiesc. using Internet and library sourcesd. benefitting from special days and current eventswhich are carried out in the Social Studies course taught with local community studies, be arranged?2. Do the local community studies help the students determine the problems in their environments and find out the solutions for these problems?3. What are the students’ opinions about the Social Studies course taught with local community studies ?4. Does the Social Studies

  9. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  10. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  11. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known a

  12. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…

  13. A case-control study of community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia and melioidosis pneumonia in northeast Thailand: an emerging fatal disease with unique clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patamatamkul, Samadhi; Klungboonkrong, Voravan; Praisarnti, Pakawas; Jirakiat, Kittitouch

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the emerging cause of severe and often fatal gram-negative, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP-AB) in Thailand. Due to its rarity, its specific clinical features are ill defined. In this retrospective study, we compared the demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, radiographic pattern, and microbiological data between CAP-AB and Burkholderia pseudomallei CAP (CAP-BP) to identify the clinical features and risk factors of CAP-AB. CAP-AB was associated with a more productive cough and a shorter duration of symptoms, while CAP-BP was associated with more musculoskeletal symptoms. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in the CAP-AB group. Gram staining of the sputum revealed a significantly higher amount of bacteria in the CAP-AB group. Lobar infiltration and unilateral right lung involvement were the most common radiographic patterns in the CAP-AB group. CAP-AB is associated with severe pneumonia and has unique clinical features that distinguish it from CAP-BP.

  14. Better or worse? The role of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in sustainable development. Case studies of remote atoll communities in Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, Kirti; Schlaepfer, August; Pryor, Trevor [School of Electrical, Energy and Process Engineering, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The Republic of Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, is a Micronesian (One of the three groups of islands in the Pacific. The eight territories that make up Micronesia are Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Nauru, Republic of Palau, Territory of Guam and Territory of Wake Island. The other two groups of islands in the Pacific are Melanesia and Polynesia) country in the Pacific. The energy sources utilised in Kiribati include petroleum products, biomass, solar energy and wind power. Solar energy was introduced in Kiribati in the early 1980s (Wade H. Survey of RESCO projects - prepared for OPRET, Fiji Department of Energy, 2003; p. 36). Currently, it makes a very insignificant (less than 1%) contribution to the total annual primary energy supply (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) - Pacific Regional Energy Assessment (PREA) 2004. Kiribati national report, Vol. 5, 2005). Solar energy in Kiribati is used mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for the provision of lighting and electricity. This study examines the role of PV technologies in the sustainable development process in Kiribati, with particular reference to remote atoll communities. Initial results from on-site surveys carried out are reported in this paper. These surveys have sought to identify the reasons why people use or do not use PV systems. (author)

  15. Running climate model on a commercial cloud computing environment: A case study using Community Earth System Model (CESM) on Amazon AWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuhong; Huang, Xianglei; Jiao, Chaoyi; Flanner, Mark G.; Raeker, Todd; Palen, Brock

    2017-01-01

    The suites of numerical models used for simulating climate of our planet are usually run on dedicated high-performance computing (HPC) resources. This study investigates an alternative to the usual approach, i.e. carrying out climate model simulations on commercially available cloud computing environment. We test the performance and reliability of running the CESM (Community Earth System Model), a flagship climate model in the United States developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), on Amazon Web Service (AWS) EC2, the cloud computing environment by Amazon.com, Inc. StarCluster is used to create virtual computing cluster on the AWS EC2 for the CESM simulations. The wall-clock time for one year of CESM simulation on the AWS EC2 virtual cluster is comparable to the time spent for the same simulation on a local dedicated high-performance computing cluster with InfiniBand connections. The CESM simulation can be efficiently scaled with the number of CPU cores on the AWS EC2 virtual cluster environment up to 64 cores. For the standard configuration of the CESM at a spatial resolution of 1.9° latitude by 2.5° longitude, increasing the number of cores from 16 to 64 reduces the wall-clock running time by more than 50% and the scaling is nearly linear. Beyond 64 cores, the communication latency starts to outweigh the benefit of distributed computing and the parallel speedup becomes nearly unchanged.

  16. Compassionate extubation for a peaceful death in the setting of a community hospital: a case-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok VC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Victor C Kok1,2 1Division of Palliative Medicine and Hospice Palliative Care Team, Kuang Tien General Hospital, 2Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan Background: The use of compassionate extubation (CE to alleviate suffering by terminating mechanical ventilation and withdrawing the endotracheal tube requires professional adherence and efficiency. The Hospice Palliative Care Act, amended on January 9, 2013, legalizes the CE procedure in Taiwan. Methods: From September 20, 2013 to September 2, 2014, the hospice palliative care team at a community hospital received 20 consultations for CE. Eight cases were excluded because of non-qualification. Following approval from the Ethics Committee, the medical records of the remaining 12 patients were reviewed and grouped by the underlying disease: A, “terminal-stage cancer”; B, “non-cancer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest”; and C, “non-cancer organ failure”. Time to extubation using a cut-off at 48 hours was assessed. Results: The mean ages of patients (standard deviation in groups A, B, and C were 66.3 (14.9 years, 72 (19.1 years, and 80.3 (4.0 years, respectively. The mean number of days of intubation at consultation were 6.8 (4.9, 7.3 (4.9, and 179.3 (271.6, respectively. The mean total doses of opioids (as morphine-equivalent dose in the 24 hours preceding CE were 76 (87.5 mg, 3.3 (5.8 mg, and 43.3 (15.3 mg. The median times from extubation (range to death were 97 (0.2–245 hours, 0.3 (0.2–0.4 hours, and 6.1 (3.6–71.8 hours. Compared to those requiring <48-hour preparatory time, patients requiring >48 hours to the moment of CE were younger (62.8 years vs 75.5 years, required a mean time of 122 hours (vs 30 hours to CE (P=0.004, had shorter length of stay (33.3 days vs 77.8 days, required specialist social worker intervention in 75% of cases (vs 37.5%, and had a median duration of intubation of 11.5 days (vs 5.5 days. Conclusion: CE

  17. Case studies of community college non-science majors: Effects of self-regulatory interventions on biology self-efficacy and biological literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Matthew J.

    Science literacy has been at the heart of current reform efforts in science education. The focus on developing essential skills needed for individual ability to be literate in science has been at the forefront of most K--12 science curricula. Reform efforts have begun to stretch into the postsecondary arena as well, with an ever increasing dialogue regarding the need for attention to science literacy by college students, especially non-science majors. This study set out to investigate how the use of self-regulatory interventions (specifically, goal setting, concept mapping, and reflective writing) affected student biology self-efficacy and biological literacy. This study employed a qualitative research design, analyzing three case studies. Participants in the study received ten self-regulatory interventions as a set of portfolio assignments. Portfolio work was qualitatively analyzed and coded for self-efficacy, as well as evidence of biological literacy. A biology self-efficacy survey was administered pre- and post- to provide a means of self-efficacy data triangulation. Literacy data was supported via a biological literacy rubric, constructed specifically for this study. Results indicated that mastery experiences were the source of biology self-efficacy. Self-efficacy for specific tasks increased over time, and changes in self-efficacy were corroborated by the self-efficacy survey. Students were found to express biological literacy at nominal, functional, or conceptual levels depending on the specific task. This was supported by data from the biological literacy rubric scores. Final conclusions and implications for the study indicated the need for further research with more samples of students in similar and different contexts. Given the fact that the literature in this area is sparse, the results obtained here have only begun to delve into this area of research. Generalization to other biology courses or contexts outside of the one presented in this study was

  18. Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.

  19. Block-based Community in China’s Social Housing Development:A Case Study on Old City Renovation of Kashgar,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis of the international definition and classification of slums,this paper explores the development of China’s social housing system and the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar.It argues that one of the issues in China’s social housing system is to solve the problems of the scarcity of spatial elements and the lack of developmental driving force in large mixed communities of the Han and minority nationalities.Then it examines the elements of renovation and approaches based on a survey of the local residents in different parts of Kashgar City.Comparing the international development of traditional residential quarters and block-based communities,the paper points out that the block-based community is preferred for its impartiality and sustainability,and applies this mode to the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar in the form of design guidelines.

  20. Programa de fortalecimiento de capacidades: reflections on a case study of community-based teacher education set in rural northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-12-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educación Básica). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer reflections on a teacher education initiative which sought to support action-orientated inquiries as a mechanism for school/community development. Set against a background of poverty, hunger, isolation and an "educational crisis", we outline our pedagogy and describe two projects. We then reflect on the influences of our engagements and on associated tensions and ambiguities in our methods. We hope that such discussions might offer insights for others involved in international school/community development projects of this type.

  1. On the applicability of surrogate-based Markov chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura

    2016-07-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesian model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.

  2. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  4. Community Public Space Planning Guided by Sustainable Development:A Case Study on Wei’an Nanli Residential Area of Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The public space of community is not only significant to ensure the quality of residents’ daily life but also the important means to realize urban sustainability.It is necessary to bridge the gap between the physical and social development of city in order to build a harmonious and livable city.The sustainable development indicators are very useful tools.The design of the indicators involves the site investigation,and selection and modification of indicators.It can provide guidance to related plans by making scientific decision on the core target of the public space development of community.

  5. Opportunities, Constraints and Perceptions of Rural Communities Regarding Their Potential to Contribute to Forest Landscape Transitions Under REDD+: Case Studies from Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.; Borrego, A.; Morales-Barquero, L.; Paneque-Gálvez, J.; Salinas Melgoza, M.A.; Ramirez, M.I.; Perez-Salicrup, D.; Benet, D.; Monroy, S.; Gao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Mexico, REDD+ is being presented as a win-win policy enabling forest communities to benefit financially and diversify their income sources while preserving and increasing their forest carbon stocks through more sustainable management. Under the national programme, it is expected that forest commu

  6. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…

  7. Creating Communities of Practice to Improve the Educational and Mental Health Contexts of Bilingual/Bicultural Youth: A Case Study from Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal resources are becoming tighter, and school districts are asked to do more with less funding. This is occurring at the same time that school psychologists require increased professional development around effective practices and advocacy for bilingual students. Communities of practice (CoPs) are one potential solution as they aim to bring…

  8. A University--School Partnership to Examine the Adoption and Implementation of the Ohio Community Collaboration Model in One Urban School District: A Mixed-Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Iachini, Aidyn L.; Ball, Annahita; Barke, Susan; Martin, Lloyd D.

    2016-01-01

    School improvement models are expanding to incorporate priorities around positive youth development, safe and supportive school climates, school mental health, and school-family community partnerships. A partnership was formed between researchers and district/school leaders to examine the 3-year adoption and implementation of 1 such exemplary…

  9. The Transformation of Metropolitan Universities: A Case Study of Rutgers University-Newark and Its Community Engagement Programs, 1967-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Diane

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, urban colleges and universities have been undergoing changes attributable to the reemergence of outreach initiatives. More recently, these outreach efforts have been specifically designed to increase community engagement among faculty and students and to lend the institution's scientific, policy and social service expertise…

  10. Comparison of carbon sequestration ability and effect of elevation in fenced wetland communities of the Xilin River floodplains: a model case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, W.; Liang, C.; Yang, J.; Verhoeven, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Floodplain habitats of the Xilin River in Inner Mongolia, China, were overgrazed by sheep and cattle until fencing of the floodplains was implemented in 2000. Carbon cycling of three plant communities of differing floodplain elevation after fencing showed that biomass in low-elevation wetlands incre

  11. Recruitment Campaigns as a Tool for Social and Cultural Reproduction of Scientific Communities: A Case Study on How Scientists Invite Young People to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria; Hansson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Young people's interest in pursuing science and science-intense educations has been expressed as a concern in relation to societal, economic and democratic development by various stakeholders (governments, industry and university). From the perspective of the scientific communities, the issues at stake do not necessarily correspond to the overall…

  12. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…

  13. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  14. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  15. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  16. Perspective for the generation of electrical energy in isolated communities in the Amazon: a case study; Perspectivas para a geracao de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas na Amazonia: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Valuing men and the environment in the developing process is essential due to the main model nowadays, which does not harmonize economical development and environmental preservation, besides wildly exploring the natural resources, degrading the environment and concentrating income, and being socially excluding. There is the need to create a model developed harmonically with the environment, focusing the attention on the social and environmental effects caused by the human activities and on the actions that must be taken aiming at the sustainability, the overcome of the social exclusion, and human development. This essay presents a Case Study focused on the electricity generation in an isolated community, which was developed due to the social and environmental matters. The isolated communities are located on the Brazilian North and Northeast regions, which concentrate most of the Brazilian communities with no access to the electric energy distribution network, which is the electricity supply model in Brazil. The low population density regions, like the Amazon region, present low indices of electrification because of this model, since the extension of the network for attending few consumers, is usually economically and environmentally impracticable. The insertion of an energy source of local occurrence, in this case, residues from the forest activities, will bring environmental benefits associated to the social benefits. The energy generation linked to economic activities will generate jobs and income, besides promoting the fossil fuels substitution, decreasing the CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere and the environmental impact caused by the inadequate disposal of the residues, which are many times, burned in the open skies or disposed on the rivers. (author)

  17. Operational Implementation of the Healthy Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Lisa V.; Gregoriou, Maria; Pate, Russell R.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Crawford, Patricia B.; Strauss, Warren; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kelley, Melinda; Fishbein, Howard; Arteaga, S. Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is examining how characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity are related to childhood diet, physical activity, and obesity outcomes. The study involves selected districts and public schools in 130 communities; families recruited through schools; and data collected at the community, school, household, and child levels. Data collection took place in two waves—Wave 1 in Spring 2012 and Wave 2 from 2013 to 2015—with analysis to be completed by August 2016. This paper describes operational elements of the HCS, including recruitment activities, field operations, training of data collectors, human subjects protection, and quality assurance and quality control procedures. Experienced trainers oversaw and conducted all training, including training of: (1) district and school recruitment staff; (2) telephone interviewers for household screening and recruitment; (3) field data collectors for conducting household data collection; and (4) community liaisons for conducting key informant interviews, document abstraction, and community observations. The study team developed quality assurance and quality control procedures that were implemented for all aspects of the study. Planning and operationalizing a study of this complexity and magnitude, with multiple functional teams, required frequent communication and strong collaboration among all study partners to ensure timely and effective decision making. PMID:26384933

  18. Visual Interpretation of R&D of Participative Life Insurance Product of Female—A Case Study of the Female Policyholders in Huamao Central Community of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shuyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed research methodology of direct-vision visual anthropology to highlight the role played by a combination of emic method and etic method. In the field spot of Huamao Central Community of Beijing, the author conducted in-depth interviews objectively with different age groups of women(adolescence group, fertility group and menopause group, and learned about their true feelings, actual needs, which were reflected in the process of the product design, the clauses drafting and the product pricing. The research ideas of participative life insurance product of female intended to enable the female policyholders to fully participating in developing process of the product.Through participative research, the researcher, being outsider, was transformed into insider of the community in which the female insureds were living; prospective female insureds in the community, as the outsiders, who involved in developing process of product design, investment operations, and benefits obtaining from the participation, was transformed into insiders of insuring industry, in this process, enable women to truly know about life insurance products, to understand life insurance behavior, to improve awareness of protection, furthermore, to effectively recognize and experience function of protection, risk prevention and risk diversification. From a perspective of R & D of life insurance product, female group could make a realistic planning for their future lifetime, and transform infavorable factors into favorable ones positively, while effectively preventing risks, improving women's quality of life, and earnestly protecting women's rights.

  19. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BALZER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  20. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. SIPKOVA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  1. Improving Computer-Mediated Synchronous Communication of Doctors in Rural Communities Through Cloud Computing: A Case Study of Rural Hospitals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Coleman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated how doctors in remote rural hospitals in South Africa use computer-mediated toolto communicate with experienced and specialist doctors for professional advice to improve on their clinicalpractices. A case study approach was used. Ten doctors were purposively selected from ten hospitals in theNorth West Province. Data was collected using semi-structured open ended interview questions. Theinterviewees were asked to tell in their own words the average number of patients served per week,processes used in consultation with other doctors, communication practices using computer-mediated tool,transmission speed of the computer-mediated tool and satisfaction in using the computer-mediatedcommunication tool. The findings revealed that an average of 15 consultations per doctor to a specialistdoctor per week was done through face to face or through telephone conversation instead of using acomputer-mediated tool. Participants cited reasons for not using computer-mediated tool forcommunication due to slow transmission speed of the Internet and regular down turn of the Internetconnectivity, constant electricity power outages and lack of e-health application software to support realtime computer-mediated communication. The results led to the recommendation of a hybrid cloudcomputing architecture for improving communication between doctors in hospitals.

  2. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  3. The rare disease challenge and how to promote a productive rare disease community: Case study of Birt-Hogg-Dubé Symposia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colledge Vicki L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resources for rare diseases are lacking. Patients do not have the information and support that they need, and researchers struggle to make progress due to a shortage of skills and collaborations within the field. One way to overcome these hurdles is to host annual Symposia, focused on a specific rare disease. Here, we use the example of Birt-Hogg-Dubé Symposia to discuss the practical issues of such meetings, including the importance of timing and the choice of invited speakers. We highlight the ways in which rare disease symposia can create a single community, removing barriers between patients, clinicians and researchers.

  4. Indigenous Communities and Cross­Strait Rapprochement: A Case Study of Chun­-ri and Shih-­wen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Kao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Absent from most public debates on Taiwan’s embrace of neoliberal capitalism are the potential consequences of economic liberalization for Taiwan’s indigenous peoples. Deregulating markets and unfettering capital and resources are tied inextricably with cross-Strait politics. With a deep-seated apprehension of China still felt in many corners of the Taiwanese society, these issues are often framed with particular emphasis on the “China Factor”, overshadowing other relevant economic and societal considerations and thereby narrowing the scope of debate over government policies. Nevertheless, the potential influx of foreign capital investment, long- and short-term migrant labor and international visitors may have profound effects on Taiwan’s most vulnerable citizens, including the indigenous peoples. This paper will report the results of field research conducted among the Paiwan ethnic group, assessing actual and potential future changes affecting their individual families and communities. Preliminary assessment indicates that official policies liberalizing visitation and trade between China and Taiwan have already affected the Paiwan communities. Whether these changes become handicaps or opportunities depends on realistic evaluation, strategic planning, education, implementation, and periodic re-evaluation. This paper will contribute to the larger discussion of possible responses to the effects of inter-regional migration and transformations on minority societies by providing an assessment of current and potential conditions among the Paiwan of Taiwan.

  5. Community-based management of Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai Singer: a case study of South Korean mountain villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry van Gevelt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai Singer commercialisation provides significant economic benefits to rural communities, mainly in China, Japan and South Korea. Recently, a growing body of research has questioned the impact of commercialization on harvesting behavior and the supply of matsutake. One key question arising from this literature is whether or not community-based management (CBM has a positive impact on matsutake supply. I surveyed nine mountain villages in Gangwon and North Gyeongsang provinces in South Korea. Four villages were found to have begun CBM of matsutake in the mid-1980s to early-1990s. All four villages continued to engage in CBM as of September 2013. Data suggest that CBM has had a positive impact on matsutake supply, although the exact magnitude and explanatory power of CBM is uncertain. Analysis of the nine villages suggests that CBM may not be a feasible strategy in all villages due to existing property rights regimes and that an external catalyst may be required in villages where harvesters do not perceive any economic benefit to CBM.

  6. ASSISTED LEARNING THROUGH FACEBOOK: A Case Study of Universitas Terbuka’s Students Group Communities In Jakarta, Taiwan And Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir RIADY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and give insight about the use of Facebook to assist learning in Jakarta and several countries outside Indonesia. There are so many problems that will arise based on the factual sight such users tend to find difficulties in searching, analyzing and accessing information that they need, particularly materials in their academic life. This paper explores how social network site (Facebook has the potential to creating new resource in information and technology to assist learning in groups for finding information needs and also in distance learning system of Universitas Terbuka’s students who live in Jakarta, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Generally, most of students are working from Monday to Friday and even on Saturday and Sunday, they really have problems in having face to face tutorial or even try to get information about their academic life. This paper was conducted with several communities of Facebook groups, the result showed that they specifically used Facebook group to assist them to finish their academic life such as tasks, examination, group discussion or even information. As the most popular social network in Indonesia, Facebook which accessible, effective and efficient is one of many communities to assist students in making new friends and tutors as well as keeping in touch with information on upcoming events, competitions, seminars, library announcements, new books materials, registration, online tutorial, webinar, examination and other general information.

  7. The ‘community’ in community case management of childhood illnesses in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Z. Zembe-Mkabile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi has achieved a remarkable feat in reducing its under-5 mortality in time to meet its MDG 4 target despite high levels of poverty, low female literacy rates, recurrent economic crises, a severe shortage of human resources for health, and poor health infrastructure. The country's community-based delivery platform (largely headed by Health Surveillance Assistants, or HSAs has been well established since the 1960s, although their tasks and responsibilities have evolved from surveillance to health promotion and prevention, and more recently to include curative services. However, the role of and the form that community involvement takes in community-based service delivery in Malawi is unclear. Design: A qualitative rapid appraisal approach was utilised to explore the role of community involvement in the HSA programme in Malawi to better understand how the various community providers intersect to support the delivery of integrated community case management by HSAs. Twelve focus group discussions and 10 individual interviews were conducted with HSAs, HSA supervisors, mothers, members of village health committees (VHCs, senior Ministry of Health officials, district health teams, and implementing partners. Results: Our findings reveal that HSAs are often deployed to areas outside of their village of residence as communities are not involved in selecting their own HSAs in Malawi. Despite this lack of involvement in selection, the high acceptance of the HSAs by community members and community accountability structures such as VHCs provide the programme with legitimacy and credibility. Conclusions: This study provides insight into how community involvement plays out in the context of a government-managed professionalised community service delivery platform. It points to the need for further research to look at the impact of removing the role of HSA selection and deployment from the community and placing it at the central level.

  8. What Is Social Capital? A Study of Interaction in a Rural Community. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ian; Kilpatrick, Sue

    A case study in a rural Australian township sought to determine the nature of the interactive productivity between the local networks in a community. Participants were chosen based on recommendations of community members concerning to whom they turn for help, advice, or information. Community interactivity was recorded using interviews,…

  9. Applying Various Methods of Communicating Science for Community Decision-Making and Public Awareness: A NASA DEVELOP National Program Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T. N.; Brumbaugh, E. J.; Barker, M.; Ly, V.; Schick, R.; Rogers, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program conducts over eighty Earth science projects every year. Each project applies NASA Earth observations to impact decision-making related to a local or regional community concern. Small, interdisciplinary teams create a methodology to address the specific issue, and then pass on the results to partner organizations, as well as providing them with instruction to continue using remote sensing for future decisions. Many different methods are used by individual teams, and the program as a whole, to communicate results and research accomplishments to decision-makers, stakeholders, alumni, and the general public. These methods vary in scope from formal publications to more informal venues, such as social media. This presentation will highlight the communication techniques used by the DEVELOP program. Audiences, strategies, and outlets will be discussed, including a newsletter, microjournal, video contest, and several others.

  10. Material matters for learning in virtual networks: a case study of a professional learning programme hosted in a Google+ online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Ackland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw on Actor–Network Theories (ANT to explore how material components functioned to create gateways and barriers to a virtual learning network in the context of a professional development module in higher education. Students were practitioners engaged in family learning in different professional roles and contexts. The data comprised postings in the Google+ community, email correspondence, meeting notes, feedback submitted at the final workshop and post-module evaluation forms. Our analysis revealed a complex set of interactions, and suggests multiple ways human actors story their encounters with non-human components and the effects these have on the learning experience. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more holistic understanding of the components and dynamics of social learning networks in the virtual world and consider the implications for the design of online learning for continuous professional development (CPD.

  11. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Seven Approaches to Map Vegetation Communities — A Case Study from Northern Australia’s Tropical Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Phinn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation communities are traditionally mapped from aerial photography interpretation. Other semi-automated methods include pixel- and object-based image analysis. While these methods have been used for decades, there is a lack of comparative research. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of seven approaches to map vegetation communities in a northern Australia’s tropical savanna environment. The seven approaches included: (1. aerial photography interpretation, (2. pixel-based image-only classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier, (3. pixel-based integrated classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier, (4. object-based image-only classification (nearest neighbor classifier, (5. object-based integrated classification (nearest neighbor classifier, (6. object-based image-only classification (step-wise ruleset, and (7. object-based integrated classification (step-wise ruleset. Approach 1 was applied to 1:50,000 aerial photography and approaches 2–7 were applied to SPOT5 and Landsat5 TM multispectral data. The integrated approaches (3, 5 and 7 included ancillary data (a digital elevation model, slope model, normalized difference vegetation index and hydrology information. The cost-effectiveness was assessed taking into consideration the accuracy and costs associated with each classification approach and image dataset. Accuracy was assessed in terms of overall accuracy and the costs were evaluated using four main components: field data acquisition and preparation, image data acquisition and preparation, image classification and accuracy assessment. Overall accuracy ranged from 28%, for the image-only pixel-based approach, to 67% for the aerial photography interpretation, while total costs ranged from AU$338,000 to AU$388,180 (Australian dollars, for the pixel-based image-only classification and aerial photography interpretation respectively. The most labor-intensive component was field data acquisition and preparation, followed by image data

  13. Hazardous Waste Management and Community Involvement in Canada: The Case of Montreal's Rural-Urban Fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Pierre; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Deals with conflicts associated with the management, disposal, and storage of hazardous wastes from the perspective of interests expressed in the local community. Analyzes three case studies to demonstrate the changing roles and relative importance of local and nonlocal interests. Draws conclusions regarding the significance of the analysis for…

  14. Responses to Islam in the Classroom: A Case of Muslim Girls from Minority Communities of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Natasha Hakimali

    2016-01-01

    Coinciding with the rise of "Islamophobia" in the United States is a small but growing set of educational scholarship around the curricular impact of and response to Islamophobia. The qualitative case study discussed in this manuscript aims to contribute to this conversation by investigating how Muslim girls from minority communities of…

  15. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement.

  16. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational...

  17. Multi-level natural resources governance based on local community: A case study on semi-natural grassland in Tarōji, Nara, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Japan is facing a bio-diversity crisis as a result of rapid industrialisation. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy based on the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit in 1992. After an amendment in 2002, the National Biodiversity Strategy addressed three crises in biodiversity: over-exploitation and development that destroys habitats, underutilisation (the satoyama problem and artificially introduced factors (chemicals, alien species and so on. This paper focuses on the second problem. Secondary natural environments called satoyama have been created and maintained over the centuries by human activity. Because natural environments in Japan have been affected by human-induced disturbances for 35,000 years, many species have evolved in response to these disturbances. If the human activities cease, many of the species that have evolved to survive in managed environments become threatened. Many satoyama have been managed as commonage or common lands, called iriai in Japan. One natural resource system created by commoners is semi-natural grassland, and economic modernisation has led to abandonment of traditional management practices on these grasslands – one of the more evident changes in Japanese iriai practices. Before industrialisation, semi-natural grasslands were managed as a source of green manure, as a harvest for roofing materials (thatch and as pasture for animals. After industrialisation, however, introduction of chemical fertilizers, changes in building practices and importation of animal feeds rapidly decreased the use value of these grasslands for local residents. On the other hand, their value as public goods – as historical, cultural landscapes and places of biodiversity – which concern a much broader population than the local community – became relatively more important. The resulting problem is how to manage this resource with its new value for new

  18. Perturbation metatranscriptomics for studying complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Rohan B.H.; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Arumugam, Krithika;

    Studying the functional state of natural or engineered microbial communities presents substantial challenges due to both the complexities of field sampling, and, in the laboratory context, the inability of culture or reactor systems to maintain community composition ex situ over long periods. Here...... by studying nitrogen transformation in wastewater treatment using freshly sourced anoxic sludge, in combination with systematic oxygen perturbation that switches physiological state of the community from denitrification activity to nitrification activity. Sampling every 10 minutes we collected and analysed 20......ABCDEK genes in the aerobic phenylacetate catabolic pathway). We also sampled in situ from anoxic and aerobic source tanks in the field, and compared expression levels between anoxic and aerobic samples in each study: strongly down-regulated genes were preserved between both settings, and an overall good...

  19. Development processes of a master plan for flood protection and mitigation in a community area: A case study of Roi Et province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development processes of a master plan formulation for flood protection and mitigation consists of the selection process of a targeted area based on risk level, developing a present and future flood inundation map and a flood risk map and identify direction and drainage capacity of the targeted area. Main causes of flooding in the area can be identified leading to designing flood protection and a flood drainage system in both structural and non-structural measures, prior to a public hearing process from stakeholders to finalize the master plan to provide maximum benefits and less negative impact. These processes are applied to Roi Et Province. Based on flood risk criteria, 24 municipalities with high risk are selected. The cause of flooding in the municipality area can be combined in 2 groups, flooding from low efficiency of storm drainage capacity and flooding from overbank flow from the Mun, Chi and Yang Rivers. Structural measures for the first and second group are the improvement of the existing system or changing a new drainage system and the improvement of existing river dikes and levees. It is also possible to design and construct a new one. Constructing a polder system for the community area, requires a budget about 3,338 million baht. To support structural measures, non-structural measures are required, for example, a flood warning system, an emergency response plan during flood disaster.

  20. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  1. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  2. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  3. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  4. Identity theft in community mental health patients: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason; Everett, Anita

    2007-05-01

    Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented.

  5. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  6. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  7. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  8. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  9. Ethnomethodology and the study of online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the authors’ current research programs, this essay explores the basic dimensions of online communities and the concomitant need for scholars to rethink the assumptions that undergrid historic paradigms about the nature of social interaction, social bonding, and empirical experience (Cerulo, 1997. In so doing, we argue that online communities are far from the “imagined” or pseudo communities explicated by Calhoun (1991; that they are, in fact, “real” in the very way in which they reflect the changing nature of human relations and human interaction. Finally this paper discusses the epistemological and methodological implications of studying cyber communities. We will discuss how computer-mediated interaction, or telelogic communication, as it has been characterized by a number of theorists (Ogan, 1993; Ball-Rokeach & Reardon, 1988, can be analyzed to contribute to phenomenological or ethnographic understandings of what it means to be a member of a cyber-community. We suggest that one of the best approaches to taking such a phenomenological snapshot is through a multi-method triangulation, employing qualitative interviews and descriptive and inferential analyses of message content. We also will address limitations and restrictions for using the Internet to do ethnomethodology.

  10. Leeward Community College: Developmental Education Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, William A.

    Five programs in developmental reading at Leeward Community College (Hawaii) were studied to determine their effectiveness. The programs were: (1) general reading using individualized exercises; (2) an integrated skills approach combining reading and basic English skills; (3) a curriculum designed for each student from diagnostic testing; (4) a…

  11. Children with Lesbian Parents: A Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Perry, Beth; Burston, Amanda; Murray, Clare; Mooney-Somers, Julid; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample of 7-year-olds with lesbian parents, with two-parent heterosexual parents, or with single heterosexual mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Found no significant differences between lesbian mothers and…

  12. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  13. Important risk factors of mortality among children aged 1-59 months in rural areas of Shahroud, Iran: A community-based nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Chaman

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators.

  14. Cooperation and Intertrade between Community Currencies : From Fundamentals to Rule-Making and Clearing Systems, including a Case Study of the Zurich Area, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Martignoni (Jens)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCooperation, interchange or intertrade of complementary currencies is not yet very common, perhaps of because the funding impulse of most complementary currencies does not cover the question of interchange and cooperation yet, or because theoretical aspects are not often studied. The art

  15. Mathematics and Racial Identity Co-Construction in Multiple Sociopolitical Contexts: A Case Study of a Latina Undergraduate Student from an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppland-Cordell, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although urban Latinas/os have participated in mathematics workshops in urban universities for over three decades as part of the Emerging Scholars Program (ESP), few studies have explored Latina/o students' perspectives of how and why these learning environments support them in attaining mathematical success. This article presents an in-depth case…

  16. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  17. On the analysis of international migration processes. Macro-quantitative perspectives and a comparative case study on the situation of the Turkish Community in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2010-01-01

    The present article presents at first a German language summary about recent quantitative studies by the author and his associates about global development since the end of Communism in up to 175 nations of the world, using 26 predictor variables to evaluate the determinants of 30 processes of development on a global scale. As correctly predicted by quantitative dependency and world system research of the 1980s and 1990s, core capital penetration (MNC penetration) has very significant negativ...

  18. Assessing prospects for environmental management using information about social capital characteristics: a case study from shrimp farming communities in the Sundarbans Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Kibuuka-Kyobe, David

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Sundarbans, a UNESCO World Heritage site, forms the world’s largest tidal mangrove ecosystem. Traditional low intensity shrimp farming is present, but the Indian Government sees potential for its intensification and views shrimp aquaculture as a vehicle for rural coastal poverty eradication. However, intensive shrimp aquaculture has come under fire from environmental groups for its harmful environmental and social impacts. A previous study, which explored stakeholder preferences fo...

  19. Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan; a threat to rational drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassali MA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Method: A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities.Results: The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178, pharmacist (5.4%, n=13 and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47. Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198 of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35 of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market in the twin cities.Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that

  20. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  1. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  2. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  3. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  4. Using a Case-Study Article to Effectively Introduce Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Community college students in a nonmajors biology class are introduced to mitosis by reading a case-study article that allows them to gauge how many times various parts of their bodies have been regenerated. The case-study article allows students to develop a conceptual framework of the cell cycle prior to a lecture on mitosis. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  6. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  7. Data Producers Courting Data Reusers: Two Cases from Modeling Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Wallis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing is a difficult process for both the data producer and the data reuser. Both parties are faced with more disincentives than incentives. Data producers need to sink time and resources into adding metadata for data to be findable and usable, and there is no promise of receiving credit for this effort. Making data available also leaves data producers vulnerable to being scooped or data misuse. Data reusers also need to sink time and resources into evaluating data and trying to understand them, making collecting their own data a more attractive option. In spite of these difficulties, some data producers are looking for new ways to make data sharing and reuse a more viable option. This paper presents two cases from the surface and climate modeling communities, where researchers who produce data are reaching out to other researchers who would be interested in reusing the data. These cases are evaluated as a strategy to identify ways to overcome the challenges typically experienced by both data producers and data reusers. By working together with reusers, data producers are able to mitigate the disincentives and create incentives for sharing data. By working with data producers, data reusers are able to circumvent the hurdles that make data reuse so challenging.

  8. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  9. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L;

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia......-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR....

  10. Communities and Cultures of Women: A Study of Neighbourhood Groups and Gated Communities in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sakira Sahin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to tease out the factors and forces that enable women to form communities of women and the circumstances within which they act. In addition, the research aims to observe into their activities to see if there is a germination of gender consciousness even if in a nascent form. Taking off from a historical vantage point of women coming together for various kinds of social and political action, the paper tries to delve into the epistemological dilemma encountered by feminist politics, where the subject of feminist politics i.e., women, is presented as a problematic category. Gender is understood not as a sole defining category but one that exists alongside other constituents of identities intersecting with it like class, caste, race, ethnicity etc. Given such an understanding the paper is based on a micro-level qualitative study conducted in an urban set-up of Guwahati city where two different kinds of locality-based women’s communities are taken as case studies, one of which is an all-women local neighbourhood development committee and the other a women’s forum within a gated community. The interesting contrasts as well as complexities of the groups in their membership as well their cultures are analysed to raise questions on whether such groups serve patriarchal interests or whether they present themselves as potential sites through which social change towards a more gender-conscious society can be made possible.

  11. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  12. Student Engagement: A CCSSE Follow-Up Study to Improve Student Engagement in a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Deryn M.; Liu, Lu; Hao, Lan; Stallard, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study at a two-year community college investigated the reasons behind a persistent gap in the college students' engagement level in several key areas such as active and collaborative learning and student-faculty interaction as demonstrated in the longitudinal Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) and the…

  13. COMPARISION OF CONSTRUCTION TYPES AND OPERATION MECHANISMS ON RURAL CENTRALIZED COMMUNITIES---A CASE STUDY OF FOUR COMMUNITIES IN TAICANG%乡村集中社区建设模式、运作机制及其比较--以太仓市4个社区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 冯奔伟; 李广斌

    2016-01-01

    “人”、“地”与“钱”一直是乡村集中社区建设的核心问题。基于乡村集中社区建设中“人”、“地”、“钱”来源及其不同的组合关系,可将乡村集中社区建设划分为若干种模式。文章基于乡村调查,以太仓市4个社区为典型案例,将具体案例嵌入到特定的、地方化的社会经济制度场景中,对不同乡村集中社区建设模式及其运作机制进行解析和比较。分析结果表明,根据是否享有拥有宅基地及其获得方式、集中社区建设资金分摊状况、社区居民身份及组成,将太仓市乡村集中社区建设划分为“村内并点”的集居模式、公寓房式的城镇社区模式、宅基地跨村置换的集居模式和宅基地使用权市场化的集居模式。距离城镇远近、村庄经济实力差异、地方政府政策与资金约束状况变化,不仅是形成不同乡村集中社区建设模式的重要因素,也是影响乡村集中社区建设运作的关键变量。以农村土地制度创新为突破口,基于农业现代化、土地利用集约化等多重目标,赋予农民更多的选择权、建立“农民—村集体—地方政府”利益共享机制对推动乡村集中社区建设具有普遍意义。%The population, land and fund are core issues for the construction of the rural concentrated community. There are several constructing models of rural concentrated community from the resources and relationships of the population, land and fund in the rural concentrated community. Based on rural investigation from 4 communities in Taicang, this paper found that there were four modes of the rural concentrated community construction. Choosing one rural concentrated community from each typical mode as a case study, the paper analyzed the resources of the residents, land and constructing fund. Based on the relationships of the residents, land and constructing fund, this paper summarized the

  14. 社区能力的个案研究--以发展变迁为视角%Case Study of the Community Capacity:From the Changing and Developing Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云桐

    2015-01-01

    社区不仅是个体生活、利益、情感的共同体,更是嵌入于宏大的政治、经济、社会发展变迁之中。因此,在研究任何一种类型的社区之前,厘清其可供依托的历史/起始资源及其发展变迁历程就显得尤为重要。故而,有必要在既有的“社区能力”研究脉络中,加入历史的分析维度和宏观的分析框架,以期拓展现有的社区能力研究视角。总的来说,提升“社区能力”的关键点和核心议题就在于提升社区的“自治力”,增进社区居民福祉才是社区能力提升的基本诉求。%Community is not only the community of individual life, interest and emotion, but also embedded in the grand backgrounds of political, economic and social development. Therefore, it is essential to clarify the historical/initial resources on which the further development of the community can be depended before getting into the study of any type of community. So it is necessary to add historical and structural points of view to the existing theories of the community capacity. By doing this, the perspective of existing community capacity study may be broaden. Generally speaking, the key to enhancing the capacity of a community is to promote the self-organization capacity of it. To improve the well-being of community residents is the core appeal of the community capacity building.

  15. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... have knowledge about community programs/ policies related to healthy nutrition, physical activity, and... study of community programs and policies and their relationship to childhood obesity. The HCS is an... community programs/policies and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and physical activity in children; and...

  16. Superintendent Leadership and Community Engagement: A Study of Convergence as Perceived by Community Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Salvatore P.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the community in public education is rooted in the earliest beginnings of the American educational system. This exploratory and quantitative study examined what the superintendent does to lead the school district regarding community engagement, and also examined community member perceptions of that engagement. This was based on…

  17. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  18. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  19. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  20. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  1. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on

  2. Exploring New Firm Creation Out of Brand Communities: The Case of LEGO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; Lettl, Christopher; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2011-01-01

    of entrepreneurship studies by examining the conditions under which new firms emerge out of these social networks. Our empirical setting is the global LEGO brand community. As a well-known pioneering firm that is constantly experimenting with new ways of collaborating with its fan and customer base, LEGO recently...... invited lead users to start up new companies under its brand name. In this study, we use an explorative multiple case study design to identify patterns in this new firm creation process. Our findings show that each party derives specific returns in this entrepreneurial process: The LEGO company benefits...... from the identification and exploitation of attractive business opportunities and the reduction of entrepreneurial risk. At the same time, the entrepreneurial lead users benefit from brand transfer and from the crucial support of the brand community in the entrepreneurial process. Moreover, the LEGO...

  3. The virtual group identification process: a virtual educational community case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Young, Mei-Lein

    2008-02-01

    Because the Internet provides an alternative forum for the social interaction of professional groups, understanding how these groups form as virtual communities (VCs) in cyberspace is crucial. In this study, we observe the social interactions of teachers belonging to the largest VC in Taiwan and analyze discourse on an important educational policy, using content analysis to ascertain how virtual group identity is established. Our primary findings show that among the seven identity categories characterizing professional virtual group identity, both alliance and kinship types of identities are the main forces behind the formation of a virtual group. In contrast, the affection, attachment, bonding, closeness, and nostalgia types of identities show minimal effect. Moreover, leadership of the virtual group plays a critical role in the group setting, and participants play a part in restoring a positive sense of self or in shaping the group identity as they encounter threats in this dynamic environment.

  4. Understanding the Factors that Characterise School-Community Partnerships: The Case of the Logan Healthy Schools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melinda; Rowe, Fiona; Harris, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that characterise effective school-community partnerships that support the sustainability of school health initiatives applied within a health-promoting schools approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study used an explanatory case study approach of five secondary schools…

  5. Case study of the community nurses' current work status in Beijing%北京市社区护士工作现状与问题的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万巧琴; 尚少梅; 侯淑肖; 刘利群; 周薇; 陈梅; 邓述华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current work status of community nurses, to explore community nurses' main problems in implementing "six in one "community health service function, and provide reference for community nursing development. Methods: A community health service center in Beijing was chosen as the case. Structure observation and in-depth interview were adopted. Results: The results of observation showed that basic treatment-related direct nursing work within community organization ranked first with the average time of 76.4 minutes per person per day. The second was public health service-related indirect nursing work within community organization with the average time of 65.4 minutes per person per day. We found out 5 first-level themes and 10 second-level themes based on interview results. Conclusion: At present, the public health service-related nursing work that community nurses participated was mainly indirect care. To enhance the healthy and continuous development of community nursing, it is necessary to increase community nursing human resources and pay more attention to chronic disease management.%目的:了解目前社区护士的工作现状,探讨社区护士在履行“六位一体”社区卫生服务功能中存在的主要问题,为今后更好地开展社区护理工作提供依据.方法:采用案例分析法,将北京市某社区卫生服务中心作为案例,通过结构式观察法和深入访谈法了解该中心社区护士的工作现状与问题.结果:社区护士工作内容排在第一位的是机构内的基本医疗方而的直接护理工作(平均时间为76.4分钟/人·天),其次是机构内的公共卫生方面的间接护理工作(65.4分钟/人·天);根据方谈结果,共归纳一级主题5个,二级主题10个.结论:月前社区护士参与公共卫生服务工作以间接护理为主,为了促进社区护理的健康、持续发展,需要进一步调整社区护士编制,使之与工作负荷相匹配,加强慢性病

  6. Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-enquiry Research With Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Caruso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between institutional funding for research and community-based or co-enquiry research practice. It examines the implementation of co-enquiry research in the COMBIOSERVE project, which was funded by the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme for research and innovation, between the years 2012 and 2015. Research partnerships between Latin American and European civil society organisations, research institutions, and Latin American rural communities are analysed. Challenges for effective collaboration in co-enquiry and lessons learned for research policy and practice are outlined. Based on our case study we suggest that: (1 the established values and practices of academia seem largely unfavourable towards alternative forms of research, such as co-enquiry; (2 the policies and administrative practices of this European Commission funding are unsuitable for adopting participatory forms of enquiry; and (3 the approach to research funding supports short engagements with communities whereas long-term collaborations are more desirable. Based on our case study, we propose more flexible funding models that support face-to-face meetings between researchers and communities from the time of proposal drafting, adaptation of research processes to local dynamics, adaptation of administrative processes to the capacities of all participants, and potential for long-term collaborations. Large-scale funding bodies such as European Commission research programmes are leaders in the evolution of research policy and practice. They have the power and the opportunity to publicly acknowledge the value of partnerships with civil society organisations and communities, actively support co-enquiry, and foment interest in innovative forms of research.

  7. Empirical Study on the Reform of Water Resources Management in Xinjiang Rural Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pichang; YUE; Jian; DAI; Chaohui; LU; Jianguo; DING; Mubarek

    2013-01-01

    With the case study of two rural communities of Hetian County and Shawan County in Xinjiang, the foundation, operation and development of the water management organizations in the two communities and their reform achievements were studied and compared. It was concluded that the reform of water resources management should be in accordance with the practical conditions of rural communities. Only with the same objectives of community people and by benefiting the farmers could the reform of water resources management be effectively implemented and achieve good results.

  8. Links between real and virtual networks: a comparative study of online communities in Japan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Ogasahara, Morihiro

    2007-04-01

    The present study explores how online communities affect real-world personal relations based on a cross-cultural survey conducted in Japan and Korea. Findings indicate that the gratifications of online communities moderate the effects of online communities on social participation. Online communities are categorized into a real-group-based community and a virtual-network-based community. The membership of real-group-based online community is positively correlated with social bonding gratification and negatively correlated with information- seeking gratification. Japanese users prefer more virtual-network-based online communities, while their Korean counterparts prefer real-group-based online communities. Korean users are more active in online communities and seek a higher level of socializing gratifications, such as social bonding and making new friends, when compared with their Japanese counterparts. These results indicate that in Korea, personal relations via the online community are closely associated with the real-world personal relations, but this is not the case in Japan. This study suggests that the effects of the Internet are culture-specific and that the online community can serve a different function in different cultural environments.

  9. Mobilising Teacher Education: A Study of a Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter; Kearney, Matthew; Burden, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of a community of university educators that investigated the introduction of mobile technologies into their learning and teaching. The study was conducted by a subgroup of that community. Given the ubiquity of mobile devices, members of the community felt they needed to develop expertise in mobile learning so that…

  10. 城市居民社区参与问题的研究——以成都市为例%Study of Urban Community Participation——A Case Study of Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炎炎; 杨世箐

    2015-01-01

    Broad community participation is one of the main features of a socialist harmonious community. The survey foun-d that the overall level of participation in Chengdu resident community participation is not high, in which the participation of cultural participation and social affairs better than the participation of political participation and economic participation, is the main organization involved in participation;behavior compared with community participation, residents community in-volvement higher willingness to appear out of synchronization.%广泛的社区参与是社会主义和谐社区的主要特征之一.调查发现,成都市居民社区参与的整体参与程度不高,其中文化参与和社会事务的参与度要好于政治参与和经济参与的参与度,组织参与是其主要参与方式;与社区参与行为比较,居民的社区参与意愿较高,出现不同步的现象.

  11. A Note on Extending Taylor's Power Law for Characterizing Human Microbial Communities: Inspiration from Comparative Studies on the Distribution Patterns of Insects and Galaxies, and as a Case Study for Medical Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2012-01-01

    Many natural patterns, such as the distributions of blood particles in a blood sample, proteins on cell surfaces, biological populations in their habitat, galaxies in the universe, the sequence of human genes, and the fitness in evolutionary computing, have been found to follow power law. Taylor's power law (Taylor 1961: Nature, 189:732-) is well recognized as one of the fundamental models in population ecology. A fundamental property of biological populations, which Taylor's power law reveals, is the near universal heterogeneity of population abundance distribution in habitat. Obviously, the heterogeneity also exists at the community level, where not only the distributions of population abundances but also the proportions of the species composition in the community are often heterogeneous. Nevertheless, existing community diversity indexes such as Shannon index and Simpson index can only measure "local" or "static" diversity in the sense that they are computed for each habitat at a specific time point, and t...

  12. Enhancing voluntary participation in community collaborative forest management: a case of Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Sri; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines voluntary participation in community forest management, and characterizes how more participation may be induced. We implemented a survey of 571 respondents and conducted a case study in Central Java, Indonesia. The study's novelty lies in categorizing the degrees of participation into three levels and in identifying how socio-economic factors affect people's participation at each level. The analysis finds that voluntary participation responds to key determinants, such as education and income, in a different direction, depending on each of the three levels. However, the publicly organized programs, such as information provision of benefit sharing, are effective, irrespective of the levels of participation. Overall, the results suggest a possibility of further success and corrective measures to enhance the participation in community forest management.

  13. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L; Jacobsson, G; Collignon, P; Schønheyder, H C; Søgaard, M; Kennedy, K J; Knudsen, J D; Ostergaard, C; Lyytikäinen, O; Laupland, K B

    2014-10-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000 and 2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100 000 per year. Although MSSA CFR was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR.

  14. On Characteristics and Demands of Walking in Community Street Space-A Case Study of Cuizhu Community in Changzhou%社区街道空间步行活动特征及需求研究--以常州市翠竹片区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏正伟; 刘权; 范婷婷; 陈宁; 杨文俊; 张天; 刘亚东

    2015-01-01

    以常州市翠竹片区街道空间为研究案例,对步行活动进行了问卷与现场调研分析。研究发现:有益身体健康、亲近自然与放松心情、走路比较方便、可顺路逛街购物成为选择步行的主要因素;步行环境脏乱、舒适性低,出行线路不畅,以及机动车干扰等成为人们不愿意步行的主要原因;单一的绿化空间对步行活动并不一定具有吸引力。社区街道空间应从便捷性、舒适性与功能性等方面进行社区街道步行空间的建设,才能满足人们对于宜步行性空间环境的需求。%Based on a case study of street space of Cuizhu community in Changzhou,questionnaire and field survey were carried out.The analysis results show the main factors for people to choose walking are be-ing good for health,close to nature,relaxing,convenient and shopping along the way,and the main reasons why people are reluctant to walk are messy and uncomfortable walking environment,discomfort and incon-venience,and the interference of the motor vehicles.Green space only is not necessarily an attraction for peo-ple to walk.The construction of community street space should work for convenience,comfort and function-ality to meet the demands of walkable environment.

  15. Setting health priorities in a community: a case example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Melo do Rego Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodology used in the process of setting health priorities for community intervention in a community of older adults. METHODS Based on the results of a health diagnosis related to active aging, a prioritization process was conceived to select the priority intervention problem. The process comprised four successive phases of problem analysis and classification: (1 grouping by level of similarity, (2 classification according to epidemiological criteria, (3 ordering by experts, and (4 application of the Hanlon method. These stages combined, in an integrated manner, the views of health team professionals, community nursing and gerontology experts, and the actual community. RESULTS The first stage grouped the identified problems by level of similarity, comprising a body of 19 issues for analysis. In the second stage these problems were classified by the health team members by epidemiological criteria (size, vulnerability, and transcendence. The nine most relevant problems resulting from the second stage of the process were submitted to expert analysis and the five most pertinent problems were selected. The last step identified the priority issue for intervention in this specific community with the participation of formal and informal community leaders: Low Social Interaction in Community Participation. CONCLUSIONS The prioritization process is a key step in health planning, enabling the identification of priority problems to intervene in a given community at a given time. There are no default formulas for selecting priority issues. It is up to each community intervention team to define its own process with different methods/techniques that allow the identification of and intervention in needs classified as priority by the community.

  16. Setting health priorities in a community: a case example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fábio Alexandre Melo do Rego; Goulart, Maria José Garcia; Braga, Antonieta Manuela dos Santos; Medeiros, Clara Maria Oliveira; Rego, Débora Cristina Martins; Vieira, Flávio Garcia; Pereira, Helder José Alves da Rocha; Tavares, Helena Margarida Correia Vicente; Loura, Marta Maria Puim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodology used in the process of setting health priorities for community intervention in a community of older adults. METHODS Based on the results of a health diagnosis related to active aging, a prioritization process was conceived to select the priority intervention problem. The process comprised four successive phases of problem analysis and classification: (1) grouping by level of similarity, (2) classification according to epidemiological criteria, (3) ordering by experts, and (4) application of the Hanlon method. These stages combined, in an integrated manner, the views of health team professionals, community nursing and gerontology experts, and the actual community. RESULTS The first stage grouped the identified problems by level of similarity, comprising a body of 19 issues for analysis. In the second stage these problems were classified by the health team members by epidemiological criteria (size, vulnerability, and transcendence). The nine most relevant problems resulting from the second stage of the process were submitted to expert analysis and the five most pertinent problems were selected. The last step identified the priority issue for intervention in this specific community with the participation of formal and informal community leaders: Low Social Interaction in Community Participation. CONCLUSIONS The prioritization process is a key step in health planning, enabling the identification of priority problems to intervene in a given community at a given time. There are no default formulas for selecting priority issues. It is up to each community intervention team to define its own process with different methods/techniques that allow the identification of and intervention in needs classified as priority by the community. PMID:28273229

  17. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment.

  18. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  19. Engineering Hybrid Learning Communities: The Case of a Regional Parent Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Strickroth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach (and a corresponding system design for supporting regionally bound hybrid learning communities (i.e., communities which combine traditional face-to-face elements with web based media such as online community platforms, e-mail and SMS newsletters. The goal of the example community used to illustrate the approach was to support and motivate (especially hard-to-reach underprivileged parents in the education of their young children. The article describes the design process used and the challenges faced during the socio-technical system design. An analysis of the community over more than one year indicates that the hybrid approach works better than the two separated “traditional” approaches separately. Synergy effects like advertising effects from the offline trainings for the online platform and vice versa occurred and regular newsletters turned out to have a noticeable effect on the community.

  20. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The case study research approach is widely used in a number of different ways within the information systems community. This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study. A critical analysis of the conduct and outcomes of two recently published positivist case studies is reported. One is a multiple case study that validated concepts in a framework for viewpoint development in requirements definition. The other is a single case study that examined the role of social enablers in enterprise resource planning systems implementation. A number of guidelines for successfully undertaking positivist case study research are identified including developing a clear understanding of key concepts and assumptions within the positivist paradigm; providing clear and unambiguous definitions of the units and interactions when using any theory; carefully defining the boundary of the theory used in the case study; using hypotheses rather than propositions in the empirical testing of theory; using fuzzy or probabilistic propositions in recognising that reality can never be perfectly known; selecting case studies carefully, particularly single case studies; and recognising that generalisation from positivist, single case studies is inherently different from generalisation from single experiments. When properly undertaken, positivist, deductive case study research is a valuable research approach for information systems researchers, particularly when used within pluralist research programs that use a number of different research approaches from different paradigms.