WorldWideScience

Sample records for communicating artery complex

  1. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery originates from the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery lateral to the optic chiasm, then joins with its contralateral counterpart via the anterior communicating artery. A1-anterior communicating artery complex is the most frequent anatomical variants and is the major site of aneurysms between 30 to 37%. Know the anatomy microsurgical, variants anatomical and importance of complex precommunicating segment-artery anterior communicating in surgery neurological of the pathology vascular, mainly aneurysms, in Mexican population. The study was performed in 30 brains injected. Microanatomy was studied (length and diameter) of A1-anterior communicating artery complex and its variants. 60 segments A1, the average length of left side was 11.35 mm and 11.84 mm was right. The average diameter of left was 1.67 mm and the right was 1.64 mm. The average number of perforators on the left side was 7.9 and the right side was 7.5. Anterior communicating artery was found in 29 brains of the optic chiasm, its course depended on the length of the A1 segment. The average length of the segment was 2.84 mm, the average diameter was 1.41 mm and the average number of perforators was 3.27. A1-anterior communicating artery complex variants were found in 18 (60%) and the presence of two blister-like aneurysms. It is necessary to understand the A1-anterior communicating artery complex microanatomy of its variants to have a three-dimensional vision during aneurysm surgery.

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Unusual Multiple Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery-Posterior Communicating Artery Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Michiya; Kuwayama, Naoya; Hirashima, Yutaka; Ohi, Masayoshi; Takami, Masaaki; Endo, Shunro

    2000-01-01

    A 79-year-old female presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a rare true posterior communicating artery(PCoA)aneurysm and with poor general condition. Endovascular therapy was performed in the chronic stage. Right carotid angiography just before embolization demonstrated unusual multiple aneurysms of the internal carotid artery(ICA)-PCoA complex. Superselective an-giography and aneurysmography using microcatheter revealed two separate aneurysms arising from the PCoA and the I...

  3. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. ... using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication .... Assume Alice and Bob know a good error correcting code. E : {0, 1}n → {0, 1}10n with distance, say, 3n. Alice.

  4. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  5. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  6. Subcallosal artery stroke: infarction of the fornix and the genu of the corpus callosum. The importance of the anterior communicating artery complex. Case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meila, Dan; Saliou, Guillaume; Krings, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variable anatomy of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex, three main perforating branches can be typically identified the largest of which being the subcallosal artery (ScA). We present a case series of infarction in the vascular territory of the ScA to highlight the anatomy, the clinical symptomatology, and the presumed pathophysiology as it pertains to endovascular and surgical management of vascular pathology in this region. In this retrospective multicenter case series study of patients who were diagnosed with symptomatic ScA stroke, we analyzed all available clinical records, MRI, and angiographic details. Additionally, a review of the literature is provided. We identified five different cases of ScA stroke, leading to a subsequent infarction of the fornix and the genu of the corpus callosum. The presumed pathophysiology in non-iatrogenic cases is microangiopathy, rather than embolic events; iatrogenic SCA occlusion can present after both surgical and endovascular treatment of AcoA aneurysms that may occur with or without occlusion of the AcoA. Stroke in the vascular territory of the ScA leads to a characteristic imaging and clinical pattern. Ischemia involves the anterior columns of the fornix and the genu of the corpus callosum, and patients present with a Korsakoff's syndrome including disturbances of short-term memory and cognitive changes. We conclude that despite its small size, the ScA is an important artery to watch out for during surgical or endovascular treatment of AcoA aneurysms.

  7. Hemodynamics Modeling and Simulation of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a general agreement that hemodynamics plays very important role in the initiation, growth, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms and hemodynamics in the anterior communicating artery aneurysms is considered the most complex in all cerebral aneurysms and it is difficult to find some reasonable relationship between the hemodynamics parameters and the rupture risk. In this paper, the 3D geometries of four anterior communicating artery aneurysms were generated from the CTA data and the computational models with bilateral feeding arteries for the four aneurysms were constructed. The blood flow was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software and the hemodynamics parameters such as velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index were calculated. The following results were observed: one of the four models only needs the left feeding artery; the max normalized wall shear stress locates at the aneurysmal neck of the largest aneurysm; the max oscillatory shear index locates at the aneurysmal sac of the largest aneurysm. The conclusion was drawn that the anterior communicating artery aneurysm has higher rupture risk from the hemodynamics viewpoint if the max wall shear stress locates at the neck and the max oscillatory shear index locates at the dome.

  8. Parent artery occlusion for ruptured "true" posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Takashi; Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgical clipping over endovascular coil embolization. Endovascular treatment may be a good alternative to surgical trapping for true PCoA blister aneurysm. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  10. Anatomical Variability of the Posterior Communicating Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnal, Sandhya Arvind; Farooqui, Mujibuddin S; Wabale, Rajendra N

    2018-01-01

    Although posterior communicating artery (PCoA) is a smaller branch of the internal carotid artery, it gives the main contribution in the formation of circle of Willis (CW) by communicating with the internal carotid arterial system and the vertebro-basilar arterial system. The size of PCoA varies frequently. The present work aims to study the PCoA regarding its morphology, morphometry, and symmetry. This study was conducted on 170 human cadaveric brains. Brains were dissected carefully and delicately to expose all components of CW, especially PCoA. Morphological variations of PCoA were noted along with its morphometry and symmetry. Morphological variations of PCoA were aplasia (3.52%), hypoplasia (25.29%), fenestration (0.58%), and persistent fetal pattern (16.47%). In the present study, we found the five different types of terminations of PCoA. Type I termination was the most common type, seen in 92.94% of cases, Type II termination was seen in 1.17%, Type III and Type IV terminations both were seen in 0.58%, and Type V was seen in 1.17%. The mean length of PCoA was 15.9 mm and 15.3 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. The mean diameter of PCoA was 2.1 mm and 1.9 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Symmetry of PCoA was seen in 65.29% and asymmetric PCoA was seen in 34.70% of cases. The present study provides the complete description of PCoA regarding its morphology, symmetry, and morphometry. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures.

  11. Communication Analysis of Information Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Communication analysis is a tool for perceptual assessment of existing or projected information complexes, i.e., an established reality perceived by one or many humans. An information complex could be of a physical nature, such as a building, landscape, city street; or of a pure informational nature, such as a film, television program,…

  12. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  13. A study of the hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, Juan R.; Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the effects of unequal physiologic flow conditions in the internal carotid arteries on the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms were investigated. Patient-specific vascular computational fluid dynamics models of five cerebral aneurysms were constructed from bilateral 3D rotational angiography images. The aneurysmal hemodynamics was analyzed under a range of physiologic flow conditions including the effects of unequal mean flows and phase shifts between the flow waveforms of the left and right internal carotid arteries. A total of five simulations were performed for each patient, and unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created for each flow condition. Time dependent curves of average WSS magnitude over selected regions on the aneurysms were constructed and used to analyze the influence of the inflow conditions. It was found that mean flow imbalances in the feeding vessels tend to shift the regions of elevated WSS (flow impingement region) towards the dominating inflow jet and to change the magnitude of the WSS peaks. However, the overall qualitative appearance of the WSS distribution and velocity simulations is not substantially affected. In contrast, phase differences tend to increase the temporal complexity of the hemodynamic patterns and to destabilize the intra-aneurysmal flow pattern. However, these effects are less important when the A1 confluence is less symmetric, i.e. dominated by one of the A1 segments. Conditions affecting the flow characteristics in the parent arteries of cerebral aneurysms with more than one avenue of inflow should be incorporated into flow models.

  14. Space-bounded communication complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.

    2013-01-01

    communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory....... When a player receives a bit of communication, he "compresses" his state. This compression may be an arbitrary function of his current memory contents, his input, and the bit of communication just received; the only restriction is that the compression must return at most s(n) bits. We obtain memory...... controls two types of memory: (i) a large, oblivious memory, where updates are only a function of the received bit and the current memory content, and (ii) a smaller, non-oblivious/general memory, where updates can be a function of the input given to Bob. We exhibit natural protocols where this semi...

  15. Prediction of parent artery of anterior communicating artery aneurysm on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Young; Han, Tae Il; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Song, Mun Kab

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether CT angiography can predict the parent artery of an anterior communicating aneurysm on the basis of characteristics of the aneurysm and precommunication anterior cerebral artery. Eighteen patients with anterior communication aneurysm were studied prospectively using CT angiography and conventional angiography. The parent artery of an aneurysm was predicted by evaluating aneurysm neck location, direction of aneurysm projection, and size of the precommunicating anterior cerebral artery, as seen on CT angiography. A somatom Plus-4 spiral CT scanner was used and shaded-surface display three-dimensional images were constructed. Aneurysm neck was located near the parent artery in 12 cases(66.7%), and aneurysm projection was against the parent artery in 11 cases(61.1%). The parent artery of the anterior cerebral artery was larger in 15 cases(83.3%), including ten cases of hypoplasia or agenesis of the contralateral anterior cerebral artery. In 17 of 18 aneurysms(94.4%) the parent artery seen on DSA was correctly predicted by CT angiography. The parent artery of an anterior communicating aneurysm can be predicted by evaluating aneurysm neck location, direction of aneurysm projection, and precommunicating anterior cerebral artery, as seen on CT angiography

  16. Endovascular treatment of a true posterior communicating artery aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Munarriz, Pablo M.; Castaño-Leon, Ana M.; Cepeda, Santiago; Campollo, Jorge; Alén, Jose F.; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background: Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are most commonly located at the junction of the internal carotid artery and the PCoA. "True" PCoA aneurysms, which originate from the PCoA itself, are rarely encountered. Most previously reported cases were treated surgically mainly before the endovascular option became available. Case Description: A 53-year-old male presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and aphasia. Left middle cerebral artery stroke was diagnosed. F...

  17. KIR channels tune electrical communication in cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Maria; Samson, Nina C; Hald, Bjorn O

    2017-01-01

    The conducted vasomotor response reflects electrical communication in the arterial wall and the distance signals spread is regulated by three factors including resident ion channels. This study defined the role of inward-rectifying K(+) channels (KIR) in governing electrical communication along...... hamster cerebral arteries. Focal KCl application induced a vasoconstriction that conducted robustly, indicative of electrical communication among cells. Inhibiting dominant K(+) conductances had no attenuating effect, the exception being Ba(2+) blockade of KIR Electrophysiology and Q-PCR analysis...... and the increased feedback arising from voltage-dependent-K(+) channels. In summary, this study shows that two KIR populations work collaboratively to govern electrical communication and the spread of vasomotor responses along cerebral arteries....

  18. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Takahara, Taro; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E 01.132), P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E 01.132), P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0 Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent TOF MR angiography at 7.0 Tesla. With 7.0-Tesla imaging, we visualised for the first time perforating arteries originating from the PCoA in vivo without the use of contrast agents. A perforating artery from the PCoA was found in a large proportion of the PCoAs (64%). The presence was associated with a larger diameter of the underlying PCoA (1.23 versus 1.06 mm, P = 0.03). The anterior choroidal artery was visible bilaterally in all participants. In 83% of all P1s, one or two perforating branches were visible. Non-invasive assessment of the perforating arteries of the PCoA together with the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating arteries of the P1 may increase our understanding of infarcts in the deep brain structures supplied by these arteries. (orig.)

  19. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Takahara, Taro; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Luijten, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0 Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent TOF MR angiography at 7.0 Tesla. With 7.0-Tesla imaging, we visualised for the first time perforating arteries originating from the PCoA in vivo without the use of contrast agents. A perforating artery from the PCoA was found in a large proportion of the PCoAs (64%). The presence was associated with a larger diameter of the underlying PCoA (1.23 versus 1.06 mm, P = 0.03). The anterior choroidal artery was visible bilaterally in all participants. In 83% of all P1s, one or two perforating branches were visible. Non-invasive assessment of the perforating arteries of the PCoA together with the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating arteries of the P1 may increase our understanding of infarcts in the deep brain structures supplied by these arteries. (orig.)

  20. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conijn, Mandy M A; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Takahara, Taro; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Mali, Willem P Th M; Luijten, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0 Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent TOF MR angiography at 7.0 Tesla. With 7.0-Tesla imaging, we visualised for the first time perforating arteries originating from the PCoA in vivo without the use of contrast agents. A perforating artery from the PCoA was found in a large proportion of the PCoAs (64%). The presence was associated with a larger diameter of the underlying PCoA (1.23 versus 1.06 mm, P = 0.03). The anterior choroidal artery was visible bilaterally in all participants. In 83% of all P1s, one or two perforating branches were visible. Non-invasive assessment of the perforating arteries of the PCoA together with the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating arteries of the P1 may increase our understanding of infarcts in the deep brain structures supplied by these arteries.

  1. Endovascular treatment of a true posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Campollo, Jorge; Alén, Jose F; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are most commonly located at the junction of the internal carotid artery and the PCoA. "True" PCoA aneurysms, which originate from the PCoA itself, are rarely encountered. Most previously reported cases were treated surgically mainly before the endovascular option became available. A 53-year-old male presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and aphasia. Left middle cerebral artery stroke was diagnosed. Further studies revealed a 3 mm left PCoA aneurysm arising from the PCoA itself, attached to neither the internal carotid artery nor the posterior cerebral artery. Endovascular treatment was performed and the aneurysm was coiled completely. Technical advances in endovascular interventional technology have permitted an additional approach to these lesions. The possible endovascular significance of the treatment of true PCoA aneurysms is discussed.

  2. Information communication on complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akito; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Maruyama, Takahiro; Morioka, Atsushi; Naganuma, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Since communication networks such as the Internet, which is regarded as a complex network, have recently become a huge scale and a lot of data pass through them, the improvement of packet routing strategies for transport is one of the most significant themes in the study of computer networks. It is especially important to find routing strategies which can bear as many traffic as possible without congestion in complex networks. First, using neural networks, we introduce a strategy for packet routing on complex networks, where path lengths and queue lengths in nodes are taken into account within a framework of statistical physics. Secondly, instead of using shortest paths, we propose efficient paths which avoid hubs, nodes with a great many degrees, on scale-free networks with a weight of each node. We improve the heuristic algorithm proposed by Danila et. al. which optimizes step by step routing properties on congestion by using the information of betweenness, the probability of paths passing through a node in all optimal paths which are defined according to a rule, and mitigates the congestion. We confirm the new heuristic algorithm which balances traffic on networks by achieving minimization of the maximum betweenness in much smaller number of iteration steps. Finally, We model virus spreading and data transfer on peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Using mean-field approximation, we obtain an analytical formulation and emulate virus spreading on the network and compare the results with those of simulation. Moreover, we investigate the mitigation of information traffic congestion in the P2P networks.

  3. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Conijn, Mandy M. A.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Takahara, Taro; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Luijten, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0?Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy ...

  4. CHARACTERISTIC OF THE COMPLEX MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kovalenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose and objectives of the article are detailed characterization of marketing communication’s elements and characteristics of synthetic and communications. Methods: The stages of the campaign and main advantages and disadvantages of advertising have been disclosed and analyzed in the article. The marketing communication and some elements of marketing communications, the issues of formation and development of the theory of marketing communications have been studied. Results: This article describes the elements of marketing communications factors and basic tools of marketing communications: advertising, personal selling, complex sales promotion, publicity and public relation, direct marketing. Discussion: Companies must also transmit information to customers and carefully carry out selection of such information. For this order is a complex system of marketing communications. Often marketing communications identified with the products promotion which leads to a false understanding of the nature and, consequently, to the irrational use potential of marketing communications in market activity.

  5. Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm in a 20 Year Old Boy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A clinical diagnosis of left third and fourth cranial nerve palsies from intracranial space-occupying lesion was made. Computed tomography and computed tomography angiography confirmed left posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Conclusion: Any degree of pupillary involvement in third nerve palsy, whether ...

  6. Modern structure of marketing communications complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebenyukova Elena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the desk research, in which the current structure of the marketing communications complex was analyzed. According to the results of the content analysis of scientific and educational literature in marketing it was proved that there is a certain structural asymmetry in today's complex of marketing communication: the rejection of impersonal tools and actualization of those which make possible personalized communication with the consumer.

  7. Treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yi; Liu Jianmin; Hong Bo; Zhao Wenyuan; Huang Qinghai; Zhang Xin; Zhang Long

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience on endovascular treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) in 262 cases. Methods: All aneurysms were embolized with GDCs. Catheterization at both ICA was used to monitor the patency of parent arteries for patients with well-developed A1 segment of both ACAs. Microcatheter-assisted or microwire-assisted technique was undertaken to keep patency of parent arteries if the aneurysmal neck was involved with A2 segment. Thirty-four cases with multiple aneurysms had been treated successfully only in one session. Results: Complete embolization was achieved in 160 cases, while subtotal in 56 (>90%) and partial in 46 (<90%). Occlusion of parent arteries developed in 10 cases because of over-occlusion, and cerebral infarction was found in 16 cases after the procedure. Three cases with procedure-related thrombosis were revascularized by urokinase profusion. Follow-up angiograms of 3-6 months showed recanalization in 8 cases requiring a second time session. One case of recurrent aneurysm after GDC treatment was cured by surgical clipping. Conclusions: The result of endovascular treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms is fruitful and seems to be an alternative method in improving the rate of occlusion and reducing the cerebral infarction

  8. Fusiform aneurysm associated with fenestration of the posterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shiro; Fukuda, Yuutaka; Mizota, Shingo; Hayashi, Kentaro; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2010-01-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with a rare case of fenestration of the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) at the origin of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The patient had a fusiform aneurysm at the proximal branch of the PCoA, which was successfully clipped, sparing the anterograde blood flow. The double origin and fenestration of the PCoA branching off at the C(2) segment of the left ICA suggested that this anomalous fenestration might have developed as the origin of the PCoA rather than the supraclinoid ICA during the early embryonal stage.

  9. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant posterior communicating artery fenestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gregory M; Grandhi, Ramesh; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Agarwal, Nitin; Friedlander, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Fenestrations of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are extremely rare. Associated aneurysms have only been documented three times in the literature, and none associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a 52-year-old female who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured saccular aneurysm at the proximal limb of a fenestrated right PCoA. The patient was also found to have bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Surgical management included surmising the etiology of the subarachnoid hemorrhage with subsequent clipping of both the right PCoA and MCA aneurysm. The potential embryological mechanisms leading to a PCoA fenestration are discussed.

  10. Parent artery occlusion for ruptured “true” posterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgical clipping over endovascular coil embolization. Endovascular treatment may be a good alternative to surgical trapping for true PCoA blister aneurysm. PMID:25953771

  11. Parent artery occlusion for ruptured “true” posterior communicating artery aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhashi, Takashi; Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgi...

  12. Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for quantum ... Entanglement; teleportation; secret sharing; information splitting. ... Ahmedabad 380 009, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India ...

  13. The physics of communicability in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Hatano, Naomichi; Benzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in the study of complex networks is to provide quantitative measures of correlation and information flow between different parts of a system. To this end, several notions of communicability have been introduced and applied to a wide variety of real-world networks in recent years. Several such communicability functions are reviewed in this paper. It is emphasized that communication and correlation in networks can take place through many more routes than the shortest paths, a fact that may not have been sufficiently appreciated in previously proposed correlation measures. In contrast to these, the communicability measures reviewed in this paper are defined by taking into account all possible routes between two nodes, assigning smaller weights to longer ones. This point of view naturally leads to the definition of communicability in terms of matrix functions, such as the exponential, resolvent, and hyperbolic functions, in which the matrix argument is either the adjacency matrix or the graph Laplacian associated with the network. Considerable insight on communicability can be gained by modeling a network as a system of oscillators and deriving physical interpretations, both classical and quantum-mechanical, of various communicability functions. Applications of communicability measures to the analysis of complex systems are illustrated on a variety of biological, physical and social networks. The last part of the paper is devoted to a review of the notion of locality in complex networks and to computational aspects that by exploiting sparsity can greatly reduce the computational efforts for the calculation of communicability functions for large networks.

  14. Intercultural Communication and Disabilities from a Communication Complex Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Джон Пэрриш-Спраул

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication presents a number of challenges that are less of an issue in same-culture interactions. This is important because travel and technological capability enable more and more immigrants, business people, tourists, etc. to engage in such interactions. One group of people that comprises 10% of the world population, the disabled, is increasingly being mainstreamed within cultures as well as traveling to other countries. Research finds that the disabled are often marginalized and discriminated against within their own country. When the abled enter an intercultural interaction with the disabled the communication challenges are even greater. Communication Complex, a metatheoretical perspective on communication that embraces a constitutive definition of communication combined with a neuroscience understanding of interaction, offers a deeper, yet highly practical explanation of the level of complexity that such an encounter entails. This article offers a brief introduction to this way of understanding intercultural communication, along with the suggestion that future studies and practical guides should take disabilities into account when analyzing or building skills.

  15. Communication complexity reduction from globally uncorrelated states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieśniak, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.wiesniak@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-03

    Bell inequality violating entangled states are the working horse for many potential quantum information processing applications, including secret sharing, cryptographic key distribution and communication complexity reduction in distributed computing. Here we explicitly demonstrate the power of certain multi-qubit states to improve the efficiency of partners in joint computation of some multi-qubit function, despite the fact that there could be no correlations between all distributed particles. It is important to stress that the class of functions that can be computed more efficiently is widened, as compared with the standard Bell inequalities. - Highlights: • We expand the set of functions, which can be computed more efficiently with quantum states. • We describe communication complexity reduction protocols based not only on full correlations. • We explicitly show an instance where, a globally uncorrelated state reduces communication complexity.

  16. Communication complexity reduction from globally uncorrelated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieśniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Bell inequality violating entangled states are the working horse for many potential quantum information processing applications, including secret sharing, cryptographic key distribution and communication complexity reduction in distributed computing. Here we explicitly demonstrate the power of certain multi-qubit states to improve the efficiency of partners in joint computation of some multi-qubit function, despite the fact that there could be no correlations between all distributed particles. It is important to stress that the class of functions that can be computed more efficiently is widened, as compared with the standard Bell inequalities. - Highlights: • We expand the set of functions, which can be computed more efficiently with quantum states. • We describe communication complexity reduction protocols based not only on full correlations. • We explicitly show an instance where, a globally uncorrelated state reduces communication complexity

  17. Steal phenomenon through the anterior communicating artery in Moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Mee [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Mok-dong Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Chae, Eun Jin; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Pyun, Hae Wook; Suh, Dae Chul [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jae Kyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Jae Sung; Ra, Young-Shin [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jong-Uk; Hahm, Kyung Don [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    Branch occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is regarded as a part of Moyamoya disease. The purpose of this study is to define the ACA steal phenomenon (SP) in Moyamoya disease and to evaluate temporal changes according to the disease progression. From 139 Moyamoya patients we defined ACASP as narrowing of the ipsilateral A1-2 junction while preserving the anterior communicating artery and supplying the contralateral ACA cortical branches with the development of leptomeningeal collaterals by the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery into the hypoperfused ipsilateral ACA territory. Direction of the steal related to the stage in both hemispheres by Suzuki classification was statistically analyzed using the binomial test based on binomial distribution. Follow-ups of ACASP were evaluated in five patients. We identified ACASP in 13 (9%) patients (male:female=7:6, mean age 18 years, range: 2-58 years) of the 139 study patients. The presenting pattern was ischemic in 12 and hemorrhagic in one. The direction of SP occurred from the hemisphere in the lower to the higher stage of Suzuki classification (two-tail P value=0.0002). After revascularization surgery, ACASP disappeared or diminished. ACASP may occur in bilaterally different stages of Moyamoya disease as a transient self-adaptive process. It regresses after revascularization surgery. (orig.)

  18. Microsurgical clipping for the true posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the distal portion of the posterior communicating artery

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Masaru; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Chida, Kohei; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneurysms arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself are rare in which aneurysms usually located in the proximal portion of the PCoA. The authors report a case of the true PCoA ruptured aneurysm in the distal portion of the PCoA. Case Description: The patient was an 83-year-old man who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm arising on the fetal type right PCoA itself in the distal portion of the PCoA. 2 days after...

  19. The internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion. The evaluation for the posterior communicating artery on DSA and MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunhui; Gao Xinjiang; Ma Zhubin; Xu Yikai

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the posterior communicating artery in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) severe stenosis or occlusion on digital subtract angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Methods: DSA or MRA findings were analyzed in 74 patients with ICA stenosis or occlusion and in 120 persons selected in the control group, who were unremarkable on cerebral DSA or MRA. Results: On DSA, the presence rate of ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) between the study group and the control group had no significant difference; on MRA the rate in the study group was significantly higher than the control group (P 0.05). In the study group, the presence rate of PCoA on DSA was significantly higher than that on MRA (P 0.05). The presence rate of PCoA shown no significant difference between the cases with unilateral ICA involved and cases with bilateral ICA involved. Conclusion: The posterior communicating artery is very important to the patients with the internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion. Its dilatation on DSA and MRA or appearance on MRA shows its compensation. DSA is valuable in the evaluation of the posterior communicating artery. MRA is a noninvasive and functional imaging method for evaluation the posterior communicating artery

  20. Separations in Communication Complexity Using Cheat Sheets and Information Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Anshu (Anurag); A. Belovs (Aleksandr); S. Ben-David (Shalev); M. Goos (Mika); R. Jain (Rahul); R. Kothari (Robin); T. J. Lee (Troy); M. Santha (Miklos)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhile exponential separations are known between quantum and randomized communication complexity for partial functions (Raz, STOC 1999), the best known separation between these measures for a total function is quadratic, witnessed by the disjointness function. We give the first

  1. Microsurgical clipping for the true posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the distal portion of the posterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masaru; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Chida, Kohei; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself are rare in which aneurysms usually located in the proximal portion of the PCoA. The authors report a case of the true PCoA ruptured aneurysm in the distal portion of the PCoA. The patient was an 83-year-old man who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm arising on the fetal type right PCoA itself in the distal portion of the PCoA. 2 days after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent right interfascial pterional craniotomy, with anterior temporal approach. The aneurysm was successfully clipped with the preservation of both the PCoA and the thalamoperforating artery. We speculated that blood flow into the PCoA gradually increased after occlusion of the left vertebral artery, which induced tortuosity of the PCoA. As a result, hemodynamic stress might increase near the curvature and cause aneurysm formation.

  2. Tuberothalamic artery infarction following coil embolization of a ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk

    2013-09-01

    There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirmed pre-operatively by Allcock's test.

  3. Tuberothalamic Artery Infarction Following Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Belonging to a Transitional Type Posterior Cerebral Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk

    2013-01-01

    There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirm...

  4. A RARE CASE OF PERSISTENT TRIGEMINAL ARTERY IN AN ADULT FEMALE WITH PARA POSTERIOR COMMUNICATING ARTERY ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavathu Daya Bharath Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anastomosis found in the adulthood between the carotid and vertebro - basilar systems, apart from the posterior communicating artery, are extremely infrequent and are due to the persistence of vessels that joined both systems during the fetal period. This carotid - vertebrobasilar anastomosis are the trigeminal, otic, and hypoglossal and proatlantal arteries. P ersistent trigeminal artery is the commonest of the above mentioned four arteries. The reported incidence is about 0.2%. Patients may be asymptomatic or present symptoms due to low flow of posterior circulation or carotid microembolization from posterior circulation. PTA can cause trigemina l neuralgia. We report in this paper a case of a persistant trigeminal artery found in an adult female with a para p com aneurysm who had persistent trigeminal artery which was seen in C T angiogram .

  5. Association Between Vascular Anatomy and Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Anil; Ho, Allen L; Emmer, Bart J; Dammers, Ruben; Dirven, Clemens M F; Du, Rose

    2015-11-01

    Hemodynamic stress, conditioned by the geometry and morphology of the vessel trees, plays an important role in the formation of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of this study was to identify image-based location-specific morphologic parameters that are associated with posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. Morphologic parameters obtained from computed tomography angiography of 56 patients with PCoA aneurysms and 23 control patients were evaluated with 3D Slicer, an open-source image analysis software, to generate 3-dimensional models of the aneurysms and surrounding vasculature. Segment lengths, diameters, and vessel-to-vessel angles were examined. To control for genetic and clinical risk factors, the unaffected contralateral side of patients with unilateral PCoA aneurysms was used as a control group for internal carotid artery (ICA)-related parameters. A separate control group with visible PCoAs and aneurysms elsewhere was used as a control group for PCoA-related parameters. Internal carotid artery-related parameters were not statistically different between the PCoA aneurysm and control groups. Univariate and multivariate subgroup analysis for patients with visualized PCoAs demonstrated that a larger PCoA diameter was significantly associated with the presence of a PCoA aneurysm (odds ratio = 12.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-17.1, P = 0.04) after adjusting for other morphologic parameters. Larger PCoA diameters are associated with the presence of PCoA aneurysms. These parameters may provide objective metrics to assess aneurysm formation and growth risk stratification in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of three-dimensional angiography for surgery of aneurysms on the anterior communicating artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Naoyuki; Oki, Shuichi; Murakami, Taro; Ooyama, Shigeru; Kureshima, Makoto; Kurokawa, Yasuharu

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining detailed anatomical information is crucial before aneurysm microsurgery. The anterior cerebral communicating artery complex (AcoC) is particularly complicated compared to other parts. The anatomical structure of the AcoC is sometimes difficult to understand using conventional angiography. We evaluated the advantages of 3-dimensional digital angiography (3D-DA) for aneurysm microsurgery on the anterior cerebral communicating artery. Subjects comprised 10 men and 5 women (mean age, 61 years; range, 33-79 years) who underwent surgery in our hospital between November 2002 and October 2005. Twelve aneurysms were ruptured, and 3 aneurysms were unruptured. We compared 3D-DA images and surgical findings to assess aneurysmal morphology and relationships to neighboring vessels. We also examined both the presence and visualization of variations on AcoC. In all cases, surgical findings corresponded well to 3D-DA images. Variations on AcoC included fenestration (n=3), azygos (n=1) and aplasia or hypoplasia of the A1 segment of a unilateral anterior cerebral artery (n=9), and these were all well-visualized in 3D-DA. In addition, 3D-DA was also useful for aneurysms with 2 domes for selection of surgical approach, and provided assessment of not only aneurysmal morphology, but also variations of AcoC. This tool provided useful information for the selection of operation approach and intraoperative manipulations by using it together with 2-dimensional digital substraction angiography. (author)

  7. De novo giant A2 aneurysm following anterior communicating artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarik F; Hafez, Ahmad; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Raj, Rahul; Niemela, Mika; Lehto, Hanna; Numminen, Jussi; Jarvelainen, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    De novo intracranial aneurysms are reported to occur with varying incidence after intracranial aneurysm treatment. They are purported to be observed, however, with increased incidence after Hunterian ligation; particularly in cases of carotid artery occlusion for giant or complex aneurysms deemed unclippable. We report a case of right-sided de novo giant A2 aneurysm 6 years after an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm clipping. We believe this de novo aneurysm developed in part due to patient-specific risk factors but also a significant change in cerebral hemodynamics. The ACoA became occluded after surgery that likely altered the cerebral hemodynamics and contributed to the de novo aneurysm. We believe this to be the first reported case of a giant de novo aneurysm in this location. Following parent vessel occlusion (mostly of the carotid artery), there are no reports of any de novo aneurysms in the pericallosal arteries let alone a giant one. The patient had a dominant right A1 and the sudden increase in A2 blood flow likely resulted in increased wall shear stress, particularly in the medial wall of the A2 where the aneurysm occurred 2 mm distal to the A1-2 junction. ACoA preservation is a key element of aneurysm surgery in this location. Suspected occlusion of this vessel may warrant closer radiographic follow-up in patients with other risk factors for aneurysm development.

  8. Project communication management in complex environments

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This unique book that deals with project communication management in complex environments, taking a leaf from China’s experience with a major earthquake in Sichuan, would be a timely contribution to fill this lacuna. Readers would be able to understand how companies and organizations that are unprepared for crisis management would react to their detriment. The lessons provided in this book are the only one of its kind to highlight the lessons for companies and organizations to prepare themselves for successful project communication management through the complexity-informed framework. Although the book is written by two building professionals, the concepts and lessons presented are generic and equally applicable for businesses outside of the construction industry; for example, for airports, resorts, hotels, shipyards, etc.

  9. Classical correlations, Bell inequalities, and communication complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Johannes; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Percival, Ian C. [Department of Physics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A computer program is presented which is capable of exploring generalizations of Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of classical inputs and outputs. Thereby, polytopes can be described which represent classical local realistic theories, classical theories without signaling, or classical theories with explicit signaling. These latter polytopes may also be of interest for exploring basic problems of communication complexity. As a first application the influence of non-perfect detectors is discussed in simple Bell experiments.

  10. Treatment of complex internal carotid artery aneurysms using radial artery grafts. Surgical technique, perioperative complications, and results in 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akira; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu

    2007-01-01

    Complex giant or large internal carotid artery aneurysms present a surgical challenge because limitations and difficulty are encountered with either clipping or endovascular treatment. Our review of previous reports suggests that no current vascular assessment can accurately predict the occurrence of ischemic complications after internal carotid artery ligation. The present study concerns surgical technique, complications, and clinical outcome of radial artery grafting followed by parent artery trapping or proximal occlusion for management of these difficult lesions. Between September 1997 and October 2005, we performed radial artery grafting followed immediately by parent artery occlusion in 17 patients with giant or large complex intracranial carotid aneurysms (3 men, 14 women; mean follow-up duration, 62 months). All patients underwent postoperative digital subtraction angiography to assess graft patency and aneurysm obliteration. All 17 aneurysms were excluded from the cerebral circulation, with all radial artery grafts patent. Among 4 patients with cranial nerve disturbances, dysfunction was temporary in 5; in the others, oculomotor nerve paresis persisted. No perioperative cerebral infarction occurred. Sensory aphasia reflecting cerebral contusions caused by temporal lobe retraction resolved within 2 months, as did hemiparesis from a postoperative epidural hematoma. With appropriate attention to surgical technique, radial artery grafting followed by acute parent artery occlusion is a safe treatment for complex internal carotid artery aneurysms. Graft patency and aneurysm thrombosis were achieved in all patients. Cranial nerve dysfunction (III, VI) caused by altered blood flow from the internal carotid artery after occlusion was the most common complication and typically was temporary. In our experience with these difficult aneurysms, not only clipping but also reconstruction of the internal carotid artery was required, especially for wide-necked symptomatic

  11. Complexity Perspectives on Language, Communication and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bastardas-Boada, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The “language-communication-society” triangle defies traditional scientific approaches. Rather, it is a phenomenon that calls for an integration of complex, transdisciplinary perspectives, if we are to make any progress in understanding how it works. The highly diverse agents in play are not merely cognitive and/or cultural, but also emotional and behavioural in their specificity. Indeed, the effort may require building a theoretical and methodological body of knowledge that can effectively convey the characteristic properties of phenomena in human terms. New complexity approaches allow us to rethink our limited and mechanistic images of human societies and create more appropriate emo-cognitive dynamic and holistic models. We have to enter into dialogue with the complexity views coming out of other more ‘material’ sciences, but we also need to take steps in the linguistic and psycho-sociological fields towards creating perspectives and concepts better fitted to human characteristics. Our understanding...

  12. Surgical management of giant posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velat, Gregory J; Zabramski, Joseph M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    Giant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (> 25 mm) are rare lesions associated with a poor prognosis and high rates of morbidity and mortality. To review the clinical results of giant PCoA aneurysms surgically treated at our institution, focusing on operative nuances. All cases of giant PCoA aneurysms treated surgically at our institution were identified from a prospectively maintained patient database. Patient demographic factors, medical comorbidities, rupture status, neurological presentation, clinical outcomes, and surgical records were critically reviewed. From 1989 to 2010, 11 patients (10 women) underwent surgical clipping of giant PCoA aneurysms. Presenting signs and symptoms included cranial nerve palsies, diminished mental status, headache, visual changes, and seizures. Five aneurysms were ruptured on admission. All aneurysms were clipped primarily except 1, which was treated by parent artery sacrifice and extracranial-to-intracranial bypass after intraoperative aneurysm rupture. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 36% (4 of 11) and 18.3% (2 of 11), respectively. Excellent or good clinical outcomes, defined as modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2, were achieved in 86% (5 of 6) of patients available for long-term clinical follow-up (mean, 12.5 ± 13.6 months). Giant PCoA aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that may present with a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. These lesions can be successfully managed surgically with satisfactory morbidity and mortality rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest surgical series of giant PCoA aneurysms published to date.

  13. Extremely long posterior communicating artery diagnosed by MR angiography: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    We report two cases of an extremely long left posterior communicating artery (PCoA) diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The PCoA arose from the normal point of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and fused with the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) at its posterior ambient segment, forming an extremely long PCoA and extremely long precommunicating segment of the PCA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such variation. Careful observation of MR angiographic images is important for detecting rare arterial variations. To identify these anomalous arteries on MR angiography, partial maximum-intensity-projection images are useful.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of complex communications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karyotis, Vasileios; Papavassiliou, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most network design techniques employed a bottom-up approach with lower protocol layer mechanisms affecting the development of higher ones. This approach, however, has not yielded fascinating results in the case of wireless distributed networks. Addressing the emerging aspects of modern network analysis and design, Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Communications Networks introduces and develops a top-bottom approach where elements of the higher layer can be exploited in modifying the lowest physical topology-closing the network design loop in an evolutionary fashion similar to

  15. Endovascular treatment of ruptured true posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonglin; Su, Wandong; Meng, Qinghai

    2015-01-01

    Although true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are rare, they are of vital importance. We reviewed 9 patients with this fatal disease, who were treated with endovascular embolization, and discussed the meaning of endovascular embolization for the treatment of true PCoA aneurysms. From September 2006 to May 2012, 9 patients with digital substraction angiography (DSA) confirmed true PCoA aneurysms were treated with endovascular embolization. Patients were followed-up with a minimal duration of 17 months and assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. All the patients presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured aneurysms. The ratio of males to females was 1:2, and the average age of onset was 59.9 (ranging from 52 to 72) years. The preoperative Hunt-Hess grade scores were I to III. All patients had recovered satisfactorily. No permanent neurological deficits were left. Currently, endovascular embolization can be recommended as the top choice for the treatment of most true PCoA aneurysms, due to its advanced technique, especially the application of the stent-assisted coiling technique, combined with its advantage of mininal invasiveness and quick recovery. However, the choice of treatment methods should be based on the clinical and anatomical characteristics of the aneurysm and the skillfulness of the surgeon.

  16. Impact of posterior communicating artery on basilar artery steno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J M; Choi, J Y; Lee, J H; Yong, S W; Bang, O Y; Joo, I S; Huh, K

    2009-12-01

    Acute brainstem infarction with basilar artery (BA) occlusive disease is the most fatal type of all ischaemic strokes. This report investigates the prognostic impact of the posterior communicating artery (PcoA) and whether its anatomy is a safeguard or not. Consecutive patients who had acute brainstem infarction with at least 50% stenosis of BA upon CT angiography (CTA) were studied. The configuration of PcoA was divided into two groups upon CTA: "textbook" group (invisible PcoA with good P1 and P2 segment) and "fetal-variant of PcoA" group (only visible PcoA with absent P1 segment). Baseline demographics, radiological findings and stroke mechanisms were analysed. A multiple regression analysis was performed to predict clinical outcome at 30 days (modified Rankin disability Scale (mRSPcoA (26 bilateral, 18 unilateral). By multiple logistic regression analysis, the atherosclerotic mechanism (OR 18.0; 95% CI 3.0 to 107.0) and presence of fetal-variant PcoA (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 18.8) were independent predictors for good prognosis and initial NIH stroke scale score (OR 1.24 per one-point increase; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4) for poor prognosis. Fetal-variant PcoA appears to act as a safeguard against ischaemic insult in acute stroke victims involving the brainstem with BA occlusive disease. This result can be explained by the fact that patients with fetal-variant PcoA have a smaller area of posterior circulation and a possibility of retrograde filling into the upper brainstem through the fetal-variant PcoA.

  17. Tuberothalamic Artery Infarction Following Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Belonging to a Transitional Type Posterior Cerebral Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk

    2013-01-01

    Summary There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirmed pre-operatively by Allcock’s test. PMID:24070079

  18. Advanced technical skills are required for microsurgical clipping of posterior communicating artery aneurysms in the endovascular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanai, Nader; Caldwell, Nolan; Englot, Dario J; Lawton, Michael T

    2012-08-01

    Many neurosurgeons feel competent clipping posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms and include this lesion in their practice. However, endovascular therapy removes simple aneurysms that would have been easiest to clip with the best results. What remains are aneurysms with complex anatomy and technical challenges that are not well described. A contemporary surgical series with PCoA aneurysms is reviewed to define the patients, microsurgical techniques, and outcomes in current practice. A total of 218 patients had 218 PCoA aneurysms that were treated microsurgically during an 11-year period. Complexities influencing aneurysm management included (1) large/giant size; (2) fetal posterior cerebral artery; (3) previous coiling; (4) anterior clinoidectomy; (5) adherence of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA); (6) intraoperative aneurysm rupture; (7) complex clipping; and (8) atherosclerotic calcification. Simple PCoA aneurysms were encountered in 113 patients (51.8%) and complex aneurysms in 105 (48.2%). Adherent AChA (13.8%) and intraoperative rupture (11.5%) were the most common complexities. Simple aneurysms had favorable outcomes in 86.6% of patients, whereas aneurysms with 1 or multiple complexities had favorable outcomes in 78.2% and 75.0%, respectively. Intraoperative rupture (P PCoA aneurysms requires advanced techniques including clinoidectomy, AChA microdissection, complex clipping, and facility with intraoperative rupture. Microsurgery is recommended for recurrent aneurysms after coiling, complex branches, aneurysms causing oculomotor nerve palsy, multiple aneurysms, and patients with hematomas.

  19. Microanatomical bases for intraoperative division of the posterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovsky, N

    2002-11-01

    Micro-anatomical parameters of the hypoplastic posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are assessed and compared with the micro-anatomical parameters of the adult type PCoA. Based on the results obtained, the safest place is proposed for PCoA division during basilar tip aneurysm surgery via the pterional route. In 35 human cadaver brains, red coloured latex was injected and micro-anatomical dissection was performed. Seventy PCoA were found. Adult type PCoA was found in 29 cases (41.43%) with mean length 12.58 mm. Reduction of the PCoA diameter from its anterior to its posterior third by up to 20% was found in 27% and by more than 20% in 10% of the cases. The mean perforating vessel number was 8.17, distributed in each third: 3.48, 2.90 and 1.79, respectively. A hypoplastic PCoA was found in 33 cases (47.14%) with mean length 16.09 mm. The PCoA's diameter reduction by up to 20% was found in 24% and by more in 27% of the cases. In 6% of the cases an extreme reduction by up to 70% was observed. The mean perforating vessel (PV) number was 8.82, distributed in each third: 3.18, 3.36 and 2.27, respectively. Hypoplastic PCoA tends to be longer and with a more distinct diameter reduction from the anterior to the posterior third than the adult type PCoA. The PV anatomical parameters are similar for both groups. The posterior third of the PCoA seems to be the area where the risk of perforating vessel damage is the least when performing intra-operative PCoA division.

  20. Morphological and hemodynamic analysis of mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamic factors are commonly believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. In this study, we aimed to identify significant hemodynamic and morphological parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm rupture status using 3-dimensional-angiography and computational fluid dynamics technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D-DSA was performed in 8 patients with mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms (Pcom-MANs. Each pair was divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. Five morphological and three hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. RESULTS: The normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS of the aneurysm sac in the ruptured group was significantly lower than that in the unruptured group (0.52±0.20 versus 0.81±0.21, P = .012. The percentage of the low WSS area in the ruptured group was higher than that in the unruptured group (4.11±4.66% versus 0.02±0.06%, P = .018. The AR was 1.04±0.21 in the ruptured group, which was significantly higher than 0.70±0.17 in the unruptured group (P = .012. By contrast, parameters that had no significant differences between the two groups were OSI (P = .674, aneurysm size (P = .327, size ratio (P = .779, vessel angle (P = 1.000 and aneurysm inclination angle (P = 1.000. CONCLUSIONS: Pcom-MANs may be a useful disease model to investigate possible causes of aneurysm rupture. The ruptured aneurysms manifested lower WSS, higher percentage of low WSS area, and higher AR, compared with the unruptured one. And hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm rupture status.

  1. Communication Partners Supporting Children with Complex Communication Needs Who Use AAC: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Jones, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Communication partners who efficiently use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) are essential interaction partners for children learning to communicate using AAC. This systematic review examines studies targeting interventions designed to help communication partners support children with complex communication needs who use AAC.…

  2. Teaching Paraeducators to Support the Communication of Young Children with Complex Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Sarah N.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Paraeducators are frequent communication partners for young children with complex communication needs (CCN) in early childhood settings. This study examined the impact of instruction to paraeducators in two communication interaction strategies (IPLAN [Identify activities for communication, Provide means for communication, Locate and provide…

  3. Duplicate origin of the posterior communicating artery diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2013-10-01

    Extremely rarely, a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) of "duplicate origin" occurs when two branches of the PCoA arise separately from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and quickly fuse to form an arterial ring. Three such cases previously reported were described as "fenestration." We report the case of this rare variation diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography and discuss the differentiation of PCoA of duplicate origin from PCoA fenestration, supraclinoid ICA fenestration, and hyperplastic anterior choroidal artery.

  4. [Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khamlichi, A; Amrani, F; el Azzusi, M; el Oufir, M; Khamlichi, A M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery in a 17 year old female patient. This anomaly was discovered following a meningeal haemorrhage, which recurred 18 months later, causing the patient's death. Surgical operation was refused by the patient and her family. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries is a rare congenital malformation (16 cases have been reported in the literature, our case constitutes the 17th). It is distinguished from aplasia by the presence of a patent but very reduced vascular lumen, while aplasia is associated with vestiges of non-patent vessels. The mechanism of development of such a malformation is unclear: some authors have suggested secondary regression of the internal carotid artery following a phase of normal development, while others consider it to represent arrest of the development of the internal carotid artery, at a given moment in time. The frequency of associated aneurysm would be due to the haemodynamic disruption induced by the malformation, especially as parietal defects are more frequent in a malformed vasculature. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries may be compatible with normal life for an indefinite period of time due to the development of a large number of collateral vessels. However, the new vasculature is threatened by rupture with meningeal haemorrhage and by acute ischaemia, which would probably involve another aetiological factor.

  5. Delayed recovery of adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) caused by elective clipping of anterior communicating artery and left middle cerebral artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jeffrey; Ndoro, Samuel; Okafo, Uchenna; Garrahy, Aoife; Agha, Amar; Rawluk, Danny

    2016-12-16

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is an extremely rare complication following microsurgical clipping of anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoA) and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. It poses a significant challenge to manage due to an absent thirst response and the co-existence of cognitive impairment in our patient. Recovery from adipsic DI has hitherto been reported only once. A 52-year-old man with previous history of clipping of left posterior communicating artery aneurysm 20 years prior underwent microsurgical clipping of ACoA and left MCA aneurysms without any intraoperative complications. Shortly after surgery, he developed clear features of ADI with adipsic severe hypernatraemia and hypotonic polyuria, which was associated with cognitive impairment that was confirmed with biochemical investigations and cognitive assessments. He was treated with DDAVP along with a strict intake of oral fluids at scheduled times to maintain eunatremia. Repeat assessment at six months showed recovery of thirst and a normal water deprivation test. Management of ADI with cognitive impairment is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Recovery from ADI is very rare, and this is only the second report of recovery in this particular clinical setting.

  6. Communication between the right and circumflex coronary arteries discovered incidentally by multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Kim, Eui Jong; Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Soo Joong; Youn, Hyo Chul; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Intercoronary communication is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. We present a case of a 48-year-old man with an incidentally discovered communication between the right and circumflex coronary arteries, who was admitted with chest tightness and exertional dyspnea. The initial diagnosis was made using electrocardiogram-gated multidetector computed tomography.

  7. Communication Complexity A treasure house of lower bounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prahladh Harsha TIFR

    Applications. Data structures, VLSI design, time-space tradeoffs, circuit complexity, streaming, auctions, combinatorial optimization . . . Randomized Communication Complexity of INTER: Ω(n). ▷ There is no parallelizable monotone circuit that computes a matching in a given graph ...

  8. Online Parent Training to Support Children with Complex Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Sarah N.; Nordquist, Erica; Kammes, Rebecca; Gerde, Hope

    2017-01-01

    Parent training can help support the development of communication skills for young children with complex communication needs (CCN). Online delivery of such training may alleviate some of the burden on families, thereby increasing participation and outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of online parent training in communication partner…

  9. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); L. Czekaj (Lłukasz); A. Grudka (Andrzej); M. Horodecki (Michalł); P. Horodecki (Pawelł); M. Markiewicz (Marcin); F. Speelman (Florian); S. Strelchuk (Sergii)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe obtain a general connection between a large quantumadvantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that

  10. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); L. Czekaj (Lłukasz); A. Grudka (Andrzej); M. Horodecki (Michalł); P. Horodecki (Pawelł); M. Markiewicz (Marcin); F. Speelman (Florian); S. Strelchuk (Sergii)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate

  11. Communication in diagnostic radiology: meeting the challenges of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Froehle, Craig M; Johnson, Neil D; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-11-01

    As patients and information flow through the imaging process, value is added step-by-step when information is acquired, interpreted, and communicated back to the referring clinician. However, radiology information systems are often plagued with communication errors and delays. This article presents theories and recommends strategies to continuously improve communication in the complex environment of modern radiology. Communication theories, methods, and systems that have proven their effectiveness in other environments can serve as models for radiology.

  12. Communication and control for networked complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Chen; Han, Qing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This book reports on the latest advances in the study of Networked Control Systems (NCSs). It highlights novel research concepts on NCSs; the analysis and synthesis of NCSs with special attention to their networked character; self- and event-triggered communication schemes for conserving limited network resources; and communication and control co-design for improving the efficiency of NCSs. The book will be of interest to university researchers, control and network engineers, and graduate students in the control engineering, communication and network sciences interested in learning the core principles, methods, algorithms and applications of NCSs.

  13. Exponential Communication Complexity Advantage from Quantum Superposition of the Direction of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Philippe Allard; Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2016-09-01

    In communication complexity, a number of distant parties have the task of calculating a distributed function of their inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. It is known that with quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum channels, one can obtain significant reductions in the communication complexity of some tasks. In this work, we study the role of the quantum superposition of the direction of communication as a resource for communication complexity. We present a tripartite communication task for which such a superposition allows for an exponential saving in communication, compared to one-way quantum (or classical) communication; the advantage also holds when we allow for protocols with bounded error probability.

  14. On communicating the complexity (...) Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeland, Lise

    1998-01-01

    campaigns. The general implications fro environmental and social communication are presented and discussed. The article concludes the business can address the underlying environmental and social issues in an informative and responsible manner and that the case study suggests the possibility of doing so...... dimensions. Though a wider range of fair trade products exist, the case study only draws on the compaigns related to coffee. After an introduction to the social problems underlying fair trade, the article studies the communication undertaken by the Max Havelaar Foundation, drawing on material from various...

  15. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  16. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  17. Diagnostic pitfalls associated with a large true posterior communicating artery aneurysm: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Seno, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2013-10-01

    True posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is an aneurysm that originates from the PCoA, and large or giant true PCoA aneurysms are rare. We report a case of a large true PCoA aneurysm successfully clipped after anterior clinoidectomy and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls associated with this rare clinical entity.

  18. Posterior communicating artery hypoplasia as a risk factor for acute ischemic stroke in the absence of carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chih-Yang; Pan, Po-Jung; Lin, Ching-Po

    2008-12-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) hypoplasia is a fetal variant of the Circle of Willis. According to angiograms and autopsy reports, this congenital variation is found in 6-21% of the general population. PCoA hypoplasia only becomes a risk factor for ischemic stroke in the presence of ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. The aim of our study was to determine the role of PCoA hypoplasia in acute ischemic stroke in the absence of ICA occlusion. We examined 310 acute ischemic stroke patients (mean age+/-standard deviation; 68.9+/-15.6 years). Cerebral magnetic resonance angiography was performed within 72 hours of ischemic stroke onset. For comparison, a risk factor-matched control group was recruited. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate the independent effect of potential risk factors. The overall incidence of PCoA hypoplasia in our experimental group was 19.35% (n=60), which was significantly higher than in the control group (8.20%, n=22, p=0.036, OR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.43-9.62). The most common ischemic event was ipsilateral thalamic lacunar infarctions with or without occipital lobe involvement. Based on our results, PCoA hypoplasia appears to be a contributor to the risk of ischemic stroke, even in the absence of ICA occlusion. This risk is especially pronounced for strokes involving arteries that penetrate the thalamus.

  19. Correlation/Communication complexity of generating bipartite states

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Shi, Yaoyun; Wei, Zhaohui; Zhang, Shengyu

    2012-01-01

    We study the correlation complexity (or equivalently, the communication complexity) of generating a bipartite quantum state $\\rho$. When $\\rho$ is a pure state, we completely characterize the complexity for approximately generating $\\rho$ by a corresponding approximate rank, closing a gap left in Ambainis, Schulman, Ta-Shma, Vazirani and Wigderson (SIAM Journal on Computing, 32(6):1570-1585, 2003). When $\\rho$ is a classical distribution $P(x,y)$, we tightly characterize the complexity of gen...

  20. Clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic independent characteristic factors for rupture of posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Jing, Linkai; Liu, Jian; Li, Chuanhui; Fan, Jixing; Wang, Shengzhang; Li, Haiyun; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-08-01

    To identify clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic independent characteristic factors that discriminate posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm rupture status. 173 patients with single PCoA aneurysms (108 ruptured, 65 unruptured) between January 2012 and June 2014 were retrospectively collected. Patient-specific models based on their three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography images were constructed and analyzed by a computational fluid dynamic method. All variables were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Two clinical factors (younger age and atherosclerosis), three morphological factors (higher aspect ratio, bifurcation type, and irregular shape), and six hemodynamic factors (lower mean and minimum wall shear stress, higher oscillatory shear index, a greater portion of area under low wall shear stress, unstable and complex flow pattern) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture. Independent factors characterizing the rupture status were identified as age (OR 0.956, p=0.015), irregular shape (OR 6.709, pPCoA aneurysm rupture were younger age, irregular shape, and low minimum wall shear stress. This may be useful for guiding risk assessments and subsequent treatment decisions for PCoA aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Promoting Conditional Use of Communication Skills for Learners With Complex Communication Needs: A Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simacek, Jessica; Reichle, Joe; Byiers, Breanne J; Parker-McGowan, Quannah; Dimian, Adele F; Elmquist, Marianne

    2018-05-03

    Conditional use of communication skills refers to the ability of a learner to appropriately generalize and discriminate when, where, and how to communicate based on constant variation and shifts in environmental cues. We describe discrimination and generalization challenges encountered by learners with complex communication needs and ways in which these challenges are fostered through traditional communication intervention programming. We address arrangements in instruction that maximize the probability of learners acquiring the conditional use of new vocabulary and the modest instructional technology implemented when planning for generalization. We propose establishing well-discriminated and generalized use of new vocabulary items through the application of a general case instruction framework to communication intervention programming. We provide intervention methodology, including intervention steps for general case instruction, a plethora of functional examples, and graphic displays to assess and intervene to promote conditional use of communication skills for learners with complex communication needs.

  2. short communication polyvinylpyrrolidone-bromine complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2011-06-15

    2Department of Organic-Polymer Chemistry, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran. (Received June 15, 2011; revised January 11, 2012). ABSTRACT. Benzylic bromides were conveniently obtained in high yields via the reaction of the corresponding alcohols with crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone-bromine complex ...

  3. Complex networks in the Euclidean space of communicability distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2012-06-01

    We study the properties of complex networks embedded in a Euclidean space of communicability distances. The communicability distance between two nodes is defined as the difference between the weighted sum of walks self-returning to the nodes and the weighted sum of walks going from one node to the other. We give some indications that the communicability distance identifies the least crowded routes in networks where simultaneous submission of packages is taking place. We define an index Q based on communicability and shortest path distances, which allows reinterpreting the “small-world” phenomenon as the region of minimum Q in the Watts-Strogatz model. It also allows the classification and analysis of networks with different efficiency of spatial uses. Consequently, the communicability distance displays unique features for the analysis of complex networks in different scenarios.

  4. Posterior communicating and vertebral artery configuration and outcome in endovascular treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussen, Diogo C; Dharmadhikari, Sushrut S; Snelling, Brian; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Thomas, Ajith; Peterson, Eric C; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate if vertebrobasilar anatomic variations impact reperfusion and outcome in intra-arterial therapy (IAT) for basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Consecutive BAO patients with symptom onset PCoA) diameters were measured (CT angiography or MR angiography). The presence of PCoA atresia, VA hypoplasia, VAs that end in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and extracranial VA occlusion was recorded. 38 BAO patients were included. Mean age was 63±15 years; 52% were men. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 21±9, and mean/median time from symptom onset to IAT were 10/7 h. First generation thrombectomy devices were mostly used. Overall Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia 2b-3 reperfusion was 68.4%. Good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) was observed in 17.8% and mortality in 64.3% of cases at 90 days. 55% of patients had an atretic PCoA while 47% had a hypoplastic VA. The mean sum of the bilateral PCoA and VA diameters were 2.3±1.2 and 5.2±5.2 mm, respectively. VAs that end in the PICA was noted in 23% of patients, and extracranial VA occlusion in 42%. BAO was proximal/mid/distal in 36%/29%/34%. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated hypertensive disease (β=2.97; 95% CI 1.15 to 4.79; p<0.01) and reperfusion rate (β=-0.40; 95% CI -0.74 to -0.70; p=0.02) independently associated with outcome. Multivariate analysis for predictors of reperfusion failed to identify other associations. A trend for better reperfusion with stent retrievers was noted (β=1.82; 95% CI -0.24 to 3.88; p=0.08). Reperfusion emerged as a predictor of good outcome in patients that underwent IAT for BAO. Angioarchitectural variations of the posterior circulation were not found to impact reperfusion or clinical outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Endovascular treatment of acutely ruptured, wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms using the Enterprise stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Hai; Wu, Yong-Fa; Shen, Jie; Hong, Bo; Yang, Peng-Fei; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jian-Min

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of anterior communicating artery (AcomA) wide-necked aneurysms with the Enterprise stent (Codman, Miami Lakes, FL, USA) has not been commonly described, due to the complexity of the vascular anatomy and the small vessels of the AcomA complex. To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of Enterprise stent placement in AcomA aneurysms, we performed this retrospective study. Between November 2008 and December 2010, 27 wide-necked AcomA ruptured aneurysms were treated within 72 hours of ictus with the Enterprise stent. Data collected and analyzed were: demographic data, morphologic features of the aneurysm, treatment results and follow-up results. Twenty-nine Enterprise stents were successfully deployed in all 27 aneurysms, including Y-configuration stent deployment in two patients. The initial embolization degrees were Raymond class I in 20 patients, class II in five and class III in the other two. The angiographic follow-up of 21 patients (mean, 8.4 months) showed that all aneurysms remained stable or improved; there was no in-stent stenosis, recurrence or retreatment. The clinical follow-up of 26 patients (mean, 12.6 months) showed that 23 patients displayed no symptoms and no or mild disability; three patients remained with severe or moderately severe disability. The Enterprise stent is feasible and safe for endovascular embolization of wide-necked AcomA ruptured aneurysms. Further follow up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of Enterprise stent placement in AcomA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexity theory in the management of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mike

    2003-06-01

    In nature, apparently complex behavioural patterns are the result of repetitive simple rules. Complexity science studies the application of these rules and looks for applications in society. Complexity management opportunities have developed from this science and are providing a revolutionary approach in the constantly changing workplace. This article discusses how complexity management techniques have already been applied to communicable disease management in Wales and suggests further developments. A similar approach is recommended to others in the field, while complexity management probably has wider applications in the NHS, not least in relation to the developing managed clinical networks.

  7. Complex neurological symptoms in bilateral thalamic stroke due to Percheron artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paola; Manganotti, Paolo; Moretti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance. The presentation is similar to the "top of the basilar syndrome", and early recognition should be prompted. We describe the case of a young female with this vessel variant who experienced a bilateral thalamic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral thalamic infarcts and a truncated artery of Percheron. Occlusion of the vessel was presumably due to embolism from a patent foramen ovale. Thrombolysis was performed, with incomplete symptom remission, cognitive impairment, and persistence of speech disorders. Early recognition and treatment of posterior circulation strokes is mandatory, and further investigation for underlying stroke etiologies is needed.

  8. Subtemporal approach to basilar tip aneurysm with division of posterior communicating artery: Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Kakino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Shunsuke Kakino, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Hideaki Nishimoto, Akira OgawaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka, Iwate, JapanAbstract: The subtemporal approach with division of the posterior communicating artery (PcomA is described for treating aneurysms of the basilar tip. When the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA interferes with visibility and manipulation around the aneurysm neck and the artery is tethered by the PcomA and not mobilized, the PcomA can be divided near the junction with the PCA. The procedure permits PCA mobilization and exposes the neck of the aneurysm. We applied this procedure to a patient with a ruptured aneurysm of the basilar tip. The postoperative course was uneventful except for transient left oculomotor nerve palsy. Postoperative cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the respective disappearance of the aneurysm and no new ischemic lesions. The subtemporal approach allows safer and easier division of the PcomA near the junction to the PCA compared with the pterional approach, and the present procedure is more suitable for the subtemporal approach.Keywords: basilar tip aneurysm, subtemporal approach, posterior communicating artery

  9. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Nan; Wang, Chi; Karmonik, Christof; Fang, Yibin; Xu, Jinyu; Yu, Ying; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. Materials and Methods In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured), clinical, morphological and hemo...

  10. Management of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms presenting with sudden paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-hong MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the causes of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms presenting with paraplegia, and summarize the key points of diagnosis and treatment methods. Methods  A total of 260 patients with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms were received medical treatment in the Department of Neurosurgery, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital from Jan. 2012 to Mar. 2015. Of which 6 patients were clinically presented with paraplegia, their clinical data including CT/MR/DSA were retrospectively analyzed, and based on the analysis, aneurysm embolization and anti-vasospasm treatment were performed. Results  Besides headache and discomfort in the neck, 5 of the 6 patients were with double lower limbs paraplegia, and the another one presented quadriplegia. By symptomatic treatment of aneurysm embolization and anti vasospasm, the myodynamia of the paraplegic limbs recovered from 0-Ⅰto Ⅳ-Ⅴgrade, and 2 of the 6 patients spent a shorter recovery time (about 2 weeks, the other 4 recovered in 3 months. The limbs myodynamia of the 6 patients recovered completely in half-and one year follow up. Conclusions  The mechanism of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms presenting with paraplegia may be the insufficient blood supply to the primary motor area and supplementary motor area (SMA of brain cortex caused by aneurysms rupture. Aneurysm embolization should be performed in clinical treatment, supplemented with anti vasospasm and symptomatic treatment of improving neurological function. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.14

  11. Super-selective Balloon Test Occlusion of the Posterior Communicating Artery in the Treatment of a Posterior Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Isozaki, Makoto; Arai, Hiroshi; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man with underlying hypertension who developed diplopia lasting 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography showed multi-lobular unruptured aneurysms in the P2 portion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) migrating into the interpeduncular cistern of the midbrain. Because the shapes of the aneurysms were serpentine fusiform and the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) was the fetal type, we planned anastomosis of the occipita...

  12. Impact of Aneurysm Projection on Intraoperative Complications During Surgical Clipping of Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Kosuke; Yoshino, Kumiko; Koyama, Takashi; Lo, Benjamin; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Yamagata, Sen

    2016-03-01

    Surgical clipping of ruptured posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms is a well-established procedure to date. However, preoperative factors associated with procedure-related risk require further elucidation. To investigate the impact of the direction of aneurysm projection on the incidence of procedure-related complications during surgical clipping of ruptured PCoA aneurysms. A total of 65 patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database in this study. The aneurysms were categorized into lateral and posterior projection groups, depending on direction of the dome. Characteristics and operative findings of each projection group were identified. We also evaluated any correlation of aneurysm projection with the incidence of procedure-related complications. Patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms with posterior projection more likely presented with good-admission-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (P = .01, χ test) and were less to also have intracerebral hematoma (P = .01). These aneurysms were found to be associated with higher incidence of intraoperative rupture (P = .02), complex clipping with fenestrated clips (P = .02), and dense adherence to PCoA or its perforators (P = .04) by univariate analysis. Aneurysms with posterior projection were also correlated with procedure-related complications, including postoperative cerebral infarction or hematoma formation (odds ratio, 5.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-31.1; P = .04) by multivariable analysis. Ruptured PCoA aneurysms with posterior projection carried a higher risk of procedure-related complications of surgical clipping than those with lateral projection.

  13. Communication access to businesses and organizations for people with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Barbara; Blackstone, Sarah W; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    Human rights legislation and anti-discrimination and accessibility laws exist in many countries and through international conventions and treaties. To varying degrees, these laws protect the rights of people with disabilities to full and equal access to goods and services. Yet, the accessibility requirements of people with complex communication needs (CCN) are not well represented in the existing accessibility literature. This article describes the results of surveys completed by disability service providers and individuals with CCN due to cerebral palsy, developmental delay, and acquired disabilities. It identifies accessibility requirements for people with CCN for face-to-face communication; comprehension of spoken language; telephone communication; text and print-based communication; Internet, email, and social media interactions; and written communication. Recommendations are made for communication accessibility accommodations in regulations, guidelines, and practices.

  14. Exploring the morphospace of communication efficiency in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Goñi

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical analysis has played a key role in characterizing global features of the topology of complex networks, describing diverse systems such as protein interactions, food webs, social relations and brain connectivity. How system elements communicate with each other depends not only on the structure of the network, but also on the nature of the system's dynamics which are constrained by the amount of knowledge and resources available for communication processes. Complementing widely used measures that capture efficiency under the assumption that communication preferentially follows shortest paths across the network ("routing", we define analytic measures directed at characterizing network communication when signals flow in a random walk process ("diffusion". The two dimensions of routing and diffusion efficiency define a morphospace for complex networks, with different network topologies characterized by different combinations of efficiency measures and thus occupying different regions of this space. We explore the relation of network topologies and efficiency measures by examining canonical network models, by evolving networks using a multi-objective optimization strategy, and by investigating real-world network data sets. Within the efficiency morphospace, specific aspects of network topology that differentially favor efficient communication for routing and diffusion processes are identified. Charting regions of the morphospace that are occupied by canonical, evolved or real networks allows inferences about the limits of communication efficiency imposed by connectivity and dynamics, as well as the underlying selection pressures that have shaped network topology.

  15. Hemodynamic patterns of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: a possible association with rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the different flows present at anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysms and investigate possible associations with rupture. For that purpose, patient-specific computational models of 26 AcoA aneurysms were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images. Bilateral images were acquired in 15 patients who had both A1 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries and models were created by fusing the reconstructed left and right arterial trees. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed under pulsatile flow conditions. Visualizations of the flow velocity pattern were created to classify the aneurysms into the following flow types: A) inflow from both A1 segments, B) flow jet in the parent artery splits into three secondary jets, one enters the aneurysm and the other two are directed to the A2 segments, C) the parent artery jet splits into two secondary jets, one is directed to one of the A2 segments and the other enters the aneurysm before being directed to the other A2 segment, and D) the parent artery jet enters the aneurysm before being directed towards the A2 segments. The maximum wall shear stress in the aneurysm at the systolic peak (MWSS) was calculated. Most aneurysms in group A were unruptured and had the lowest MWSS. Group B had the same number of unruptured and ruptured aneurysms, and a low MWSS. Groups C and D had high rupture ratios, being the average MWSS significantly higher in group C. Finally, it was found that the MWSS was higher for ruptured aneurysms of all flow types.

  16. The ethics of good communication in a complex research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeke, Stephen; Turner, Timothy; Tarver, Will

    2010-08-01

    The tripartite partnership among Morehouse School of Medicine, Tuskegee University, and University of Alabama at Birmingham is complex. In 2005, the three schools--with different institutional cultures, characters, and resources--agreed to collaborate in efforts to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in cancer burdens. Pursuing this laudable aim predictably involved some miscommunication. The Bioethics Shared Resource (BSR) group foresaw such challenges and monitored interactions to prevent harm, noting that while effective communication is critical to the achievement of mutual goals, an understanding and prudent use of proven communication principles is a sine qua non for success. In this commentary, we share the undergirding moral concepts, communication approaches, and lessons learned. This experience has led us to propose an ethics of good communication for others to consider.

  17. Infundibular dilatation of the posterior communicating artery in a defined population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlajković, Slobodan; Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Slađana; Dorđević, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Unusual widening of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) at its beginning from the cerebral portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was described as its infundibular dilatation (ID). A possibility of ID rupture or progression to aneurysm was the reason for an investigation of its frequency and morphologic features in specimens of the Serbian population. Cerebral arteries on the brain base of 267 adult cadavers of both genders and varying age and causes of death were dissected. The images of the PCoA in 190 fetuses were also reviewed. ID of the PCoA was defined as a funnel shaped beginning of different width from ICA, wherein PCoA continues from ID apex to the posterior cerebral artery. There were no cases of ID in fetuses. ID and aneurysms of the PCoA were found in 6/267 or 2.2% and 3/267 or 1.12% of adults, respectively. Unilaterally, they existed on the left side and, frequently, in male cases aging 70 years and older, that had died without cerebral cause. Bilaterally, ID was found in 2/6 cases. There was only one case of ID and aneurysm of the PCoA, but from the ID. We are of the opinion that ID of the PCoA only develops postnatally and probably is due to the influence of hemodynamic factors or hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of the optic nerve using magnetic resonance angiography. Application to anterior communicating artery aneurysm and craniopharingioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Fukuyama, Koichi; Ikeno, Kunihiro; Araki, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kinya; Sohma, Noriko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze three-dimensional images of the optic nerve obtained by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysm and craniopharingioma. Four ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms, five non-ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms and two craniopharingiomas were examined. The images were taken using MR/i Hispeed Plus 1.5 T Infinity version, and analyzed by Advantage Work station AW4.1. The routine MR imaging parameters are shown in Table. The imaging time was about 10 minutes. Analysis was made by reformation of images parallel to the optic nerve obtained from the original MRA images. The optic nerve and brain tumor were traced with paintbrush from one sheet to another of the reformed images after subtraction of the blood vessels around the anterior communicating artery in these reformed images, and then three-dimensional images were constructed. Three-dimensional images of the blood vessels were reconstructed from MIP (maximum intensity projection) images using the threshold method. The optic nerve and anterior communicating arterial aneurysm or brain tumor were both observed in the overlapped 3D-SSD (shaded surface display) images. The analysis time was about 15 minutes. Three-dimensional images of the optic nerve and anterior communicating artery aneurysm or brain tumor were able to be made in all cases. As a preoperative investigation for anterior communicating artery aneurysm or suprasellar brain tumor, we considered that three-dimensional imaging of the optic nerve is useful in the operative approach because the optic nerve acts as a merkmal for the anterior communicating aneurysm or brain tumor. (author)

  19. Non-electronic communication aids for people with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Teresa; Lyon, Katie; West, Denise

    2011-10-01

    Non-electronic communication aids provide one form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for people with complex communication needs. The aim here was to explore non-electronic communication aids as one AAC option and research challenges. This aim was addressed by reviewing funding for the provision of AAC systems, data from an Australian pilot project providing non-electronic communication aids, an audit of aided AAC published studies (2000-2009), and discussion of the review literature. Combined, these sources indicate that although there is great demand for non-electronic communication aids, funding schemes, both in Australia and internationally, have focused on electronic communication aids. Such funding has usually failed to meet the total device costs and has not provided for adequate speech-language pathology support. Data from the pilot indicated the demand for non-electronic communication aids, and patterns suggest potential factors that govern the types selected. Despite the high demand for non-electronic aids, the research literature has tended to focus on electronic communication aids, including within intervention studies and addressing design features and long-term outcomes. Concerns about ensuring that AAC systems are chosen according to the assessed needs of individuals are discussed within the context of limitations in outcomes research and appropriate outcome measures.

  20. An autopsy case of a giant aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Fujio; Takayasu, Kenji; Ohiwa, Yasuyuki; Sakata, Ryuichi; Ariwa, Rokuro

    1983-01-01

    A 64-year-old female was admitted to our hospital on 8, July, 1980 with a history of three previous subarachnoid hemorrhages. Neurological examinations revealed incontinentia urinae, gait disturbance, recent memory disturbance and motor weakness on the left side. The results of the neuroradiological examinations were as follows. Plain X-ray films showed a ring-like calcification in the right frontal region. A plain CT scan showed a ring-shaped iso- and high-density area in the intra hemispheric region, the intra bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, the intra septum pellucidum, and the intra anterior part of the third ventricle. A small high-density region was enhanced as an island within it by means of a Conray infusion. Left carotid angiography showed a large aneurysmal shadow arising from the anterior communicating artery and another from the left middle cerebral artery. In the venous phase the venous angle was supero-posteriorly shifted, and the septal vein was elevated. She died unexpectedly with a status epilepticus of unknown origin. Clinically, rerupture was not verified. An autopsy specimen revealed that a giant aneurysm (6 x 5 x 4 cm in size) arising from the anterior communicating artery occupied the intra ventricular space, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the right thalamic region. Also, there was a large berry aneurysm (2 x 1.7 x 1.5 cm in size) arising from the middle cerebral artery. A coronary section through the giant aneurysm showed a markedly compressed left lateral ventricle, right thalamus, and hypothalamus, while the third ventricle had shifted toward the left side. (J.P.N.)

  1. Complexities of emergency communication: clinicians' perceptions of communication challenges in a trilingual emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Jack Kh; Chan, Engle Angela; Murray, Kristen A; Slade, Diana; Matthiessen, Christian Mim

    2017-11-01

    To understand the challenges that clinicians face in communicating with patients and other clinicians within a Hong Kong trilingual emergency department. Effective communication has long been recognised as fundamental to the delivery of quality health care, especially in high-risk and time-constrained environments such as emergency departments. The issue of effective communication is particularly relevant in Hong Kong emergency departments, due to the high volume of patients and the linguistic complexity of this healthcare context. In Hong Kong, emergency department clinicians are native speakers of Chinese, but have received their medical training in English. The clinicians read and record virtually all of their medical documentation in English, yet they communicate verbally with patients in Cantonese and Mandarin. In addition, communication between clinicians occurs in spoken Cantonese, mixed with medical English. Thus, medical information is translated numerous times within one patient journey. This complex linguistic environment creates the potential for miscommunication. A mixed-methods design consisting of a quantitative survey with a sequential qualitative interview. Data were collected in a survey from a purposive sample of 58 clinicians and analysed through descriptive statistics. Eighteen of the clinicians were then invited to take part in semi-structured interviews, the data from which were then subjected to a manifest content analysis. Nearly half of the clinicians surveyed believed that medical information may be omitted or altered through repeated translation in a trilingual emergency department. Eighty-three per cent of clinicians stated that there are communication problems at triage. Over 40% said that they have difficulties in documenting medical information. Around 50% believed that long work hours reduced their ability to communicate effectively with patients. In addition, 34% admitted that they rarely or never listen to patients during a

  2. Dimensional discontinuity in quantum communication complexity at dimension seven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Entanglement-assisted classical communication and transmission of a quantum system are the two quantum resources for information processing. Many information tasks can be performed using either quantum resource. However, this equivalence is not always present since entanglement-assisted classical communication is sometimes known to be the better performing resource. Here, we show not only the opposite phenomenon, that there exist tasks for which transmission of a quantum system is a more powerful resource than entanglement-assisted classical communication, but also that such phenomena can have a surprisingly strong dependence on the dimension of Hilbert space. We introduce a family of communication complexity problems parametrized by the dimension of Hilbert space and study the performance of each quantum resource. Under an additional assumption of a linear strategy for the receiving party, we find that for low dimensions the two resources perform equally well, whereas for dimension seven and above the equivalence is suddenly broken and transmission of a quantum system becomes more powerful than entanglement-assisted classical communication. Moreover, we find that transmission of a quantum system may even outperform classical communication assisted by the stronger-than-quantum correlations obtained from the principle of macroscopic locality.

  3. Morphological and clinical risk factors for posterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Fujii, Motoharu; Akaike, Gensuke; Uemura, Akihiro; Takahashi, Osamu; Niimi, Yasunari; Shinoda, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that posterior circulation aneurysms, specifically posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, are more likely to rupture than other aneurysms. To date, few studies have investigated the factors contributing to PCoA aneurysm rupture. The authors aimed to identify morphological and clinical characteristics predisposing to PCoA aneurysm rupture. The authors retrospectively reviewed 134 consecutive patients with PCoA aneurysms managed at their facility between July 2003 and December 2012. The authors divided patients into groups of those with aneurysmal rupture (n = 39) and without aneurysmal rupture (n = 95) and compared morphological and clinical characteristics. Morphological characteristics were mainly evaluated by 3D CT angiography and included diameter of arteries (anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and internal carotid artery), size of the aneurysm, dome-to-neck ratio, neck direction of the aneurysmal dome around the PCoA (medial, lateral, superior, inferior, and posterior), aneurysm bleb formation, whether the PCoA was fetal type, and the existence of other intracranial unruptured aneurysm(s). Patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms were significantly younger (a higher proportion were PCoA aneurysms showed a lateral direction of the aneurysmal dome around the PCoA, had bleb formation, and the aneurysm was > 7 mm in diameter and/or the dome-to-neck ratio was > 2.0. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age PCoA (OR 6.7, p = 0.0001), and bleb formation (OR 11, p PCoA aneurysm rupture. The present results demonstrated that lateral projection of a PCoA aneurysm may be related to rupture.

  4. Fractal Complexity-Based Feature Extraction Algorithm of Communication Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Jingchao; Guo, Lili; Dou, Zheng; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Ruolin

    How to analyze and identify the characteristics of radiation sources and estimate the threat level by means of detecting, intercepting and locating has been the central issue of electronic support in the electronic warfare, and communication signal recognition is one of the key points to solve this issue. Aiming at accurately extracting the individual characteristics of the radiation source for the increasingly complex communication electromagnetic environment, a novel feature extraction algorithm for individual characteristics of the communication radiation source based on the fractal complexity of the signal is proposed. According to the complexity of the received signal and the situation of environmental noise, use the fractal dimension characteristics of different complexity to depict the subtle characteristics of the signal to establish the characteristic database, and then identify different broadcasting station by gray relation theory system. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm can achieve recognition rate of 94% even in the environment with SNR of -10dB, and this provides an important theoretical basis for the accurate identification of the subtle features of the signal at low SNR in the field of information confrontation.

  5. On imperfect node protection in complex communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shi; Xiao Gaoxi

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent research on complex networks, we study enhancing complex communication networks against intentional attack which takes down network nodes in a decreasing order of their degrees. Specifically, we evaluate an effect which has been largely ignored in existing studies; many real-life systems, especially communication systems, have protection mechanisms for their important components. Due to the existence of such protection, it is generally quite difficult to totally crash a protected node, though partially paralyzing it may still be feasible. Our analytical and simulation results show that such 'imperfect' protections generally speaking still help significantly enhance network robustness. Such insight may be helpful for the future developments of efficient network attack and protection schemes.

  6. On imperfect node protection in complex communication networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shi [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot and School of Computer Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Xiao Gaoxi, E-mail: xiao_moon2002@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: egxxiao@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Communication Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-02-04

    Motivated by recent research on complex networks, we study enhancing complex communication networks against intentional attack which takes down network nodes in a decreasing order of their degrees. Specifically, we evaluate an effect which has been largely ignored in existing studies; many real-life systems, especially communication systems, have protection mechanisms for their important components. Due to the existence of such protection, it is generally quite difficult to totally crash a protected node, though partially paralyzing it may still be feasible. Our analytical and simulation results show that such 'imperfect' protections generally speaking still help significantly enhance network robustness. Such insight may be helpful for the future developments of efficient network attack and protection schemes.

  7. Complex systems relationships between control, communications and computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a wide-ranging description of the many facets of complex dynamic networks and systems within an infrastructure provided by integrated control and supervision: envisioning, design, experimental exploration, and implementation. The theoretical contributions and the case studies presented can reach control goals beyond those of stabilization and output regulation or even of adaptive control. Reporting on work of the Control of Complex Systems (COSY) research program, Complex Systems follows from and expands upon an earlier collection: Control of Complex Systems by introducing novel theoretical techniques for hard-to-control networks and systems. The major common feature of all the superficially diverse contributions encompassed by this book is that of spotting and exploiting possible areas of mutual reinforcement between control, computing and communications. These help readers to achieve not only robust stable plant system operation but also properties such as collective adaptivity, integrity an...

  8. Communication complexity towards lower bounds on circuit depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edmonds, J.; Impagliazzo, R.; Rudich, S.; Sgall, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2001), s. 210-246 ISSN 1016-3328 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019602; GA AV ČR IAA1019901; GA ČR GA201/97/P038; GA ČR GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk ME 103 Keywords : communication complexity%lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.448, year: 2001

  9. Therapeutic communication and relationships in chronic and complex care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Sharon; Scott, Robin; Rossiter, Rachel

    2016-10-05

    As the population ages and the incidence of chronic diseases and lifestyle-related conditions rises, nurses are increasingly required to provide care for people with a range of chronic (long-term) conditions. The healthcare needs of patients are often complicated by comorbid conditions. Nurses deliver healthcare in the context of the patient's medical conditions, treatment regimens, the healthcare system, and the individual's socioeconomic, personal and family factors, which may include the challenges of social isolation and geographic distance. In such complex circumstances, patients may be perceived as 'difficult' or 'challenging', however, the challenge is not the patient themselves, but the relationship between the nurse and the patient. Communication difficulties can occur between nurses and patients, which may affect the therapeutic relationship and the quality of care provided. This article discusses the communication skills that nurses require to interact effectively with patients who have complex and chronic comorbid conditions. It focuses on therapeutic communication strategies and the nurse-patient relationship, while emphasising the need for nurses to be self-aware when caring for patients with complex healthcare needs.

  10. Improving Literacy Skills in Students with Complex Communication Needs Who Use Augmentative/Alternative Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    A structured intervention package including direct, scaffolded, instructional lessons was implemented using an error correction learning system and a picture book-based phonological and phonemic awareness activity for four participants with complex communication needs, ranging from 12 to 15 years, in a junior high school setting. Although…

  11. An examination of relations between participation, communication and age in children with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael; Newton, Caroline; Petrides, Konstantinos; Griffiths, Tom; Lysley, Andrew; Price, Katie

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variation in the frequency of children's participation in out-of-school activities as a function of speech intelligibility, perceived effectiveness of the child's communication aid, and age. Sixty-nine caregivers of children with complex communication needs provided with communication aids completed a questionnaire survey. Rate of participation was higher for younger than for older children, particularly in recreational activities. Younger children with partial intelligibility participated more frequently in recreational and social activities than both younger children without speech and older children. Results and limitations are discussed within the context of participation research in childhood disability, highlighting the impact of communicative resources and maturation on everyday participation.

  12. Measuring Early Communication in Spanish Speaking Children: The Communication Complexity Scale in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Erin; Brady, Nancy C; Esplund, Amy

    There is a great need in the United States to develop presymbolic evaluation tools that are widely available and accurate for individuals that come from a bilingual and/or multicultural setting. The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) is a measure that evaluates expressive presymbolic communication including gestures, vocalizations and eye gaze. Studying the effectiveness of this tool in a Spanish speaking environment was undertaken to determine the applicability of the CCS with Spanish speaking children. Methods & Procedures: In 2011-2012, researchers from the University of Kansas and Centro Ann Sullivan del Perú (CASP) investigated communication in a cohort of 71 young Spanish speaking children with developmental disabilities and a documented history of self-injurious, stereotyped and aggressive behaviors. Communication was assessed first by parental report with translated versions of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS), a well-known assessment of early communication, and then eleven months later with the CCS. We hypothesized that the CCS and the CSBS measures would be significantly correlated in this population of Spanish speaking children. The CSBS scores from time 1 with a mean participant age of 41 months were determined to have a strong positive relationship to the CCS scores obtained at time 2 with a mean participant age of 52 months. The CCS is strongly correlated to a widely accepted measure of early communication. These findings support the validity of the Spanish version of the CCS and demonstrate its usefulness for children from another culture and for children in a Spanish speaking environment.

  13. Successful flow reduction surgery for a ruptured true posterior communicating artery aneurysm caused by the common carotid artery ligation for epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamao, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Jun C; Satow, Tetsu; Iihara, Koji; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery occlusion can lead to the development of rare true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms because of hemodynamic stress on the PCoA. Surgical treatment of these lesions is challenging. The authors report a case of a true PCoA aneurysm that developed and ruptured 37 years after ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery for epistaxis. The lesion was successfully treated with clipping of the distal M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) after the occipital artery-radial artery free graft-MCA bypass, which led to extreme reduction in collateral flow through the PCoA. A cortical branch, located just proximal to the obliteration site, functioned as a sufficient flow outlet. The aneurysm shrank, and the patient has been doing well without any symptoms for 5 years after surgery. M1 obliteration combined with high-flow extra-intracranial bypass might be a promising option for a true PCoA aneurysm, and therapeutic design that leaves a sufficient flow outlet on the M1 is mandatory to avoid unexpected occlusion of the M1 and its perforators.

  14. Patency of the posterior communicating artery following treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Badih; Valle-Giler, Edison P; Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Hasan, David; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Hebert, Ryan; Jabbour, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has become an effective treatment strategy for some cerebral aneurysms. Concerns regarding the patency of branch arteries have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the patency of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) following treatment of PCoA aneurysms using the PED. METHODS All patients with PCoA aneurysms treated with the PED who had angiographic follow-up were retrospectively identified. The patency of the PCoA at follow-up was evaluated by 2 authors who were not involved in the intervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the following: 1) PCoA patency versus no or diminished flow, and 2) PCoA patency and diminished flow versus PCoA occlusion. RESULTS Thirty patients with an angiographic follow-up of 6 months were included. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 25 patients (83.3%). The PCoA was patent in 7 patients (23.3%), had diminished flow in 7 patients (23.3%), and was occluded in 16 patients (53.3%). In the univariate analysis of outcome, there was a trend for aneurysms with incomplete occlusion, aneurysms not previously treated, those with presence of a fetal PCoA, and those with an artery coming from the aneurysm to have higher odds of the PCoA remaining patent. In univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with outcome, fetal PCoA and presence of an artery coming from the aneurysm were associated with the PCoA remaining open with or without diminished flow. No patients had symptoms related to PCoA occlusion. CONCLUSIONS Occlusion and diminished flow through the PCoA is common following PED treatment of PCoA aneurysms. However, it is clinically insignificant in most cases.

  15. Fenestrations and Various Duplications of the Posterior Communicating Artery in the Prenatal and Postnatal Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafilović, Milena; Vasović, Ljiljana; Vlajković, Slobodan; Đorđević, Gordana; Stojanović, Borisav; Mladenović, Marija

    2016-07-01

    The 2 paired arteries-the posterior communicating arteries (PCoAs) and the precommunicating parts of the posterior cerebral arteries-form the so-called posterior segment of the cerebral arterial circle on the base of the brain. A number of (ab)normal morphologic features were described in the literature (e.g., unusual kinking, or extreme elongations, hypoplasia, duplications, fenestrations, the infundibular widening, or aplasia of the PCoA in the prenatal and/or postnatal periods). The aim of this study was to analyze an incidence of various fenestrations and duplications of the PCoA, and describe their general features and their association with other vascular abnormalities. The research was performed on the brains of 200 human fetuses and 377 adult cadavers of both genders and different ages using microdissection and macrodissection methods. There were 0.34% cases with PCoA fenestrations and 3.12% cases with various PCoA duplications. Their morphologic features were described and compared with the similar PCoA abnormalities recorded in the scientific literature. There was no association between the PCoA and either duplication or aneurysm in adult cases. After thorough examination, the fenestrations and duplications of the PCoA are distinguished as 2 special forms of vascular abnormalities, and the PCoA duplications are characterized as partial and total. Furthermore, whereas the low incidence of a fenestration of the PCoA suggests it to be a sufficiently rare phenomenon, the duplications of the PCoA trunk are fairly frequent, especially concerning its terminal segment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GeoVisual Analytics for the Exploration of Complex Movement Patterns on Arterial Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Visualization of complex spatio-temporal traffic movements on the road network is a challenging task since it requires simultaneous representation of vehicle measurement characteristics and traffic network regulation rules. Previously proposed visual representations addressed issues related....... Arterial roads are important for the mobility and connectivity of modern society, but they also have traffic regulations that are not always followed by the vulnerable road users. In order to understand complex movement behaviors between vehicle drivers and pedestrians on the arterial roads, a Geo......Visual Analytics approach was developed in dialog with traffic experts. The exploratory interactive tools have assisted experts to extract unknown information about movement patterns from large traffic data at different levels of details. The results of the analysis revealed detailed patterns of speed variations...

  17. True posterior communicating artery aneurysms: are they more prone to rupture? A biomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Hauptman, Jason; Pasupuleti, Latha; Setton, Avi; Farrow, Maria G; Kasper, Lydia; Karimi, Reza; Gandhi, Chirag D; Catrambone, Jeffrey E; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2010-03-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms can occur at the junction with the internal carotid artery, posterior cerebral artery (PCA), or the proximal PCoA itself. Hemodynamic stressors contribute to aneurysm formation and may be associated with parent vessel size and aneurysm location. This study evaluates the correlation of various biomorphometric characteristics in 2 of the aforementioned types of PCoA aneurysms. Patients with PCoA aneurysms were analyzed using CT angiography. Source images and reconstructions were used to determine which aneurysms originated purely from the PCoA and those that originated from the internal carotid artery/PCoA junction. Morphometric analysis was performed on the aneurysm, the precommunicating segment of the PCA (P(1)), the ambient segment of the PCA (P(2)), and both PCoA arteries and were correlated to clinical presentation. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were performed to test for significance. A total of 77 PCoA aneurysms were analyzed, and 10 were found to be true PCoA aneurysms (13.0%). The ipsilateral PCoA/P(1) ratio (1.77 +/- 0.44 vs 0.82 +/- 0.46, p = 0.0001) and ipsilateral P(2)/P(1) ratio (1.73 +/- 0.40 vs 1.22 +/- 0.41, p = 0.0003) were significantly larger in true PCoA aneurysms. Interestingly, aneurysm size was statistically larger in the junctional aneurysms (0.14 +/- 0.1 vs 0.072 +/- 0.04 cm(3), p = 0.03). The prevalence of ruptured aneurysms was similar in both groups (approximately 80%, p value not significant). These data suggest that true PCoA aneurysms have a larger PCoA relative to the ipsilateral P(1) segment. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first such biomorphometric comparison of these different types of PCoA aneurysms. Although statistically smaller in size, true PCoA aneurysms also have a similar prevalence of presenting as a ruptured aneurysm, suggesting that they might be more prone to rupture than a junctional aneurysms of similar size. Further analysis will be required to

  18. Radiographic absence of the posterior communicating arteries and the prediction of cognitive dysfunction after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Eric S; Kellner, Christopher P; Mergeche, Joanna L; Bruce, Samuel S; McDowell, Michael M; Heyer, Eric J; Connolly, E Sander

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 25% of patients exhibit cognitive dysfunction 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). One of the purported mechanisms of early cognitive dysfunction (eCD) is hypoperfusion due to inadequate collateral circulation during cross-clamping of the carotid artery. The authors assessed whether poor collateral circulation within the circle of Willis, as determined by preoperative CT angiography (CTA) or MR angiography (MRA), could predict eCD. Patients who underwent CEA after preoperative MRA or CTA imaging and full neuropsychometric evaluation were included in this study (n = 42); 4 patients were excluded due to intraoperative electroencephalographic changes and subsequent shunt placement. Thirty-eight patients were included in the statistical analyses. Patients were stratified according to posterior communicating artery (PCoA) status (radiographic visualization of at least 1 PCoA vs of no PCoAs). Variables with p PCoAs was the only independent predictor of eCD (OR 9.64, 95% CI 1.43-64.92, p = 0.02). The absence of both PCoAs on preoperative radiographic imaging is predictive of eCD after CEA. This finding supports the evidence for an underlying ischemic etiology of eCD. Larger studies are justified to verify the findings of this study. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00597883 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ).

  19. Dissecting aneurysms of posterior communicating artery itself: anatomical, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Burak; Tureci, Ercan; Kizilkilic, Osman; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci

    2013-09-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself is an unusual location for intracranial aneurysms in that isolated dissections or dissecting aneurysms are extremely rare. In the way of correct diagnosis of dissecting aneurysms of PCoA itself, a proper understanding of (1) the anatomy of the PCoA and its perforator branches, (2) some particular diagnostic features, and (3) related clinical aspects is of significant importance. Although there are no established treatment strategies for this particular type of aneurysms, the endovascular approach might be considered as a plausible one. In this paper, our scope was to report five cases with dissecting aneurysm of the PCoA itself and to discuss this rare vascular pathology from anatomical, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutical perspectives.

  20. Recovery of Third Nerve Palsy after Endovascular Packing of Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavilio, N.; Pisani, R.; Rivano, C.; Testa, V.; Spaziante, R.; Rosa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Endovascular packing of intracranial aneurysm with preservation of the parent vessel has become in many cases a valid alternative to surgical clipping. Regression of oculomotor disorders after clipping of internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysms has been well assessed. This report focuses on the reversal of third nerve palsy after endovascular packing of ICA-PCoA aneurysms. To this end, clinical appearances, neuroradiological features, and endovascular interventional procedures of six treated patient are reported and discussed in the light of the very few previous case observations found in the literature. Results indicate that endovascular packing of ICA-PCoA aneurysms may produce effective recovery of correlated third nerve dysfunction. PMID:20667199

  1. Enterprise Deployment Through PulseRider To Treat Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Iacopo; Limbucci, Nicola; Nappini, Sergio; Rosi, Andrea; Laiso, Antonio; Mangiafico, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    PulseRider (Pulsar Vascular, Los Gatos, California, USA) is a new endovascular device designed to treat wide-neck bifurcation intracranial aneurysms. Deployment of a stent through a PulseRider to treat an aneurysm's recurrence has never been described before. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who underwent coiling of an 8-mm anterior communicating artery aneurysm with assistance of a PulseRider neck reconstruction device. The 6-month digital subtraction angiography control showed aneurysm recurrence, so we deployed an Enterprise 2 closed-cell stent (Codman, Miami Lakes, Florida, USA) in the A1-A2 segment passing across the previously implanted PulseRider. Enterprise correctly expanded and allowed for adequate coiling of the aneurysm. An Enterprise stent can be safely opened through a PulseRider in order to treat aneurysm recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resolution of Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Secondary to Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: Comparison of Clipping and Coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, D Jay; Lovasik, Brendan P; McCracken, Courtney E; Caplan, Justin M; Turan, Nefize; Nogueira, Raul G; Cawley, C Michael; Dion, Jacques E; Tamargo, Rafael J; Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have attempted to determine the best treatment for oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) secondary to posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, but have been limited by small sample sizes and limited treatment. To analyze the treatment of ONP secondary to PCoA with both coiling and clipping in ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Data from 2 large academic centers was retrospectively collected over 22 years, yielding a total of 93 patients with ONP secondary to PCoA aneurysms. These patients were combined with 321 patients from the literature review for large data analyses. Onset symptoms, recovery, and time to resolution were evaluated with respect to treatment and aneurysm rupture status. For all patients presenting with ONP (n = 414) 56.6% of those treated with microsurgical clipping made a full recovery vs 41.5% of those treated with endovascular coil embolization (P = .02). Of patients with a complete ONP (n = 229), full recovery occurred in 47.3% of those treated with clipping but in only 20% of those undergoing coiling (P = .01). For patients presenting with ruptured aneurysms (n = 130), full recovery occurred in 70.9% compared with 49.3% coiled patients (P = .01). Additionally, although patients with full ONP recovery had a median time to treatment of 4 days, those without full ONP recovery had a median time to treatment of 7 days (P = .01). Patients with ONP secondary to PCoA aneurysms treated with clipping showed higher rates of full ONP resolution than patients treated with coil embolization. Larger prospective studies are needed to determine the true potential of recovery associated with each treatment. EUH, Emory University HospitalIQR, interquartile rangeJHU, Johns Hopkins UniversitymRS, modified Rankin ScaleONP, oculomotor nerve palsyPCoA, posterior communicating arterySAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  3. Employers' experience of employees with cancer: trajectories of complex communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, C M; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Frings-Dresen, M H W; De Boer, A G E M; Greidanus, M A; Tamminga, S J; De Rijk, A E

    2017-10-01

    Remaining in paid work is of great importance for cancer survivors, and employers play a crucial role in achieving this. Return to work (RTW) is best seen as a process. This study aims to provide insight into (1) Dutch employers' experiences with RTW of employees with cancer and (2) the employers' needs for support regarding this process. Thirty employer representatives of medium and large for-profit and non-profit organizations were interviewed to investigate their experiences and needs in relation to employees with cancer. A Grounded Theory approach was used. We revealed a trajectory of complex communication and decision-making during different stages, from the moment the employee disclosed that they had been diagnosed to the period after RTW, permanent disability, or the employee's passing away. Employers found this process demanding due to various dilemmas. Dealing with an unfavorable diagnosis and balancing both the employer's and the employee's interests were found to be challenging. Two types of approach to support RTW of employees with cancer were distinguished: (1) a business-oriented approach and (2) a care-oriented approach. Differences in approach were related to differences in organizational structure and employer and employee characteristics. Employers expressed a need for communication skills, information, and decision-making skills to support employees with cancer. The employers interviewed stated that dealing with an employee with cancer is demanding and that the extensive Dutch legislation on RTW did not offer all the support needed. We recommend providing them with easily accessible information on communication and leadership training to better support employees with cancer. • Supporting employers by training communication and decision-making skills and providing information on cancer will contribute to improving RTW support for employees with cancer. • Knowing that the employer will usually be empathic when an employee reveals that they have

  4. Super-selective Balloon Test Occlusion of the Posterior Communicating Artery in the Treatment of a Posterior Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Makoto; Arai, Hiroshi; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man with underlying hypertension who developed diplopia lasting 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography showed multi-lobular unruptured aneurysms in the P2 portion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) migrating into the interpeduncular cistern of the midbrain. Because the shapes of the aneurysms were serpentine fusiform and the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) was the fetal type, we planned anastomosis of the occipital artery to the P4 portion of the PCA followed by endovascular obliteration of the parent artery including the aneurysms. Endovascular treatment was performed via a femoral approach one week after the anastomosis. Super-selective balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the PCoA was performed by using an occlusion balloon microcatheter before endovascular treatment. Occlusion of the proximal segment of the PCoA induced disturbance of consciousness of the patient. Occlusion of the distal segment other than the first point of the PCoA did not induce any neurological symptoms. The information from this super-selective BTO helped us to perform precise endovascular obliteration. The aneurysm was successfully obliterated, and the diplopia almost disappeared in a few months. Super-selective BTO of the PCoA might be a useful method for preventing ischemic complications due to occlusion of invisible perforators.

  5. Precision time distribution within a deep space communications complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Precision Time Distribution System (PTDS) at the Golstone Deep Space Communications Complex is a practical application of existing technology to the solution of a local problem. The problem was to synchronize four station timing systems to a master source with a relative accuracy consistently and significantly better than 10 microseconds. The solution involved combining a precision timing source, an automatic error detection assembly and a microwave distribution network into an operational system. Upon activation of the completed PTDS two years ago, synchronization accuracy at Goldstone (two station relative) was improved by an order of magnitude. It is felt that the validation of the PTDS mechanization is now completed. Other facilities which have site dispersion and synchronization accuracy requirements similar to Goldstone may find the PTDS mechanization useful in solving their problem. At present, the two station relative synchronization accuracy at Goldstone is better than one microsecond.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Technique in the Use of Fractional Flow Reserve in Complex Coronary Artery Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ming He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractional flow reserve (FFR has become an increasingly important index when making decisions with respect to revascularization of coronary artery stenosis. However, the pressure guidewire used in obtaining FFR measurements is difficult to control and manipulate in certain complex coronary artery lesions, resulting in increased fluoroscopy time and contrast dye usage. This study examined a novel (NOV technique for obtaining FFR measurements in hope of easing the difficulties associated with evaluating and treating complex coronary artery lesions. Methods: Fifty-six patients with complex coronary artery lesions were assigned to a conventional (CON FFR technique group or a NOV FFR technique group. The NOV technique involved the use of a balloon and wire exchange within the coronary artery. The fluoroscopy time, contrast dye usage, and FFR-related complications were assessed after completing the FFR measurement procedure for each patient. Results: The median time required for fluoroscopy in the NOV technique group was significantly less than that in the CON technique group; additionally, lesser amounts of contrast dye were used in the NOV technique group (both P 0.05. Conclusions: Compared to the CON technique used for measuring FFR, the new technique reduced the fluoroscopy time and amount of contrast dye used when evaluating complex coronary artery lesions. The new technique did not increase the risk of operation or decrease the success rate.

  7. Understanding Spatially Complex Segmental and Branch Anatomy Using 3D Printing: Liver, Lung, Prostate, Coronary Arteries, and Circle of Willis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Ramin; Herrin, Douglas; Tangestanipoor, Ardalan

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing is shaping personalized medicine, in which radiologists can play a significant role, be it as consultants to surgeons for surgical planning or by creating powerful visual aids for communicating with patients, physicians, and trainees. This report illustrates the steps in development of custom 3D models that enhance the understanding of complex anatomy. We graphically designed 3D meshes or modified imported data from cross-sectional imaging to develop physical models targeted specifically for teaching complex segmental and branch anatomy. The 3D printing itself is easily accessible through online commercial services, and the models are made of polyamide or gypsum. Anatomic models of the liver, lungs, prostate, coronary arteries, and the Circle of Willis were created. These models have advantages that include customizable detail, relative low cost, full control of design focusing on subsegments, color-coding potential, and the utilization of cross-sectional imaging combined with graphic design. Radiologists have an opportunity to serve as leaders in medical education and clinical care with 3D printed models that provide beneficial interaction with patients, clinicians, and trainees across all specialties by proactively taking on the educator's role. Complex models can be developed to show normal anatomy or common pathology for medical educational purposes. There is a need for randomized trials, which radiologists can design, to demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of 3D printed models for teaching simple and complex anatomy, simulating interventions, measuring patient satisfaction, and improving clinical care. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemodynamic and morphological characteristics of unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysms with oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Yu, Ying; Xu, Jinyu; Karmonik, Christof; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) have a very high risk of rupture. This study investigated the hemodynamic and morphological characteristics of intracranial aneurysms with high rupture risk by analyzing PCoA aneurysms with ONP. METHODS Fourteen unruptured PCoA aneurysms with ONP, 33 ruptured PCoA aneurysms, and 21 asymptomatic unruptured PCoA aneurysms were included in this study. The clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic characteristics were compared among the different groups. RESULTS The clinical characteristics did not differ among the 3 groups (p > 0.05), whereas the morphological and hemodynamic analyses showed that size, aspect ratio, size ratio, undulation index, nonsphericity index, ellipticity index, normalized wall shear stress (WSS), and percentage of low WSS area differed significantly (p PCoA aneurysms with ONP demonstrated a distinctive morphological-hemodynamic pattern that was significantly different compared with asymptomatic unruptured PCoA aneurysms and was similar to ruptured PCoA aneurysms. The larger size, more irregular shape, and lower WSS might be related to the high rupture risk of PCoA aneurysms.

  9. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Wang, Chi; Karmonik, Christof; Fang, Yibin; Xu, Jinyu; Yu, Ying; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured), clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms. While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR), size ratio (SR), dome-to-neck ratio (DN), inflow angle (IA), normalized wall shear stress (NWSS) and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p PCoA aneurysms.

  10. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lv

    Full Text Available The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA aneurysms.In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured, clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR, size ratio (SR, dome-to-neck ratio (DN, inflow angle (IA, normalized wall shear stress (NWSS and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p < 0.001 and LSA (OR = 1.393, p = 0.041.Hemodynamics and morphology were related to rupture status of intracranial aneurysms. Higher IA and LSA were identified as discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.

  11. Serial position learning effects in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Elka; Kostic, Vladimir S; Ziropadja, Ljubomir; Markovic, Milan; Ocic, Gordana

    2002-08-01

    Ruptured and repaired Anterior Communicating Artery (ACoA) aneurysm can result in devastating impairments involving memory, executive function, confabulation, and personality changes. This study tested serial position learning effects (SPEs) in patients following repaired and ruptured ACoA aneurysm, using results on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Thirty patients with ruptured aneurysms of the ACoA and 31 matched controls were included in the study. The primacy-recency effects were maintained during five learning trials in ACoA group, albeit at an overall lower level than in the controls. There was no difference in primacy-recency relation across five learning trials in ACoA group. On the delayed recall trial the patient group demonstrated neither a primacy, nor a recency phenomenon, reflecting a lack of recall of any parts of the word list. This kind of primacy-recency profile across learning trials in ACoA group has no similarity with SPE results in frontal lesion groups, or with SPE distributions in other amnesic disorders, despite the fact that memory and executive deficits were evident in our ACoA group.

  12. Successful Transarterial Embolization of a Posttraumatic Fistula Between a Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm and the Cavernous Sinus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinbo, Yin; Jun, Liu; Kejie, Mou; Zheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm-cavernous sinus fistulae are an extremely rare complication of head injury . The treatment of PCoA aneurysm-cavernous sinus fistulae has not been well described. A 27-year-old man was admitted with a retroocular bruit and blurred vision of the left eye seven months after a severe head injury. We report the angiographic appearance of a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm with a fistula to the cavernous sinus. This injury had been previously misinterpreted to be a PCoA aneurysm by computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). The patient was successfully treated with coils and Onyx of a fistula between the PCoA aneurysm and cavernous sinus.

  13. Association between an aplastic basilar artery, unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, and multiple aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari, Sanjay; Krishna, Himanshu; Kumar, Marakani V Kiran; Sawlani, Vijay; Phadke, Rajendra V; Jain, Vijendra K

    2004-05-01

    Basilar artery (BA) aplasia when unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis is exceedingly rare. The association of BA aplasia with two aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) has not been previously reported. This 40-year-old man presented in a state of drowsiness and responded to simple commands only after being coaxed. He had complete left cranial third nerve palsy, right hemiparesis, and persisting signs of meningeal irritation. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. An angiogram revealed BA aplasia. The right PCoA followed a sinuous course with multiple loops and provided the dominant supply to the posterior circulation. This vessel harbored two aneurysms, one at the origin of the PCoA from the internal carotid artery and the other at the looping segment just proximal to the brainstem. The left PCoA was extremely thin. The pterional transsylvian approach was used to clip the two aneurysms on the PCoA. The hemodynamic changes produced by the BA aplasia may have produced alterations in the cerebral vasculature leading to aneurysm formation and consequent subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    user specifies. In the future, with new GPS enabled cell-phones, notifications could be sent to users based on their proximity to flood hazards. Educational measures also should communicate the hydrologic underpinnings and uncertainties of the complex science of flood hydrology in an understandable manner to a non-technical public. Education can be especially beneficial and important for those in a policy-making role or those who find themselves in an area of potential flood hazards. Case studies, such as the fatal June 11, 2010 flash flood on the Little Missouri River in Arkansas, if presented in a way that the public will absorb, powerfully illustrate the importance of flood hazard awareness and the cost of living unaware. Additionally, such crucial points as the connection between the accuracy of flood-probability estimates and the density (and longevity) of the basic data sources (such as the USGS streamgage or the National Weather Service raingage networks) and the residual risks that both communities and individuals face have to continually be stressed to the general public and policy makers alike. In short, success in flood hazards communication (both prescriptive warnings and education) requires a fusion of the social sciences and hydrology.

  15. A Pilot Study to Teach Siblings to Support Children with Complex Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Sarah N.; Kammes, Rebecca; Nordquist, Erica; D'Agostino, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Siblings play an important role in the lives of children with disabilities, especially those with complex communication needs (CCN). However, children with CCN require support to learn social and communication skills. Like other communication partners, typically developing (TD) siblings may struggle to understand how to best interact with a child…

  16. Oculomotor nerve palsy by posterior communicating artery aneurysms: influence of surgical strategy on recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güresir, Erdem; Schuss, Patrick; Seifert, Volker; Vatter, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Resolution of oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) after clipping of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms has been well documented. However, whether additional decompression of the oculomotor nerve via aneurysm sac dissection or resection is superior to pure aneurysm clipping is the subject of much debate. Therefore, the objective in the present investigation was to analyze the influence of surgical strategy--specifically, clipping with or without aneurysm dissection--on ONP resolution. Between June 1999 and December 2010, 18 consecutive patients with ruptured and unruptured PCoA aneurysms causing ONP were treated at the authors' institution. Oculomotor nerve palsy was evaluated on admission and at follow-up. The electronic database MEDLINE was searched for additional data in published studies of PCoA aneurysms causing ONP. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Overall, 8 studies from the literature review and 6 patients in the current series (121 PCoA aneurysms) met the study inclusion criteria. Ninety-four aneurysms were treated with simple aneurysm neck clipping and 27 with clipping plus aneurysm sac decompression. The surgical strategy, simple aneurysm neck clipping versus clipping plus oculomotor nerve decompression, had no effect on full ONP resolution on univariate (p = 0.5) and multivariate analyses. On multivariate analysis, patients with incomplete ONP at admission were more likely to have full resolution of the palsy than were those with complete ONP at admission (p = 0.03, OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.1-16). Data in the present study indicated that ONP caused by PCoA aneurysms improves after clipping without and with oculomotor nerve decompression. The resolution of ONP is inversely associated with the initial severity of ONP.

  17. Infundibular dilations of the posterior communicating arteries: pathogenesis, anatomical variants, aneurysm formation, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Moosa, Shayan; Ding, Dale; Raper, Daniel M; Burke, Rebecca M; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chivukula, Srinivas; Wang, Tony R; Starke, Robert M; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C

    2016-08-01

    Cerebrovascular infundibular dilations (IDs) are triangular-shaped widenings less than 3 mm in diameter, which are most commonly found at the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The aims of this systematic review are to elucidate the natural histories of IDs, determine their risk of progression to significant pathology, and discuss potential management options. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed was used to find all case reports and series relating to cerebral IDs. IDs were classified into three types: type I IDs do not exhibit morphological change over a long follow-up period, type II IDs evolve into saccular aneurysms, while type III IDs are those that result in subarachnoid hemorrhage without prior aneurysmal progression. Data were extracted from studies that demonstrated type II or III IDs. We reviewed 16 cases of type II and seven cases of type III IDs. For type II IDs, 81.3% of patients were female with a median age at diagnosis of 38. All type II IDs were located at the PCoA without a clear predilection for sidedness. Median time to aneurysm progression was 7.5 years. For type III IDs there was no clear gender preponderance and the median age at diagnosis was 51. The PCoA was involved in 85.7% of cases, with 57.1% of IDs occurring on the left. Most patients were treated with clipping. Risk factors for aneurysm formation appear to be female gender, young age, left-sided localization, coexisting aneurysms, and hypertension. IDs can rarely progress to aneurysms or rupture. Young patients with type II or III IDs with coexisting aneurysms or hypertension may benefit from long-term imaging surveillance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Microneurosurgical Management of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: A Contemporary Series from Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiarawat, Peeraphong; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Kozyrev, Danil A; Intarakhao, Patcharin; Teo, Mario K; Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze microsurgical techniques and to determine correlations between microsurgical techniques and the radiographic findings in the microneurosurgical treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms (PCoAAs). We retrospectively analyzed radiographic findings and videos of surgeries in 64 patients with PCoAAs who underwent microsurgical clipping by the senior author from August 2010 to 2014. From 64 aneurysms, 30 (47%) had acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that necessitated lamina terminalis fenestration (odds ratio [OR], 67.67; P < 0.001) and Liliequist membrane fenestration (OR, 19.62; P < 0.001). The low-lying aneurysms significantly necessitated the coagulation of the dura covering the anterior clinoid process (ACP) (OR, 7.43; P = 0.003) or anterior clinoidectomy (OR, 91.0; P < 0.001). We preferred straight clips in 45 (83%) of 54 posterolateral projecting aneurysms (OR, 45.0; P < 0.001), but preferred curved clips for posteromedial projecting aneurysms (OR, 6.39; P = 0.008). The mean operative time from the brain retraction to the final clipping was 17 minutes and 43 seconds. Postoperative computed tomography angiography revealed complete occlusion of 60 (94%) aneurysms. Three (4.6%) patients with acute SAH suffered postoperative lacunar infarction. For ruptured aneurysms, lamina terminalis and Liliequist membrane fenestration are useful for additional cerebrospinal fluid drainage. For low-lying aneurysms, coagulation of the dura covering the ACP or tailored anterior clinoidectomy might be necessary for exposing the proximal aneurysm neck. Type of clips depends on the direction of projection. The microsurgical clipping of the PCoAAs can achieve good immediate complete occlusion rate with low postoperative stroke rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The complexity of organizational change: describing communication during organizational turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Organizational researchers and practitioners have been interested in organizational change for some time. Historically, they have directed most of their efforts at improving the efficiency of planned top-down change. These efforts were strategic attempts at altering parameters leading to transformational change. Most efforts failed to meet their intended purposes. Transformational organizational change has not been likely. The legitimate systems have been robust. There has been little systematic investigation of the communication occurring during these efforts. The purpose of this essay is to describe results of a mixed methods research project answering two research questions. (a) How do organizational members communicate during a time of turbulence? (b) What features of this communication suggest the potential for or resistance to transformative change? Comparing the results at the beginning of the period to other periods, gives insight into how social actors communicate and enact the organization during a threshold period where transformational change was possible. Results reveal identifiable patterns of communication as communication strategies, parameters, or basins of attraction. The overall pattern explains how micro communication patterns intersect and how the accumulation of these patterns may resist or accomplish change at a macro level.

  20. C1-C2 instability with severe occipital headache in the setting of vertebral artery facet complex erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Fadi; Bokums, Kristaps; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2014-05-01

    An exact understanding of patient vertebral artery anatomy is essential to safely place screws at the atlanto-axial level in posterior arthrodesis. We aim to report a case of erosion of the left vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex with resultant rotatory and lateral listhesis presenting with severe occipital headache. This represents a novel etiology for this diagnosis and our report illustrates technical considerations when instrumenting the C1-C2 segment. We report a case of severe occipital headache due to C1-C2 instability with resultant left C2 nerve compression in the setting of erosion of the vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of progressively debilitating headache and neck pain with atlanto-axial instability. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated erosion of the left vertebral artery into the left C1-C2 facet complex. In addition, the tortuous vertebral arteries had eroded into the C2 pedicles, eliminating the possibility for posterior pedicle screw placement. The patient underwent posterior arthrodesis of C1-C2 utilizing bilateral lateral mass fixation into C1 and bilateral trans-laminar fixation into C2 with resolution of all preoperative complaints. This study constitutes the first report of a tortuous vertebral artery causing the partial destruction of a C1-C2 facet complex, as well as instability, with the clinical presentation of severe occipital headache. It hereby presents a novel etiology for both the development of C1-C2 segment instability as well as the development of occipital headache. Careful evaluation of such lesions utilizing CT angiography is important when formulating a surgical plan.

  1. Mutation in mitochondrial complex IV subunit COX5A causes pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, and failure to thrive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baertling, F.; Al-Murshedi, F.; Sanchez Caballero, L.M.; Al-Senaidi, K.; Joshi, N.P.; Venselaar, H.; Brand, M.A.M. van den; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    COX5A is a nuclear-encoded subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). We present patients with a homozygous pathogenic variant in the COX5A gene. Clinical details of two affected siblings suffering from early-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia,

  2. Lesion complexity drives the cost of superficial femoral artery endovascular interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen L.; Nolan, Brian W.; Columbo, Jesse A.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Goodney, Philip P.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Atkinson, Benjamin J.; Powell, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients who undergo endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease vary greatly in lesion complexity and treatment options. This study examined the association of lesion severity and cost of SFA stenting and to determine if procedure cost affects primary patency at 1 year. Methods A retrospective record review identified patients undergoing initial SFA stenting between January 1, 2010, and February 1, 2012. Medical records were reviewed to collect data on demographics, comorbidities, indication for the procedure, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II severity, and primary patency. The interventional radiology database and hospital accounting database were queried to determine cost drivers of SFA stenting. Procedure supply cost included any item with a bar code used for the procedure. Associations between cost drivers and lesion characteristics were explored. Primary patency was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a log-rank test. Results During the study period, 95 patients underwent stenting in 98 extremities; of these, 61% of SFA stents were performed for claudication, with 80% of lesions classified as TASC II A or B. Primary patency at 1 year was 79% for the entire cohort. The mean total cost per case was $10,333. Increased procedure supply cost was associated with adjunct device use, the number of stents, and TASC II severity. Despite higher costs of treating more complex lesions, primary patency at 1 year was similar at 80% for high-cost (supply cost >$4000) vs 78% for low-cost (supply cost <$4000) interventions. Conclusions SFA lesion complexity, as defined by TASC II severity, drives the cost of endovascular interventions but does not appear to disadvantage patency at 1 year. Reimbursement agencies should consider incorporating disease severity into reimbursement algorithms for lower extremity endovascular interventions. PMID:26206581

  3. Medial sural artery as a salvage recipient vessel for complex post traumatic microvascular lower limb reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsing, Amresh; Date, Shivprasad; Ciudad, Pedro

    2018-02-01

    Complex lower extremity trauma still poses a formidable challenge for micro vascular reconstruction. The extensive surrounding zone of trauma can make it difficult to find a suitable recipient pedicle for anastomosis. A need was felt for exploration of newer recipient vessels in lower extremity which could be harnessed for reliable and tension free micro anastomosis. The purpose of the present report is to highlight the possibility of using medial sural artery for safe micro vascular anastomosis in selected scenarios like vessel depleted extremity. Between 2008 and 2013, we used the medial sural vessels for micro anastomosis in 10 cases of lower extremity trauma. All the cases had severe soft tissue trauma with or without a bony defect. A computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the involved extremity revealed either severe perivascular scarring around the standard recipient vessels or patency of just a single vessel. However, in all cases a patent medial sural pedicle was identified on CTA. Interposition vein grafts (IVGs) were used in most cases to ensure a tension free anastomosis. In all cases, unscarred medial sural vessels were identified with average dissected length and diameter being 6.2 cm (range 4 to 7.5 cm) and 2 mm (range 1.5 to 2.5 mm) respectively. Vein graft [average length 5.6 cm (range 4 to 15 cm)] was interposed in seven cases, while in remaining three, long saphenous vein was used for vein anastomosis. All the flaps survived after the surgery. There was one re-exploration for evacuation of peri-anastomotic hematoma with no adverse effect on flap survival. The mean follow up period was 27.6 months. In the four cases with bone reconstruction, bony union was seen between 5 and 8 months. They were able to walk without aids and resume work after 10-14 months, following a structured rehabilitation program. The patients with soft tissue reconstruction (6 cases) could carry out aid free locomotion and resume their routine after 4-6 weeks. There were no

  4. COMPLEX CORONARY PATTERN AFFECTING THE SURGICAL OUTCOME OF ARTERIAL SWITCH OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Arterial switch operation (ASO has become the procedure of choice for the transposition of great arteries as well as for Taussig-Bing anomaly. Relocation of coronary arteries remains a technical problem in anatomic correction of the transposed great arteries. The present prospective study is designed to analyse the effect of coronary artery pattern on surgical outcome of arterial switch operation. METHOD From August 2014 to November 2015, total 60 patients underwent ASO. The patients are divided in three groups. Group-A 21 patients with d-TGA with intact ventricle septum (d-TGA intact IVS, in Group-B 33 patients d-TGA with ventricular septal defect (d-TGA, VSD, and in Group C 6 Taussig Bing anomaly. The coronary pattern and outcome is analyzed. RESULTS The overall mortality related to coronary pattern was 5%. The 2 patients died due to Intramural coronary artery leading to post-operative ventricular dysfunction, another patient with single retro pulmonary coronary artery died secondary to low coronary implant leading to kinking in coronary artery and myocardial dysfunction. On 12 monthly follow up, one of the Patients in group A had right pulmonary artery stenosis with gradient of 30 mm of Hg. Another patient in group B had supravalvular gradient of 20 mm of Hg. CONCLUSION The ASO for TGA and Taussig-Bing anomaly has low early and late mortality. However, the mortality is still seen in the patients with Intramural coronary artery and in the patient with single coronary artery with retro pulmonary course.

  5. A new way to improve the robustness of complex communication networks by allocating redundancy links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunhui; Zhuo Yue; Tang Jieying; Long Keping; Peng Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the robustness of complex communication networks on allocating redundancy links. The protecting key nodes (PKN) strategy is proposed to improve the robustness of complex communication networks against intentional attack. Our numerical simulations show that allocating a few redundant links among key nodes using the PKN strategy will significantly increase the robustness of scale-free complex networks. We have also theoretically proved and demonstrated the effectiveness of the PKN strategy. We expect that our work will help achieve a better understanding of communication networks. (paper)

  6. Mutation in mitochondrial complex IV subunit COX5A causes pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, and failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertling, Fabian; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Joshi, Niranjan P; Venselaar, Hanka; van den Brand, Mariël Am; Nijtmans, Leo Gj; Rodenburg, Richard Jt

    2017-06-01

    COX5A is a nuclear-encoded subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). We present patients with a homozygous pathogenic variant in the COX5A gene. Clinical details of two affected siblings suffering from early-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, failure to thrive, and isolated complex IV deficiency are presented. We show that the variant lies within the evolutionarily conserved COX5A/COX4 interface domain, suggesting that it alters the interaction between these two subunits during complex IV biogenesis. In patient skin fibroblasts, the enzymatic activity and protein levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. Lentiviral complementation rescues complex IV deficiency. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates demonstrating a function of COX5A in complex IV biogenesis. A potential therapeutic lead is demonstrated by showing that copper supplementation leads to partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The complexity of scheduling trees with communication delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, J.K.; Veldhorst, M.; Veltman, B.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a minimum-length schedule onmmachines for a set ofnunit-length tasks with a forest of intrees as precedence relation, and with unit interprocessor communication delays. First, we prove that this problem is NP-complete; second, we derive a linear time algorithm for

  8. Methods for researching intercultural communication in globalized complex societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The field of intercultural communication research is challenged theoretically as well as methodologically by global changes such as migration, global mobility, mass media, tourism, etc. According to these changes cultures can no longer be seen as national entities, and cultural identity can...

  9. The Complexity Of Government Communication System In Ettawa Crossbed (Ec Goat Farming In Purworejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Handaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the complexity of the environment that is faced by the government communication system and regulation that was used to resolve the issue. The theory used is communication system in the perspective of Niklas Luhmann. The research method used is ethnography. The population of the study are in Purworejo which becomes center of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. Data collection technique is conducted throught interviews and observations. The results of data analysis show that the government communication system has made regulations to resolve the real problems of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming that is done by breeders. When the government communication system produces the regulation, environmental issue has grown more complex. So the regulation that was made becomes irrelevant to the demands and challenge in the crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. The government communication system is slow in reducing the complexity of the environment and producing regulation.

  10. [Effect of complex sanatorium treatment including magnetotherapy on hemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremushkin, G G; Duruda, N V

    2003-01-01

    Forty nine patients with arterial hypertension of stage I-II received combined sanatorium treatment. Of them, 21 had adjuvant total magnetotherapy. All the patients were examined for parameters of central, cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation. The adjuvant magnetotherapy produced a beneficial effect on hypertension: clinical symptoms attenuated, arterial pressure became more stable, hemodynamics improved, duration of hospitalization reduced, requirement in hypotensive drugs diminished.

  11. Autopsy case of a giant aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Correlation of CT findings and angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmura, Fujio; Takayasu, Kenji; Ohiwa, Yasuyuki; Sakata, Ryuichi; Ariwa, Rokuro

    1983-06-01

    A 64-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a history of three previous subarachnoid hemorrhages. Neurological examinations revealed incontinentia urinae, gait disturbance, recent memory disturbance and motor weakness on the left side. Plain X-ray films showed a ring-like calcification in the right frontal region. A plain CT scan showed a ring-shaped iso- and high-density area in the intra hemispheric region, the intra bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, the intra septum pellucidum, and the intra anterior part of the third ventricle. Left carotid angiography showed a large aneurysmal shadow arising from the anterior communicating artery and another from the left middle cerebral artery. In the venous phase the venous angle was supero-posteriorly shifted, and the septal vein was elevated. She died unexpectedly with a status epilepticus of unknown origin. An autopsy specimen revealed that a giant aneurysm occupied the intra ventricular space, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the right thalamic region. Also, there was a large berry aneurysm arising from the middle cerebral artery. A coronary section through the giant aneurysm showed a markedly compressed left lateral ventricle, right thalamus, and hypothalamus, while the third ventricle had shifted toward the left side.

  12. An Improved Conceptually-Based Method for Analysis of Communication Network Structure of Large Complex Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D., Jr.

    Previous methods for determining the communication structure of organizations work well for small or simple organizations, but are either inadequate or unwieldy for use with large complex organizations. An improved method uses a number of different measures and a series of successive approximations to order the communication matrix such that…

  13. How to make a complex story understandable. Communication on nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A.; Erisman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding is the first step towards solving the nitrogen problem. Various applications have been developed to gain insight in the complex interactions between the nitrogen cycle and the social-economic and environmental aspects. Experience has learned that many users have not only gained a clearer picture of the urgency and complexity of the problem; now they also have options for dealing with the nitrogen problem. [nl

  14. Clipping treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms associated with arteriosclerosis and calcification: A single center study of 136 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yu, Jing; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Kan; Yu, Jinlu

    2018-02-01

    It is widely acknowledged that arteriosclerosis and calcification of the parent artery and aneurysm neck make it difficult to clip posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. A total of 136 cases of PCoA aneurysms accompanied by arteriosclerosis and calcification were collected and treated with clipping in the present study. Of the 136 patients, 112 were females (82.4%) and 24 were males (17.6%), with ages ranging from 37 to 76 years (mean age, 60.2 years). Rupture of a PCoA aneurysm was identified in 132 cases (97.1%), and there were 4 cases of unruptured PCoA aneurysms (2.9%). According to the severity of arteriosclerosis and calcification, the aneurysms were divided into type I, II or III. The treatment of type I aneurysms achieved the best curative effect. It is difficult to temporarily occlude type II and III aneurysms during surgery, and temporary occlusion failed in almost 50% of cases. Types II and III were prone to intraoperative aneurysm ruptures. A significantly higher rate of intraoperative aneurysm rupture was seen in type III compared with type II cases. Type II and III cases were more likely to be treated using a fenestrated clip for aneurysm clipping compared with type I cases, and fenestrated clips were used significantly more frequently in type III cases compared with type II cases. Arteriosclerosis and calcification were likely to affect the prognosis of patients, particularly in cases with type III arteriosclerosis and calcification of the parent artery and aneurysm neck. Therefore, the stratification of the arteriosclerosis and calcification of the parent artery and aneurysm neck into types I-III can guide the intraoperative aneurysm clipping strategy, aid in choosing the correct clips, and inform predictions of the occurrence of rupture and hemorrhage, as well as the prognosis for aneurysms.

  15. Communicating A Controversial and Complex Project to the Public: Yucca Mountain Tours - Real and Virtual Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.B.; Nelson, P.V.; D'Ouville, M.

    2000-01-01

    activists, local residents and governmental officials are protesting proposed waste facilities from Taiwan to Texas''. Here in Nevada, Yucca Mountain is no exception. The Department's study of the Yucca Mountain site for possible development as a permanent repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste has been criticized by many, for many reasons. The Yucca Mountain Project is both controversial and complex--a fact that makes communication with the public a challenge

  16. Communicating A Controversial and Complex Project to the Public: Yucca Mountain Tours - Real and Virtual Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.B. Benson; P.V. Nelson; M. d' Ouville

    2000-03-01

    ;'Environmental activists, local residents and governmental officials are protesting proposed waste facilities from Taiwan to Texas''. Here in Nevada, Yucca Mountain is no exception. The Department's study of the Yucca Mountain site for possible development as a permanent repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste has been criticized by many, for many reasons. The Yucca Mountain Project is both controversial and complex--a fact that makes communication with the public a challenge.

  17. A complex communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation: diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, T.E.; Auringer, S.T.; Cox, T.D. [Department of Radiology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1088 (United States)

    1997-10-01

    We report a newborn with an esophageal lung, a rare type of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM). Associated findings included esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) to the distal esophagus, duodenal stenosis with annular pancreas, imperforate anus, vertebral anomalies and ambiguous genitalia. Radiologic evaluation included chest radiographs, esophagrams, chest ultrasound and chest CT. After colostomy and surgical repair of duodenal stenosis and TEF, a right thoracotomy was performed to treat an esophageal lung. Radiologic features of this unusual variant of CBPFM are presented. Accurate preoperative imaging diagnosis is essential for planning surgical treatment of an esophageal lung. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  18. A complex communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation: diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, T.E.; Auringer, S.T.; Cox, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    We report a newborn with an esophageal lung, a rare type of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM). Associated findings included esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) to the distal esophagus, duodenal stenosis with annular pancreas, imperforate anus, vertebral anomalies and ambiguous genitalia. Radiologic evaluation included chest radiographs, esophagrams, chest ultrasound and chest CT. After colostomy and surgical repair of duodenal stenosis and TEF, a right thoracotomy was performed to treat an esophageal lung. Radiologic features of this unusual variant of CBPFM are presented. Accurate preoperative imaging diagnosis is essential for planning surgical treatment of an esophageal lung. (orig.). With 1 fig

  19. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  20. On complex adaptive systems and terrorism [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, E.; Elgazzar, A. S.; Hegazi, A. S.

    2005-03-01

    Complex adaptive systems (CAS) are ubiquitous in nature. They are basic in social sciences. An overview of CAS is given with emphasize on the occurrence of bad side effects to seemingly “wise” decisions. Hence application to terrorism is given. Some conclusions on how to deal with this phenomena are proposed.

  1. Communication Network Integration and Group Uniformity in a Complex Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, James A.; Farace, Richard V.

    This paper contains a discussion of the limitations of research on group processes in complex organizations and the manner in which a procedure for network analysis in on-going systems can reduce problems. The research literature on group uniformity processes and on theoretical models of these processes from an information processing perspective…

  2. SAFARI - RANDOMISED TRIAL ON COMPLEX THERAPY OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND DISLIPIDEMY. THE MAIN RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate possibility of complex pharmaceutical effect simultaneously on 2 risk factors – arterial hypertension (HT and hypercholesterolemia (HH in patients with high risk of cardiovascular complications (CVC.Material and methods. 101 patients with HT of 1-2 stage, HH and high risk of CVC (SCORE>5 were included in the study. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: active therapy group (ATG and control group (CG. ATG patients were actively treated for HT and HH control. The long-acting nifedipine (Nifecard XL, LEK 30 mg once daily (OD was prescribed as start antihypertensive drug. Hydrochlorothiazide 12,5 mg/day OD and bisiprolol 5 mg OD was added if antihypertensive effect was insufficient. Atorvastatin (Tulip, LEK 20-40 mg OD was prescribed for HH control. Management of CG patients was performed by doctors of out-patient clinics. The study duration was 12 weeks.Results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP levels in ATG patients were lower than these in CG patients. Target BP level was reached in 88,4% of ATG patients and only in 48,9% of CG patients. Cholesterol of low density lipoprotein (CH LPLD level was also lower in ATG patients than this in CG patients. Target CH LPLD level was reached in 37,2 % of ATG patients and in 8,3 % of CG patients. Relative risk of CVC was significantly lower in ATG patients than this in CG patients.Conclusion. SAFARI trial shows that effective pharmaceutical simultaneous control of 2 key risk factors, HT and HH, results in risk reduction of CVC.

  3. SAFARI - RANDOMISED TRIAL ON COMPLEX THERAPY OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND DISLIPIDEMY. THE MAIN RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate possibility of complex pharmaceutical effect simultaneously on 2 risk factors – arterial hypertension (HT and hypercholesterolemia (HH in patients with high risk of cardiovascular complications (CVC.Material and methods. 101 patients with HT of 1-2 stage, HH and high risk of CVC (SCORE>5 were included in the study. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: active therapy group (ATG and control group (CG. ATG patients were actively treated for HT and HH control. The long-acting nifedipine (Nifecard XL, LEK 30 mg once daily (OD was prescribed as start antihypertensive drug. Hydrochlorothiazide 12,5 mg/day OD and bisiprolol 5 mg OD was added if antihypertensive effect was insufficient. Atorvastatin (Tulip, LEK 20-40 mg OD was prescribed for HH control. Management of CG patients was performed by doctors of out-patient clinics. The study duration was 12 weeks.Results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP levels in ATG patients were lower than these in CG patients. Target BP level was reached in 88,4% of ATG patients and only in 48,9% of CG patients. Cholesterol of low density lipoprotein (CH LPLD level was also lower in ATG patients than this in CG patients. Target CH LPLD level was reached in 37,2 % of ATG patients and in 8,3 % of CG patients. Relative risk of CVC was significantly lower in ATG patients than this in CG patients.Conclusion. SAFARI trial shows that effective pharmaceutical simultaneous control of 2 key risk factors, HT and HH, results in risk reduction of CVC.

  4. Relationship between interatrial communication, ductus arteriosus, and pulmonary flow patterns in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries: prediction of neonatal desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaujois, Laurence; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Preuss, Christophe; Brassard, Myriam; Houde, Christine; Fouron, Jean C; Raboisson, Marie-Josée

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between interatrial communication, ductus arteriosus, and pulmonary flow in transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum may help predict postnatal desaturation. Echocardiographic data of 45 fetuses with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum and 50 age-matched controls were retrospectively reviewed. Interatrial communication, left and right ventricular output, flow in the ductus arteriosus, as well as effective pulmonary flow were measured. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of postnatal saturations: group 1 had saturations ⩽50% and group 2 >50%. Of 45 fetuses, 13 (26.7%) were classified into group 1. Compared with fetuses in group 2, they had a smaller interatrial communication (2.9 versus 4.0 mm, p=0.004) and more retrograde diastolic flow in the ductus arteriosus (92 versus 23%, p=0.002). Both groups showed a significant decrease in ductal flow compared with controls. Patients in group 2 had a higher effective pulmonary flow compared with controls. There was a mild correlation between left ventricular output and size of the interatrial communication (Spearman's rank correlation 0.44). A retrograde diastolic flow is present in most of the fetuses with postnatal desaturation. Fetuses with transposition of the great arteries have a lower flow through the ductus arteriosus compared with controls. Fetuses without restrictive foramen ovale have higher effective pulmonary flow. Peripheral pulmonary vasodilatation due to higher oxygen saturation in pulmonary arteries in the case of transposition of the great arteries could be one possible cause.

  5. The Complexity Paradigm for Studying Human Communication: A Summary and Integration of Two Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This popular quote from Hamlet might be recast for the field of communication as “There are more things in science than are dreamt of in our philosophies”. This article will review several new and strange ideas from complexity science about how the natural world is organized and how we can go about researching it. These strange ideas, (e.g., deterministic, but unpredictable systems resonate with many communication phenomena that our field has traditionally had difficulty studying. By reviewing these areas, we hope to add a new, compelling and useful way to think about science that goes beyond the current dominant philosophy of science employed in communication. Though the concepts reviewed here are difficult and often appear at odds with the dominant paradigm; they are not. Instead, this approach will facilitate research on problems of communication process and interaction that the dominant paradigm has struggled to study. Specifically, this article explores the question of process research in communication by reviewing three major paradigms of science and then delving more deeply into the most recent: complexity science. The article provides a broad overview of many of the major ideas in complexity science and how these ideas can be used to study many of the most difficult questions in communication science. It concludes with suggestions going forward for incorporating complexity science into communication.

  6. The content of goals in individual educational programs for students with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Nina; Rowland, Charity; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Steiner, Sandra; Granlund, Mats; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the contents of communication-related goals in individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with complex communication needs. Goals in 43 IEPs were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth version (ICF-CY). The results show that the communication-related IEP goals contain information on multiple domains of functioning in the ICF-CY. However, judging by the amount of codes linked to ICF-CY chapters, the IEPs contain a relatively small proportion of goals that focus on interaction with others, or participation in classroom and leisure activities. Special education teachers and speech-language pathologists working with students with complex communication needs may need support to formulate communication-related IEP goals with a focus on interaction and participation in school activities.

  7. Carotid artery and lower cranial nerve exposure with increasing surgical complexity to the parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Sreenath, Satyan B; Rawal, Rounak B; Overton, Lewis J; Farzal, Zainab; Zanation, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the extent of carotid artery exposure attained, including the identification of the external carotid branches and lower cranial nerves in five sequential external approaches to the parapharyngeal space, and to provide an anatomical algorithm. Anatomical study. Six latex-injected adult cadaver heads were dissected in five consecutive approaches: transcervical approach with submandibular gland removal, posterior extension of the transcervical approach, transcervical approach with parotidectomy, parotidectomy with lateral mandibulotomy, and parotidectomy with mandibulectomy. The degree of carotid artery exposure attained, external carotid branches, and lower cranial nerves visualized was documented. The transcervical approach exposed 1.5 cm (Standard Deviation (SD) 0.5) of internal carotid artery (ICA) and 1.25 cm (SD 0.25) of external carotid artery (ECA). The superior thyroid and facial arteries and cranial nerve XII and XI were identified. The posterior extension exposed 2.9 cm (SD 0.7) of ICA and 2.7 cm (SD 1.0) of ECA. Occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries were visualized. The transparotid approach exposed 4.0 cm (SD 1.1) of ICA and 3.98 cm (SD 1.8) of ECA. Lateral mandibulotomy exposed the internal maxillary artery, cranial nerve X, the sympathetic trunk, and 4.6 cm (SD 2.4) of ICA. Mandibulectomy allowed for complete ECA exposure, cranial nerve IX, lingual nerve, and 6.9 cm (SD 1.3) of ICA. Approaches for the parapharyngeal space must be based on anatomic and biological patient factors. This study provides a guide for the skull base surgeon for an extended approach based on the desired anatomic exposure. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:585-591, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Augmentative and Alternative Communication System (AAC) for Social Inclusion of People With Complex Communication Needs in the Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Simone; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of people with special needs in the labor market has been increasing in some regions of Brazil as a result of the Articles 6 and 7 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and the Quota Law (No. 8.213/91, Art. 93) which entitle people with disabilities to work in order to improve their social condition. To support persons with complex communication needs in the workplace, 40 graphic symbols termed "symbols of industrial expressions" were developed within the framework of the COMMUNIS package. The symbols were developed for a company of the food sector in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Individual interviews were held with the human resources professionals, as well as with employees with complex communication needs in order to identify problems, assess requirements, and generate a list of specific symbols to develop. The symbols were then validated with regard to their ease of recognition. Only five symbols needed revision. The results suggest that it is possible to develop a set of symbols for the workplace that are judged to be iconic by human resources professionals and employees with complex communication needs.

  9. Successful management of diastolic heart failure in a patient with restrictive cardiomyopathy following an anterior communicating artery aneurysm clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative management of neurosurgical patients with an underlying myocardial dysfunction poses a unique challenge to the neuroanaesthesiologist and the neurointensivist. Sudden catecholamine surge during the aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH can cause severe cardiac dysfunction such as myocardial ischaemia and cardiomyopathy. SAH in a patient with restrictive cardiomyopathy could be hazardous to the myocardium leading to severe cardiac morbidity. We report the successful management of an acute post-operative diastolic heart failure with a milrinone infusion in a patient with restrictive cardiomyopathy, following anterior communicating artery aneurysm clipping. We have discussed the 'dual beneficial' role of milrinone on the heart and the brain in this clinical setting. In addition, the importance of peri-operative utilisation of transoesophageal echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for the successful management of diastolic heart failure is highlighted.

  10. Optimal topology to minimizing congestion in connected communication complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoussef, M.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    In this paper, a new model of the interdependent complex network is proposed, based on two assumptions that (i) the capacity of a node depends on its degree, and (ii) the traffic load depends on the distribution of the links in the network. Based on these assumptions, the presented model proposes a method of connection not based on the node having a higher degree but on the region containing hubs. It is found that the final network exhibits two kinds of degree distribution behavior, depending on the kind and the way of the connection. This study reveals a direct relation between network structure and traffic flow. It is found that pc the point of transition between the free flow and the congested phase depends on the network structure and the degree distribution. Moreover, this new model provides an improvement in the traffic compared to the results found in a single network. The same behavior of degree distribution found in a BA network and observed in the real world is obtained; except for this model, the transition point between the free phase and congested phase is much higher than the one observed in a network of BA, for both static and dynamic protocols.

  11. The relation between intensity and complexity of coronary artery lesion and oxidative stress in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Turhan; Menteşe, Ümit; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarık; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Kul, Selim; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Bektaş, Hüseyin; Korkmaz, Levent; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Dursun, İhsan; Çelik, Şükrü

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between oxidative stress and complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease is less clear. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between oxidative stress markers and the complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty-seven consecutive patients with an early phase of ACS (=22). Likewise patients were divided into two CAD severity groups according to the median Gensini score of 64: less intensive CAD with Gensini score (=64. Blood samples were taken in 1 hour within administration in order to measure total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by Erel method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by TOS /TAC. There was no significant difference between the two SYNTAX groups for oxidative stress markers. Median TOS and OSI values were significantly high in the intensive CAD group (p=0.005, p=0.04, respectively). The Gensini score was positively correlated with TOS and OSI (p=0.003, p=0.02, respectively). Oxidative stress markers may be considered supportive laboratory parameters related to CAD intensity but not complexity in ACS patients.

  12. Improving the arterial input function in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI by fitting the signal in the complex plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Beld, Ellis; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging is a widely used technique in oncologic imaging. An essential prerequisite for obtaining quantitative values from DCE-MRI is the determination of the arterial input function (AIF). However, it is very challenging to accurately estimate the AIF using MR. A comprehensive model, which uses complex data instead of either magnitude or phase, was developed to improve AIF estimation. The model was first applied to simulated data. Subsequently, the accuracy of the estimated contrast agent concentration was validated in a phantom. Finally the method was applied to existing DCE scans of 13 prostate cancer patients. The complex signal method combines the complementary strengths of the magnitude and phase method, increasing the precision and accuracy of concentration estimation in simulated and phantom data. The in vivo AIFs show a good agreement between arterial voxels (standard deviation in the peak and tail equal 0.4 mM and 0.12 mM, respectively). Furthermore, the dynamic behavior closely followed the AIF obtained with DCE-CT in the same patients (mean correlation coefficient: 0.92). By using the complex signal, the AIF estimation becomes more accurate and precise. This might enable patient specific AIFs, thereby improving the quantitative values obtained from DCE-MRI. Magn Reson Med 76:1236-1245, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S; Chen, Y; Huang, N E; Wu, Z; Peng, C-K

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven

  14. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Far-East Road, Chung-Li, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y [Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huang, N E [Research Center for Adaptive Data Analysis, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Z [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (United States); Peng, C-K [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (United States)], E-mail: s939205@ mail.yzu.edu.tw

    2008-02-15

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven.

  15. Superficial temporal artery flap for reconstruction of complex facial defects: A new algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Elbanoby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background A variety of island flaps can be based on the superficial temporal artery with variable tissue composition. They can be used for defect reconstruction, cavity resurfacing, facial hair restoration, or contracture release. Methods Seventy-two patients underwent facial reconstruction using a superficial temporal artery island flap from October 2010 to October 2014. The defects had various etiologies, including trauma, burns, tumors, exposed hardware, and congenital causes. We classified the patients by indication into 5 groups: cavity resurfacing, contracture release, facial hair restoration, skin coverage, and combined. The demographic data of the patients, defect characteristics, operative procedures, postoperative results, and complications were retrospectively documented. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 54 months. Results A total of 24 females and 48 males were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.7±15.6 years. The flaps were used for contracture release in 13 cases, cavity resurfacing in 10 cases, skin coverage in 17 cases, facial hair restoration in 19 cases, and combined defects in 13 cases. No major complications were reported. Conclusion: Based on our experiences with the use of superficial temporal artery island flaps, we have developed a detailed approach for the optimal management of patients with composite facial defects. The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a systematic algorithm to use for such patients.

  16. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.

    1980-01-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left interal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis. (orig.)

  17. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G.

    1980-12-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left internal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis.

  18. Reduced-Complexity Wireless Transceiver Architectures and Techniques for Space-Time Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation sheds light on the performance gains of multi-antenna systems when the antenna aspects and the associated signal processing and coding aspects are integrated together in a multidisciplinary approach, addressing a variety of challenging tasks pertaining to the joint design of smart...... wireless transceivers and communication techniques. These tasks are at the intersection of different scientific disciplines including signal processing, communications, antennas and propagation. Specifically, the thesis deals with reduced-complexity space-time wireless transceiver architectures...... and associated communication techniques for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and cognitive radio (CR) systems as well as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The low-complexity architectures are obtained by equipping the wireless transceiver with passive control ports which require the minimum amount of RF hardware...

  19. Methodological issues in analyzing human communication – the complexities of multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter develops a multimodal method for transcribing speech, communication, and performance. The chapter discusses the methodological solutions to the complex translation of speech, language rhythm and gesture in time and space into the two-dimensional format of a piece of paper. The focus...

  20. Infundibular dilation and aneurysm at the origin of the posterior communicating artery: differential diagnosis by CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Kyung-Jun; Yoon, Dae-Young [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heung-Chul [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Young; Cho, Byung-Moon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Infundibular dilation (ID) and aneurysm at the internal carotid artery (ICA)-posterior communicating artery (PComA) junction can be difficult to distinguish but may differ in clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of CT angiography (CTA) in differentially diagnosing IDs and small unruptured aneurysms at the ICA-PComA junction. This retrospective study comprised 88 patients diagnosed with 107 protrusions (70 IDs and 37 aneurysms <5 mm; 19 bilateral lesions) at the ICA-PComA junction who underwent both CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed CTA and DSA images according to these criteria: (a) size (maximum dimension <3 or ≥3 mm), (b) shape (triangular or round/oval/irregular), (c) aneurysmal neck (absent or present), (d) horizontal direction (posteriomedial or posteriolateral), and (e) PComA origin (apex, no PComA, or base). The intermodality (between CTA and DSA) and interobserver (between the two readers) agreement were determined for each finding. We also evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CTA for distinguishing ID and aneurysm, using DSA as the reference standard. The mean κ values of intermodality agreement for the size, shape, aneurysmal neck, horizontal direction, and PComA origin were 0.88, 0.87, 0.84, 0.71, and 0.56, respectively. All interobserver agreements of CTA and DSA were excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTA for differentiating aneurysms from IDs were 94.6, 100, and 98.0 %, respectively. CTA may be a useful noninvasive modality for differential diagnosis of ID and aneurysm at the ICA-PComA junction. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic Geometric Analysis of the Renal Arteries and Aorta following Complex Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Kim, John J; Lee, Jason T; Dalman, Ronald L; Cheng, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    Aneurysm regression and target vessel patency during early and mid-term follow-up may be related to the effect of stent-graft configuration on the anatomy. We quantified geometry and remodeling of the renal arteries and aneurysm following fenestrated (F-) or snorkel/chimney (Sn-) endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Twenty-nine patients (mean age, 76.8 ± 7.8 years) treated with F- or Sn-EVAR underwent computed tomography angiography at preop, postop, and follow-up. Three-dimensional geometric models of the aorta and renal arteries were constructed. Renal branch angle was defined relative to the plane orthogonal to the aorta. End-stent angle was defined as the angulation between the stent and native distal artery. Aortic volumes were computed for the whole aorta, lumen, and their difference (excluded lumen). Renal patency, reintervention, early mortality, postoperative renal impairment, and endoleak were reviewed. From preop to postop, F-renal branches angled upward, Sn-renal branches angled downward (P renals exhibited increased end-stent angulation (12 ± 15°, P renals, whereas F-renals exhibited increased end-stent angulation (5 ± 10°, P renal stent patency was 94.1% and renal impairment occurred in 2 patients (6.7%). Although F- and Sn-EVAR resulted in significant, and opposite, changes to renal branch angle, only Sn-EVAR resulted in significant end-stent angulation increase. Longitudinal geometric analysis suggests that these anatomic alterations are primarily generated early as a consequence of the procedure itself and, although persistent, they show no evidence of continued significant change during the subsequent postoperative follow-up period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A sense of change: media designers and artists communicating about complexity in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost M. Vervoort

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To take on the current and future challenges of global environmental change, fostering a widespread societal understanding of and engagement with the complex dynamics that characterize interacting human and natural systems is essential. Current science communication methods struggle with a number of specific challenges associated with communicating about complex systems. In this study we report on two collaborative processes, a short workshop and longer course, that aimed to harness the insights of interactive media designers and artists to overcome these challenges. The two processes resulted in 86 new interactive media concepts which were selected by the participants and organizers using set criteria and then evaluated using the same criteria by a panel of communication and media design experts and a panel of complex systems scientists using the same criteria. The top eight concepts are discussed in this paper. These concepts fell into the categories of serious games, group interaction concepts, and social media storytelling. The serious games focused directly on complex systems characteristics and were evaluated to be intuitive and engaging designs that combined transparency and complexity well. The group interaction concepts focused mostly on feedbacks and nonlinearity but were fully developed and tested in the workshops, and evaluated as engaging, accessible, and easy to implement in workshops and educational settings. The social media storytelling concepts involved less direct interactions with system dynamics but were seen as highly accessible to large scale audiences. The results of this study show the potential of interdisciplinary collaboration between complex systems scientists, designers, and artists. The results and process discussed in this paper show the value of more structural engagement of interactive media designers and artist communities in the development of communication tools about human and natural systems change.

  3. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1) examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2) examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study. Methods/design A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1) development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2) a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3) a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient. Discussion The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to facilitate interactions with

  4. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGilton Katherine S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1 examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2 examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study. Methods/design A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1 development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2 a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3 a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient. Discussion The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to

  5. A reliable, delay bounded and less complex communication protocol for multicluster FANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiya Zafar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Flying Ad-hoc Networks (FANETs, enabling ad-hoc networking between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs is gaining importance in several military and civilian applications. The sensitivity of the applications requires adaptive; efficient; delay bounded and scalable communication network among UAVs for data transmission. Due to communication protocol complexity; rigidity; cost of commercial-off-the-shelf (COT components; limited radio bandwidth; high mobility and computational resources; maintaining the desired level of Quality of Service (QoS becomes a daunting task. For the first time in this research we propose multicluster FANETs for efficient network management; the proposed scheme considerably reduces communication cost and optimizes network performance as well as exploit low power; less complex and low cost IEEE 802.15.4 (MAC protocol for intercluster and intracluster communication. In this research both beacon enabled mode and beaconless modes have been investigated with Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS and virtual Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA respectively. The methodology plays a key role towards reserving bandwidth for latency critical applications; eliminate collisions and medium access delays. Moreover analysis ad-hoc routing protocols including two proactive (OLSR, DSDV and one reactive (AODV is also presented. The results shows that the proposed scheme guarantees high packet delivery ratios while maintaining acceptable levels of latency requirements comparable with more complex and dedicatedly designed protocols in literature.

  6. Communication complexity of distributed computing and a parallel algorithm for polynomial roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.

    1986-01-01

    The first part of this thesis begins with a discussion of the minimum communication requirements in some distributed networks. The main result is a general technique for determining lower bounds on the communication complexity of problems on various distributed computer networks. This general technique is derived by simulating the general network by a linear array and then using a lower bound on the communication complexity of the problem on the linear array. Applications of this technique yield nontrivial optimal or near-optimal lower bounds on the communication complexity of distinctness, ranking, uniqueness, merging, and triangle detection on a ring, a mesh, and a complete binary tree of processors. A technique similar to the one used in proving the above results, yields interesting graph theoretic results concerning decomposition of a graph into complete bipartite subgraphs. The second part of the this is devoted to the design of a fast parallel algorithm for determining all roots of a polynomial. Given a polynomial rho(z) of degree n with m bit integer coefficients and an integer μ, the author considers the problem of determining all its roots with error less than 2/sup -μ/. It is shown that this problem is in the class NC if rho(z) has all real roots

  7. Mastery motivation in children with complex communication needs: longitudinal data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kara F; Cress, Cynthia J; Lambert, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    This study compared longitudinal changes in mastery motivation during parent-child free play for 37 children with complex communication needs. Mastery motivation manifests as a willingness to work hard at tasks that are challenging, which is an important quality to overcoming the challenges involved in successful expressive communication using AAC. Unprompted parent-child play episodes were identified in three assessment sessions over an 18-month period and coded for nine categories of mastery motivation in social and object play. All of the object-oriented mastery motivation categories and one social mastery motivation category showed an influence of motor skills after controlling for receptive language. Object play elicited significantly more of all of the object-focused mastery motivation categories than social play, and social play elicited more of one type of social-focused mastery motivation behavior than object play. Mastery motivation variables did not differ significantly over time for children. Potential physical and interpersonal influences on mastery motivation for parents and children with complex communication needs are discussed, including broadening the procedures and definitions of mastery motivation beyond object-oriented measurements for children with complex communication needs.

  8. Low-Complexity Transmit Antenna Selection and Beamforming for Large-Scale MIMO Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit antenna selection plays an important role in large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications, but optimal large-scale MIMO antenna selection is a technical challenge. Exhaustive search is often employed in antenna selection, but it cannot be efficiently implemented in large-scale MIMO communication systems due to its prohibitive high computation complexity. This paper proposes a low-complexity interactive multiple-parameter optimization method for joint transmit antenna selection and beamforming in large-scale MIMO communication systems. The objective is to jointly maximize the channel outrage capacity and signal-to-noise (SNR performance and minimize the mean square error in transmit antenna selection and minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming without exhaustive search. The effectiveness of all the proposed methods is verified by extensive simulation results. It is shown that the required antenna selection processing time of the proposed method does not increase along with the increase of selected antennas, but the computation complexity of conventional exhaustive search method will significantly increase when large-scale antennas are employed in the system. This is particularly useful in antenna selection for large-scale MIMO communication systems.

  9. User evaluations of design complexity: the impact of visual perceptions for effective online health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights the influential role of design complexity for users' first impressions of health websites. An experimental design was utilized to investigate whether a website's level of design complexity impacts user evaluations. An online questionnaire measured the hypothesized impact of design complexity on predictors of message effectiveness. Findings reveal that increased design complexity was positively associated with higher levels of perceived design esthetics, attitude toward the website, perceived message comprehensibility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived visual informativeness. This research gives further evidence that design complexity should be considered an influential variable for health communicators to effectively reach their audiences, as it embodies the critical first step for message evaluation via electronic platforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Variations and anomalies of the posterior communicating artery in Northwest Indian brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Daisy; Jit, Indar; Lal, Vivek

    2007-10-01

    The PCoA is a major branch of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy and awareness of the variations and anomalies are of clinical importance. The PCoA was studied in 200 male and 80 female adults and in 20 male and 25 female children. These were medicolegal cases that died of an accident or poisoning after staying in a hospital for a few days. In addition to autopsy specimens, PCoA was also examined in 45 fetuses obtained from the department of obstetrics and gynecology of this institute. In fetal brains, at 61 to 70 mm CR stage, the average diameter of PCoA was more than that of the proximal part of the PCA; at 91 to 100 mm CR stage, the diameters of both vessels were equal and remained so until 130 mm CR stage; thereafter, the diameter of the proximal part of PCA became larger than PCoA. Incidence of tortuosity was more on the left than on the right side in children, and the reverse was the case in adults. Tortuosity was not found in fetal brains. The incidence of hypoplasticity and absence of PCoA in children and adults in both sexes were noted. The embryonic type (where the diameter of PCoA is more than the diameter of proximal part of PCA) was observed in 3 children and 20 adults. The incidence of aneurysms involving PCoA was 0.92% in adults. They were not seen in fetuses, newborns, and children. Because of hemodynamic factors in fetuses of more than 130 mm CR stage, the diameter of PCA becomes larger than that of the PCoA. An aneurysm was seen in only 1 male adult (0.5%), other anomalies present were absence, hypoplasticity, and duplication of PCoA. Present observations were different from the findings of 2 groups of the Indian workers (J Neurosurg 1984;60:572-576; J Anat Soc India 1970;19:71-79). Case history of the patients with anomalies of PCoA did not show any mental aberration.

  11. On the Communication Complexity of Secure Function Evaluation with Long Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel; Wichs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We study the communication complexity of secure function evaluation (SFE). Consider a setting where Alice has a short input χA, Bob has an input χB and we want Bob to learn some function y = f(χA, χB) with large output size. For example, Alice has a small secret decryption key, Bob has a large...... value. Moreover, we show that even in an offline/online protocol, the communication of the online phase must have output-size dependence. This negative result uses an incompressibility argument and it generalizes several recent lower bounds for functional encryption and (reusable) garbled circuits...

  12. Complexity Science and the Dynamics of Climate and Communication: Reducing Nursing Home Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; McDaniel, Reuben R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Turnover in nursing homes is a widespread problem adversely affecting care quality. Using complexity theory, we tested the effect of administrative climate, communication patterns, and the interaction between the two on turnover, controlling for facility context. Design and Methods Perceptions of administrative climate and communication were collected from 3,449 employees in 164 randomly sampled nursing homes, and they were linked to secondary data on facility characteristics, resource allocation, and turnover. We used hierarchical regression to test the hypotheses. Results Climate and communication both affected turnover, but lower turnover was dependent on the interaction between climate and communication. In nursing homes with reward-based administrative climates, higher levels of communication openness and accuracy explained lower turnover of licensed vocational nurses and certified nurse assistants, relative to nursing homes with an ambiguous climate. Adequate staffing and longer tenure of the nursing director were also important predictors of turnover. Implications Although context is important, managers can also influence turnover by addressing climate and communication patterns and by encouraging stable nursing leadership. PMID:15197292

  13. Power-law behavior in complex organizational communication networks during crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Murshed, Shahriar Tanvir Hasan; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-08-01

    Communication networks can be described as patterns of contacts which are created due to the flow of messages and information shared among participating actors. Contemporary organizations are now commonly viewed as dynamic systems of adaptation and evolution containing several parts, which interact with one another both in internal and in external environment. Although there is limited consensus among researchers on the precise definition of organizational crisis, there is evidence of shared meaning: crisis produces individual crisis, crisis can be associated with positive or negative conditions, crises can be situations having been precipitated quickly or suddenly or situations that have developed over time and are predictable etc. In this research, we study the power-law behavior of an organizational email communication network during crisis from complexity perspective. Power law simply describes that, the probability that a randomly selected node has k links (i.e. degree k) follows P(k)∼k, where γ is the degree exponent. We used social network analysis tools and techniques to analyze the email communication dataset. We tested two propositions: (1) as organization goes through crisis, a few actors, who are prominent or more active, will become central, and (2) the daily communication network as well as the actors in the communication network exhibit power-law behavior. Our preliminary results support these two propositions. The outcome of this study may provide significant advancement in exploring organizational communication network behavior during crisis.

  14. Ultra-fast secure communication with complex systems in classical channels (Conference Presentation)

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzone, Valerio

    2017-04-28

    Developing secure communications is a research area of growing interest. During the past years, several cryptographic schemes have been developed, with Quantum cryptography being a promising scheme due to the use of quantum effects, which make very difficult for an eavesdropper to intercept the communication. However, practical quantum key distribution methods have encountered several limitations; current experimental realizations, in fact, fail to scale up on long distances, as well as in providing unconditional security and speed comparable to classical optical communications channels. Here we propose a new, low cost and ultra-fast cryptographic system based on a fully classical optical channel. Our cryptographic scheme exploits the complex synchronization of two different random systems (one on the side of the sender and another on the side of the receiver) to realize a “physical” one paid system. The random medium is created by an optical chip fabricated through electron beam lithography on a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) substrate. We present experiments with ps lasers and commercial fibers, showing the ultrafast distribution of a random key between two users (Alice and Bob), with absolute no possibility for a passive/active eavesdropper to intercept the communication. Remarkably, this system enables the same security of quantum cryptography, but with the use of a classical communication channel. Our system exploits a unique synchronization that exists between two different random systems, and at such is extremely versatile and can enable safe communications among different users in standards telecommunications channels.

  15. Preoperative Prediction of the Necessity for Anterior Clinoidectomy During Microsurgical Clipping of Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Tomoya; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Tabani, Halima; Safaee, Michael M; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-01-01

    Although most posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms can be clipped easily with excellent results, some require anterior clinoidectomy for safe and complete clipping. To review our microsurgical series of ruptured PCoA aneurysms and identify the preoperative predictors for anterior clinoidectomy during microsurgical clipping for PCoA aneurysms. Results from microsurgical clipping of 104 patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms were reviewed retrospectively. Distances and angles were obtained from computed tomographic angiography and compared between the anterior and nonanterior clinoidectomy groups. Anterior clinoidectomy was required in 19 of the 104 cases (18%). None developed surgical complications due to anterior clinoid process (ACP) resection, including postoperative visual deficit. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the distances from the ACP tip to the aneurysmal proximal neck and from the ACP line to the aneurysmal proximal neck were statistically significant predictive factors for the need of anterior clinoidectomy. Based on a receiver operating characteristic analysis, the distances from the ACP tip to the aneurysmal proximal neck PCoA aneurysm surgery, the distances from the ACP tip to the aneurysmal proximal neck and from the ACP line to the aneurysmal proximal neck were both found to be useful predictors of whether anterior clinoidectomy was required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CT and angiographic analysis of posterior communicating artery aneurysms: What factors influence the amount of subarachnoid blood?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Jung, Kun Sik; Rho, Myung Ho; Choi, Pil Youb; Sung, Young Soon; Kwon, Jae Soo; Lee, Sang Wook

    1998-01-01

    To determine how clinical and angiographic factors relate to the amount of subarachnoid blood detected by computerized tomography in patients with a ruptured aneurysm. Between January 1996 and December 1997, 22 patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm were retrospectively evaluated. Oval(three of four cases), funnel(both cases), and daughter-sac (four of five cases) types of aneurysmal sac were found among the 13 patients with a large amount of subarachnoid blood;eight of these had a past history of hyertension or diabetes. Seven of eleven cases of cylindricaltype aneurysmal sac were found among the 9 patients with a small amount of sularachnoid blood;eight of these had no past history of hypertension or diabetes. The average S/N ratio (ratio of maximum sac length to neck diameter) of patients with a small amount of blood was higher than that of patients with a large amount of blood(2.72 vs 2.07). Although many factors influence the amount of subarachnoid blood in an aneurysmal rupture, we found that a large amount of blood was frequently present in the oval, funnel and daughter sac types of aneurysm, when S/N ratio was low, and when an underlying disease such as hypertension or diabetes was present. Conversely, a small amount of blood was present in the cylindrical type, when S/N ratio was high, and where there was no underlying disease.=20

  17. Multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation from plasma physics, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics and optical communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Xing; Zhu Hongwu; Yao Zhenzhi; Meng Xianghua; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Chunyi; Tian Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the multisoliton solutions in terms of double Wronskian determinant are presented for a generalized variable-coefficient nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which appears in space and laboratory plasmas, arterial mechanics, fluid dynamics, optical communications and so on. By means of the particularly nice properties of Wronskian determinant, the solutions are testified through direct substitution into the bilinear equations. Furthermore, it can be proved that the bilinear Baecklund transformation transforms between (N - 1)- and N-soliton solutions

  18. Lower Bounds for Number-in-Hand Multiparty Communication Complexity, Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Jeff; Verbin, Elad; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    ; the technique seems applicable to a wide range of other problems as well. The obtained communication lower bounds imply new lower bounds in the functional monitoring model [11] (also called the distributed streaming model). All of our lower bounds allow randomized communication protocols with two-sided error......In this paper we prove lower bounds on randomized multiparty communication complexity, both in the blackboard model (where each message is written on a blackboard for all players to see) and (mainly) in the message-passing model, where messages are sent player-to-player. We introduce a new...... technique for proving such bounds, called symmetrization, which is natural, intuitive, and often easy to use. For example, for the problem where each of k players gets a bit-vector of length n, and the goal is to compute the coordinate-wise XOR of these vectors, we prove a tight lower bounds of Ω...

  19. Free-flap cover of complex defects around the knee using the descending genicular artery as the recipient pedicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, H; Sabapathy, S R; Nayak, S

    2014-01-01

    Selection of ideal recipient vessels is one of the most important factors determining success in free-flap reconstruction of the lower limb. At the knee, the choice of vessels has traditionally been either the common femoral or the popliteal vessels and their branches but these are often difficult to use or cannot be used. A series of 32 free flaps for cover of complex injuries of the knee involving the distal femur, the knee joint and the upper tibia were reconstructed using the descending genicular branch of the femoral artery in the adductor canal and its muscular branches to the vastus medialis as the recipient vessels. All but one flap survived with no major complications. The use of the descending genicular artery as the recipient vessel for reconstruction with free flaps around the knee has various advantages including: (i) it is mostly remote from the zone of trauma, (ii) it is constant in location, (iii) the recipient vessels are an excellent size match for end-to-end anastomosis, (iv) there is no need for changes of position of the patient when using most free flaps commonly used for knee reconstruction, (v) it is easy to harvest these simultaneously, (vi) secondary exposure of the underlying skeleton from all quadrants is unlikely to divide the flap pedicle as it is superior and (vii), perhaps most important of all, it obviates the need for exploration of the popliteal fossa. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using GeoVisual Analytics for understanding the distribution of complex movement patterns on the arterial roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    streets by igniting traffic rules. This will be studied on the basis of clusters of big unexplainable deviations from driving speed in FCD. The results will allow us to uncover meaningful patterns from complex traffic movements in populated areas, and provide some recommendations that are critical......Arterial roads have a particular operational significance and play a substantial role in the mobility and economic development of the modern society. They make up the majority of the road transport in urban and rural areas, and allow high-speed movement despite speed limitations and traffic...... controlling elements urban areas. In densely populated areas, where the presence of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) is high, a high-speed movement is problematic from a road safety perspective, since many VRUs do crossroads by ignoring regardless of regulation and design limitations of the road network...

  1. Long-term outcome in patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stents in complex coronary artery lesions: 3-year results of the SCANDSTENT (Stenting Coronary Arteries in Non-Stress/Benestent Disease) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H.; Klovgaard, L.; Helqvist, S.

    2008-01-01

    data of the long-term outcome of patients with complex coronary artery lesions. METHODS: We randomly assigned 322 patients with total coronary occlusions or lesions located in bifurcations, ostial, or angulated segments of the coronary arteries to have SES or BMS implanted. RESULTS: At 3 years, major...... performed between 1 and 3 years after the index treatment (p = NS). According to revised definitions, stent thrombosis occurred in 5 patients (3.1%) in the SES group and in 7 patients (4.4%) in the BMS group (p = NS); very late stent thrombosis was observed in 4 versus 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: A continued...

  2. Treatment of an Unusual Occurrence of a Complex Left Subclavian Artery/Left Internal Mammary Artery Bifurcation Stenosis in the Setting of Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome and Ischemic Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Martinelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case will illustrate the clinical and unique technical challenges, not previously reported, in a patient with a history of progressive left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction, congestive heart failure (CHF, myocardial infarction (MI, and a complex bifurcation lesion of the left subclavian artery (SA involving the left internal mammary artery (LIMA in the setting of coronary subclavian steal syndrome (CSSS. The approach to this lesion is complicated by significant LIMA involvement requiring intervention directed toward both the SA and the LIMA in the presence of severe LV systolic dysfunction. This clinical scenario necessitates a careful technique, utilizing bifurcation methods similar to those used in coronary intervention.

  3. The relationship between fractional flow reserve, platelet reactivity and platelet leukocyte complexes in stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J.W.E.M.; Rutten, B.; Holten, van T.C.; Hillaert, M.A.K.; Waltenberger, J.; Pijls, N.H.J.; Pasterkamp, G.; Groot, de P.G.; Roest, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of stenoses that significantly impair blood flow and cause myocardial ischemia negatively affects prognosis of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Altered platelet reactivity has been associated with impaired prognosis of stable coronary artery disease. Platelets

  4. True aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Gandhi, Chirag D; Quinn, John; Karimi, Reza; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    To review and analyze systematically the reported cases of "true" posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm. A retrospective review of the published literature was performed, and a meta-analysis of individual patient data was conducted. Pooled data showed that "true" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%, 1.7%) of all intracranial aneurysms and 6.8% (95% CI 4.3%, 9.2%) of all PCoA aneurysms. Mean patient age was 53.5 years (53.5 years ± 15.4), and age range was 23-79 years. Of the 49 patients reported in the literature, 44 (89.8%) were reported as ruptured, and 4 (10.2%) were reported as unruptured. There were no significant differences in ruptured status between age (P = 0.321), left vs right aneurysm (P = 0.537), and shape of aneurysm (P = 0.408). No significant differences in complication rates were found between rupture status (P = 0.27), and operative modalities (P = 0.878). The mean ages of patients who had no complications and patients who had complications were 53 years (53 years ± 2.59) vs 53.2 years (53.2 years ± 5.02) (P = 0.972). "True" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% of all intracranial aneurysms and 6.8% of all PCoA aneurysms. They are more prone to rupture compared with their counterpart junctional aneurysms. When surgical management is indicated, a good understanding of the location and configuration of the aneurysm neck before surgical treatment is critical in the successful treatment of these lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Arterial hypertension and RU-486: a complex case of secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandra; Pisaneschi, Silvia; Montereggi, Francesco; Canu, Letizia; Corsini, Elisa; Mannelli, Massimo; Montereggi, Alessio

    2013-06-01

    Secondary hypertension accounts for 10-15% of all cases of hypertension, and early diagnosis with identification of its etiology can be challenging. In this scenario, therapeutic management of affected patients may be difficult. Hypercortisolism is one of the possible causes of secondary hypertension, but its low prevalence and atypical clinical symptoms can lead to a delayed diagnosis. The complex clinical presentation and potential complications need a close collaboration among different clinicians in order to plan optimal or new treatment protocols.

  6. Long-Range Intramolecular Electronic Communication in a Trinuclear Ruthenium Tropolonate Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun; Kuwahara, Kyohei; Suzuki, Kota; Yuge, Hidetaka

    2017-02-20

    Dinuclear and trinuclear ruthenium complexes, [Ru(trop) 2 (C 2 trop)Ru(dppe)Cp] [2b; trop = tropolonato, C 2 trop = ethynyltropolonato, dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] and [Ru(trop){(C 2 trop)Ru(dppe)Cp} 2 ] (3), were synthesized, and their electronic and electrochemical properties were investigated in comparison with our previously reported complex [Ru(acac) 2 (C 2 trop)Ru(dppe)Cp] (2a). The electron-donating Ru II (dppe)Cp unit and electron-accepting Ru III O 6 unit are connected by C 2 trop in these complexes. 2a incorporates acetylacetonate as an ancillary ligand, while 2b and 3 incorporate tropolonate as an ancillary ligand. Every complex, 2a, 2b, and 3, exhibits similar UV-vis-near-IR (NIR) absorption spectra, demonstrating the lack of explicit intramolecular electronic communication between the units at least in the neutral state. The weak NIR absorption in 2a further diminished upon electrochemical oxidation, indicating almost no electronic communication between the units. In contrast, 2b and 3 exhibit broad NIR absorptions upon oxidation. Additionally, 3 exhibits four stepwise redox couples in the electrochemical study, which are formally attributed to [Ru II (trop) 3 ] - /[Ru III (trop) 3 ], two [Ru II (dppe)Cp]/[Ru III (dppe)Cp] + , and [Ru III (trop) 3 ]/[Ru IV (trop) 3 ] + couples. Clear separation of the redox couples attributed to the two terminal [Ru(dppe)Cp] units demonstrates the thermodynamic stability of the intermediate oxidation states with respect to disproportionation. Further electrochemical studies using an electrolyte including perfluorinated weakly coordinating anions and density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory calculations confirmed the effect of ancillary ligands, acetylacetonate and tropolonate. In the case of 2a, electronic delocalization over the whole complex, especially over the [Ru(acac) 2 (trop)] unit, appears to be small. In contrast, the electronic communication between [Ru(dppe)Cp] and [Ru

  7. Public communication on times of environmental crisis. The opening of San Rafael 's uranium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvino, Carlos; Cisneros, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Argentina has had a lot of cultural changes in the last few years. An environmental movement has gathered and is trying to stop the opening of the Sierra Pintada uranium complex, near the city of San Rafael, in the south of Mendoza province. Since 2005, several 'groundless information' have been published in the local media about the dangers of this re-opening. These news exaggerate the properties of radon gas, claiming that it will reach San Rafael city (20 miles from the complex), rising radiological risk among the population, etc. This scene shows a 'non-real' picture of the regulatory activities that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), a government agency that regulates nuclear facilities in Argentina, is really and systematically accomplishing. In this situation, the board of Directors of ARN decided to entrust a full analysis of the environmental issue in the area. The Office of Press and Communication implemented a local communication plan, using a Strategic and Systemic tool kit. The period to be analyzed is from second semester 2005 to February 2007. A little bit of history: the San Rafael Complex started in September 20 of 1979. It belongs to the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA), a government agency. Until its temporary suspension in 1995 for international market reasons (uranium price was U$S 10 / pound), almost 2 million tons of uranium were processed. Besides its temporary suspension, the ARN has been constantly monitoring this particular former complex. In the year 2001, CNEA notices that the uranium price starts to rise and entrust National Technology University, Avellaneda Branch, to accomplish an Environmental Impact Report, according to the argentine law 25.585. Due especially to the rising of uranium price, (actually, the uranium price is approximately U$S 200) the national government determined to restart the extraction of the mineral again. By the year 2004, with the results of the Environmental Impact report, CNEA

  8. Development and application of the informational and communication technologies in quality standards of health care management for patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smііanov, V; Smiianova, O; Tarasenko, S

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health technologies improve the quality of health care service. The information and communication technology is developed and applied to remind patients with arterial hypertension to follow medical recommendations. The feedback system from general practitioners was developed (the reminder system for patients sending the feedbacks). It helped to supervise follow-up patients online. Suggested system provides for forming the database for summarized analysis of online survey of the patients, who receive medical care at health care institution, to take managerial decisions concerning the improvements of medical services quality. Evaluation of efficiency of the applied technology assured that the number of patients, who checked regularly his/her arterial pressure, increased by 31.00%. The number of patients, who visited doctors for preventive purpose two or more times during given year, rose by 18.24%. The number of patients with target pressure grew by 24.51% and composed 38.55±4.26%.

  9. On the impact of communication complexity in the design of parallel numerical algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, D.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes two models of the cost of data movement in parallel numerical algorithms. One model is a generalization of an approach due to Hockney, and is suitable for shared memory multiprocessors where each processor has vector capabilities. The other model is applicable to highly parallel nonshared memory MIMD systems. In the second model, algorithm performance is characterized in terms of the communication network design. Techniques used in VLSI complexity theory are also brought in, and algorithm independent upper bounds on system performance are derived for several problems that are important to scientific computation.

  10. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Dias, Denise B Dos Santos; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Jones, Théresa M

    2016-11-14

    In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  11. Clipping in Awake Surgery as End-Stage in a Complex Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm After Failure of Multimodal Endovascular and Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Delia; Peschillo, Simone; Mancarella, Cristina; La Pira, Biagia; Rastelli, Emanuela; Passacantilli, Emiliano; Santoro, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial carotid artery aneurysm can be treated via microsurgical or endovascular techniques. The optimal planning is the result of the careful patient selection through clinical, anatomic, and angiographic analysis. We present a case of ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm that became a complex aneurysm after failure of multi-endovascular and surgery treatment. We describe complete trapping in awake craniotomy after failure of coiling, stenting, and bypassing. ICA aneurysms could become complex aneurysms following multi-treatment failure. Endovascular approaches to treat ICA aneurysms include coiling, stenting, flow diverter stenting, and stenting-assisted coiling technique. The role of surgery remains relevant. To avoid severe neurologic deficits, recurrence, and the need of retreatment, a multidisciplinary discussion with experienced endovascular and vascular neurosurgeons is mandatory in such complex cases. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful Transarterial Guglielmi Detachable Coil Embolization of Post-Traumatic Fistula between a Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm and the Cavernous Sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Jiang, D-Y.; Tan, H-Q.; Wang, L-H.; Chen, X-Y.; Sun, J-H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of a post-traumatic posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysmcavernous sinus fistula, which is an extremely rare complication of craniocerebral trauma, successfully treated with endosaccular coil embolization via transarterial route. Endosaccular embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils via transarterial route appears to be a feasible, effective and minimally invasive option for the treatment of post-traumatic fistula between the PCoA aneurysm with a small ostia and the cavernous sinus in the subacute phase. PMID:20465883

  13. On projective synchronization of hyperchaotic complex nonlinear systems based on passive theory for secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M; Mahmoud, Emad E; Arafa, Ayman A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the projective synchronization (PS) of hyperchaotic complex nonlinear systems and its application in secure communications based on passive theory. The unpredictability of the scaling factor in PS can additionally enhance the security of communications. In this paper, a scheme for secure message transmission is proposed, and we try to transmit more than one large or bounded message from the transmitter to the receiver. The new hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system is employed to encrypt these messages. In the transmitter, the original messages are modulated into its parameter. In the receiver, we assume that the parameter of the receiver system is uncertain. The controllers and corresponding parameter update law are constructed to achieve PS between the transmitter and receiver system with an uncertain parameter, and identify the unknown parameter via passive theory. The original messages can be recovered successfully through some simple operations by the estimated parameter. Numerical results have verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented method. (paper)

  14. Transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography for visualization of signal Intensity distribution pattern within an unruptured cerebral aneurysm: preliminarily assessment with anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.; Ekino, C.; Ohsako, C.

    2004-01-01

    The natural history of unruptured cerebral aneurysm is not known; also unknown is the potential growth and rupture in any individual aneurysm. The authors have developed transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) obtained by a time-of-flight sequence to investigate the interaction between the intra-aneurysmal signal intensity distribution patterns and configuration of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Transluminal color-coded images were reconstructed from volume data of source magnetic resonance angiography by using a parallel volume-rendering algorithm with transluminal imaging technique. By selecting a numerical threshold range from a signal intensity opacity chart of the three-dimensional volume-rendering dataset several areas of signal intensity were depicted, assigned different colors, and visualized transparently through the walls of parent arteries and an aneurysm. Patterns of signal intensity distribution were analyzed with three operated cases of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm and compared with the actual configurations observed at microneurosurgery. A little difference in marginal features of an aneurysm was observed; however, transluminal color-coded images visualized the complex signal intensity distribution within an aneurysm in conjunction with aneurysmal geometry. Transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography can thus provide numerical analysis of the interaction between spatial signal intensity distribution patterns and aneurysmal configurations and may offer an alternative and practical method to investigate the patient-specific natural history of individual unruptured cerebral aneurysms. (orig.)

  15. Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Arteries Juxtaposed with the Internal Acoustic Meatus and Their Relationship to the Cranial Nerve VII/VIII Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Kassem, Mohammad W; Iwanaga, Joe; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Demerdash, Amin; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-08-16

    Vascular loops in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and their relationship to cranial nerves have been used to explain neurological symptoms. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) has variable branches producing vascular loops that can compress the facial cranial nerve (CN) VII and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves. AICA compression of the facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex can lead to various clinical presentations, including hemifacial spasm (HFS), tinnitus, and hemiataxia. The formation of arterial loops inside or outside of the internal auditory meatus (IAM) can cause abutment or compression of CN VII and CN VIII. Twenty-five (50 sides) fresh adult cadavers underwent dissection of the cerebellopontine angle in the supine position. In regard to relationships between the AICA and the nerves of the facial/vestibulocochlear complex, 33 arteries (66%) traveled in a plane between the facial/nervus intermedius nerves and the cochlear and vestibular nerves. Five arteries (10%) traveled below the CN VII/VIII complex, six (12%) traveled posterior to the nerve complex, four (8%) formed a semi-circle around the upper half of the nerve complex, and two (4%) traveled between and partially separated the nervus intermedius and facial nerve proper. Our study found that the majority of AICA will travel in a plane between the facial/nervus intermedius nerves and the cochlear and vestibular nerves. Although the relationship between the AICA and porus acusticus and AICA and the nerves of the CN VII/VIII complex are variable, based on our findings, some themes exist. Surgeons should consider these with approaches to the cerebellopontine angle.

  16. A Case of Ruptured Blood Blister-like Aneurysm Treated with Pipeline Embolization Device: Clinical Significance of Fetal-type Posterior Communicating Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Dong-Hun; Son, Won-Soo; Park, Jaechan; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Byung Moon

    2017-03-01

    Blood-blister like aneurysms (BBAs) are challenging lesions because of their wide fragile neck. Flow-diverting stents (FDSs), such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), have been applied to treat BBAs less amenable to more established techniques of treatment. However, the use of FDSs, including the PED, in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains controversial. We report a case of aneurysm regrowth following PED application for a ruptured BBA that overlapped the origin of the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA), which was successfully treated after coil trapping of the origin of the fetal-type PCoA. And, we discuss the clinical significance of the fetal-type PCoA communicating with a BBA in terms of PED failure.

  17. Patient-related factors influencing detectability of coronary arteries in 320-row CT angiography in infants with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Sagiyama, Koji; Shin, Seitaro; Hino, Takuya; Nagata, Hazumu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nagao, Michinobu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2018-05-05

    To investigate the performance of second-generation 320-row computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) in detecting coronary arteries and identify factors influencing visibility of the coronary arteries in infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Data of 60 infants (aged 0-2 years, median 2 months) with complex CHD who underwent examination using 320-row CTA with low-dose prospective electrocardiogram-triggered volume target scanning were reviewed. The coronary arteries of each infant were assessed using a 0-4-point scoring system based on the number of coronary segments with a visible course. Clinical parameters, the CT value in the ascending aorta, image noise, and the radiation dose were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. The mean coronary score for all examinations was 2.6 ± 1.5 points. The mean attenuation in the ascending aorta was 306.7 ± 66.2 HU and the mean standard deviation was 21.7 ± 4.4. The mean effective radiation dose was 1.27 ± 0.39 mSv. Multivariate regression analysis showed significant correlations between coronary score and body weight (p < 0.05) and between coronary score and the CT value in the ascending aorta (p < 0.02). Second-generation 320-row CTA with prospective electrocardiogram-triggered volume target scanning and hybrid iterative reconstruction allows good visibility of the coronary arteries in infants with complex CHD. Body weight and the CT value in the ascending aorta are important factors influencing the visibility of the coronary arteries in infants.

  18. Combined Radial-Pedal Access Strategy and Radial-Pedal Rendezvous in the Revascularization of Complex Total Occlusions of the Superficial Femoral Artery (the "No Femoral Access" Strategy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elias B; Prout, Davey L

    2016-04-01

    To describe the combined use of radial-pedal access for recanalization of complex superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions unsuitable for transfemoral recanalization. Patients are selected for this strategy if they have a long (≥ 10 cm) SFA occlusion with unfavorable aortoiliac anatomy, an absent ostial stump, or severely diseased and calcified distal reconstitution. Left radial artery and distal anterior or posterior tibial artery are accessed with 6-F and 4-F sheaths, respectively. The SFA lesion is crossed retrogradely with a 0.035-inch wire system. If retrograde crossing is not immediately successful, transradial subintimal tracking and radial-pedal subintimal rendezvous are used to allow retrograde reentry. Fifteen patients (mean age 62 ± 5 years; 11 men) have been treated in this fashion, and frequently stented, through the tibiopedal access. Seven patients required radial-pedal rendezvous to facilitate retrograde reentry. Two patients underwent transradial iliac stenting during the same session, and 1 patient underwent transradial kissing angioplasty of the profunda. No major complication occurred in any patient. After the procedure, the pulse across the accessed tibial artery was palpable in all patients. In patients with long and complex SFA occlusion unsuitable for transfemoral recanalization, a radial-pedal strategy can overcome revascularization obstacles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Quantitative study of the opticocarotid and carotid-oculomotor windows for the interpeduncular fossa, before and after internal carotid artery mobilization and posterior communicating division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Don; Elhadi, Ali M; Mendes, George A C; Maramreddy, Naveen; Agrawal, Abhishek; Kalb, Samuel; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The management of basilar apex (BX) aneurysms remains problematic. We quantified the surgical exposure of the BX through the opticocarotid window (OCW) and the carotid-oculomotor window (COW), before and after mobilization of the internal carotid artery and division of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). Eleven silicone-injected cadaveric heads were dissected bilaterally. The surgical dissection was divided into 4 major steps: (1) supraorbital modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy, (2) mobilization of the internal carotid artery after drilling out the anterior clinoid process intradurally and cutting the distal dural ring, (3) drilling out the posterior clinoid process and dorsum sellae, and (4) dividing the PCoA from the posterior third portion of the vessel. A frameless navigation system was used to quantify the surgical exposure area of the BX through the OCW and COW. The total surgical area increased significantly from steps 1 to 4 (P PCoA significantly increased the overall surgical area for permanent clip application (P PCoA and height of the BX.

  20. Adaptative synchronization in multi-output fractional-order complex dynamical networks and secure communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Machuca, Juan L.; Aguilar-López, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    This work deals with the adaptative synchronization of complex dynamical networks with fractional-order nodes and its application in secure communications employing chaotic parameter modulation. The complex network is composed of multiple fractional-order systems with mismatch parameters and the coupling functions are given to realize the network synchronization. We introduce a fractional algebraic synchronizability condition (FASC) and a fractional algebraic identifiability condition (FAIC) which are used to know if the synchronization and parameters estimation problems can be solved. To overcome these problems, an adaptative synchronization methodology is designed; the strategy consists in proposing multiple receiver systems which tend to follow asymptotically the uncertain transmitters systems. The coupling functions and parameters of the receiver systems are adjusted continually according to a convenient sigmoid-like adaptative controller (SLAC), until the measurable output errors converge to zero, hence, synchronization between transmitter and receivers is achieved and message signals are recovered. Indeed, the stability analysis of the synchronization error is based on the fractional Lyapunov direct method. Finally, numerical results corroborate the satisfactory performance of the proposed scheme by means of the synchronization of a complex network consisting of several fractional-order unified chaotic systems.

  1. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects.

  2. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleen Joachim L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  3. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos Ptm

    2011-07-20

    The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  4. Web-based communications systems: innovate solutions to complex development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, D.S.; Sordi, G.M.; Villavicencio, A.L.H.; Biazini Filho, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research work focus on the potential value of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to enhance communication and education on Radiological Protection throughout Brazil. ICTs present unprecedented opportunities to innovate solutions to complex development issues, in this large country where it is a strong challenge to ensure access to information to as many people as possible, minimizing costs and optimizing results. Therefore, taking advantage of the impact of ICTs in modern Information Society and its institutions, some research works include education for workers, researchers and the public, offering conditions for learning and improving professional and personal skills. UNIPRORAD is a research work of informatization of radiological protection programs to offer unified programs and inter-related information in Portuguese. The system provides Brazilian facilities and researchers a complete repository for research, consultation and information. The content includes the best practices for optimization and monitoring programs, taking into account that in order to establish a Radiation Protection Plan or a Radiation Emergency Plan, there must be observed all procedures based on national and international recommendations published by different organizations over the past decades: International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Other than the efforts to disseminate information to radioactive facilities and researches, it is equally essential to invest in education and communication to increase public knowledge and understanding of the benefits of Nuclear Technology, such as food irradiation and social responsibility for electric power generation, for public acceptance of Nuclear Technology depends on public understanding of radiation and its effects on individuals, workers and environment. This research work aims to present several important initiatives

  5. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Monika A; Asay, Amanda K; Pickles, Brian J; Simard, Suzanne W

    2015-05-15

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground 'tree talk' is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. Global synchronization of complex dynamical networks through digital communication with limited data rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Wu; Bian, Tao; Xiao, Jiang-Wen; Wen, Changyun

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies the global synchronization of complex dynamical network (CDN) under digital communication with limited bandwidth. To realize the digital communication, the so-called uniform-quantizer-sets are introduced to quantize the states of nodes, which are then encoded and decoded by newly designed encoders and decoders. To meet the requirement of the bandwidth constraint, a scaling function is utilized to guarantee the quantizers having bounded inputs and thus achieving bounded real-time quantization levels. Moreover, a new type of vector norm is introduced to simplify the expression of the bandwidth limit. Through mathematical induction, a sufficient condition is derived to ensure global synchronization of the CDNs. The lower bound on the sum of the real-time quantization levels is analyzed for different cases. Optimization method is employed to relax the requirements on the network topology and to determine the minimum of such lower bound for each case, respectively. Simulation examples are also presented to illustrate the established results.

  7. A novel sort of adaptive complex synchronizations of two indistinguishable chaotic complex nonlinear models with uncertain parameters and its applications in secure communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Emad E.; Abood, Fatimah S.

    In this paper, we will demonstrate the adaptive complex anti-lag synchronization (CALS) of two indistinguishable complex chaotic nonlinear systems with the parameters which are uncertain. The significance of CALS is not advised well in the literature yet. The CALS contains or consolidate two sorts of synchronizations (anti-lag synchronization ALS and lag synchronization LS). The state variable of the master system synchronizes with an alternate state variable of the slave system. Depending on the function of Lyapunov, a plan is orchestrated to achieve CALS of chaotic attractors of complex systems with unverifiable parameters. CALS of two indistinguishable complexes of Lü systems is viewed as, for example, an occasion for affirming the likelihood of the plan exhibited. In physics, we can see complex chaotic systems in numerous different applications, for example, applied sciences or engineering. With a specific end goal to affirm the proposed synchronization plan viability and demonstrate the hypothetical outcomes, we can compute the numerical simulation. The above outcomes will give the hypothetical establishment to the secure communication applications. CALS of complex chaotic systems in which a state variable of the master system synchronizes with an alternate state variable of the slave system is an encouraging sort of synchronization as it contributes excellent security in secure communication. Amid this secure communication, the synchronization between transmitter and collector is shut and message signals are recouped. The encryption and restoration of the signals are simulated numerically.

  8. Individual features of autoimmune disoders in patients with arterial hypotension in structure of neurologic symptom complexes of organic lesion of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Зинченко

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the special features of formation of individual clinical phenotype with an evident humoral sensitizing in patients with arterial hypotension in structure of neurologic symptom complexes of organic lesion of the central nervous system in accordance with the features of disorders of immune resistance and changes of the hormonal background.Materials and methods. There was carried out an examination of 201 patients: 89 with vegetative dysfunction, 50 in remote period of the closed craniocerebral trauma and 64 with cerebral arachnoiditis on the background of the chronic nidi of infection.45 examined persons with physiological arterial hypotension formed a control group. There were carried out clinical and neurological examinations, monitoring of arterial pressure, definition of the state of the primary, secondary immunity and hormonal background.Results. The main pathogenetic mechanisms in individual clinical phenotype with an evident humoral sensitizing that were formed on the background of the chronic infection are more connected with the humoral link of immunity (the high concentration of circulating immune complexes of the small values of molecular weight and peptides of the mean molecular weight, the growth of IgM content and form autoimmune disorders. This category can be related to the patients with irreversible functional states that complicates prescription of therapeutic measures.Conclusions. For patients with an evident humoral sensitizing it is reasonable to use desensitizing preparations, enterosorbents, plasmapheresis in the complex treatment. At persistent viral infection the use of specific antiviral immunoglobulins of IgG is recommended

  9. Surgical Treatment for a Complex Congenital Arteriovenous Malformation of the Lower Limb

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan, Ali Vefa; Boysan, Emre; Isikli, Osman Yasar; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems. The complexity of congenital arteriovenous malformations makes treatment challenging. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation in her left leg and a history of 2 unsuccessful coil-embolization procedures. We ligated all the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformation in the region of the superficial femoral artery, and the surg...

  10. Framework based on communicability and flow to analyze complex network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, M.; Kouvaris, N. E.; Deco, G.; Zamora-López, G.

    2018-05-01

    Graph theory constitutes a widely used and established field providing powerful tools for the characterization of complex networks. The intricate topology of networks can also be investigated by means of the collective dynamics observed in the interactions of self-sustained oscillations (synchronization patterns) or propagationlike processes such as random walks. However, networks are often inferred from real-data-forming dynamic systems, which are different from those employed to reveal their topological characteristics. This stresses the necessity for a theoretical framework dedicated to the mutual relationship between the structure and dynamics in complex networks, as the two sides of the same coin. Here we propose a rigorous framework based on the network response over time (i.e., Green function) to study interactions between nodes across time. For this purpose we define the flow that describes the interplay between the network connectivity and external inputs. This multivariate measure relates to the concepts of graph communicability and the map equation. We illustrate our theory using the multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which describes stable and non-conservative dynamics, but the formalism can be adapted to other local dynamics for which the Green function is known. We provide applications to classical network examples, such as small-world ring and hierarchical networks. Our theory defines a comprehensive framework that is canonically related to directed and weighted networks, thus paving a way to revise the standards for network analysis, from the pairwise interactions between nodes to the global properties of networks including community detection.

  11. Hypertension: Believe it or not, a Complex Problem La hipertensión arterial: aunque no lo parezca, un problema complejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (hypertension is recognized as a major health problem due both to its morbidity and the disability it causes and to its impact on mortality, especially cardiovascular mortality. However, effectively addressing its prevention and control, both in individuals and in the general population, does not seem to be an easy task, even these days. This paper aims to present different aspects of arterial hypertension (a concept through diagnosis, treatment and follow-up focusing on this entity as a complex system including multiple elements related to cardiovascular disease.La hipertensión arterial constituye un reconocido problema de salud, tanto por su morbilidad, por la discapacidad que provoca, como por su repercusión en la mortalidad, especialmente cardiovascular. Sin embargo, enfrentar eficazmente su prevención y control, tanto en los individuos como en la población en general, no parece una tarea fácil, aún en nuestros días. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar diferentes aspectos de la hipertensión arterial (concepto pasando por el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento enfocando dicha entidad como un sistema complejo que abarca múltiples elementos relacionados con las enfermedades cardiovasculares.HYPERTENSION: BELIEVE IT OR NOT, A COMPLEX PROBLEMABSTRACTHigh blood pressure (hypertension is recognized as a major health problem due both to its morbidity and the disability it causes and to its impact on mortality, especially cardiovascular mortality. However, effectively addressing its prevention and control, both in individuals and in the general population, does not seem to be an easy task, even these days. This paper aims to present different aspects of arterial hypertension (a concept through diagnosis, treatment and follow-up focusing on this entity as a complex system including multiple elements related to cardiovascular disease.

  12. The posterior communicating artery: morphometric study in 3D angio-computed tomography reconstruction. The proof of the mathematical definition of the hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierżanowski, J; Szarmach, A; Słoniewski, P; Czapiewski, P; Piskunowicz, M; Bandurski, T; Szmuda, T

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometry of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), on the basis of angio-computed tomography (CT), and to give proof of the mathematical definition of the term "hypopal sia of the PCoA". One hundred 3-dimensional (3D) angio-CT images, performed in adult patients with bilateral reconstruction of the PCoA (200 results) were used tocalculate the morphometry of the vessel. The average length of the vessel on the right side was 14.48 ± 3.47 mm, andon the left side 14.98 ± 4.77 mm (in women 14.75 mm, in men 14.70 mm). The mean of the diameter at the "proximal" point (the junction with P1) on the right side was 1.49 ± 0.51 mm, and on the left 1.46 ± 0.47 mm (in women 1.44 mm and in men 1.51 mm). The mean of the diameter in the "distal" part (the connection with ICA) on the right side was 1.4 ± 0.49 mm, and on the left 1.37 ± 0.41 mm (in women 1.38 mm, and in men 1.39 mm). No statistical correlation between the length and the diameter of the PCoA in relation to the sex and side was shown. On the basis of our measurements, we defined the hypoplasia of the artery as the estimated value less than the average diameter minus the standard deviation. The percentage distribution was as follows: the left artery 15.5%, the right artery 24%, women 11.5%, and the men 9%. Similarly to the above parameters, we have not found any statistical differences. The presence of the foetal origin was noted in 25% of the radiological examinations. The infundibular widening was visualised in 11.5% of cases of 3D reconstructions. The agenesis of PCoA was found in 9% (never bilaterally), and in 1 case the unilateral duplication of the artery was observed. No statistical differences between those parameters in relation to sex and the examined side were revealed. Morphological calculation of the PCoA on the basis of angio-CT from adult patients did not show any statistical differences depending on sex or the investigated side. The presented

  13. Rethinking communication in innovation processes: creating space for change in complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Aarts, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically rethinks the role of communication in innovation processes, starting from largely separate theoretical developments in communication science and innovation studies. Literature review forms the basis of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that innovation is a

  14. Rethinking Communication in Innovation Processes: Creating Space for Change in Complex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Aarts, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically rethinks the role of communication in innovation processes, starting from largely separate theoretical developments in communication science and innovation studies. Literature review forms the basis of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that innovation is a

  15. The retrograde transverse cervical artery as a recipient vessel for free tissue transfer in complex head and neck reconstruction with a vessel-depleted neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Agko, Mouchammed; Manrique, Oscar J; Date, Shivprasad; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chang, Wei Ling; Nicoli, Fabio; Lo Torto, Federico; Maruccia, Michele; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    Reconstruction in a vessel-depleted neck is challenging. The success rates can be markedly decreased because of unavailability of suitable recipient vessels. In order to obtain a reliable flow, recipient vessels away from the zone of fibrosis, radiation, or infection need to be explored. The aim of this report is to present our experience and clinical outcomes using the retrograde flow coming from the distal transverse cervical artery (TCA) as a source for arterial inflow for complex head and neck reconstruction in patients with a vessel-depleted neck. Between July 2010 and June 2016, nine patients with a vessel-depleted neck underwent secondary head and neck reconstruction using the retrograde TCA as recipient vessel for microanastomosis. The mean age was 49.6 years (range, 36 to 68 years). All patients had previous bilateral neck dissections and all, except one, had also received radiotherapy. Indications included neck contracture release (n = 3), oral (n = 1), mandibular (n = 3) and pharyngoesophageal (n = 2) reconstruction necessitating free anterolateral thigh (n = 3) and medial sural artery (n = 1) perforator flaps, fibula (n = 3) and ileocolon (n = 2) flaps respectively. There was 100% flap survival rate with no re-exploration or any partial flap loss. One case of intra-operative arterial vasospasm at the anastomotic suture line was managed intra-operatively with vein graft interposition. There were no other complications or donor site morbidity during the follow-up period. In a vessel-depleted neck, the reverse flow of the TCA may be a reliable option for complex secondary head and neck reconstruction in selected patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reversible Edema-Like Changes Along the Optic Tract Following Pipeline-Assisted Coiling of a Large Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pira, Biagia; Brinjikji, Waleed; Hunt, Christopher; Chen, John J; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Aneurysmal volume expansion after endovascular treatment is caused by intra-aneurysmal thrombosis in the early postembolization period. Although postembolization mass effect on cranial nerves and other adjacent structures has been previously reported, we are unaware of reports involving the anterior visual pathway. A 66-year-old woman with a 2-week history of blurred vision without headache was found to have a large, unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. One month after endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with coiling and flow diversion, the patient developed decreased vision in her right eye and a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated compression of the right optic nerve, chiasm, and edema of the right optic tract. The patient was treated with a course of high dose corticosteroids, and over the course of several weeks, her vision improved and the optic tract edema resolved. We alert clinicians to this rare but potentially reversible visual complication of endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

  17. Ptosis as partial oculomotor nerve palsy due to compression by infundibular dilatation of posterior communicating artery, visualized with three-dimensional computer graphics: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yuta; Imai, Hideaki; Yoshino, Masanori; Kin, Taichi; Takasago, Megumi; Saito, Kuniaki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2014-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) due to internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysm generally manifests as partial nerve palsy including pupillary dysfunction. In contrast, infundibular dilatation (ID) of the PcomA has no pathogenic significance, and mechanical compression of the cranial nerve is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman who presented with progressive ptosis due to mechanical compression of the oculomotor nerve by an ID of the PcomA. Three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) accurately visualized the mechanical compression by the ID, and her ptosis was improved after clipping of the ID. ID of the PcomA may cause ONP by mechanical compression and is treatable surgically. 3DCG are effective for the diagnosis and preoperative simulation.

  18. Low-complex energy-aware image communication in visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamila, Yesudhas Asnath Victy; Amutha, Ramachandran

    2013-10-01

    A low-complex, low bit rate, energy-efficient image compression algorithm explicitly designed for resource-constrained visual sensor networks applied for surveillance, battle field, habitat monitoring, etc. is presented, where voluminous amount of image data has to be communicated over a bandwidth-limited wireless medium. The proposed method overcomes the energy limitation of individual nodes and is investigated in terms of image quality, entropy, processing time, overall energy consumption, and system lifetime. This algorithm is highly energy efficient and extremely fast since it applies energy-aware zonal binary discrete cosine transform (DCT) that computes only the few required significant coefficients and codes them using enhanced complementary Golomb Rice code without using any floating point operations. Experiments are performed using the Atmel Atmega128 and MSP430 processors to measure the resultant energy savings. Simulation results show that the proposed energy-aware fast zonal transform consumes only 0.3% of energy needed by conventional DCT. This algorithm consumes only 6% of energy needed by Independent JPEG Group (fast) version, and it suits for embedded systems requiring low power consumption. The proposed scheme is unique since it significantly enhances the lifetime of the camera sensor node and the network without any need for distributed processing as was traditionally required in existing algorithms.

  19. Compressive Sensing Based Bayesian Sparse Channel Estimation for OFDM Communication Systems: High Performance and Low Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods. PMID:24983012

  20. Differentiating aneurysm from infundibular dilatation by volume rendering MRA. Techniques for improving depiction of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takaaki; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Kohama, Ikuhide; Yonemori, Terutake; Izumo, Masaki [Hakodate Shintoshi Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    With the spread of brain dock procedures, non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is being utilized to broadly screen for brain blood vessel diseases. However, diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm can be difficult by routine MRA. In particular, differentiating aneurysms and infundibular dilatations (IDS) of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) at their bifurcations with the internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely difficult and additional studies are frequently necessary. In this situation, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and cerebral angiography have been utilized, but both techniques are invasive. Furthermore, images from cerebral angiography are only two-dimensional, and 3D-CTA requires differentiation between aneurysm and ID by observing configurational changes at the apex of the protrusion and by following gradual changes to the threshold. We therefore undertook the following steps to improve both depiction of the PCoA and AChA and differential diagnosis between aneurysm and ID: reduced slice thickness and increased number of excitations; utilized volume rendering methods to construct images; lowered thresholds for the beginning of the PCoA and AChA arteries, which represent the regions of interest. In all 11 cases that we operated on, cerebral aneurysms were diagnosed correctly and the minimum neck diameter of the cerebral aneurysm was 1.2 mm. In addition, the number of AChAs and PCoAs present in target MRA and in operational views were evaluated. In one case with an AChA aneurysm, a PCoA was not detected by target MRA, because the ICA deviated posterolaterally and pushed the PCoA to the posterior clinoid process, and blood flow was poor in operational views. In another 2 cases with AChA aneurysms, only one AChA was described in target MRA, whereas two aneurysms were present. However, one of these had a diameter less than 1 mm. In conclusion, this method offers an extremely useful aid

  1. Differentiating aneurysm from infundibular dilatation by volume rendering MRA. Techniques for improving depiction of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takaaki; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Kohama, Ikuhide; Yonemori, Terutake; Izumo, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    With the spread of brain dock procedures, non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is being utilized to broadly screen for brain blood vessel diseases. However, diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm can be difficult by routine MRA. In particular, differentiating aneurysms and infundibular dilatations (IDS) of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) at their bifurcations with the internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely difficult and additional studies are frequently necessary. In this situation, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and cerebral angiography have been utilized, but both techniques are invasive. Furthermore, images from cerebral angiography are only two-dimensional, and 3D-CTA requires differentiation between aneurysm and ID by observing configurational changes at the apex of the protrusion and by following gradual changes to the threshold. We therefore undertook the following steps to improve both depiction of the PCoA and AChA and differential diagnosis between aneurysm and ID: reduced slice thickness and increased number of excitations; utilized volume rendering methods to construct images; lowered thresholds for the beginning of the PCoA and AChA arteries, which represent the regions of interest. In all 11 cases that we operated on, cerebral aneurysms were diagnosed correctly and the minimum neck diameter of the cerebral aneurysm was 1.2 mm. In addition, the number of AChAs and PCoAs present in target MRA and in operational views were evaluated. In one case with an AChA aneurysm, a PCoA was not detected by target MRA, because the ICA deviated posterolaterally and pushed the PCoA to the posterior clinoid process, and blood flow was poor in operational views. In another 2 cases with AChA aneurysms, only one AChA was described in target MRA, whereas two aneurysms were present. However, one of these had a diameter less than 1 mm. In conclusion, this method offers an extremely useful aid

  2. Tensor Norms and the Classical Communication Complexity of Nonlocal Quantum Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yaoyun; Zhu, Yufan

    2005-01-01

    We initiate the study of quantifying nonlocalness of a bipartite measurement by the minimum amount of classical communication required to simulate the measurement. We derive general upper bounds, which are expressed in terms of certain tensor norms of the measurement operator. As applications, we show that (a) If the amount of communication is constant, quantum and classical communication protocols with unlimited amount of shared entanglement or shared randomness compute the same set of funct...

  3. Echolucency of the carotid artery intima-media complex and intima-media thickness have different cardiovascular risk factor relationships: the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Xue, Xiaonan; Mack, Wendy J; Anastos, Kathryn; Lazar, Jason M; Selzer, Robert H; Shircore, Anne M; Plankey, Michael; Tien, Phyllis; Cohen, Mardge; Gange, Stephen J; Hodis, Howard N; Kaplan, Robert C

    2015-02-19

    Adults infected with HIV have increased atherosclerosis potentially associated with both HIV and non-HIV associated factors. We characterized risk factors for atherosclerosis as measured by noninvasive vascular imaging. We used B-mode ultrasound to examine levels and correlates of echogenicity and vessel wall thickness of the carotid artery intima-media complex in 1282 HIV-infected and 510 HIV-uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Levels of gray scale median (GSM, a measure of echogenicity) did not vary between HIV infection groups. In both groups, smokers had increased GSM, whereas age, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and high BMI were associated with lower (rather than higher) GSM. Each of these non-lipid CVD risk factors, especially age and blood pressure, was also associated with higher levels of carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher serum triglyceride levels were associated with lower GSM in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. Additional lipid risk factors for low GSM including high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels were identified in HIV uninfected but not in HIV infected women. In contrast to findings for GSM, among the lipid parameters only LDL cholesterol level had an association with cIMT, which was observed only in the HIV uninfected group. Lipid and non-lipid risk factor associations with echolucency of the carotid artery and the thickness of the common carotid artery intima-media layer suggest that these measures capture different aspects of atherosclerosis. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Use of modified Sandwich-graft technique to preserve hypogastric artery in EVAR treatment of complex aortic aneurysm anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Arochena, N; Rodríguez Feijoo, G; Carballo Fernandez, C; Molina Herrero, F; Fernandez Lebrato, R; Barrios Castro, A; Garcia Fernandez, I

    2011-10-01

    Since the introduction of the first endoprosthetic devices, continuous development in techniques and implants has occurred, such as the introduction of a stent graft with branches designed to preserve antegrade flow in the hypogastric artery, a stent-graft designed to treat extreme neck angulation and iliac tortuosity, as well as "Sandwich" and "Chimney" techniques used to maintain perfusion in branch vessels originating in the region to be treated. This paper describes how the Sandwich-Graft technique was adapted, as described by Lobato et al., employing the Aorfix™ system (Lombard Medical) and the Viabahn™ (W.L.Gore) to preserve hypogastric flow in cases with extreme neck angulation and iliac tortuosity. The study included four patients treated from April 2010 until November 2010 with the modified Sandwich technique. All patients eligible for this approach were considered unfit for open repair and were not suitable for an iliac branch graft (Z-BIS Zenith™ Cook Medical). A bifurcated endograft was implanted with specific, in-situ, branching to the target hypogastric artery and achieved clinical and technical success, in all the patients. After a 11-month follow-up in two cases and a six-month follow-up in the other two, clinical results were successful. All patients were endoleak-free, had patent hypogastric branches and had shrinking or stable aneurysms. The initial experience shows that the Sandwich technique with the Aorfix™ stent-graft demonstrated to be effective in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients with aortoiliac anatomy hostile to preserving hypogastric artery patency. This graft allows a broader group of patients to be treated with endovascular repair without potential complications of hypogastric artery occlusion; however, further studies are needed to evaluate long-term results in larger numbers of patients.

  5. Understanding the Complexities of Communicating Management Decisions on the Subsistence Use of Yukon River Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. F.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    the timing of salmon pulses, the data gaps present, and the political landscape of the Yukon River were created. A future step of developing an interactive online mapping tool has been identified as a way to most clearly communicate the complexity of the interwoven systems involved in the status of Yukon River salmon and their management.

  6. Breaking down barriers to communicating complex retinoblastoma information: can graphics be the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hannah H; Dimaras, Helen; Downie, Rob; Gallie, Brenda

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of a graphical timeline summarizing bilateral retinoblastoma disease and treatment outcomes on parents' understanding of complex medical information. Cross-sectional survey. Parents of children with retinoblastoma who were being actively managed at The Hospital for Sick Children were recruited. Forty-five parents from 42 families participated. After a standardized presentation on retinoblastoma and visual tool named Disease-Specific electronic Patient Illustrated Clinical Timeline (DePICT), parents completed a 19-item questionnaire designed to assess their understanding of treatment choices for 2 eyes in bilateral retinoblastoma as communicated using DePICT. SPSS was used to perform statistical analysis. Forty-five parents from 42 families participated (65% female). Median age of participants was 34 years. Median level of participant education was completion of college/trade school. The median level of annual income was $40,000 to $70,000 CDN. Median time since diagnosis of retinoblastoma in their child was 13.5 months. Twenty-three (51%) participants were parents of children with unilateral retinoblastoma, and 22 (49%) were parents of children with bilateral retinoblastoma. Median number of correct answers was 15 of 19, and mean score was 77%. Normal distribution of scores was noted. English as a first language was significantly associated with score (p = 0.01). No significant association was observed between other variables and score in all analyses. This study builds on the validation of DePICT by demonstrating that parents can achieve good comprehension even when considering choices for treatment for 2 eyes with bilateral retinoblastoma. Clinical application of this tool can enhance the consent process. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk communication: Translating technically complex information to facilitate informed decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.; Turner, E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a review of risk communication and related literature, including policy material, this paper describes the newly revamped risk management program of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and some of the risk-related issues being confronted as the high-level waste management program moves forward. It also describes preliminary activities underway in which the OCRWM is developing strategies for risk communication. The authors offer a definition of risk management as comprised by the components of risk assessment and risk communication. The paper explores the discrepant views that experts and nonexperts have with respect to what constitutes a valid risk assessment model. By illustrating differences in the assessment of risk by experts and lay people, the paper demonstrates how these differences can create challenges in communicating risk and making decisions about risk. Finally, the paper discusses ways in which risk communication could be enhance, and elaborates on the OCRWM's commitment to improve its overall risk management efforts

  8. Impact of Right-Sided Aneurysm, Rupture Status, and Size of Aneurysm on Perforator Infarction Following Microsurgical Clipping of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms with a Distal Transsylvian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Jun; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Moroi, Junta; Sakata, Yoshinori; Hadeishi, Hiromu

    2018-03-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms are among the most common aneurysms. Because blockage of the PCoA and perforators can cause adverse outcomes, occlusion of these arteries by surgical clipping should be avoided. The impact of factors on PCoA perforator infarction when using a distal transsylvian approach for PCoA aneurysms was examined. A total of 183 patients underwent PCoA aneurysm clipping, excluding application of fenestrated clips. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with PCoA perforator infarction (infarction group) and patients without infarction (noninfarction group). Multiple factors were analyzed in the 2 groups. Twenty-two of the 183 patients (12.0%) showed perforator infarction, mainly on magnetic resonance imaging evaluation, resulting in permanent deficits in 2 patients (1.1%). The proportion of right-sided operations (86.4% vs. 53.4%; P = 0.005) and surgery for rupture (90.9% vs. 55.9%; P = 0.002) were significantly higher in the infarction group than in the noninfarction group. Aneurysms were significantly larger in the infarction group (8.4 ± 3.8 mm) than in the noninfarction group (6.3 ± 3.0 mm; P = 0.02). Ruptured status (odds ratio [OR], 7.35; P = 0.01), right side (OR, 5.19; P = 0.01), and aneurysm size (OR, 1.18; P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of perforator infarction on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Ruptured status, right side, and large PCoA aneurysm were independent predictors of PCoA perforator infarction. Symptoms due to PCoA perforating infarction were mostly transient and rarely affected outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibodies Against β2-Glycoprotein I Complexed With an Oxidised Lipoprotein Relate to Intima Thickening of Carotid Arteries in Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. J. Ames

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether antibodies against β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI complexed to 7-ketocholesteryl-9-carboxynonanoate (oxLig-1 and to oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL relate to paraoxonase activity (PONa and/or intima media thickness (IMT of carotid arteries in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS. As many as 29 thrombotic patients with PAPS, 10 subjects with idiopathic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL without thrombosis, 17 thrombotic patients with inherited thrombophilia and 23 healthy controls were investigated. The following were measured in all participants: β2GPI−oxLDL complexes, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLig-1, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLDL antibodies (ELISA, PONa, (para-nitrophenol method, IMT of common carotid (CC artery, carotid bifurcation (B, internal carotid (IC by high resolution sonography. β2GPI−oxLDL complex was highest in the control group (p < 0.01, whereas, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLig1 and IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLDL were highest in PAPS (p < 0.0001. In healthy controls, β2GPI−oxLDL complexes positively correlated to IMT of the IC (p = 0.007 and negatively to PONa after correction for age (p < 0.03. PONa inversely correlated with age (p = 0.008. In PAPS, IgG anti-2GPI−oxLig-1 independently predicted PONa (p = 0.02 and IMT of B (p = 0.003, CC, (p = 0.03 and of IC (p = 0.04. In PAPS, PONa inversely correlated to the IMT of B, CC and IC (p = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.003, respectively. IgG anti-2GPI−oxLig-1 may be involved in PAPS related atherogenesis via decreased PON activity.

  10. Volume transmission and receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes: understanding the role of new concepts for brain communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Fuxe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the central monoamine neurons not only demonstrated novel types of brain stem neurons forming global terminal networks all over the brain and the spinal cord, but also to a novel type of communication called volume transmission. It is a major mode of communication in the central nervous system that takes places in the extracellular fluid and the cerebral spinal fluid through diffusion and flow of molecules, like neurotransmitters and extracellular vesicles. The integration of synaptic and volume transmission takes place through allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes. These heterocomplexes represent major integrator centres in the plasma membrane and their protomers act as moonlighting proteins undergoing dynamic changes and their structure and function. In fact, we propose that the molecular bases of learning and memory can be based on the reorganization of multiples homo and heteroreceptor complexes into novel assembles in the post-junctional membranes of synapses.

  11. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...

  12. Communicating in complex situations: a normative approach to HIV-related talk among parents who are HIV+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura L; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Reis, Janet S

    2014-01-01

    Parents with HIV/AIDS are confronted with unique challenges when discussing HIV-related information with their children. Strategies for navigating these challenges effectively have not been systematically examined. In this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 76 parents with HIV/AIDS who had children ages 10-18 years. Guided by O'Keefe and Delia's definition of a complex communication situation and Goldsmith's normative approach to interpersonal communication, we examined parents' goals for discussing HIV-related information, factors that made conversations challenging, and instances where these conversational purposes conflicted with one another. Our data reveal the following parent-adolescent communication predicaments: relaying safety information about HIV while minimizing child anxiety, modeling open family communication without damaging one's parental identity, and balancing parent-child relational needs amid living with an unpredictable health condition. Parents also described a variety of strategies for mitigating challenges when discussing HIV-related topics. Strategies parents perceived as effective included reframing HIV as a chronic, manageable illness; keeping talk educational; and embedding HIV-related topics within more general conversations. The theoretical and practical applications of these findings are discussed with regard to their relevance to health communication scholars and HIV care professionals.

  13. Ultra-fast secure communication with complex systems in classical channels (Conference Presentation)

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzone, Valerio; Di Falco, Andrea; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Developing secure communications is a research area of growing interest. During the past years, several cryptographic schemes have been developed, with Quantum cryptography being a promising scheme due to the use of quantum effects, which make very

  14. Congenital coronary artery fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seoc Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1986-01-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula (CCAF) is communication of a coronary artery or its main branch with one of the atria or ventricles, the coronary sinus, the superior vena cava, or the pulmonary artery. In Korean peoples, only 4 cases of the CCAF were reported as rare as worldwide and authors want to report another case of CCAF, confirmed by operation. 10-year-old girl shows a fistula between sinus node artery of the right coronary artery and right atrium on root aortogram with left-to-right shunt and Qp/Qs=1.58, in which simple ligation of the sinus node artery from right coronary artery was performed. All of the 5 Korean CCAF (4 were previously reported and 1 of authors) were originated from right coronary artery, and of which 4 were opening into right ventricle and 1 of authors were into right atrium. Associated cardiac anomaly was noted in only 1 case as single coronary artery. Ages were from 9 months of age to 10 years old and no adult left case were found. 3 were female and 2 were male patients.

  15. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  16. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  17. [A Case of Ruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Associated with Acute Subdural Hematoma, Extending from the Interhemispheric Space to the Posterior Fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Yoshimura, Shouta; Somagawa, Chika; Hiu, Takeshi; Ono, Tomonori; Ushijima, Ryujirou; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden severe headache without a history of head trauma. CT and MRI revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) extending from the right interhemispheric space to the posterior fossa bilaterally, with a small amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage that was predominantly localized to the left side of the basal cistern. CT angiogram demonstrated a long protruding ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (IC/PC AN) with a posteroinferior projection, associated with a small bleb located near the tentorial edge close to the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process, for which she received clipping surgery. Though rare, IC/PC AN could cause pure or nearly pure ASDH in the above-mentioned distribution. Therefore, in patients with such ASDH, especially without a history of head injury or precise information regarding the situation at the time of onset, urgent imaging evaluation and early intervention are essential to prevent devastating re-rupture events.

  18. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  19. Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Krishna R; Erf, Gisela F; Anthony, Nicholas B; Wideman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and by extensive vascular remodelling. In human IPAH patients, remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions, including alpha smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, survivin, tenascin, collagen, fibronectin, and various immune/inflammatory cells such as, cytotoxic lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, MHC class II cells, and monocytes/macrophages are also present. Plexiform lesions rarely develop in the lungs of laboratory animals, but plexiform-like complex vascular lesions (CVL) do develop spontaneously in the lungs of broiler chickens from an IPAH-susceptible line. To examine angioproliferative and immune-system-related activities associated with CVL in broiler lungs, paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections from 8-week-old to 24-week-old broiler chickens were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific for angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. The CVL in the lungs of broiler chickens exhibited positive staining for both angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. These observations combined with the close histological resemblance of broiler CVL to the plexiform lesions of human IPAH patients further validates chickens from our IPAH-susceptible line as an excellent animal model of spontaneous plexogenic arteriopathy.

  20. Stimuli of sensory-motor nerves terminate arterial contractile effects of endothelin-1 by CGRP and dissociation of ET-1/ET(A-receptor complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlijn J P M T Meens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1, a long-acting paracrine mediator, is implicated in cardiovascular diseases but clinical trials with ET-receptor antagonists were not successful in some areas. We tested whether the quasi-irreversible receptor-binding of ET-1 (i limits reversing effects of the antagonists and (ii can be selectively dissociated by an endogenous counterbalancing mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries, ET(A-antagonists, endothelium-derived relaxing factors and synthetic vasodilators transiently reduced contractile effects of ET-1 but did not prevent persistent effects of the peptide. Stimuli of peri-vascular vasodilator sensory-motor nerves such as capsaicin not only reduced but also terminated long-lasting effects of ET-1. This was prevented by CGRP-receptor antagonists and was mimicked by exogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. Using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy in vital intact arteries, capsaicin and CGRP, but not ET(A-antagonism, were observed to promote dissociation of pre-existing ET-1/ET(A-receptor complexes. CONCLUSIONS: Irreversible binding and activation of ET(A-receptors by ET-1 (i occur at an antagonist-insensitive site of the receptor and (ii are selectively terminated by endogenously released CGRP. Hence, natural stimuli of sensory-motor nerves that stimulate release of endogenous CGRP can be considered for therapy of diseases involving ET-1.

  1. Stimuli of Sensory-Motor Nerves Terminate Arterial Contractile Effects of Endothelin-1 by CGRP and Dissociation of ET-1/ETA-Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meens, Merlijn J. P. M. T.; Compeer, Matthijs G.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; van Zandvoort, Marc A.; Janssen, Ben J. A.; De Mey, Jo G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a long-acting paracrine mediator, is implicated in cardiovascular diseases but clinical trials with ET-receptor antagonists were not successful in some areas. We tested whether the quasi-irreversible receptor-binding of ET-1 (i) limits reversing effects of the antagonists and (ii) can be selectively dissociated by an endogenous counterbalancing mechanism. Methodology/Principal findings In isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries, ETA-antagonists, endothelium-derived relaxing factors and synthetic vasodilators transiently reduced contractile effects of ET-1 but did not prevent persistent effects of the peptide. Stimuli of peri-vascular vasodilator sensory-motor nerves such as capsaicin not only reduced but also terminated long-lasting effects of ET-1. This was prevented by CGRP-receptor antagonists and was mimicked by exogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy in vital intact arteries, capsaicin and CGRP, but not ETA-antagonism, were observed to promote dissociation of pre-existing ET-1/ETA-receptor complexes. Conclusions Irreversible binding and activation of ETA-receptors by ET-1 (i) occur at an antagonist-insensitive site of the receptor and (ii) are selectively terminated by endogenously released CGRP. Hence, natural stimuli of sensory-motor nerves that stimulate release of endogenous CGRP can be considered for therapy of diseases involving ET-1. PMID:20532232

  2. Overview of a special issue on complexity, alignment, and enrichment in communication partner training for aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons-Mackie, NIna; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Jensen, Lise Randrup

    2018-01-01

    Background: Communication partner training (CPT) is a widely recognized approach in aphasia; yet, the critical elements that contribute to successful CPT remain unclear. Further scrutiny of theoretical constructs, rationales, approaches and outcomes is needed in order to further the development...... of CPT and ensure effective and efficient practices. Aims: The objective of this introduction is to describe the rationale and create a context for the articles in this special issue on CPT in aphasia. Main Contribution: This introduction defines communication partner training, briefly describes...

  3. Complex Conjugated certificateless-based signcryption with differential integrated factor for secured message communication in mobile network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumithra Alagarsamy

    Full Text Available Certificateless-based signcryption overcomes inherent shortcomings in traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI and Key Escrow problem. It imparts efficient methods to design PKIs with public verifiability and cipher text authenticity with minimum dependency. As a classic primitive in public key cryptography, signcryption performs validity of cipher text without decryption by combining authentication, confidentiality, public verifiability and cipher text authenticity much more efficiently than the traditional approach. In this paper, we first define a security model for certificateless-based signcryption called, Complex Conjugate Differential Integrated Factor (CC-DIF scheme by introducing complex conjugates through introduction of the security parameter and improving secured message distribution rate. However, both partial private key and secret value changes with respect to time. To overcome this weakness, a new certificateless-based signcryption scheme is proposed by setting the private key through Differential (Diff Equation using an Integration Factor (DiffEIF, minimizing computational cost and communication overhead. The scheme is therefore said to be proven secure (i.e. improving the secured message distributing rate against certificateless access control and signcryption-based scheme. In addition, compared with the three other existing schemes, the CC-DIF scheme has the least computational cost and communication overhead for secured message communication in mobile network.

  4. Complex Conjugated certificateless-based signcryption with differential integrated factor for secured message communication in mobile network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagarsamy, Sumithra; Rajagopalan, S P

    2017-01-01

    Certificateless-based signcryption overcomes inherent shortcomings in traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Key Escrow problem. It imparts efficient methods to design PKIs with public verifiability and cipher text authenticity with minimum dependency. As a classic primitive in public key cryptography, signcryption performs validity of cipher text without decryption by combining authentication, confidentiality, public verifiability and cipher text authenticity much more efficiently than the traditional approach. In this paper, we first define a security model for certificateless-based signcryption called, Complex Conjugate Differential Integrated Factor (CC-DIF) scheme by introducing complex conjugates through introduction of the security parameter and improving secured message distribution rate. However, both partial private key and secret value changes with respect to time. To overcome this weakness, a new certificateless-based signcryption scheme is proposed by setting the private key through Differential (Diff) Equation using an Integration Factor (DiffEIF), minimizing computational cost and communication overhead. The scheme is therefore said to be proven secure (i.e. improving the secured message distributing rate) against certificateless access control and signcryption-based scheme. In addition, compared with the three other existing schemes, the CC-DIF scheme has the least computational cost and communication overhead for secured message communication in mobile network.

  5. The Referential Function of Internal Communication Groups in Complex Organizations: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A.; Farace, Richard V.

    This paper argues that people who interact regularly and repetitively among themselves create a conjoint information space wherein common values, attitudes, and beliefs arise through the process of information transmission among the members in the space. Three major hypotheses concerning informal communication groups in organizations were tested…

  6. Reduced complexity digital back-propagation methods for optical communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napoli, A.; Maalej, Z.; Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Kuschnerov, M.; Rafique, D.; Timmers, E.; Spinnler, B.; Rahman, T.; Coelho, L.D.; Hanik, N.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation optical communication systems will continue to push the ( bandwidth $cdot$ distance) product towards its physical limit. To address this enormous demand, the usage of digital signal processing together with advanced modulation formats and coherent detection has been proposed to

  7. Benefits of Balloon-Dilatable Bilateral Pulmonary Artery Banding in Patients With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Other Complex Cardiac Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Shoji; Hoshiai, Minako; Toda, Takako; Koizumi, Keiichi; Hasebe, Yohei; Kono, Yosuke; Honda, Yoshihiro; Kaga, Shigeaki; Sugita, Kanji

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of balloon-dilatable bilateral pulmonary artery banding (b-PAB) and its impact on the configuration of the pulmonary artery (PA). We have previously used balloon-dilatable b-PAB as first-stage palliation for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and other complex cardiac anomalies. Two pliable tapes were placed around each branch of the PA and tightened with 7-0 polypropylene sutures in a manner that allowed for the subsequent adjustment of PA diameters. We retrospectively examined the adjustability of PA diameters by balloon dilation and the need for surgical PA angioplasty at later stages. From January 2010 to October 2013, we performed b-PAB in 8 patients, including 3 borderline cases between biventricular repair (BVR) and univentricular repair (UVR). The b-PAB procedures were performed at a median age of 6.5 days (range, 2-10 days). Balloon dilations were performed in 10 lesions in 4 patients. All of the procedures were performed safely. Two patients reached definite BVR. The remaining 6 patients underwent open palliative procedures with univentricular physiologies that resulted in 2 deaths unrelated to the initial b-PAB. In all but 1 of the patients, the PA configuration was properly maintained and did not require surgical pulmonary angioplasty. Balloon-dilatable b-PAB can be performed safely and prevents PA distortion at later stages. This technique should be considered for patients with complex cardiac anomalies if uncertainty exists regarding the optimal surgical strategy (BVR or UVR) in early infancy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The RISAP-study: a complex intervention in risk communication and shared decision-making in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Edwards, Adrian G K; Hansen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    decision satisfaction (Provider Decision Process Assessment Instrument). The patients will receive a questionnaire at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. It includes questions about adherence to chosen treatment (Morisky Compliance Scale), self-rated health (SF-12), enablement (Patient Enablement Instrument...... training are needed. Aim:1) to systematically develop, describe and evaluate a complex intervention comprising a training programme for GPs in risk communication and shared decision-making, 2) to evaluate the effect of the training programme on real-life consultations between GPs and patients with high......), and risk communication and decision-making effectiveness (COMRADE Scale). Prescriptions, contacts to the health services, and cholesterol level will be drawn from the registers.In each group, 12 consultations will be observed and tape-recorded. The patients from these 24 consultations will be interviewed...

  9. EVALUATION OF THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic diseases in adults are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, and its early signs can be stated by the thickening of intima-media complex of common carotid arteries (CCA. This symptom is detected during ultrasound examination in 49% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 24% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and in 13% of children with juvenile spondylarthritis. Besides, 36% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus and 17% — with systemic type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis had structure changes of CCA wall. A dependence of these disorders on cholesterol and glucose levels in blood serum, overweight and Cushing syndrome, age, duration and activity of a disease, levels of ESR, C-reactive protein and white blood cells was not showed. Authors detected a correlation between the thickness of intima-media complex of CCA and hemostasis parameters.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, intima-media complex, ultrasound diagnostics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:64-69

  10. SYNTAX score based on coronary computed tomography angiography may have a prognostic value in patients with complex coronary artery disease: An observational study from a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Han, Kyunghwa; Chang, Suyon; Kim, Jin Young; Im, Dong Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2017-09-01

    The SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score is an invasive coronary angiography (ICA)-based score for quantifying the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although the SYNTAX score was originally developed based on ICA, recent publications have reported that coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a feasible modality for the estimation of the SYNTAX score.The aim of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of the SYNTAX score, based on CCTA for the prediction of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) in patients with complex CAD.The current study was approved by the institutional review board of our institution, and informed consent was waived for this retrospective cohort study. We included 251 patients (173 men, mean age 66.0 ± 9.29 years) who had complex CAD [3-vessel disease or left main (LM) disease] on CCTA. SYNTAX score was obtained on the basis of CCTA. Follow-up clinical outcome data regarding composite MACCEs were also obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict the risk of MACCEs based on clinical variables, treatment, and computed tomography (CT)-SYNTAX scores.During the median follow-up period of 1517 days, there were 48 MACCEs. Univariate Cox hazards models demonstrated that MACCEs were associated with advanced age, low body mass index (BMI), and dyslipidemia (P < .2). In patients with LM disease, MACCEs were associated with a higher SYNTAX score. In patients with CT-SYNTAX score ≥23, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention had significantly lower hazard ratios than patients who were treated with medication alone. In multivariate Cox hazards model, advanced age, low BMI, and higher SYNTAX score showed an increased hazard ratio for MACCE, while treatment with CABG showed a lower hazard ratio (P < .2).On the basis of our results, CT-SYNTAX score

  11. Managing the complexity of communication: regulation of gap junctions by post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Callø, Kirstine; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are comprised of connexins that form cell-to-cell channels which couple neighboring cells to accommodate the exchange of information. The need for communication does, however, change over time and therefore must be tightly controlled. Although the regulation of connexin protein...... probability, single channel conductance or selectivity. The most extensively investigated post translational modifications are phosphorylations, which have been documented in all mammalian connexins. Besides phosphorylations, some connexins are known to be ubiquitinated, SUMOylated, nitrosylated, hydroxylated...

  12. Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex Related to Its Function in the Control of Grasshopper Acoustic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Michael; Pförtner, Ramona; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Heinrich, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The central complex selects and coordinates the species- and situation-specific song production in acoustically communicating grasshoppers. Control of sound production is mediated by several neurotransmitters and modulators, their receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. It has previously been shown that muscarinic cholinergic excitation in the central complex promotes sound production whereas both GABA and nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling suppress its performance. The present immunocytochemical and pharmacological study investigates the question whether GABA and nitric oxide mediate inhibition of sound production independently. Muscarinic ACh receptors are expressed by columnar output neurons of the central complex that innervate the lower division of the central body and terminate in the lateral accessory lobes. GABAergic tangential neurons that innervate the lower division of the central body arborize in close proximity of columnar neurons and thus may directly inhibit these central complex output neurons. A subset of these GABAergic tangential neurons accumulates cyclic GMP following the release of nitric oxide from neurites in the upper division of the central body. While sound production stimulated by muscarine injection into the central complex is suppressed by co-application of sodium nitroprusside, picrotoxin-stimulated singing was not affected by co-application of this nitric oxide donor, indicating that nitric oxide mediated inhibition requires functional GABA signaling. Hence, grasshopper sound production is controlled by processing of information in the lower division of the central body which is subject to modulation by nitric oxide released from neurons in the upper division. PMID:21980504

  13. Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male-male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively).

  14. Learning to Use the Internet and Online Social Media: What Is the Effectiveness of Home-Based Intervention for Youth with Complex Communication Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…

  15. The use of network analysis to study complex animal communication systems: a study on nightingale song

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Michael; Hultsch, Henrike; Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Kipper, Silke

    2014-01-01

    The singing of song birds can form complex signal systems comprised of numerous subunits sung with distinct combinatorial properties that have been described as syntax-like. This complexity has inspired inquiries into similarities of bird song to human language; but the quantitative analysis and description of song sequences is a challenging task. In this study, we analysed song sequences of common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) by means of a network analysis. We translated long nocturn...

  16. Clipping Versus Coiling in the Management of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms with Third Nerve Palsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberel, Thomas; Borha, Alin; di Palma, Camille; Emery, Evelyne

    2016-03-01

    To compare surgical clipping with endovascular coiling in terms of recovery from oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) in the management of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms causing third nerve palsy. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 11 relevant studies involving 384 patients with third nerve palsy caused by PCoA aneurysms at baseline, of whom 257 (67.0%) were treated by clipping and 127 were treated by coiling (33.0%). Pooled odds ratios of the impact of clipping or coiling on complete ONP recovery, lack of ONP recovery, and procedure-related death were calculated. The overall complete ONP recovery rate was 42.5% in the coiling group compared with 83.6% in the clipping group. The increase in complete ONP recovery in the clipping group corresponds to an overall pooled Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval = 1.66-11.84). Subgroup analysis revealed a clear benefit of clipping over coiling in patients with ruptured aneurysms, but not in patients with unruptured aneurysms. No procedure-related deaths were reported by any of the 11 studies. Surgical clipping of PCoA aneurysms causing third nerve palsy achieves better ONP recovery than endovascular coiling; this could be particularly true in the case of ruptured aneurysms. In view of the purely observational data, statements about this effect should be made with great caution. A randomized trial would better address the therapeutic dilemma, but pending the results of such a trial, we recommend treating PCoA aneurysms causing ONP with surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microsurgical Clipping of an Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Using a Novel Robotic Visualization Tool in Lieu of the Binocular Operating Microscope: Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Daniel R; Reinard, Kevin A; Ajayi, Olaide O; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2018-01-01

    The binocular operating microscope has been the visualization instrument of choice for microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms for many decades. To discuss recent technological advances that have provided novel visualization tools, which may prove to be superior to the binocular operating microscope in many regards. We present an operative video and our operative experience with the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) during the microsurgical clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, the use of this device for the microsurgical clipping of an intracranial aneurysm has never been described in the literature. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a surgical exoscope which avoids many of the ergonomic constraints of the binocular operating microscope, but is associated with a steep learning curve. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a maneuverable surgical exoscope that is positioned with a directional aiming device and a surgeon-controlled foot pedal. While utilizing this device comes with a steep learning curve typical of any new technology, the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) has several advantages over the conventional surgical microscope, which include a relatively unobstructed surgical field, provision of high-definition images, and visualization of difficult angles/trajectories. This device can easily be utilized as a visualization tool for a variety of cranial and spinal procedures in lieu of the binocular operating microscope. We anticipate that this technology will soon become an integral part of the neurosurgeon's armamentarium. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  18. “Anomalous right pulmonary artery left atrial fistula”: Growth in vain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar Jain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of direct communication between the right pulmonary artery and the left atrium; a rare cause of central cyanosis in 10 year old boy, emphasizing the role of multislice computed tomography scanner in delineating the complex vascular abnormality over more invasive conventional angiography.

  19. Communication: A hydrogen-bonded difluorocarbene complex: Ab initio and matrix isolation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosulin, Ilya S.; Shiryaeva, Ekaterina S.; Tyurin, Daniil A.; Feldman, Vladimir I.

    2017-10-01

    Structure and spectroscopic features of the CF2⋯HF complexes were studied by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level and matrix isolation FTIR spectroscopy. The calculations predict three stable structures. The most energetically favorable structure corresponds to hydrogen bonding of HF to the lone pair of the C atom (the interaction energy of 3.58 kcal/mol), whereas two less stable structures are the H⋯F bonded complexes (the interaction energies of 0.30 and 0.24 kcal/mol). The former species was unambiguously characterized by the absorptions in the FTIR spectra observed after X-ray irradiation of fluoroform in a xenon matrix at 5 K. The corresponding features appear at 3471 (H-F stretching), 1270 (C-F symmetric stretching, shoulder), 1175 (antisymmetric C-F stretching), and 630 (libration) cm-1, in agreement with the computational predictions. To our knowledge, it is the first hydrogen-bonded complex of dihalocarbene. Possible weaker manifestations of the H⋯F bonded complexes were also found in the C-F stretching region; however, their assignment is tentative. The H⋯C bonded complex is protected from reaction yielding a fluoroform molecule by a remarkably high energy barrier (23.85 kcal/mol), so it may be involved in various chemical reactions.

  20. Efficient quantum repeater with respect to both entanglement-concentration rate and complexity of local operations and classical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaofeng; Guan, Ji; Li, Lvzhou

    2018-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is an indispensable resource for many significant quantum information processing tasks. However, in practice, it is difficult to distribute quantum entanglement over a long distance, due to the absorption and noise in quantum channels. A solution to this challenge is a quantum repeater, which can extend the distance of entanglement distribution. In this scheme, the time consumption of classical communication and local operations takes an important place with respect to time efficiency. Motivated by this observation, we consider a basic quantum repeater scheme that focuses on not only the optimal rate of entanglement concentration but also the complexity of local operations and classical communication. First, we consider the case where two different two-qubit pure states are initially distributed in the scenario. We construct a protocol with the optimal entanglement-concentration rate and less consumption of local operations and classical communication. We also find a criterion for the projective measurements to achieve the optimal probability of creating a maximally entangled state between the two ends. Second, we consider the case in which two general pure states are prepared and general measurements are allowed. We get an upper bound on the probability for a successful measurement operation to produce a maximally entangled state without any further local operations.

  1. The use of network analysis to study complex animal communication systems: a study on nightingale song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Hultsch, Henrike; Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Kipper, Silke

    2014-06-22

    The singing of song birds can form complex signal systems comprised of numerous subunits sung with distinct combinatorial properties that have been described as syntax-like. This complexity has inspired inquiries into similarities of bird song to human language; but the quantitative analysis and description of song sequences is a challenging task. In this study, we analysed song sequences of common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) by means of a network analysis. We translated long nocturnal song sequences into networks of song types with song transitions as connectors. As network measures, we calculated shortest path length and transitivity and identified the 'small-world' character of nightingale song networks. Besides comparing network measures with conventional measures of song complexity, we also found a correlation between network measures and age of birds. Furthermore, we determined the numbers of in-coming and out-going edges of each song type, characterizing transition patterns. These transition patterns were shared across males for certain song types. Playbacks with different transition patterns provided first evidence that these patterns are responded to differently and thus play a role in singing interactions. We discuss potential functions of the network properties of song sequences in the framework of vocal leadership. Network approaches provide biologically meaningful parameters to describe the song structure of species with extremely large repertoires and complex rules of song retrieval.

  2. Microscope and spectacle: on the complexities of using new visual technologies to communicate about wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Audrey; van der Wal, René; Fischer, Anke

    2015-11-01

    Wildlife conservation-related organisations increasingly employ new visual technologies in their science communication and public engagement efforts. Here, we examine the use of such technologies for wildlife conservation campaigns. We obtained empirical data from four UK-based organisations through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Visual technologies were used to provide the knowledge and generate the emotional responses perceived by organisations as being necessary for motivating a sense of caring about wildlife. We term these two aspects 'microscope' and 'spectacle', metaphorical concepts denoting the duality through which these technologies speak to both the cognitive and the emotional. As conservation relies on public support, organisations have to be seen to deliver information that is not only sufficiently detailed and scientifically credible but also spectacular enough to capture public interest. Our investigation showed that balancing science and entertainment is a difficult undertaking for wildlife-related organisations as there are perceived risks of contriving experiences of nature and obscuring conservation aims.

  3. Three-Year Major Clinical Outcomes of Angiography-Guided Single Stenting Technique in Non-Complex Left Main Coronary Artery Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Her, Ae-Young; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung Geol; Shim, Minsuk; Choi, Se Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Li, Hu; Kim, Woohyeun; Kang, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Jah Yeon; Park, Eun Jin; Park, Sung Hun; Lee, Sunki; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo

    2017-10-12

    There is limited long-term comparative clinical outcome data concerning angiography- versus intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-complex left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease treated with the single stenting technique in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era.The aim of this study was to investigate whether angiography-guided stenting is comparable to IVUS-guided stenting during 3-year clinical follow-up periods in patients with non-complex LM disease treated with the single stenting technique.A total of 196 patients treated with either angiography-guided (n = 74) or IVUS-guided (n = 122) PCI were included. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as total death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and non-target vessel revascularization (Non-TVR). To adjust for any potential confounders, propensity score (PS) adjusted analysis was performed.During 3-year follow-up, the PS adjusted Cox-proportional hazard ratio (HR) was not significantly different between the two groups for total death, cardiac death, and MI. Also, TLR and the combined rates of TVR and non-TVR were not significantly different. Finally, MACE was not significantly different between the two groups (HR: 0.63, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.33-1.17; P = 0.149).Angiography-guided PCI for non-complex LMCA diseases treated with the single stenting technique showed comparable results compared with IVUS-guided PCI in reducing clinical events during 3-year clinical follow-up in the DES era. Although IVUS guided PCI is the ideal strategy, angiography-guided PCI can be an option for LMCA PCI in some selected cases.

  4. Expression of Drug-Resistant Factor Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy with Platinum Complex by Arterial Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Ueda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated gene expression of drug resistance factors in biopsy tissue samples from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients undergoing chemotherapy by platinum complex. Liver biopsy was performed to collect tissue from the tumor site (T and the non-tumor site (NT prior to the start of treatment. For drug-resistant factors, drug excretion transporters cMOAT and MDR-1, intracellular metal binding protein MT2, DNA repair enzyme ERCC-l and inter-nucleic cell transport protein MVP, were investigated. The comparison of the expression between T and NT indicated a significant decrease of MT2 and MDR-1 in T while a significant increase in ERCC-1 was noted in T. Further, expression was compared between the response cases and non-response cases using the ratios of expression in T to those in NT. The response rate was significantly low in the high expression group when the cutoff value of cMOAT and MT2 was set at 1.5 and 1.0, respectively. Furthermore, when the patients were classified into A group (cMOAT ≧ 1.5 or MT2 ≧ 1.0 and B group (cMOAT < 1.5 and MT2 < 1.0, the response rate of A group was significantly lower than B group when we combined the cutoff values of cMOAT and MT2. It is considered possible to estimate the therapeutic effect of platinum complex at a high probability by combining the expression condition of these two genes.

  5. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  6. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL's Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI's Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?'' and ''How are you approaching similar challenges?'' will be questions for a dialog with the audience

  7. Comprehension and utilisation of pointing gestures and gazing in dog-human communication in relatively complex situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the visual communication between humans and dogs in relatively complex situations. In the present research, we have modelled more lifelike situations in contrast to previous studies which often relied on using only two potential hiding locations and direct association between the communicative signal and the signalled object. In Study 1, we have provided the dogs with four potential hiding locations, two on each side of the experimenter to see whether dogs are able to choose the correct location based on the pointing gesture. In Study 2, dogs had to rely on a sequence of pointing gestures displayed by two different experimenters. We have investigated whether dogs are able to recognise an 'indirect signal', that is, a pointing toward a pointer. In Study 3, we have examined whether dogs can understand indirect information about a hidden object and direct the owner to the particular location. Study 1 has revealed that dogs are unlikely to rely on extrapolating precise linear vectors along the pointing arm when relying on human pointing gestures. Instead, they rely on a simple rule of following the side of the human gesturing. If there were more targets on the same side of the human, they showed a preference for the targets closer to the human. Study 2 has shown that dogs are able to rely on indirect pointing gestures but the individual performances suggest that this skill may be restricted to a certain level of complexity. In Study 3, we have found that dogs are able to localise the hidden object by utilising indirect human signals, and they are able to convey this information to their owner.

  8. From process complexity to communication effectiveness: A challenge to those within and outside of the environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary work has become a cornerstone in research across the environmental sciences. Our work does so by evaluating biogeochemical cycling, specifically methane, in the context of landscape hydrology. Atmospheric methane is a greenhouse gas 27 times more potent than carbon dioxide and has been increasing at an unprecedented rate. This drastic increase in atmospheric methane has been attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossil fuels, ruminants, and rice cultivation, which together constitute approximately 67% of global methane sources. Characterizing CH4 flux in natural systems has remained difficult due to complex relationships among environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and soil water content). To address this, we focus on how the redistribution of water in complex terrain influences the magnitude and direction of flux in upland and riparian soils. Distilling this complex behavior and scaling these observations is complicated by interacting feedback loops and uncertainties associated with global scale modeling. However, progress is critical given that predicting future climate is necessary to forecasting the quantity and distribution of available fresh water, and understanding how ecosystem processes, and energy/food production will be affected. Water sciences and environmental science as a whole must improve communication to a range of audiences, and advocate for researchers, policy makers, and business leaders to work together for a more sustainable future. A crucial step in this process is to optimize the appropriate level of information to convey that is both memorable and meaningful given the complexity of environmental systems. The challenge also extends to artists and filmmakers to present the subject in compelling ways that inspire audiences to take action in their own communities. True integration of professionals across environmental, social, political, and economic disciplines while motivating local involvement

  9. "You Get More Than You Give": Experiences of Community Partners in Facilitating Active Recreation with Individuals who have Complex Communication Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, David J; McCarthy, John W; Benigno, Joann P; Chabot, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Recreation is an essential part of life that provides enriching experiences that may define one's life course similar to careers or other interests. An understanding of the role of volunteers in active community-based recreational programs can help to generate ways to enhance participation and contribute to additional communication opportunities with people who have complex communication needs. Nine volunteers from two adaptive ski programs and one therapeutic horseback-riding program in the Northeast region of the United States participated in semi-structured interviews. Audio-recordings were transcribed and analyzed and resulted in five thematic areas: (a) benefits, (b) why individuals volunteer, (c) barriers, (d) successful program supports, and (e) who are the riders and skiers using AAC. The findings provided insight to support the notion that active community-based recreational activities foster an environment for communication, meaningful engagement, and social relationships between volunteers and people with complex communication needs.

  10. The quantum physics of synaptic communication via the SNARE protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Danko D; Glazebrook, James F

    2018-07-01

    Twenty five years ago, Sir John Carew Eccles together with Friedrich Beck proposed a quantum mechanical model of neurotransmitter release at synapses in the human cerebral cortex. The model endorsed causal influence of human consciousness upon the functioning of synapses in the brain through quantum tunneling of unidentified quasiparticles that trigger the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, thereby initiating the transmission of information from the presynaptic towards the postsynaptic neuron. Here, we provide a molecular upgrade of the Beck and Eccles model by identifying the quantum quasiparticles as Davydov solitons that twist the protein α-helices and trigger exocytosis of synaptic vesicles through helical zipping of the SNARE protein complex. We also calculate the observable probabilities for exocytosis based on the mass of this quasiparticle, along with the characteristics of the potential energy barrier through which tunneling is necessary. We further review the current experimental evidence in support of this novel bio-molecular model as presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  12. Modeling the Internet of Things, Self-Organizing and Other Complex Adaptive Communication Networks: A Cognitive Agent-Based Computing Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Laghari

    Full Text Available Computer Networks have a tendency to grow at an unprecedented scale. Modern networks involve not only computers but also a wide variety of other interconnected devices ranging from mobile phones to other household items fitted with sensors. This vision of the "Internet of Things" (IoT implies an inherent difficulty in modeling problems.It is practically impossible to implement and test all scenarios for large-scale and complex adaptive communication networks as part of Complex Adaptive Communication Networks and Environments (CACOONS. The goal of this study is to explore the use of Agent-based Modeling as part of the Cognitive Agent-based Computing (CABC framework to model a Complex communication network problem.We use Exploratory Agent-based Modeling (EABM, as part of the CABC framework, to develop an autonomous multi-agent architecture for managing carbon footprint in a corporate network. To evaluate the application of complexity in practical scenarios, we have also introduced a company-defined computer usage policy.The conducted experiments demonstrated two important results: Primarily CABC-based modeling approach such as using Agent-based Modeling can be an effective approach to modeling complex problems in the domain of IoT. Secondly, the specific problem of managing the Carbon footprint can be solved using a multiagent system approach.

  13. Modeling the Internet of Things, Self-Organizing and Other Complex Adaptive Communication Networks: A Cognitive Agent-Based Computing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Samreen; Niazi, Muaz A

    2016-01-01

    Computer Networks have a tendency to grow at an unprecedented scale. Modern networks involve not only computers but also a wide variety of other interconnected devices ranging from mobile phones to other household items fitted with sensors. This vision of the "Internet of Things" (IoT) implies an inherent difficulty in modeling problems. It is practically impossible to implement and test all scenarios for large-scale and complex adaptive communication networks as part of Complex Adaptive Communication Networks and Environments (CACOONS). The goal of this study is to explore the use of Agent-based Modeling as part of the Cognitive Agent-based Computing (CABC) framework to model a Complex communication network problem. We use Exploratory Agent-based Modeling (EABM), as part of the CABC framework, to develop an autonomous multi-agent architecture for managing carbon footprint in a corporate network. To evaluate the application of complexity in practical scenarios, we have also introduced a company-defined computer usage policy. The conducted experiments demonstrated two important results: Primarily CABC-based modeling approach such as using Agent-based Modeling can be an effective approach to modeling complex problems in the domain of IoT. Secondly, the specific problem of managing the Carbon footprint can be solved using a multiagent system approach.

  14. Arterial stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be some throbbing. Why the Test Is Performed Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, waste products, and other materials within ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the blood before any ...

  15. Case report: Varicosity of the communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein mimicking a renal artery aneurysm: Report of an unusual site of varicose veins and a novel hypothesis to explain its association with abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep G Jakhere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein has only rarely been reported in the imaging literature. There are very few reports of varicosity of this communicating vein. Nonetheless, awareness about this communicating vein is of utmost importance for surgeons performing aortoiliac surgeries and nephrectomies as it may pose technical difficulties during surgery or cause life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Varicosity of this venous channel may be mistaken for paraaortic lymphadenopathy, adrenal pseudo-mass, or renal artery aneurysm. We report a case of a patient with varicosity of this communicating vein, which mimicked a left renal artery aneurysm. A novel hypothesis is also proposed to explain the relationship with abdominal pain.

  16. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  17. Language complexity modulates 8- and 10-year-olds' success at using their theory of mind abilities in a communication task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Jessica; Ali, Muna; Frisson, Steven; Apperly, Ian A

    2016-09-01

    Basic competence in theory of mind is acquired during early childhood. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that the ability to take others' perspectives in communication improves continuously from middle childhood to the late teenage years. This indicates that theory of mind performance undergoes protracted developmental changes after the acquisition of basic competence. Currently, little is known about the factors that constrain children's performance or that contribute to age-related improvement. A sample of 39 8-year-olds and 56 10-year-olds were tested on a communication task in which a speaker's limited perspective needed to be taken into account and the complexity of the speaker's utterance varied. Our findings showed that 10-year-olds were generally less egocentric than 8-year-olds. Children of both ages committed more egocentric errors when a speaker uttered complex sentences compared with simple sentences. Both 8- and 10-year-olds were affected by the demand to integrate complex sentences with the speaker's limited perspective and to a similar degree. These results suggest that long after children's development of simple visual perspective-taking, their use of this ability to assist communication is substantially constrained by the complexity of the language involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Third nerve palsy caused by compression of the posterior communicating artery aneurysm does not depend on the size of the aneurysm, but on the distance between the ICA and the anterior-posterior clinoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Mitsuhiro; Nagai, Yasuyuki; Fudaba, Hirotaka; Kubo, Takeshi; Ishii, Keisuke; Murata, Kumi; Hisamitsu, Yoshinori; Kawano, Yoshihisa; Hori, Yuzo; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Abe, Tatsuya; Fujiki, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Third nerve palsy (TNP) caused by a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is a well-known symptom of the condition, but the characteristics of unruptured PCoA aneurysm-associated third nerve palsy have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical features of PCoA aneurysms that caused TNP from the viewpoint of the relationship between the ICA and the skull base. Forty-eight unruptured PCoA aneurysms were treated surgically between January 2008 and September 2013. The characteristics of the aneurysms were evaluated. Thirteen of the 48 patients (27%) had a history of TNP. The distance between the ICA and the anterior-posterior clinoid process (ICA-APC distance) was significantly shorter in the TNP group (pPCoA aneurysms can cause third nerve palsy if the ICA runs close to the skull base. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rethinking the Essence of Human and Other-Than-Human Communication in the Anthropocene Epoch: A Biosemiotic Interpretation of Edgar Morin’s “Complex Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Moser

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to explore the philosophical and linguistic implications of the French philosopher Edgar Morin’s “complex thought.” In stark contrast to standard communicative models which profess that Homo sapiens are the only organisms that are capable of engaging in semiosis, Morin unequivocally proves that other-than-human communication is laden with significance and purpose. Living on an imperiled planet that is increasingly defined by an anthropogenic, ecological calamity that is spiraling further out of control with each passing day, Morin persuasively argues that we must transcend our myopic, anthropocentric frame of reference and adopt a more ecocentric view of communication.

  20. Arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Quinn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV, is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

  1. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  2. COVERED STENTS IN IATROGENIC CORONARY ARTERY FISTULA; A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Poormoghaddas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or major cardiac vessels, mostly congenital but some of them are acquired as a consequence of coronary artery perforation.    CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of cavity spilling coronary artery perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention 7 years ago. Because of continuing symptoms and risk of developing heart failure and pulmonary hypertension we were ought to treat this iatrogenically formed coronary artery fistula. We used stent graft implantation to treat it with acceptable results.    CONCLUSION: Beside their application as a rescue for acute coronary artery perforations, stent grafts can be used with acceptable results in iatrogenically acquired coronary artery coronary artery fistula      Keywords: Coronary artery perforation, Coronary artery fistula, Stent graft.

  3. The great Irish famine: a further understanding of its complexities through the use of human communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Lisa Kelly

    2000-01-01

    The Great Irish Famine cleared a minimum of two million Irish individuals from the land by either death or emigration. These individuals, both those that died and those that left, did not have their needs met for many deep-seated political and economic reasons, but also because of failed communication practices. It is this latter, neglected aspect of famine studies that is the focus of this thesis By using the lexicon of communication studies, many controversial aspects of famine historv will...

  4. On power consumption issues in FIR filters with application to communication receivers: complexity, word length, and switching activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havashki, Asghar

    2009-10-15

    Power consumption in CMOS VLSI circuits has in recent years become a major design constraint. This is in particular important for wireless networks, due to the limited life time of the batteries that wireless nodes are operating on. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one example of a technique which in recent years has become widely applied in wireless communication systems. However, the performance of OFDM and other spectrally efficient schemes depends, to a large extend, on advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and on the use of efficient and possibly adaptive resource allocation and transmission techniques. These in turn require that accurate estimates of the channel are available in the receiver and transmitter. However, accurate channel estimation of a time and frequency dispersive wireless fading channel calls for complex estimators, which might lead to significant power dissipation in such devices. Therefore, characterizing and analyzing power consumed by such devices under different channel conditions, and optimizing for power is important to reduce the overall power consumption of the system. In this thesis a certain chosen class of estimators, i.e., a linear FIR estimator, is considered, which is based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The work in this thesis considers the power related challenges in such estimators. The power consumed by such estimators depends, in part, on the complexity of the estimator, i.e., the length of the FIR filter. The filter length is one of the factors affecting the estimation accuracy. An analysis of the relation between the performance of such estimators and the required complexity for these devices under different channel conditions, i.e., in the presence of noise, is performed in this thesis. In this study we show that a small increase in this noise can lead to a considerable increase in the required estimator complexity if a given Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) performance for the

  5. Arterial embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when a clot in a vein enters the right side of the heart and passes through a hole into the left side. The clot can then move to an artery and block blood flow to the brain (stroke) or other organs. If a clot involves ...

  6. Typography for Graphic Communication [and] Typographic Access Structures for Educational Texts [and] Graphic Aspects of Complex Texts: Typography as Macropunctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Robert

    The three papers included in this report address typography for graphic communication, typographic access structures for educational texts, and typography as macropunctuation. The first paper considers the consequences of an aesthetic bias in the literature of typography, and identifies two misleading assumptions about textbooks; i.e., that print…

  7. Bonding with the Nuclear Industry: A Technical Communication Professor and His Students Partner With Y-12 National Security Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how a special kind of academe-industry collaboration--based on a joint appointment agreement between a university and an industry site--was set up, promoted, and experienced by a professor of technical communication and his student interns. To illustrate the nature and value of this kind of collaboration, the article…

  8. Family-centered services for children with complex communication needs: the practices and beliefs of school-based speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandak, Kelsey; Light, Janice

    2018-06-01

    This study used an online focus group to examine the beliefs and practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who served children with complex communication needs regarding their provision of family-centered services. Participants revealed that despite their desire for family involvement and reported beliefs in the importance of family-centered services, there were barriers in place that often limited family-centered service provision. Across the SLPs, many were dissatisfied with their current provision of family-centered services. The SLPs varied in their reported practices, with some reporting family-centered services and others, professional-centered services. Future research is recommended in order to investigate which factors contribute to the variation among SLPs and how the variation impacts children who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and their families. Potential clinical implications for in-service and pre-service SLPs are discussed to improve future family-centered AAC services.

  9. Comunicação da equipe multiprofissional e indivíduos portadores de hipertensão arterial Comunicación entre los profesionales de la salud y los portadores de hipertensión arterial Communication between the health staff and hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristina Queiroz Dell'Acqua

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivos levantar dados sobre o que os indivíduos portadores de hipertensão arterial pensam sobre a sua doença e verificar a ocorrência do processo de comunicação entre estes e os profissionais que atuam junto aos mesmos. Foram entrevistados 66 clientes, obtendo-se 73 narrativas, constatando-se que a maioria (69 narrativas dos participantes da pesquisa faz correlação com o conceito de hipertensão arterial, ainda que de maneira pouco elaborada. Apesar de 95% dos clientes fazerem alguma referência à doença, não significa que as orientações recebidas anteriormente foram aprendidas. Espera-se que o enfermeiro por desempenhar um importante papel dentro da equipe multiprofissional, identifique as possíveis barreiras relativas ao processo de comunicação, havendo daí a intervenção junto aos elementos que podem estar dificultando ou impedindo a compreensão necessária para que o cliente assuma seu autocuidado.Este trabajo tiene como objetivo coger datos sobre lo que piensan los portadores de hipertensión arterial sobre su enfermedad y verificar el proceso de comunicación entre los mismos y con los profesionales de la salud que actuan junto a ellos. Fueron entrevistados 66 clientes, obteniendo 73 narrativas, de las cuales se constató que la mayoría (69 narrativas de los sujetos hicieron referencia al concepto de hipertensión arterial, aunque de forma pocoelaborada. A pesar de que el 95% de los clientes hacieron alguna referencia a la enfermedad, no significa que las orientaciones recibidas anteriormente fueron aprehendidas. Se espera que el enfermero, por desempenãr un importante papel dentro del equipo multiprofesional, identifique las barreras posibles del proceso de comunicación, obteniendo al mismo que interviene en las etapas que pueden estar dificultando o impidiendo la comprensión necesaria para que cliente asuma su autocuidado.This study aims to analyse data on hypertensive individuals and

  10. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saponara Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The advanced video codec (AVC standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  11. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  12. Stimuli of sensory-motor nerves terminate arterial contractile effects of endothelin-1 by CGRP and dissociation of ET-1/ET(A)-receptor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meens, Merlijn J P M T; Compeer, Matthijs G; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2010-01-01

    of the antagonists and (ii) can be selectively dissociated by an endogenous counterbalancing mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries, ET(A)-antagonists, endothelium-derived relaxing factors and synthetic vasodilators transiently reduced contractile effects of ET-1......BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a long-acting paracrine mediator, is implicated in cardiovascular diseases but clinical trials with ET-receptor antagonists were not successful in some areas. We tested whether the quasi-irreversible receptor-binding of ET-1 (i) limits reversing effects...... but did not prevent persistent effects of the peptide. Stimuli of peri-vascular vasodilator sensory-motor nerves such as capsaicin not only reduced but also terminated long-lasting effects of ET-1. This was prevented by CGRP-receptor antagonists and was mimicked by exogenous calcitonin gene...

  13. Patterns of prefrontal dysfunction in alcoholics with and without Korsakoff’s syndrome, patients with Parkinson’s disease, and patients with rupture and repair of the anterior communicating artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, Courtney L; Howard, Julie A; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    This study compared patterns of frontal-lobe dysfunction in alcoholics with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS: n = 9), non-Korsakoff alcoholics (AL: n = 28), patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD: n = 18), and patients with rupture and repair of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA: n = 4) relative to healthy non-neurological control (NC) participants (n = 70). The tests administered were sensitive to functions of dorsolateral prefrontal and orbito-frontal subsystems. Measures included perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-pe), errors on object alternation (OA), errors on Trails B, number of words generated on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and number of categories completed on the WCST (WCST-cc). KS patients were as impaired as AL participants on orbitofrontal measures and, on dorsolateral prefrontal measures, were impaired relative to AL participants, whose performance did not differ from controls. Patients with PD also were impaired on tests of orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal functioning but to a lesser extent than the KS patients. Moreover, most of the PD deficits were driven by the impaired performance of patients whose initial symptoms were on the right side of the body. The ACoA patients were significantly impaired on tests of orbitofrontal but not dorsolateral prefrontal functioning relative to the control group. Together, the results confirm different patterns of frontal-system impairments in patient groups having compromised frontal lobe functioning consequent to varying etiologies. PMID:19412479

  14. Harnessing complex emergent metaphors for effective communication in palliative care: a multimodal perceptual analysis of hospice patients' reports of transcendence experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Bruce L; Lloyd, Linda S

    2014-05-01

    Terminally ill patients can have unexpected, enigmatic, and profound cognitive shifts that significantly alter their perception of themselves, thereby eliminating their fear of death and dying. However, there are no systematic studies into these remarkable yet ineffable transcendence experiences. They therefore remain easily overlooked or viewed as isolated anomalies and therefore excluded from quality-of-life patient considerations. We use a multimodal methodology for identifying the prevalence and thematic properties of complex emergent metaphors patients use to report these experiences. Although previous research has pioneered the importance of understanding conventional or primary metaphors at the end of life, our findings indicate the considerable potential of more complex metaphors for reducing barriers to effective communication in palliative care.

  15. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  16. The chemistry of polypyridine complexes of ruthenium. Communication 5. Electronic structure of mixed-ligand bipyridyl-diphosphine complexes of ruthenium(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizova, O.V.; Ivanova, N.V.; Ershov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Comparative analysis of donor-acceptor abilities of diphosphine ligands for two series of complex compounds: cis-[Ru(bpy) 2 (LL) q+ [LL=2,2'-bipyridyl(bpy), o-benzoquinonediimine (bqdi), cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene (dppen), (NH 3 ) 2 and (CO) 2 ] and [Ru(NH 3 ) 4 (LL)] 2+ (LL = bpy, dppen and bqdi) was carried out on the basis of results of quantum chemical calculations. It is shown that diphosphines are the strongest σ-donors; their π-acceptor abilities stemming from d-orbitals of phosphorus are comparable in value with π-acceptor abilities of 2,2'-bipyridyl, being essentially lower than those of o-benzoquinonediimine and carbonyl [ru

  17. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. ... need include: Duplex Doppler ultrasound exam of the renal arteries to test blood flow MRI of the kidney arteries, which can show ...

  18. Antifragile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc Louis

    2016-01-01

    Jamming is an ongoing threat that plagues wireless communications in contested areas. Unfortunately, jamming complexity and sophistication will continue to increase over time. The traditional approach to addressing the jamming threat is to harden radios, such that they sacrifice communications performance for more advanced jamming protection. To provide an escape from this trend, we investigate the previously unexplored area of jammer exploitation. This dissertation develops the concep...

  19. Management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex disease with a high mortality. Management of this disease is underpinned by supportive and general therapies delivered by multidisciplinary teams in specialist centres. In recent years, a number of PAH-specific therapies have improved patient outcomes. This article will discuss the management of PAH in the context of relevant recently published studies in this area.

  20. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  1. Successful transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistula in a child with single coronary artery: a heavy load and a long road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasalkar, Manjunath; Thakkar, Bhavesh; Poptani, Vishal

    2013-07-01

    Single coronary artery is an uncommon variation of the coronary circulation. After transposition of great arteries, coronary artery fistulas are the most common associated cardiac anomalies in these patients. Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistula (CAF) involving single coronary artery is a challenging intervention. In the absence of contralateral coronary artery, a complex anatomy of the CAF and a large myocardial perfusion territory of the dominant circulation pose an additional risk during interventional procedure. We report our experience of a successful transcatheter closure of a coronary artery fistula in a patient with single coronary artery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Surgical treatment for a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ali Vefa; Boysan, Emre; Isikli, Osman Yasar; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems. The complexity of congenital arteriovenous malformations makes treatment challenging. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation in her left leg and a history of 2 unsuccessful coil-embolization procedures. We ligated all the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformation in the region of the superficial femoral artery, and the surgery was successful without sequelae. The patient returned 2 years later with thrombosis of the great saphenous vein and underwent a second operation. The thrombosed vein and all varicosities were excised successfully. Surgery can be an effective method for correcting complex congenital arteriovenous malformations, especially in the lower limbs. A 2-staged surgical approach like ours might be a good option in suitable patients.

  3. The Communications and Networks Collaborative Technology Alliance Publication Network: A Case Study on Graph and Simplicial Complex Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Because of this closure property on subsets, simplicial complexes are amenable to mathe - matical formalism in combinatorics, abstract algebra, and...Introduction. Oxford (United Kingdom): Oxford University Press. 7. Wasserman S, Faust K. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applica- tions. New York (NY...Bollen J, Nelson ML, Van de Sompel H. Co-authorship networks in the digital library research community. Information Processing and Management. 2005;41

  4. Communication: Broad manifold of excitonic states in light-harvesting complex 1 promotes efficient unidirectional energy transfer in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Sara H.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Allodi, Marco A.; Massey, Sara C.; Ting, Po-Chieh; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Hunter, C. Neil; Engel, Gregory S.

    2017-10-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the pigment-protein complexes that comprise the light-harvesting antenna exhibit complex electronic structures and ultrafast dynamics due to the coupling among the chromophores. Here, we present absorptive two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra from living cultures of the purple bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, acquired using gradient assisted photon echo spectroscopy. Diagonal slices through the 2D lineshape of the LH1 stimulated emission/ground state bleach feature reveal a resolvable higher energy population within the B875 manifold. The waiting time evolution of diagonal, horizontal, and vertical slices through the 2D lineshape shows a sub-100 fs intra-complex relaxation as this higher energy population red shifts. The absorption (855 nm) of this higher lying sub-population of B875 before it has red shifted optimizes spectral overlap between the LH1 B875 band and the B850 band of LH2. Access to an energetically broad distribution of excitonic states within B875 offers a mechanism for efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1 during photosynthesis while limiting back transfer. Two-dimensional lineshapes reveal a rapid decay in the ground-state bleach/stimulated emission of B875. This signal, identified as a decrease in the dipole strength of a strong transition in LH1 on the red side of the B875 band, is assigned to the rapid localization of an initially delocalized exciton state, a dephasing process that frustrates back transfer from LH1 to LH2.

  5. Double profunda brachii artery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani; Jyoti V Hadimani; Ishwar B Bagoji; Shardha Bai Rathod; Balappa M Bannur

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii...

  6. Aneurismas del complejo arteria cerebral anterior / arteria comunicante anterior: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery-anterior communicating artery complex: Results of the surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo L González González

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los aneurismas del complejo arteria cerebral anterior-arteria comunicante anterior figuran entre los más frecuentes de localización intracraneal y, debido a su variabilidad anatómica y características hemodinámicas, constituyen un reto especial para cualquier esfuerzo terapéutico. Con el objetivo de caracterizarlos y evaluar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de estas lesiones, se estudian los pacientes operados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico «Hermanos Ameijeiras», entre enero de 1983 y agosto de 1998. Se observó que el 71,1 % de la muestra egresó en excelente estado; el 13,44 %, con secuelas mínimas; el 3,48 %, con secuelas graves y que la mortalidad fue del 11,53 %. Se concluye que estos aneurismas son más frecuentes en el sexo masculino, en la cuarta y quinta décadas de la vida (media de 39,9 años y que el tamaño crítico de ruptura se ubica mayoritariamente entre 6 mm y 11 mm. De igual forma se observó que la edad, el tamaño sacular, el vasoespasmo y la ruptura transoperatoria influyen sobre los resultados y que la influencia de estas dos últimas complicaciones es muy fuerte. El infarto cerebral isquémico fue la causa de muerte más frecuente

  7. MR imaging of persistent primitive trigeminal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Araki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukihiko; Ishida, Osamu; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    The persistent trigeminal artery is the most common anomaly of the primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. We reviewed MR images and MR angiographies of 11 patients with primitive trigeminal artery. In 8 of the 11 cases, PTA were identified with conventional long TR spin-echo images. In 8 of 11 cases, a hypoplastic basilar trunk associated with PTA was seen on both MR images and MR angiographies. In 7 of 11 cases, a hypoplasia or agenesis of the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery was seen on MR angiographies. (author)

  8. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  9. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  10. A Low-Complexity Joint Synchronization and Detection Algorithm for Single-Band DS-CDMA UWB Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Lars PB

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA detection over the ultra-wideband (UWB multipath channel is considered. A joint synchronization, channel-estimation, and multiuser detection scheme based on the adaptive linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE receiver is presented and evaluated. Further, a novel nonrecursive least-squares algorithm capable of reducing the complexity of the adaptation in the receiver while preserving the advantages of the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is presented.

  11. Time-dependent changes in extra-domain A-fibronectin concentration and relative amounts of fibronectin-fibrin complexes in plasma of patients with peripheral arterial disease after endovascular revascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Małgorzata; Krzyżanowska-Gołąb, Dorota; Kotschy, Daniel; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Kwiatkowska, Wiesława; Kotschy, Maria; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2018-03-13

    Fibronectin (FN) may be involved in time- and stage-dependent and inter-related controlled processes of inflammation, coagulation, and wound healing accompanying peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In the present study, FN and FN-containing extra-domain A (EDA-FN), macromolecular FN-fibrin complexes, and FN monomer were analysed in the plasma of 142 PAD patients, including 37 patients with restenosis, for 37 months after revascularisation. FN concentration increased significantly in the plasma of PAD patients within 7 to 12 months after revascularisation, whereas the high concentration of EDA-FN was maintained up to 24 months, significantly higher in the group 7 to 12 months after revascularisation with recurrence of stenosis and lower in the PAD groups 1 to 3 months and 4 to 6 months after revascularisation with comorbid diabetes and ulceration, respectively. The relative amounts of FN-fibrin complexes up to 1600 kDa and FN monomer were significantly higher, within intervals of 4 to 24 months and 4 to 6 months after revascularisation, respectively. Moreover, the relative amounts of 750 to 1600 kDa FN-fibrin complexes within 13 to 24 months after revascularisation were higher in comparison with those in the group without restenosis. In conclusion, high levels of EDA-FN and FN-fibrin complexes could have potential diagnostic value in the management of PAD patients after revascularisation, predicting restenosis risk. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long-Term Results After Simple Versus Complex Stenting of Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions Nordic Bifurcation Study 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, M.; Holm, N. R.; Erglis, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to report the 5-year follow-up results of the Nordic Bifurcation Study. Background Randomized clinical trials with short-term follow-up have indicated that coronary bifurcation lesions may be optimally treated using the optional side branch stenting strategy. Methods...... complex strategy of planned stenting of both the main vessel and the side branch. (C) 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation...

  13. Comparison of tomographic coronary artery calcification index (calcium score) and ultrasonographic measurement of intima-media complex thickness in diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Cyprian; Rotkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Grzelak, Piotr; Elgalal, Marcin; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2011-01-01

    At present, there is a number of diagnostic imaging procedures allowing for the evaluation of atherosclerosis. The earliest, subclinical stage of atherosclerosis can be visualized with the development of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) techniques. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the degree of coronary artery calcification and carotid intima-media thickness in diabetic subjects divided into different age groups. Fifty-six men, aged from 18 to 72 were included in the study. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to age (18–30, 31–45, 46–60 and more than 60 years). Two tests were performed: coronary calcium score (CS) determination and intima-media thickness (IMT) in ultrasound. CS was performed using a multi-slice scanner. Images were analyzed using the Agatson method. Ultrasound examinations were performed using a 9–12-MHz linear transducer. The correlation coefficient between calcium score index (CSI) and age of patients was 0.52 (p<0.001). The correlation between duration of diabetes and CSI was significantly lower (r=0.3; p<0.05). The increase of IMT is associated with age to a much greater extent and the correlation coefficient was 0.63 (p<0.001). IMT depended on the duration of diabetes, but the correlation was also weak (r=0.35; p<0.01). Comparison of the findings obtained in the presented study and in the group of healthy subjects proves that influence of diabetes on vascular deterioration may be observed, even among young individuals. Obtained results allow to make the following conclusions: 1. Calcium score index remains low in the group of male patients with diabetes before the age of 45. 2. Intima-media thickness correlates well with age (r=0.6; p<0.05) and weaker with the duration of diabetes (r=0.35; p<0.05). 3. IMT assessment may be a useful tool to identify the increased predisposition to atherosclerosis, also before the age of 30

  14. Continuous inhaled iloprost in a neonate with d-transposition of the great arteries and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, John C; Torres, Marilyn; Alexander, Plato J

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the case of a neonate with d-transposition of the great arteries and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension stabilised in the post-operative period with continuous iloprost nebulisation. To our knowledge, this is the first documented method of treating post-operative severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with continuous inhaled iloprost in a patient with complex CHD. We found this method of delivering the drug very effective in stabilising haemodynamic swings in the setting of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  15. Astrocyte-to-neuron communication through integrin-engaged Thy-1/CBP/Csk/Src complex triggers neurite retraction via the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, H; Calderon, C; Burgos-Bravo, F; Kobler, O; Zuschratter, W; Ramirez, O; Härtel, S; Schneider, P; Quest, A F G; Herrera-Molina, R; Leyton, L

    2017-02-01

    Two key proteins for cellular communication between astrocytes and neurons are αvβ3 integrin and the receptor Thy-1. Binding of these molecules in the same (cis) or on adjacent (trans) cellular membranes induces Thy-1 clustering, triggering actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Molecular events that could explain how the Thy-1-αvβ3 integrin interaction signals have only been studied separately in different cell types, and the detailed transcellular communication and signal transduction pathways involved in neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling remain unresolved. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, single-molecule tracking, and high-resolution nanoscopy, we provide evidence that upon binding to αvβ3 integrin, Thy-1 mobility decreased while Thy-1 nanocluster size increased. This occurred concomitantly with inactivation and exclusion of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src from the Thy-1/C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein (CBP)/Csk complex. The Src inactivation decreased the p190Rho GTPase activating protein phosphorylation, promoting RhoA activation, cofilin, and myosin light chain II phosphorylation and, consequently, neurite shortening. Finally, silencing the adaptor CBP demonstrated that this protein was a key transducer in the Thy-1 signaling cascade. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the Thy-1-CBP-Csk-Src-RhoA-ROCK axis transmitted signals from astrocytic integrin-engaged Thy-1 (trans) to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton. Importantly, the β3 integrin in neurons (cis) was not found to be crucial for neurite shortening. This is the first study to detail the signaling pathway triggered by αvβ3, the endogenous Thy-1 ligand, highlighting the role of membrane-bound integrins as trans acting ligands in astrocyte-neuron communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inter-organisational communication in civil-military cooperation during complex emergencies: a case study in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Sebastiaan J H; Verlaan, Kirsten; Zaalberg, Thijs W Brocades; de Boer, Sirp J

    2009-07-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an improved information management and exchange between humanitarian organisations and military agents in complex emergencies. To do so, a theoretical information management process model was developed and applied to the case of information management between International Security Assistance Force troops and humanitarian organisations such as Cordaid, DACAAR and the International Office for Migration in Kabul, Afghanistan. Based on this analysis the main shortcomings and problems in each stage of the information management process were identified. These include a lack of structured information databases, the absence of identification of information needs, and an over-classification of documents by the military. Using a logical framework analysis, six major improvement tactics were developed, including the creation of more overlap in rotations of personnel, the specification of aims and tasks regarding information management, the improvement of skills and competences of personnel involved, and the introduction of regular joint civil-military evaluations.

  17. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc1 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2015-04-01

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc1 bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ˜0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  18. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc1 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc 1 bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins

  19. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitrym@asu.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  20. Design of a Combined Beacon Receiver and Digital Radiometer for 40 GHz Propagation Measurements at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed an atmospheric propagation terminal to measure and characterize propagation phenomena at 40 GHz at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela, Spain. The hybrid Q-band system utilizes a novel design which combines a 40 GHz beacon receiver and digital radiometer into the same RF front-end and observes the 39.402 GHz beacon of the European Space Agencys Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 experiment. Atmospheric measurements include gaseous absorption, rain fade, and scintillation. The radiometric measurement is calibrated by means of an included noise diode as well as tipping calibration. The goals of these measurements are to assist MDSCC mission operations as the facility increasingly supports Ka-band missions, as well as to contribute to the development and improvement of International Telecommunications Union (ITU) models for prediction of communications systems performance within the Q-band through the Aldo Paraboni Experiment. Herein, we provide an overview of the system design, characterization, and plan of operations which commenced at the MDSCC beginning in March 2017.

  1. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); A. Colombo (Antonio); D.R. Holmes Jr (David); M.J. Mack (Michael); E. Stahle (Elisabeth); T.E. Feldman (Ted); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); E.J. Bass (Eric); N. van Dyck (Nic); K. Leadly (Katrin); K.D. Dawkins (Keith); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involving drug-eluting stents is increasingly used to treat complex coronary artery disease, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the treatment of choice historically. Our trial compared PCI and CABG for treating

  2. MRI and MR angiography of persistent trigeminal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotin, M.; Miralbes, S.; Cattin, F.; Marchal, H.; Amor-Sahli, M.; Moulin, T.; Bonneville, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the MRA and MR angiography (MRA) features of persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) found incidentally in eight patients, with special attention to its origin, site and course. The different patterns of posterior communicating arteries were also noted. The PTA were shown on sagittal, coronal and axial MRI and on MRA. In four cases, the PTA arose from the lateral aspect of the intracavernous internal carotid artery, ran caudally, passing round the bottom of the dorsum sellae to join the basilar artery. In the other four cases, it arose from the medial aspect, ran caudally through the sella turcica and pierced the dorsum sellae to join the basilar artery. The posterior communicating arteries were present unilaterally in five cases and bilaterally in one, and absent bilaterally in two. Identification of a PTA with a trans-sellar course is crucial if a trans-sphenoidal surgery is planned. (orig.). With 3 figs

  3. Communication: Evaluating non-empirical double hybrid functionals for spin-state energetics in transition-metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbraham, Liam; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2018-01-01

    The computationally assisted, accelerated design of inorganic functional materials often relies on the ability of a given electronic structure method to return the correct electronic ground state of the material in question. Outlining difficulties with current density functionals and wave function-based approaches, we highlight why double hybrid density functionals represent promising candidates for this purpose. In turn, we show that PBE0-DH (and PBE-QIDH) offers a significant improvement over its hybrid parent functional PBE0 [as well as B3LYP* and coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T))] when computing spin-state splitting energies, using high-level diffusion Monte Carlo calculations as a reference. We refer to the opposing influence of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange and MP2, which permits higher levels of HF exchange and a concomitant reduction in electronic density error, as the reason for the improved performance of double-hybrid functionals relative to hybrid functionals. Additionally, using 16 transition metal (Fe and Co) complexes, we show that low-spin states are stabilised by increasing contributions from MP2 within the double hybrid formulation. Furthermore, this stabilisation effect is more prominent for high field strength ligands than low field strength ligands.

  4. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  5. Surface modification of coronary artery stent by Ti-O/Ti-N complex film coating prepared with plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, N.; Leng, Y.X.; Yang, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported the work of surface coating of Ti-O/Ti-N complex films on coronary stents by means of the plasma immersion ion implantation/deposition process. The deformation behavior of the Ti-O/Ti-N coated stainless steel stents was investigated. In vivo investigation of the anticoagulation behavior of Ti-O coated coronary stents was also performed. The results of mechanical characterization of the Ti-O/Ti-N coated stents show that the film has strong binding strength, and to some extent the ability to withstand plastic deformation. The biological response behavior of the coated stent surface was significantly different from the uncoated. The results of implantation of stents into rabbit ventral aorta show no thrombus formation on the surfaces of the Ti-O coated stents, although serious coagulation had occurred on the surfaces of unmodified stents over a period of 4 weeks under conditions with no anticoagulant

  6. Small Artery Elastin Distribution and Architecture-Focus on Three Dimensional Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael A; Nourian, Zahra; Ho, I-Lin; Clifford, Philip S; Martinez-Lemus, Luis; Meininger, Gerald A

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of ECM proteins within the walls of resistance vessels is complex both in variety of proteins and structural arrangement. In particular, elastin exists as discrete fibers varying in orientation across the adventitia and media as well as often resembling a sheet-like structure in the case of the IEL. Adding to the complexity is the tissue heterogeneity that exists in these structural arrangements. For example, small intracranial cerebral arteries lack adventitial elastin while similar sized arteries from skeletal muscle and intestinal mesentery exhibit a complex adventitial network of elastin fibers. With regard to the IEL, several vascular beds exhibit an elastin sheet with punctate holes/fenestrae while in others the IEL is discontinuous and fibrous in appearance. Importantly, these structural patterns likely sub-serve specific functional properties, including mechanosensing, control of external forces, mechanical properties of the vascular wall, cellular positioning, and communication between cells. Of further significance, these processes are altered in vascular disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus where there is modification of ECM. This brief report focuses on the three-dimensional wall structure of small arteries and considers possible implications with regard to mechanosensing under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Endovascular Exclusion of Renal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Rohr, Nils

    2005-01-01

    A patient who was operated for an abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years earlier presented with recently discovered iliac and renal artery aneurysms. The renal artery had an angulation of 90 o , but the aneurysm was successfully excluded using a covered vascular stent graft placed over an extrastiff guidewire. Even in cases of complex anatomy of a renal aneurysm, endovascular treatment should be considered. With development of more flexible and low-profile endoprosthesis with accurate deployment, these have become more usable

  8. Coronary artery fistulas: symptoms may not correlate to size. An emblematic case and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Buccheri, D; Pisano, c; Piraino, D; Cortese, B; Dendramis, G; Chirco, PR; Balistreri, CR; Andolina, G; Argano, V; Ruvolo, G

    2015-01-01

    Fistulous communication of coronary with pulmonary arteries in the adults is a common type of coronary artery fistula (CAF)1—3. In most reported cases, the fistula usually arises from the proximal left and/or right coronary arteries via the anterior conal branches that connect to the anterior wall of the main pulmonary artery. These anteriorly located abnormal communications are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally found during an angiography of the coronary arteries in 0.2—0.3% of the e...

  9. Systematization and description of the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base in turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Juliana; Campos, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. Next, the rostral cerebral arteries anastomosed forming a rostral interhemispheric artery, making the second rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotid artery, after emitting its rostral branch, continued caudally as the caudal branch. The caudal branch ran caudally along the ventral surface of the mesencephalic tegmentum, emitted the caudal cerebral artery and the mesencephalic artery, and continued caudomedially while progressively narrowing, and anastomosed with its contralateral homologous artery, forming the basilar artery. The narrower portion also emitted the trigeminal artery. The anastomosis of the caudal branches closed the cerebral arterial circle caudally. The internal carotid arteries exclusively supplied the cerebral arterial circle of the turtle. Anat Rec, 299:1090-1098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Thyrocervical artery - jugular fistula following internal jugular venous catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Zachariah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous fistula (AVF is an anomalous communication between an artery and a vein, caused by an iatrogenic or traumatic etiology. Surgically created upper limb AVF remains the preferred vascular access for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nonetheless central vein cannulation for hemodialysis is a common procedure done in patients who need hemodialysis. We incidentally detected a thyrocervical artery - jugular fistula in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. He underwent a successful intra arterial coil embolization of the feeding vessel. Review of literature has shown that, a thyrocervical artery - internal jugular vein arteriovenous fistula following a central venous catheterization has not been reported so far.

  11. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  12. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  13. Long-term outcomes of internal carotid artery disease treated using radial artery graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akira; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Umeoka, Katsuya; Tateyama, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    Complex internal carotid artery disease presents a surgical challenge because limitations and difficulty are encountered with either clipping or endovascular treatment. Our review of previous reports suggests that no current vascular assessment can accurately predict occurrence of ischemic complications after internal carotid artery ligation. The present study concerns long-term clinical outcome of radial artery grafting followed by parent artery trapping or proximal occlusion for management of these difficult lesions. Between September 1997 and October 2007, we performed radial artery grafting followed immediately by parent artery occlusion in 20 sides of 19 patients with complex internal carotid arteries disease with follow-up for more than 36 months (5 men, 14 women; mean follow-up duration, 62 months). All patients underwent postoperative MRI and MR angiography (MRA) every year to assess graft patency, ischemic complications, and de novo aneurysm. Another 20 carotid aneurysms with visual disturbance were assessed concerning outcome. Among 13 patients with cranial nerve (III and VI) disturbances, all dysfunctions were improved in cases treated within 8 months of onset to operation. On the other hand, patients with second cranial nerve disturbances were not improved in cases treated after 4 months of onset. No long-term complications were discovered with MRI and MRA. With appropriate attention to surgical technique, radial artery grafting followed by acute parent artery occlusion is a safe treatment for complex internal carotid artery aneurysms. Long-term safety is satisfactory, with no delayed complications such as graft stenosis, ischemic complications or de novo aneurysm formations in follow-up periods of more than 3 years. Good clinical outcome of cranial nerve palsy was achieved in patients treated within 8 months of onset for cranial nerve (CN) III and VI, and 4 of CN II palsy. (author)

  14. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms ...

  15. Ideal Internal Carotid Artery Trapping Technique without Bypass in a Patient with Insufficient Collateral Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Joon Ho; Shin, Yong Sam; Lim, Yong Cheol; Park, Minjung

    2009-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) trapping can be used for treating intracranial giant aneurysm, blood blister-like aneurysms and ICA rupture during the surgery. We present a novel ICA trapping technique which can be used with insufficient collaterals flow via anterior communicating artery (AcoA) and posterior communicating artery (PcoA). A patient was admitted with severe headache and the cerebral angiography demonstrated a typical blood blister-like aneurysm at the contralateral side of PcoA. F...

  16. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  17. Arterial blood supply to the thalamus and midbrain on CT sections, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Gen; Ottomo, Michinori; Satoh, Nobuko; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki.

    1984-01-01

    The selective injection of a dyestuff into thalamoperforating arteries from the posterior part of the circle of Willis, using five postmortem brains, was performed. After fixation, sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line were obtained. In cases which showed a standard development of the posterior communicating arteries, the usual patterns were as follows: the area supplied by perforators of the posterior communicating artery (anterior thalamoperforating artery) was visualized in the hypothalamus and the antero-lateral part of the thalamus; the area supplied by perforators of the proximal segment of the posterior cerebral artery (interpeduncular thalamoperforating artery) was visualized in the midbrain and the medial part of thalamus; the area supplied by perforators of the ambient segment of the posterior cerebral artery (thalamogeniculate artery) was visualized in the medial part of the geniculate body and the posterior part of the thalamus. According to the development of the posterior communicating artery, the area supplied by each perforator was quite variable. Three CT sections were obtained containing three different patterns of the posterior communicating artery: 1) well-developed; 2) moderately developed; and 3) poorly developed. The identification of the area supplied by thalamoperforating arteries on CT sections was quite useful in the CT diagnosis of cerebrovascular disorders which involved the thalamus and the midbrain. (author)

  18. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  19. When the Dog Must Talk to the Cat: Communicating Science to Politicians - or - Science and Politics: Thoughts about a Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Claus

    From a communication view, political lobbying for Science means targeted communication about a long established, well-tested, fact-based and logically robust system of inquiry to a highly dynamic environment in which decision-taking is influenced by many non-scientific factors and with norms that differ widely from the tenets of science. The paper discusses some of the communication issues that arise when these very different worlds meet.

  20. Implication of the presence of a variant hepatic artery during the Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Manzanares-Dorado, Mercedes; Marín-Gómez, Luis Miguel; Aparicio-Sánchez, Daniel; Suárez-Artacho, Gonzalo; Bellido, Carmen; Álamo, José María; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, Juan; Padillo-Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel Ángel

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical variants of the hepatic artery may have important implications for pancreatic cancer surgery. The aim of our study is to compare the outcome following a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) in patients with or without a variant hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. We reviewed 151 patients with periampullary tumoral pathology. All patients underwent oncological PD between January 2005 and February 2012. Our series was divided into two groups: Group A: Patients with a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery; and Group B: Patients without a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. We expressed the results as mean +/- standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for qualitative variables. Statistical tests were considered significant if p < 0.05. We identified 11 patients with a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery (7.3%). The most frequent variant was an aberrant right hepatic artery (n = 7), following by the accessory right hepatic artery (n = 2) and the common hepatic artery trunk arising from the superior mesenteric artery (n = 2). In 73% of cases the diagnosis of the variant was intraoperative. R0 resection was performed in all patients with a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. There were no significant differences in the tumor resection margins and the incidence of postoperative complications. Oncological PD is feasible by the presence of a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. The complexity of having it does not seem to influence in tumor resection margins, complications and survival.

  1. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  2. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, N

    2010-01-01

    ... patterns of communication among scientists, popular communication to the public and science in literature and drama. This three-part framework shows how historical and cultural factors operate in today's complex communication landscape, and should be actively considered when designing and evaluating science communication. Ideal for students and p...

  3. Testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery | Suluba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report we discovered the rare variation of the origin of the right testicular artery arising from the right aberrant renal artery with double renal artery irrigating both left and right kidneys. These variations in the testicular arteries and renal arteries have implication to surgical procedures such as orchidopexy repair for ...

  4. Clarifying the anatomy of the fifth arch artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The artery allegedly forming in the fifth pharyngeal arch has increasingly been implicated as responsible for various vascular malformations in patients with congenitally malformed hearts. Observations from studies on developing embryos, however, have failed to provide support to substantiate several of these inferences such that the very existence of the fifth arch artery remains debatable. To the best of our knowledge, in only a solitary human embryo has a vascular channel been found that truly resembled the artery of the fifth arch. Despite the meager evidence to support its existence, the fifth arch artery has been invoked to explain the morphogenesis of double-barreled aorta, some unusual forms of aortopulmonary communications, and abnormalities of the brachiocephalic arteries. In most of these instances, the interpretations have proved fallible when examined in the light of existing knowledge of cardiac development. In our opinion, there are more plausible alternative explanations for the majority of these descriptions. Double-barreled aorta is more likely to result from retention of the recently identified dorsal collateral channels while abnormalities of brachiocephalic arteries are better explained on the basis of extensive remodeling of aortic arches during fetal development. Some examples of aortopulmonary communications, nonetheless, may well represent persistence of the developing artery of the fifth pharyngeal arch. We here present one such case - a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, in whom the fifth arch artery provided a necessary communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary arteries. In this light, we discuss the features we consider to be essential before attaching the tag of "fifth arch artery" to a candidate vascular channel.

  5. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  6. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  7. Absence of the genicular arterial anastomosis as generally depicted in textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabalbal, M; Johnson, M; McAlister, V

    2013-09-01

    Textbook representations of the genicular arterial anastomosis show a large direct communication between the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery (DBLCFA) and a genicular branch of the popliteal artery but this is not compatible with clinical experience. The aim of this study was to determine whether the arterial anastomosis at the knee is sufficient, in the event of traumatic disruption of the superficial femoral artery, to infuse protective agents or to place a stent to restore flow to the lower leg. Dissection of ten cadaveric lower limbs was performed to photograph the arterial anatomy from the inguinal ligament to the tibial tubercle. Anastomosis with branches of the popliteal artery was classified as: 'direct communication', 'approaching communication' or 'no evident communication'. A constant descending artery in the lateral thigh (LDAT) was found to have five types of origin: Type 1 (2/10 limbs) involved the lateral circumflex femoral branch of the femoral artery, Type 2 (3/10 limbs) the lateral circumflex femoral branch of the profunda femoris artery, Type 3 (1/10 limbs) the femoral artery, Type 4 (3/10 limbs) the superficial femoral artery and Type 5 (2/10 limbs) the profunda femoris artery. In one limb, there were two descending arteries (Types 4 and 5). Collateral circulation at the knee was also variable: direct communicating vessels (3/10 limbs); approaching vessels with possible communication via capillaries (5/10 limbs); no evident communication (2/10 limbs). Communicating vessels, if present, are too small to provide immediate collateral circulation. Modern representations of the genicular arterial anastomosis are inaccurate, derived commonly from an idealised image that first appeared Gray's Anatomy in 1910. The afferent vessel is not the DBLCFA. The majority of subjects have the potential to recruit collateral circulation via the LDAT following gradual obstruction to normal arterial flow, which may be important if the LDAT

  8. Comunicación, lenguaje y educación: una mirada desde las teorías de la complejidad Communication, language and education: a look from the theories of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Flórez Romero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un modelo conceptual de la relación comunicación-educación desde los planteamientos de la complejidad, utilizando como unidad de análisis la interacción comunicativa. En el nacimiento de las explicaciones desde la complejidad, se explica el concepto de sistema, entendido como un conjunto de elementos y de relaciones entre éstos, que tienden a mantenerse organizadas y de las cuales surgen elementos no preexistentes. De acá se derivan los principales conceptos básicos de teorías de la complejidad para explicar la interacción comunicativa: la autoorganización, la no linealidad y la relación del sistema con otros sistemas subordinados y superordenados. Dichos conceptos explican tres aspectos de la interacción comunicativa en educación: estructuras de conocimiento, relación aprendiz-maestro y ambientes o espacios de conocimiento. Los avances en el marco de relación entre complejidad, educación y comunicación muestran la necesidad de una perspectiva evolutiva integradora de las dinámicas causales de la interacción comunicativa para explicar la complejidad de la realidad educativa. Este nuevo lenguaje debe centrarse en una nueva síntesis de las ciencias naturales y las ciencias sociales.This work presents a conceptual model on the relationship communication - education from the perspective of complexity theories, using communicative interaction as analysis unit. In the birth of complexity explanations, the concept of system is explained, and is understood as a set of elements and relationships among them that tend to stay organized and to generate new elements. From this point of view, the basic concepts in complexity theories -self-organization, non-linearity, and the relationships among the system and other subordinate and superordinate systems -emerge as an explanation to communicative interaction. These concepts explain three communicative interaction aspects in education: knowledge structures, teacher

  9. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  10. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  11. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  12. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  15. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Analytical and Numerical Study of the Projective Synchronization of the Chaotic Complex Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Parameters and Its Applications in Secure Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholod M. Abualnaja

    2014-01-01

    to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme and verify the theoretical results. The above results will provide theoretical foundation for the secure communication applications based on the proposed scheme.

  17. Aphasia following anterior cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimosaka, Shinichi; Waga, Shiro; Kojima, Tadashi; Shimizu, Takeo; Morikawa, Atsunori

    1982-01-01

    We have report two cases of aphasia that had infarcts in the distribution of the left or right anterior cerebral artery, as confirmed by computed tomography. Case 1 is a right-handed, 65-year-old man in whom computerized tomographic scanning revealed an infarction of the territory of the left anterior cerebral artery after the clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The standard language test of aphasia (SLTA) revealed non-fluent aphasia with dysarthria, good comprehension, almost normal repetition with good articulation, and a defectiveness in writing. This syndrome was considered an instance of transcortical motor aphasia. Although three years had passed from the onset, his aphasia did not show any improvement. Case 2 is a 37-year-old man who is right-handed but who can use his left hand as well. He was admitted because of subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior communicating aneurysm. Because of postoperative spasm, an infarction in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery developed. He was totally unable to express himself vocally, but he could use written language quite well to express his ideas and had a good comprehension of spoken language. This clinical picture was considered that of an aphemia. After several weeks, his vocalization returned, but the initial output was still hypophonic. (J.P.N.)

  18. Elastin in large artery stiffness and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenseil, Jessica E.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Large artery stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is correlated with high blood pressure and may be a causative factor in essential hypertension. The extracellular matrix components, specifically the mix of elastin and collagen in the vessel wall, determine the passive mechanical properties of the large arteries. Elastin is organized into elastic fibers in the wall during arterial development in a complex process that requires spatial and temporal coordination of numerous proteins. The elastic fibers last the lifetime of the organism, but are subject to proteolytic degradation and chemical alterations that change their mechanical properties. This review discusses how alterations in the amount, assembly, organization or chemical properties of the elastic fibers affect arterial stiffness and blood pressure. Strategies for encouraging or reversing alterations to the elastic fibers are addressed. Methods for determining the efficacy of these strategies, by measuring elastin amounts and arterial stiffness, are summarized. Therapies that have a direct effect on arterial stiffness through alterations to the elastic fibers in the wall may be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. PMID:22290157

  19. Fetal Diagnosis of Abnormal Origin of the Left Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Justin T; Tretter, Eric M; Rafii, Daniela Y; Anderson, Robert H; Bhatla, Puneet

    2016-08-01

    Isolated anomalies of the branch pulmonary arteries are rare, more often occurring in the setting of complex congenital heart disease. These isolated anomalies are often not identified in the prenatal period. We describe two cases of isolated anomalies of the left pulmonary artery which were identified on fetal echocardiography and confirmed postnatally, an anomalous left pulmonary artery arising from the base of the left-sided brachiocephalic artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch, and a left pulmonary artery sling. These two cases support our current understanding of normal and abnormal development of the extrapericardial arterial vessels and highlight the importance of meticulous attention when sweeping from the three-vessel tracheal view. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pulmonary artery aneurysm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Introduction. Pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare finding in general radiological practice. The possible causes are myriad and diverse in pathophysiolo- gy. Patients with post-stenotic dilata- tion of the main pulmonary artery usually present fairly late with insidi- ous cardiorespiratory symptoms. Diagnosis requires ...

  1. Management of a Complicated Ruptured Infected Pseudoaneurysm of the Femoral Artery in a Drug Addict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Psathas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery represents a devastating complication of intravenous drug abuse, especially in the event of rupture. Operative strategy depends upon the extent of arterial injury and the coexistence of infection or sepsis. Options range from simple common femoral artery (CFA ligation to complex arterial reconstruction with autologous grafts (arterial, venous, or homografts. We report herein the management of a 29-year-old male patient who was urgently admitted with a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the right CFA, extending well above the inguinal ligament. Multidisciplinary approach with multiple arterial reconstructions and subsequent coverage of the tissue defect with a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap transposition was performed.

  2. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  3. Technical Considerations of Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant coronary artery aneurysms are rare clinical entities. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with dyspnoea and exertional chest pain. Investigations confirmed an aneurysmal right coronary artery measuring 4 cm with a fistulous communication to the right atrium. Following right atriotomy, the fistula was oversewn and the aneurysmal right coronary artery ligated at its origin and at several points along its course. A saphenous vein graft was anastomosed to the posterior descending artery. Persistent ventricular fibrillation occurred upon chest closure, attributed to ischaemia following ligation of the aneurysmal coronary artery. Emergent resternotomy and internal defibrillation were successfully performed. The sternum was stented open to reduce right ventricular strain and closed the following day. The patient made an unremarkable recovery. We here address the technical challenges associated with surgical repair of right coronary aneurysms and the physiology and management of potential complications.

  4. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  5. Occlusion of Heubner's artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Manabu; Kidooka, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    A case of occlusion of the left Heubner's artery in a right-handed, 51-year-old man is reported. Cardinal clinical features were transient right hemiparesis and mental disturbance, especially intellectual defect. Low density areas were found at CT in the globus pallidus, putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule and a part of the caudate nucleus. It is well known that the occlusion of the Heubner's artery causes transient motor paresis of upper extremity on the contralaterl side. However, in the case where the Heubner's artery is remarkably well developed when compared with the medial striate arteries as was the case in this patient, it should be noted that the occlusion of the Heubner's artery may well causes grave mental disturbance, in addition. (author)

  6. Potential advantages and limitations of the Leo stent in endovascular treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Xianli; Li Youxiang; Jiang Chuhan; Yang Xinjian [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, 100050 Hebei, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.com [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, 100050 Hebei, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: The Leo self-expandable stent is a new retractable stent that is delivered via a conventional catheter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this stent for endovascular treatment of complex aneurysms. Methods: Twenty-eight complex cerebral aneurysms (27 saccular and 1 fusiform) in 28 patients were treated electively. They were located at the internal carotid artery (17), basilar trunk (3), anterior cerebral artery (1), anterior communicating artery (3), vertebral artery (2) and middle cerebral artery (2). One aneurysm exhibited recanalization after primary endovascular treatment without stent. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. Results: Deployment of Leo stent was successful in 26 lesions, and difficulties in stent positioning due to tortuous cerebral circulation in 2 cases, which were treated with Neuroform stent. Additional coil embolization was performed in 26 lesions. No permanent neurological deficits were encountered consequent to endovascular procedure. Complete or partial occlusion immediately after stent deployment was achieved in all aneurysms. There was no immediate coil embolization was chosen in 3 cases because of subsequent reduced filling of the aneurysms with contrast agent on angiograms. There were 3 asymptomatic parent artery occlusion related to the deployment of the Leo stent, one stent migration. Follow-up revealed patent stents in the remaining cases. No angiographic recurrences arose. Conclusion: The Leo stent is very useful for endovascular treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms because it is easy to navigate and place precisely. A drawback is that in-stent thrombosis caused by stent placement and stiffer delivery catheters to place larger stents.

  7. Selections from the ABC 2013 Annual Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana: A Gumbo of Favorite Assignments: Global, Communicating Complex Information, Short-Message Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, catalogs teaching innovations presented at the 2013 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, New Orleans. They were presented during the My Favorite Assignment session. The 11 Favorite Assignments featured here offer the reader a variety of learning experiences including…

  8. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  9. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  10. Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoen, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:233-239.

  11. [Endarterectomy of the coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, V; Simkovic, I; Holoman, M; Verchvodko, P; Janotík, P; Galbánek, J; Hulman, M; Kostelnicák, J; Jurco, R; Slezák, J

    1992-02-01

    The authors analyze 50 patients with endarterectomy of the coronary arteries during the periods of 1972-1974 and 1988-1990. The results of endarterectomy of the right and left coronary artery provide evidence of its justification in indicated cases whereby contrary to some departments the results of endarterectomy of the left coronary artery are comparable with endarterectomy of the right coronary artery.

  12. The cancer theory of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherat, Olivier; Vitry, Geraldine; Trinh, Isabelle; Paulin, Roxane; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a mysterious killer that, like cancer, is characterized by tremendous complexity. PAH development occurs under sustained and persistent environmental stress, such as inflammation, shear stress, pseudo-hypoxia, and more. After inducing an initial death of the endothelial cells, these environmental stresses contribute with time to the development of hyper-proliferative and apoptotic resistant clone of cells including pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and even pulmonary artery endothelial cells allowing vascular remodeling and PAH development. Molecularly, these cells exhibit many features common to cancer cells offering the opportunity to exploit therapeutic strategies used in cancer to treat PAH. In this review, we outline the signaling pathways and mechanisms described in cancer that drive PAH cells’ survival and proliferation and discuss the therapeutic potential of antineoplastic drugs in PAH. PMID:28597757

  13. Popliteal Arterial Aneurysms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plication was acute arterial occlusion caused by thrombo- embolism. The reasons for ... Total. 43. 55. TABLE 11. CONCOMITANT DISEASE IN 38 PATIENTS .... Dacron prosthesis in 4. .... genous saphenous vein and the type of anastomosis.

  14. Coronary artery fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 84. Friedman AH, Silverman NH. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. In: ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  15. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  16. Developing the personal narratives of children with complex communication needs associated with intellectual disabilities: What is the potential of Storysharing® ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Karen; Gooch, Lynsey; Johnson, Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Sharing personal experience in narrative is challenging for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate the potential of Storysharing ® (Storysharing is an innovative communication method based on personal narrative, which has been developed to support conversations with people who have severe difficulties in communication) intervention. The study involved eleven pupil-educational supporter dyads at a special school. Storysharing ® was implemented over a 15-week period. Personal narratives were captured on video pre- and post-intervention. The data were analysed for discourse and narrative. Significant differences revealed a decline in 'query-answer' sequences and an increase in supporter use of 'prompts'. After intervention, there were fewer story episodes. Narrative structure showed gains in action sequences leading to climax, and in closing elements, indicating a more complete narrative. The Storysharing ® intervention appears to be associated with changes to the dyadic, personal narratives illustrating its potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PTFE Graft as a "Bridge" to Communicating Veins Maturation in the Treatment of an Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Involving the 3 Hepatic Veins. The Minor-but-Complex Liver Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Lucio; Balestri, Riccardo; Sidoti, Francesco; Bernardini, Juri Riccardo; Arces, Francesco; Licitra, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Forfori, Francesco; Colombatto, Piero; Boraschi, Piero; Castagna, Maura; Buccianti, Piero

    2016-12-01

    Parenchyma-sparing liver surgery allows resecting hepatic veins (HV) at the hepatocaval confluence with minor (PTFE graft can be used as a bridge to communicating-veins maturation to ensure the correct outflow of the spared liver. We present a video of an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IC) involving the three HV at the hepatocaval confluence treated with this approach. In a 50-year old obese (BMI 44.8) male a 6-cm IC involving the hepatocaval confluence was identified during the follow-up for a kidney malignancy. At the preoperative CT scan the left HV was not detectable, the middle HV was incorporated within the tumor, and right HV had a 3-cm contact with the tumor. No communicating veins were evident at preoperative imaging. After a J-shape thoracophrenolaparotomy, the resection of segments II-III-IVa was partially extended to segment VIII-VII and I. The right HV was detached from the tumor, and the middle HV was reconstructed with a 7-mm ringed-armed PTFE graft anastomosed to V8. Surgery lasted 20 h and 55 min with an estimated blood loss of 3500 ml, but the postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 14th postoperative day. One month later the CT scan showed a patent PTFE graft with the maturation of communicating-veins. One year later a complete thrombosis of the PTFE graft was observed with normal liver perfusion and function, and the patient was disease-free. PTFE-based parenchyma-sparing liver resection is a new tool to treat tumors located at the hepatocaval confluence exploiting the maturation of intrahepatic communicating-veins between main HV.

  18. ARTERIAL REVASCULARIZATION WITH THE RIGHT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY AND INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERIES IN 300 PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRANDJEAN, JG; BOONSTRA, PW; DENHEYER, P; EBELS, T; KIRKLIN, JW

    From September 1989 to September 1992, the right gastroepiploic artery in combination with one or both internal mammary arteries was used as a graft in 300 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The gastroepiploic artery was the primary choice in preference to the saphenous vein.

  19. A rare cause of hyperprolactinemia: persistent trigeminal artery with stalk-section effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, G.; Baltacioglu, F.; Cimsit, C.; Akpinar, I.; Erzen, C.; Kilic, T.; Pamir, N.

    2001-01-01

    The primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal intersegmental arteries are fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems in adults. We report a case of PTA compressing the left side of the pituitary gland and stalk, in a patient with elevated blood prolactin level. (orig.)

  20. Successful surgical repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery with prior reconstruction of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Ken; Maeda, Masanobu; Sakai, Yoshimasa; Sakurai, Hajime; Murayama, Hiroomi; Hasegawa, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    We report the successful repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in a 70-year-old man. He had undergone a mediastinal tumor resection through a median sternotomy in 1995. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two years later, he underwent radiation therapy of 65 Gray for metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph nodes. On January 18, 2000, plastic surgeons planned to perform a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap to repair a radiation skin ulcer. During the operation, the BCA was lacerated, possibly in an area of radiation tissue damage. We performed a prosthetic graft (10-mm Gelseal) replacement of the BCA. The right subclavian artery had to be ligated. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed excellent reconstruction of the artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed a deficit in the anterior communicating artery and stenosis of the posterior communicating artery, which indicated that the reconstruction procedure was reasonable. Seven months later, on August 18, 2000, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right neck and oozing from the previous cutaneous wound. CT scan and DSA demonstrated the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis site, which required emergency surgery. Before this third sternotomy, a saphenous vein graft was interposed between both external carotid arteries. Removal of the prosthetic graft and resection of the pseudoaneurysm were performed under mild hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass with left common carotid arterial perfusion. Then, the wound was closed completely using a left pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. The postoperative course was uneventful and DSA showed good patency of the graft and intracranial arteries. The patient was discharged without neurological complications. We conclude that prior reconstruction of the carotid artery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with

  1. Successful surgical repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery with prior reconstruction of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Ken; Maeda, Masanobu; Sakai, Yoshimasa; Sakurai, Hajime; Murayama, Hiroomi; Hasegawa, Hiroki [Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    We report the successful repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in a 70-year-old man. He had undergone a mediastinal tumor resection through a median sternotomy in 1995. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two years later, he underwent radiation therapy of 65 Gray for metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph nodes. On January 18, 2000, plastic surgeons planned to perform a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap to repair a radiation skin ulcer. During the operation, the BCA was lacerated, possibly in an area of radiation tissue damage. We performed a prosthetic graft (10-mm Gelseal) replacement of the BCA. The right subclavian artery had to be ligated. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed excellent reconstruction of the artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed a deficit in the anterior communicating artery and stenosis of the posterior communicating artery, which indicated that the reconstruction procedure was reasonable. Seven months later, on August 18, 2000, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right neck and oozing from the previous cutaneous wound. CT scan and DSA demonstrated the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis site, which required emergency surgery. Before this third sternotomy, a saphenous vein graft was interposed between both external carotid arteries. Removal of the prosthetic graft and resection of the pseudoaneurysm were performed under mild hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass with left common carotid arterial perfusion. Then, the wound was closed completely using a left pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. The postoperative course was uneventful and DSA showed good patency of the graft and intracranial arteries. The patient was discharged without neurological complications. We conclude that prior reconstruction of the carotid artery is a safe and effective procedure for patients

  2. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  3. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  4. Arterial calcification: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2013-07-31

    There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic plaque burden, with angiography studies showing very high sensitivity but poor specificity of CAC score for predicting obstructive disease. Nevertheless, there are objections to CAC screening because of uncertainties and lack of studies showing improved outcome. Furthermore, histopathology studies indicate that heavily calcified plaque is unlikely to result in a CV event, while the vulnerable plaque tends to be uncalcified or 'mixed', suggesting that calcification may be protective. This scenario highlights a number of paradoxes, which may indicate that the association between CAC and CV events is spurious, following from the adoption of CAC as a surrogate for high plaque burden, which itself is a surrogate for the presence of vulnerable plaque. Since studies indicate that arterial calcification is a complex, organised and regulated process similar to bone formation, there is no particular reason why it should be a reliable indicator of either the plaque burden or the risk of a future CV event. We suggest that it is time to divorce arterial calcification from atherosclerosis and to view it as a distinct pathology in its own right, albeit one which frequently coexists with atherosclerosis and is related to it for reasons which are not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Posterior cerebral artery involvement in moyamoya disease: initial infarction and angle between PCA and basilar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Choi, Jung Won; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, In-One; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2013-12-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease, and progressive involvement of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) has been reported. However, majority of MMD articles are presenting classic anterior circulation related issues. This study investigates the preoperative factors related to the long-term outcome of posterior circulation in MMD. Retrospective review of 88 MMD patients (166 PCAs in either hemisphere) without symptomatic disease involvement of PCA at initial diagnosis was done. Data at initial diagnosis regarding age, presence of infarction, status of the PCA, type of posterior communicating artery, and the angle between PCA and basilar artery were reviewed. Progressive stenosis of PCA was evaluated by symptom or radiological imaging during follow up. During an average follow up of 8.3 years, 29 out of 166 (18 %) evaluated PCAs showed progressive disease involvement. The average time of progression from the initial operation was 4.9 years, with the latest onset at 10.8 years. The patients who showed progressive stenosis of the PCA tended to be younger, present with infarction, have smaller angle between PCA and basilar artery, and have asymptomatic stenosis of the PCA at initial presentation. However, multivariate analysis confirmed only the presence of initial infarction and a smaller angle between PCA and basilar artery to be significantly associated with progressive stenosis of PCA. Involvement of PCA in MMD may occur in a delayed fashion, years after the completion of revascularization of anterior circulation. Persistent long-term follow-up regarding the posterior circulation is recommended.

  6. Impairment of Arterial Compliance in Cushing’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Zedda, Angela; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arterial stiffness may be useful for stratifying cardiovascular risk in individuals suffering from a number of pathologies, such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia and coronary artery disease. Cushing’s syndrome is underpinned by a complex metabolic syndrome, which is potentially implicated in the onset of blood vessel alterations and the increase in arterial wall stiffness. The aim of this paper was to perform a review about the most important studies conducted in order to evaluate the arterial distensibility profile of subjects affected by Cushing’s syndrome. Increased arterial stiffness may persist even after successful cure of this disease. It is therefore of fundamental importance to identify the presence of early vascular alterations in these patients, in order to commence their treatment and thus attempt to prevent the subsequent onset of adverse cardiovascular events.

  7. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  8. Tactile Communications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communication with the crew is vital and must be maintained regardless of environmental conditions and crew activity. Current spacecraft communication systems depend...

  9. Removal of radioactive cesium from surface soils solidified using polyion complex. Rapid communication for decontamination test at Iitate-mura in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Hirochika; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Nagano, Tetsushi; Yoshida, Zenko; Kumazawa, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Hiroshi; Kashima, Kaoru; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    We tried the decontamination of surface soils for three types of agricultural land at Nagadoro district of Iitate-mura (village) in Fukushima Prefecture, which is highly contaminated by deposits of radionuclides from the plume released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The decontamination method consisted of the peeling of surface soils solidified using a polyion complex, which was formed from a salt solution of polycations and polyanions. Two types of polyion complex solution were applied to an upland field in a plastic greenhouse, a pasture, and a paddy field. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. (author)

  10. Heparin-bonded covered stents versus bare-metal stents for complex femoropopliteal artery lesions: the randomized VIASTAR trial (Viabahn endoprosthesis with PROPATEN bioactive surface [VIA] versus bare nitinol stent in the treatment of long lesions in superficial femoral artery occlusive disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Johannes; Zeller, Thomas; Hausegger, Klaus A; Schaefer, Philipp J; Gschwendtner, Manfred; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Rand, Thomas; Funovics, Martin; Wolf, Florian; Rastan, Aljoscha; Gschwandtner, Michael; Puchner, Stefan; Ristl, Robin; Schoder, Maria

    2013-10-08

    The hypothesis that endovascular treatment with covered stents has equal risks but higher efficacy than bare-metal stents (BMS) in long femoropopliteal artery disease was tested. Although endovascular treatment of short superficial femoral artery lesions revealed excellent results, efficacy in long lesions remains unsatisfactory. In a prospective, randomized, single-blind, multicenter study, 141 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were assigned to treatment with heparin-bonded, covered stents (Viabahn 72 patients) or BMS (69 patients). Clinical outcomes and patency rates were assessed at 1, 6, and 12 months. Mean ± SD lesion length was 19.0 ± 6.3 cm in the Viabahn group and 17.3 ± 6.6 cm in the BMS group. Major complications within 30 days were observed in 1.4%. The 12-month primary patency rates in the Viabahn and BMS groups were: intention-to-treat (ITT) 70.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58 to 0.80) and 55.1% (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.67) (log-rank test p = 0.11); treatment per-protocol (TPP) 78.1% (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.86) and 53.5% (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.65) (hazard ratio: 2.23 [95% CI: 1.14 to 4.34) (log-rank test p = 0.009). In lesions ≥20 cm, (TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus class D), the 12-month patency rate was significantly longer in VIA patients in the ITT analysis (VIA 71.3% vs. BMS 36.8%; p = 0.01) and the TPP analysis (VIA 73.3% vs. BMS 33.3%; p = 0.004). Freedom from target lesion revascularization was 84.6% for Viabahn (95% CI: 0.72 to 0.91) versus 77.0% for BMS (95% CI: 0.63 to 0.85; p = 0.37). The ankle-brachial index in the Viabahn group significantly increased to 0.94 ± 0.23 compared with the BMS group (0.85 ± 0.23; p stents compared with BMS in lesions ≥20 cm and for all lesions in the TPP analysis. In the ITT analysis for all lesions, which was flawed by major protocol deviations in 8.5% of the patients, the difference was not significant. (GORE VIABAHN® endoprosthesis with bioactive propaten surface versus bare

  11. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  12. Mechanical design in arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwick, R E

    1999-12-01

    The most important mechanical property of the artery wall is its non-linear elasticity. Over the last century, this has been well-documented in vessels in many animals, from humans to lobsters. Arteries must be distensible to provide capacitance and pulse-smoothing in the circulation, but they must also be stable to inflation over a range of pressure. These mechanical requirements are met by strain-dependent increases in the elastic modulus of the vascular wall, manifest by a J-shaped stress-strain curve, as typically exhibited by other soft biological tissues. All vertebrates and invertebrates with closed circulatory systems have arteries with this non-linear behaviour, but specific tissue properties vary to give correct function for the physiological pressure range of each species. In all cases, the non-linear elasticity is a product of the parallel arrangement of rubbery and stiff connective tissue elements in the artery wall, and differences in composition and tissue architecture can account for the observed variations in mechanical properties. This phenomenon is most pronounced in large whales, in which very high compliance in the aortic arch and exceptionally low compliance in the descending aorta occur, and is correlated with specific modifications in the arterial structure.

  13. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Karaarslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases.

  14. Patient engagement and self-management in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graarup, Jytte; Ferrari, Pisana; Howard, Luke S

    2016-01-01

    of the patient may improve their ability to cope with pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as help them to become effective in the self-management of their disease. Successful patient engagement can be achieved through effective education and the delivery and communication of timely, high-quality information...

  15. Endovascular uterine artery interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vascular embolization plays an important role in the management of various gynecologic and obstetric abnormalities. Transcatheter embolization is a minimally invasive alternative procedure to surgery with reduced morbidity and mortality, and preserves the patient's future fertility potential. The clinical indications for transcatheter embolization are much broader and include many benign gynecologic conditions, such as fibroid, adenomyosis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs, as well as intractable bleeding due to inoperable advanced-stage malignancies. The most well-known and well-studied indication is uterine fibroid embolization. Uterine artery embolization (UAE may be performed to prevent or treat bleeding associated with various obstetric conditions, including postpartum hemorrhage (PPH, placental implantation abnormality, and ectopic pregnancy. Embolization of the uterine artery or the internal iliac artery also may be performed to control pelvic bleeding due to coagulopathy or iatrogenic injury. This article discusses these gynecologic and obstetric indications for transcatheter embolization and reviews procedural techniques and outcomes.

  16. Cervicocephalic arterial dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Kentaro; Nagata, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    The authors review the clinical and neuroradiological features of cervicocephalic arterial dissection, which is occasionally seen in young adults, with special reference to the differences in the region of occurrence of these lesions between patients in Western countries and Japan. In Western countries, the cervical internal carotid artery is the most common site of occurrence of these lesions; however, in Japan, these lesions have been frequently reported to occure in the intracranial vertebral artery. Most clinical manifestations of cervical arterial dissection are non-hemorrhagic events such as headaches associated with arterial dissection or cerebral ischemia caused by a distal embolism following thrombus formation in the cervical lesion. On the other hand, a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction are frequently observed in intracranial arterial dissections. Non-invasive procedures, including MR imaging, are useful for demonstrating characteristic features of this condition such as the presence of an intimal flap or a double lumen, and for monitoring the chronological changes in the lesions, which may regress spontaneously. Since the pathological mechanisms underlying the progression and/or the regression of this condition are still unknown, the clinical evidence indicating the optimal therapeutic strategies has not yet been reported. Nevertheless, conservative therapy, including antithrombotic treatment, is widely used for the treatment of non-hemorrhagic lesions, which generally results in good clinical outcomes. Further, surgical intervention is essential for the treatment of lesions with a subarachnoid hemorrhage to prevent fatal rebleeding, and it is also required for the treatment of certain non-hemorrhagic lesions. Recent advancements in surgical procedures, especially endovascular treatments, may therefore be helpful in the management of similar complicated vascular conditions. (author)

  17. Implication of the presence of a variant hepatic artery during the Whipple procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rubio-Manzanares-Dorado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The anatomical variants of the hepatic artery may have important implications for pancreatic cancer surgery. The aim of our study is to compare the outcome following a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD in patients with or without a variant hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. Material and methods: We reviewed 151 patients with periampullary tumoral pathology. All patients underwent oncological PD between January 2005 and February 2012. Our series was divided into two groups: Group A: Patients with a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery; and Group B: Patients without a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. We expressed the results as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for qualitative variables. Statistical tests were considered significant if p < 0.05. Results: We identified 11 patients with a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery (7.3%. The most frequent variant was an aberrant right hepatic artery (n = 7, following by the accessory right hepatic artery (n = 2 and the common hepatic artery trunk arising from the superior mesenteric artery (n = 2. In 73% of cases the diagnosis of the variant was intraoperative. R0 resection was performed in all patients with a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. There were no significant differences in the tumor resection margins and the incidence of postoperative complications. Conclusion: Oncological PD is feasible by the presence of a hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery. The complexity of having it does not seem to influence in tumor resection margins, complications and survival.

  18. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  19. Arterial disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Mathieu, D.; Reizine, D.

    1983-01-01

    Disease of the large arterial vessels is a relatively unknown complication of radiotherapy. However, it should be considered in the same manner as the other complications of irradiation when a tumour recurrence is suspected. The experimental studies of Kirkpatrick and Konings, demonstrating the synergy between irradiation and hypercholesterolemia in the precocity and gravity of vascular complications are recalled. The different localisations reported in the litterature are discussed: coronary, pulmonary, thoracic aorta, supra aortic, renal, digestive and ilio-femoral arteries. Finally, the difficulty of diagnosis of post-radiotherapy without clinical, radiological or anatomopathological confirmation, is underlined [fr

  20. Renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphometric Study of the Anterior Thalamoperforating Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Yeo, Dong-Kyu; Shim, Jae-Joon; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the morphometry of the anterior thalamoperforating arteries (ATPA). Methods A microanatomical study was performed in 79 specimens from 42 formalin-fixed adult cadaver brains. The origins of the ATPAs were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior segments according to the crowding pattern. The morphometry of the ATPAs, including the premammillary artery (PMA), were examined under a surgical microscope. Results The anterior and middle segments of the ATPAs arose at mean intervals of 1.75±1.62 mm and 5.86±2.05 mm from the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the interval between these segments was a mean of 3.17±1.64 mm. The posterior segment arose at a mean interval of 2.43±1.46 mm from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and the interval between the middle and posterior segments was a mean of 3.45±1.39 mm. The mean numbers of perforators were 2.66±1.19, 3.03±1.84, and 1.67±0.98 in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments, respectively. The PMA originated from the middle segment in 66% of cases. A perforator-free zone was located >2 mm from the ICA in 30.4% and >2 mm from the PCA in 67.1% of cases. Conclusion Most perforators arose from the anterior and middle segments, within the anterior two-thirds of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The safest perforator-free zone was located closest to the PCA. These anatomical findings may be helpful to verify safety when treating lesions around the PCoA and in the interpeduncular fossa. PMID:26113962

  2. Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    In certain circumstances, such as cyanotic neonates with tetralogy of Fallot (4) or cyanotic patients with. Tetralogy of Fallot and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries. (5), better outcomes are obtained if definitive surgery. (total correction or palliation) is preceded by creation of a systemic arterial-to-pulmonary artery shunt (SAPAS).

  3. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  4. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  5. Electronic communication in phosphine substituted bridged dirhenium complexes - clarifying ambiguities raised by the redox non-innocence of the C4H2- and C4-bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Blacque, Olivier; Fox, Thomas; Luber, Sandra; Polit, Walther; Winter, Rainer F; Venkatesan, Koushik; Berke, Heinz

    2016-04-07

    The mononuclear rhenium carbyne complex trans-[Re(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3)([triple bond, length as m-dash]C-Me)(PMe3)4][PF6] (2) was prepared in 90% yield by heating a mixture of the dinitrogen complex trans-[ReCl(N2)(PMe3)4] (1), TlPF6, and an excess of HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3. 2 could be deprotonated with KOtBu to the vinylidene complex trans-[Re(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3)([double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)(PMe3)4] (3) in 98% yield. Oxidation of 3 with 1.2 equiv. of [Cp2Fe][PF6] at -78 °C gave the Cβ-C'β coupled dinuclear rhenium biscarbyne complex trans-[(Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(PMe3)4Re[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-CH2-CH2-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]Re(PMe3)4(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3)][PF6]2 (5) in 92% yield. Deprotonation of 5 with an excess of KOtBu in THF produced the diamagnetic trans-[(Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(PMe3)4Re[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]Re(PMe3)4(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3)] complex (E-6(S)) in 87% yield with an E-butadienediylidene bridge. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of E-6(S) confirmed its singlet ground state. The Z-form of 6 (Z-6(S)) could not be observed, which is in accord with its DFT calculated 17.8 kJ mol(-1) higher energy. Oxidation of E-6 with 2 equiv. of [Cp2Fe][PF6] resulted in the stable diamagnetic dicationic trans-[(Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(PMe3)4Re[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]Re(PMe3)4(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3)][PF6]2 complex (E-6[PF6]2) with an ethylenylidene dicarbyne structure of the bridge. The paramagnetic mixed-valence (MV) complex E-6[PF6] was obtained by comproportionation of E-6(S) and E-6[PF6]2 or by oxidation of E-6(S) with 1 equiv. of [Cp2Fe][PF6]. The

  6. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  7. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure High blood cholesterol Coronary heart disease Stroke Metabolic syndrome Screening and Prevention Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) and its complications. Know your family history of health problems related to P.A. ...

  8. Civilian popliteal artery injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with reversed vein grafting in 68 patients, primary anastomosis in 33, prosthetic graft insertion in 11, ... patients underwent delayed amputation, giving an overall amputation rate of 37.5%. .... injury, level of arterial injury and type of repair had no significant ... patients, graft occlusion, and diseased crural vessels with poor run-.

  9. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  10. Localized arterial occlusion following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, S; Hasue, M [Japan Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo; Fujiwara, M

    1982-04-01

    Occlusion of the major artery (the iliac artery in 2 cases and subclavicular artery in one) was reported, which occurred in association with bone necrosis 5 - 21 years after postoperative radiotherapy for malignant tumors (uterine cancer in 2 cases and mammary cancer in one).

  11. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers...

  12. Utilizing a vast and complex wireless communication network in a sustainable biosystem for the production of fiber for use in bioenergy, paper and solid wood production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, N. [GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm, Boardman, OR (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a tree farm in eastern Oregon that using a sophisticated communication system to irrigate and chemigate the trees. The GreenWood Resources Boardman Tree Farm (GWR BTF) covers about 100 km{sup 2}. A wireless network of 134 radio modems supports the irrigation and chemigation on 1,930 hectares of very high-value agriculture crops, including organic crops. This large network comprises 2 totally independent licensed wireless networks using a combination of Standard and High-Power industrial strength radio modems. One of the most advanced and sophisticated Irrigation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (I-SCADA) systems in the world uses this dual wireless network to operate the worlds largest contiguous drip irrigated farm and also the largest Tree Farm in US. This I-SCADA system has more than 2,800 sensors that remotely monitor a massive irrigation system of 19 individual pump stations with 100 pumps, 46 center pivots, 369 individual blocks of fields, 850 kilometers of buried pipe and 31,000 kilometres of drip line. The reliability of the I-SCADA system and wireless network has enabled BTF to sustain its position as a world leader in large scale drip irrigation efficiency.

  13. The postprocessing techniques in renal artery reconstructions and clinical application with multidetector spiral CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yuanxin; Liang Changhong; Zhang Zhonglin; Xie Shufei; Liu Yubao; Tang Xiangzhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value and predominance for imaging postprocessing techniques of renal artery variation and lesions by multidetector spiral CT angiography. Methods: 51 patients with renal artery disease including 12 artery variation, 27 artery stenosis, 3 renal anenrysm, 3 thrombosis of renal artery and 3 dissecting aneurysm of renal artery by SSD, MIP and CPR were enrolled. The effectiveness of these imaging postprocessing methods was compared, 29 of them were confirmed by DSA and 3 by operation, others were checked by MRA and follow up. Results: All abnormalities and diseases were cleariy displayed. The specificity and sensitivity were 100% respectively. In the all imaging postprocessing techniques, MPR can clearly display the calcification of the arteries, stenosis, embolism, aneurysm but do not display the anatomy satisfactorily. MIP can not only clearly display the anatomy but display the different configurations. VR can display the artery figures but can not display the information of lumen of blood vessels. SSD can display the complex vessel anatomy but it was influenced by its threshold selection. CPR can spread and display directly the tortuous renal artery and measure the section area of stenosis. Conclusions: MSCTA is helpful to accurately display the renal artery variation and lesions. Both MIP and VR are the best choice to illustrate the renal artery abnormalities. And MPR and SSD are assistant in the diagnosis of' renal artery lesions. (authors)

  14. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  15. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  16. The relationship between total arterial revascularization and blood transfusion following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Jasmina; Ngaage, Dumbor L

    2015-05-01

    Blood transfusion adversely affects the outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), yet blood transfusion after CABG is still common. Total arterial revascularisation (TAR) is increasingly used in current practice but its impact on postoperative blood transfusion is not known. We reviewed the cardiothoracic and blood bank databases and collected data for isolated primary CABG patients from July 2007 to June 2012, excluding patients who had a single graft (n = 148). Perioperative variables of TAR patients (n = 745) were compared with patients who had one or more venous grafts (SVG, n = 1,761) for first-time isolated CABG. The conduits used in TAR patients were predominantly left internal thoracic and radial arteries. Matched group comparison of TAR and SVG patients was performed. The association of TAR with blood transfusion was investigated using multivariate and matched analysis. Of 2,506 patients, the 745 (29.7 %) that had TAR were generally younger, with less complex coronary artery disease and less often diabetic. After correcting for these by 1:1 matching, the mean chest tube drainage and rates of blood transfusion remained significantly lower (p transfused in TAR patients. By multivariate analysis, TAR had an independent effect on reducing blood transfusion after CABG [odds ratio (OR) 0.67, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.97, p = .03]. TAR achieved predominantly with left internal thoracic and radial arteries substantially reduced blood transfusion rates after primary CABG. Further studies are warranted.

  17. Short communication: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolated from infant milk formula and utensils in a nursery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, B C; Moraes, M S; Costa, L E O; Nascimento, J S

    2015-04-01

    Infant milk formulas are not sterile products, and pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply in these products. This study was performed, initially, to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in reconstituted infant milk formula and on utensils previously sanitized used in their preparation or distribution in a nursery of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. None of the samples tested carried Salmonellaspp. However, further identification of colonies growing on the selective media revealed the presence of several other gram-negative bacteria. Seventeen isolates were identified as belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex. Fourteen isolates presented a multidrug-resistance profile, by disc diffusion assays, and one of them--JE4--was also resistant to imipenem. The detection of Acinetobacter isolates in this work demonstrates inadequate hygiene practices in the preparation or distribution of infant milk formula. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Prognostic Doppler ultrasound examination of fetal arteries blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroszewski, Piotr; Sabatowska, Małgorzata; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata; Suzin, Jacek

    2002-08-01

    Early detection of fetal risk is one of the main issues in today obstetrics. Ultrasound diagnostics plays a significant role, as the introduction of Doppler imaging method in the evaluation of blood flow has enabled non-invasive assessment of uteroplacental circulation. Therefore, we have analysed foetal three arteries: umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery after determining the normal range for the analysed parameters. 1. Comparison of the obtained blood flow indices (S/D, RI, PI) in the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery of foetuses from normal and complicated full-term pregnancies. 2. Determination of indices: umbilical-cerebral and renal-cerebral in normal and pathological pregnancy. 3. Evaluation of feasibility of the analysed flow parameters for the detection of intrauterine foetal hypoxia. We have examined 151 women, who were divided into control group--101 pregnant women with normal pregnancy and study group--50 pregnant women with complicated pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent ultrasound examination using the Hitachi EUB 515 C (Japan) scanner with 3.5 MHz convex probe, connected to the colour pulsed Doppler. The study consisted of the biometric measurements and evaluation of the spectrum of blood flow in the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery. We have determined following indices: a) systolic-diastolic ratio S/D, resistance index RI, pulsatility index PI, b) umbilical-cerebral ratio P/M. (PI ua/PI mca), renal--cerebral ratio N/M (PI ra/PI mca). Statistically significant difference was found between the study and control groups for all the flow indices assessed (S/D, RI, PI) for the middle cerebral artery, for the indices P/M and N/M. (p < 0.001) and pulsatility index in the renal artery (p < 0.01). Similar, although slightly smaller difference (p < 0.05) was seen for the values of flow parameters in the umbilical artery. 1) Evaluation of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery, and in

  19. How the nucleus and mitochondria communicate in energy production during stress: nuclear MtATP6, an early-stress responsive gene, regulates the mitochondrial F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali Asghar; Ebrahimie, Eemaeil; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Niazi, Ali; Babgohari, Mahbobeh Zamani; Deihimi, Tahereh; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-07-01

    A small number of stress-responsive genes, such as those of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, are encoded by both the nucleus and mitochondria. The regulatory mechanism of these joint products is mysterious. The expression of 6-kDa subunit (MtATP6), a relatively uncharacterized nucleus-encoded subunit of F0 part, was measured during salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivated wheat genotypes, as well as in the wild wheat genotypes, Triticum and Aegilops using qRT-PCR. The MtATP6 expression was suddenly induced 3 h after NaCl treatment in all genotypes, indicating an early inducible stress-responsive behavior. Promoter analysis showed that the MtATP6 promoter includes cis-acting elements such as ABRE, MYC, MYB, GTLs, and W-boxes, suggesting a role for this gene in abscisic acid-mediated signaling, energy metabolism, and stress response. It seems that 6-kDa subunit, as an early response gene and nuclear regulatory factor, translocates to mitochondria and completes the F1F0-ATP synthase complex to enhance ATP production and maintain ion homeostasis under stress conditions. These communications between nucleus and mitochondria are required for inducing mitochondrial responses to stress pathways. Dual targeting of 6-kDa subunit may comprise as a mean of inter-organelle communication and save energy for the cell. Interestingly, MtATP6 showed higher and longer expression in the salt-tolerant wheat and the wild genotypes compared to the salt-sensitive genotype. Apparently, salt-sensitive genotypes have lower ATP production efficiency and weaker energy management than wild genotypes; a stress tolerance mechanism that has not been transferred to cultivated genotypes.

  20. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability

  1. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  2. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  3. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  4. Stereotypes Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  5. Communication Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Robin Lynn

    2010-01-01

    When the author recently turned her attention to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards," she was startled to see communication as key. She adjusted her teaching to meet the NCTM Communication Standard and promote communication in her classroom by providing a safe environment, developing discourse and…

  6. Ripple Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  7. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula as a complication of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, D.; Piccone, B.R.; Littman, P.; Lisker, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistulization is a well-known complication of tracheostomy and of tracheal resection. The first known occurrence of this problem in a patient in whom no transtracheal procedure had ever been performed is reported, and high-dose radiation therapy delivered three years before for a mediastinal malignancy is suggested as the cause. No evidence of tumor was found in or adjacent to the tracheovascular communication. The tracheoinnominate artery fistula must be considered a potential complication of radiation therapy as well as of surgery

  8. Lumbar Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Complication of Percutaneous Nephrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Djuimo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 21 year-old male underwent nephrostomy tube insertion for hydronephrosis due to a large para-aortic adenopathy of a testicular tumor. In order to reduce infections during chemotherapy, a ureteral stent was placed. While removing the nephrostomy tube, a pulsatile bleeding was found and a renal angiography was done. A pseudoaneurysm of his first left lumbar (L1 artery communicating with the nephrostomy's access site was found. An embolization was performed with coils in the left L1 artery and one of its subdivisions. Post-embolization controls revealed no bleeding. On the follow-up CT, there were no suspicious retroperitoneal mass.

  9. 臀下动脉穿支蒂复合组织瓣修复骶尾部巨大褥疮的解剖与临床应用%Anatomy study and clinical applications of complex tissue flap pedicled with inferior gluteal artery perforator for repairing giant sacrococcygeal pressure sore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昀; 林建华; 叶君健; 郑和平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the technical feasibility and clinical effectiveness of using complex tissue flap pedicled with inferior gluteal artery perforator for repair giant sacrococcygeal pressure sore.Methods Thirty embalmed lower limbs of adult cadavers perfused with red latex were used for anatomical study,and the followings were observed:①The course,branche and distribution of gluteal artery.②The course and distribution of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.③Anastomosis between the posterior cutaneous branch of gluteal artery and nutrient vessels of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.8 cases aging from 17 years to 56 years were completed during May 2007 to July 2013,6 cases were males and 2 cases were females.The sizes of pressure sore with the depth to Ⅳ degree were ranged from 16 cm × 9 cm to 22 cm × 10 cm.The sizes of flaps were harvested from 32 cm × 10 cm to 25 cm × 9 cm.Results The gluteal artery crossed the edge of the piriformis,the main stem was (3.1 ± 0.4) mm in diameter and gave out 2-5 muscular branches to supply the gluteus maximus.The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve crossed the edge of gluteus maximus and descended between biceps femoris and semitendinosus.Perforating deep fascia point located was (5.9 ± 0.8) cm above the line between medial and lateral femoral epicondyle.The constant anastomosis were formed by the posterior cutaneous branch of gluteal artery,the obturator artery perforator and the direct popliteal artery perforator around the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.The complex flap survived successfully in all patients.Sutures were removed at 14 days postoperatively and the wounds healed well.All supplied areas were closed by directly suturing.Recurrent sacrococcygeal pressure sore was not observed in all cases with satisfied appearance and normal color during the outpatient follow-up period from 5 months to 5 years.Conclusion The united flap of gluteal myocutaneous flap and the posterior femoral cutaneous

  10. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  11. Vertebral basilar artery dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Atlas, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients (ten male, one female; range, 2-56 years) presented with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms and were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) (eta=11), arteriography (eta=11), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (eta=6). Angiography showed dissection of a vertebral artery (eta=8), a basilar artery (eta=1), or a combination of both (eta=2). On CT and/or MR images, infarctions were demonstrated in ten of 11 cases. Most frequently involved were the thalmus (eta=7), cerebellum (eta=6), occipital lobes (eta=4), and pons (eta=3). The site of infarction did not correlate with the side or site of angiographic abnormality. In six cases evaluated by all modalities, MR imaging showed more extensive and widespread infarction than did CT and also showed whether or not the infarcts were hemorrhagic. MR imaging was able to demonstrate the presence of intramural dissecting hematoma prior to angiography and to indicate whether or not flow was reconstituted on follow-up examination

  12. Peripheral arterial disease and revascularization of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, R O; Brownrigg, J; Hinchliffe, R J

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes is a complex disease with many serious potential sequelae, including large vessel arterial disease and microvascular dysfunction. Peripheral arterial disease is a common large vessel complication of diabetes, implicated in the development of tissue loss in up to half of patients with diabetic foot ulceration. In addition to peripheral arterial disease, functional changes in the microcirculation also contribute to the development of a diabetic foot ulcer, along with other factors such as infection, oedema and abnormal biomechanical loading. Peripheral arterial disease typically affects the distal vessels, resulting in multi-level occlusions and diffuse disease, which often necessitates challenging distal revascularisation surgery or angioplasty in order to improve blood flow. However, technically successful revascularisation does not always result in wound healing. The confounding effects of microvascular dysfunction must be recognised--treatment of a patient with a diabetic foot ulcer and peripheral arterial disease should address this complex interplay of pathophysiological changes. In the case of non-revascularisable peripheral arterial disease or poor response to conventional treatment, alternative approaches such as cell-based treatment, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the use of vasodilators may appear attractive, however more robust evidence is required to justify these novel approaches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Subclavian artery dissection during diagnostic cardiac catheterization: the role of conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohwein, S; Ververis, J J; Marshall, J J

    1995-04-01

    Dissection of the subclavian artery during routine cardiac catheterization while obtaining cannulation to the left internal mammary artery is an unusual complication and to our knowledge has never been reported. Conservative management of this vascular injury can avoid the sequelae of high-risk surgical repairs made difficult by a complex operative exposure. We describe a case in which dissection of the left subclavian artery was treated conservatively with an excellent outcome.

  14. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.) [de

  15. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  16. Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Inácio Roman

    Full Text Available Abstract The renal artery pseudoaneurysm embody a rare vascular complication coming of percutaneous procedures, renal biopsy, nephrectomy, penetrating traumas and more rarely blunt traumas. The clinical can be vary according the patient, the haematuria is the symptom more commom. Is necessary a high level of clinical suspicion for your diagnosis, this can be elucidated by through complementary exams as the eco-color Doppler and the computed tomography scan (CT. This report is a case of a patient submitted a right percutaneous renal biopsy and that, after the procedure started with macroscopic haematuria, urinary tenesmus and hypogastric pain. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was given after one week of evolution when the patient was hospitalized because gross haematuria, tachycardia, hypotension and hypochondrium pain. In the angiotomography revealed a focal dilation of the accessory right renal inferior polar artery, dilation of renal pelvis and all the ureteral course with presence hyperdenso material (clots inside the middle third of the ureter. The treatment for the majority of this cases are conservative, through arterial embolization, indicated for thouse of smaller dimensions in patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, it was decided by clinical treatment with aminocaproic acid 1 g, according to previous studies for therapy of haematuria. The patient received discharge without evidence of macroscopic haematuria and with normal renal ultrasound, following ambulatory care.

  17. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  18. Updates in management of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dong Heon; Chae, Shung Chull

    2005-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasing during the last decade and is the one of major causes of death. The management of patients with coronary artery disease has evolved considerably. There are two main strategies in the management of CAD, complementary, not competitive, each other; the pharmacologic therapy to prevent and treat CAD and the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore coronary flow. Antiplatelet drugs and cholesterol lowering drugs have central roles in pharmacotherapy. Drug eluting stent (DES) bring about revolutional changes in PCL in the management of patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there has been a debate on the better strategy for the restoration of coronary flow. Thrombolytic therapy is widely available and easy to administer, whereas primary PCI is less available and more complex, but more complete. Recently published evidences in the pharmacologic therapy including antiplatelet and statin, and PCI including DES and reperfusion therapy in patients with ST segment elevation AMI were reviewed

  19. Updates in management of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Heon; Chae, Shung Chull [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasing during the last decade and is the one of major causes of death. The management of patients with coronary artery disease has evolved considerably. There are two main strategies in the management of CAD, complementary, not competitive, each other; the pharmacologic therapy to prevent and treat CAD and the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore coronary flow. Antiplatelet drugs and cholesterol lowering drugs have central roles in pharmacotherapy. Drug eluting stent (DES) bring about revolutional changes in PCL in the management of patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there has been a debate on the better strategy for the restoration of coronary flow. Thrombolytic therapy is widely available and easy to administer, whereas primary PCI is less available and more complex, but more complete. Recently published evidences in the pharmacologic therapy including antiplatelet and statin, and PCI including DES and reperfusion therapy in patients with ST segment elevation AMI were reviewed.

  20. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, Byeong Ho; Baek, Jeong Hun

    1998-01-01

    The contents of this book are notion of data communications : summary on data communication, data transmission, data communications system, data transmission technology, data conversion, data link control and control over error of data transmission and exchange of data communications network in the first part, computer communications network architecture : data communications architecture, OSI model, lower layer of OSI model, upper layer of OSI model and distributed surroundings in the second part, data information networking : LAN, FDDI, 100 Base T, DQDB and Frame Relay in the third part, Public Network : PSDN, N-ISDN, B-ISDN in the fourth part, internet and PC communication : emulator program, Binary file, BBS, E-mail service and user on-line service in the last part.

  1. Decentralized control and communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-10 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralization * communication * large-scale complex systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  2. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  3. Communicating Process Achitectures 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Roebbers, Herman W.; Sunters, Johan P.E.; Welch, Peter H.; Wood, David C.

    The awareness of the ideas characterized by Communicating Processes Architecture and their adoption by industry beyond their traditional base in safety-critical systems and security is growing. The complexity of modern computing systems has become so great that no one person – maybe not even a small

  4. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  5. Transcending behaviorism in communication education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartrick, G

    1999-01-01

    During the past decade, nursing education has been engaged in a curriculum revolution. Although this ongoing revolution has led to profound changes in nursing curricula, one area that requires further scrutiny is communication education. This article addresses the limitations of behavioral communication curricula and suggests a pedagogical process responsive to the complexity of human caring relationships and the intricacies of relational practice. The discussion includes a description of a nursing communication course developed according to the principles of transformational learning theory.

  6. Massive cerebral arterial air embolism following arterial catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.W. [Northwestem University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yang, B.P. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Microscopic cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) has been described in many patients undergoing cardiac surgery as well as other invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, massive CAAE is rare. We report a 42-year-old woman who initially presented with thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Shortly after a radial arterial catheter was inserted, the patient suffered a generalized seizure and CT demonstrated intra-arterial air in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  7. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  8. Improving Design Communication: Advanced Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adeoye, Blessing

    2001-01-01

    .... While design professionals may use similar visual modes (lines, text, graphic symbols, etc.) to represent and communicate concepts in complex drawing tasks, similar visual modes may be used ambiguously across disciplines...

  9. Venous and Arterial Thromboses: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2018-04-01

    Arterial and venous thromboses are sustained by development of intraluminal thrombi, respectively, within the venous and arterial systems. The composition and structure of arterial and venous thrombi have been historically considered as being very different. Arterial thrombi (conventionally defined as "white") have been traditionally proposed to be composed mainly of fibrin and platelet aggregates, whilst venous thrombi (conventionally defined as "red") have been proposed as mostly being enriched in fibrin and erythrocytes. This archaic dichotomy seems ever more questionable, since it barely reflects the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in vivo. Both types of thrombi are actually composed of a complex fibrin network but, importantly, also contain essentially the same blood-borne cells (i.e., red blood cells, leukocytes, and platelets), and it is only the relative content of these individual elements that differ between venous and arterial clots or, otherwise, between thrombi generated under different conditions of blood flow and shear stress. Convincing evidence now suggests that either white or red intracoronary thrombi may be present in patients with myocardial infarction and, even more importantly, red thrombi may be more prone to distal embolization during percutaneous coronary intervention than those with lower content of erythrocytes. Conversely, it is now accepted that components traditionally considered to be involved "only" in arterial thrombosis are also represented in venous thrombosis. Thus, platelets comprise important components of venous clots, although they may be present in lower amounts here than in arterial thrombi, and von Willebrand factor is also represented in both arterial and venous thrombi. Of importance, such evidence thus supports the concept that adjunctive treatment normally associated to prevention of arterial thrombosis (e.g., aspirin) may have a role also in prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis. Thieme Medical

  10. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed...... that the lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  11. Cranio-orbital approach for complex aneurysmal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, M O

    2012-02-03

    Certain aneurysms of the anterior circulation continue to offer a technical challenge for safe exposure and clipping. The purpose of this paper was to describe the cranio-orbital approach for surgical clipping of complex aneurysms and to evaluate prospectively the associated complications of this approach. Prospective audit of all patients undergoing cranio-orbital approach for aneurysm surgery from 1997 to 2004 by the senior author. Twenty-five patients, eight male and 17 female, median age of 52 years, range 28-73. All patients had a standard pterional approach supplemented by an orbital osteotomy. In the 7-year period 367 patients underwent treatment for their aneurysms (169 clipped and 198 coiled). Of the 169 patients who were operated on, 29 had a skull base approach, of which 25 were cranio-orbital. The aneurysm location was as follows: 16 middle cerebral artery (MCA), three carotid bifurcation, four anterior communicating artery (ACOMM), one ophthalmic and one basilar. There were no approach-related complications. The cranio-orbital craniotomy can be a useful adjunct in the surgical treatment of giant or complex aneurysms. It offers the following advantages over a standard pterional approach: reduces operative distance; allows easy splitting of the sylvian fissure; and provides a wide arc of exposure with multiple working corridors.

  12. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Neonatal Arterial Switch Surgery for Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Manzano, Paula; Mendoza Soto, Alberto; Román Barba, Violeta; Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Galindo Izquierdo, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are few reports of the appearance of pulmonary arterial hypertension following arterial switch surgery in the neonatal period to correct transposition of the great arteries. We assessed the frequency and clinical pattern of this complication in our series of patients. Our database was reviewed to select patients with transposition of the great arteries corrected by neonatal arterial switch at our hospital and who developed pulmonary hypertension over time. We identified 2 (1.3%) patients with transposition of the great arteries successfully repaired in the first week of life who later experienced pulmonary arterial hypertension. The first patient was a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 8 months who did not respond to medical treatment and required lung transplantation. The anatomic pathology findings were consistent with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. The second patient was a 24-month-old boy diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 13 months who did not respond to medical therapy. Pulmonary hypertension is a rare but very severe complication that should be investigated in all patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone neonatal arterial switch, in order to start early aggressive therapy for affected patients, given the poor therapeutic response and poor prognosis involved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  14. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  15. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  16. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...... is presented as a postcultural prism composed by practice theory (Schatzki 1996, Reckwitz 2002, Nicolini 2012, Kemmis 2012), Intersectionality (Brah, Phoenix, Collins Rahsack) and positioning theory (Harre & Langenhove 1998)....

  17. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  18. Arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hillingsø, Jens; Christensen, E

    1998-01-01

    characteristics. PATIENTS: One hundred and forty two patients with cirrhosis without significant hepatic encephalopathy (grades 0-I) (41 patients in Child class A, 57 in class B, and 44 in class C) and 21 patients with hepatic encephalopathy. RESULTS: Mean Po2 in kPa was 11.3 in Child class A, 10.8 in class B, 10...... resistance, and a low indocyanine green clearance (p hepatic dysfunction. Arterial hypoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis of differing.......6 in class C, and 10.6 in patients with encephalopathy (p C, and in patients with encephalopathy (p

  19. Arterial occlusion to treat basilar artery dissecting aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Qing Ke; Liu, Wei Dong; Liu, Peng; Li, Xue Yuan; Zhang, Lian Qun; Ma, Long Jia; Ren, Yun Fei; Wu, Ya Ping; Wang, Zhi Gang

    2015-01-01

    Object: To explore the clinical feasibility of employing occlusion to treat basilar artery dissecting aneurysm. Methods: One patient, male and 46 years old, suffered transient numbness and weakness on the right limbs. Cerebral angiography indicated basilar artery dissecting aneurysm. The patient

  20. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo; Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max; Raz, Eytan; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  1. Anomalous left the pulmonary dilemma coronary artery artery from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomalous origin ofthe left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is an unusual congenital ... led us to review our experience of this anomaly over the past 10 years. During this .... New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978: 1345. 5. Bland EF, White PO, ...

  2. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  3. [Cognitive disturbances in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starchina, Iu A; Parfenov, V A; Chazova, I E; Pustovitova, T S; Iakhno, N N

    2008-01-01

    Memory impairment, headaches and vertigo are considered as initial appearances of chronic cerebral vascular disorder in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The complex analysis of complaints, cognitive functioning, emotional state and MRI data was conducted in 60 patients with AH, mean age 58,4+/-7,8 years, without a history of stroke and 30 controls matched for age, sex and education. Impairment of cognitive functioning was assessed by the Psychiatric Status Scale (a short version), the Clock Drawing Test, tests of auditory and verbal memory, attention concentration, speed of test performance, speech fluency and spatial orientation. The deterioration effect of systolic arterial pressure on cognitive functioning was found. The lesions of white matter (subcortical and/or periventricular leucoaraiosis) were observed in 76% of patients and single asymptomatic lacunar infarctions--in 20%. Cerebral vascular lesions were correlated with cognitive impairment. Anxiety and anxiety-depressive disorders which were not associated with the cerebral vascular lesion but related in large to the patient's complaints on headaches and vertigo were revealed in 62% of cases. The results of the study suggest that cognitive dysfunction proves to be the early and reliable predictor of chronic cerebral vascular disorder in patients with arterial hypertension.

  4. Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis on MR angiography: a university hospital-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Kaiji [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Rarely in the anterior circulation, an anastomosis of the carotid and anterior cerebral arteries occurs when an anomalous branch arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery and anastomoses with the A1-A2 junction of the anterior communicating artery. Right-side predominance is known. To our knowledge, the incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis has not been reported, so we researched cases in our institution records to determine incidence and investigated characteristic features of the condition on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. To isolate such cases, we retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiographic images of 3,491 consecutive patients in our institution. We found three cases with carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis (two men, one woman), representing an incidence of 0.086%. The anastomosis was on the right in all three cases. A normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was present in two cases but could not be identified in the remaining case on MR angiographic images that included source images. Two of the three patients demonstrated associated arterial variations in their carotid systems. On MR angiography, we observed a 0.086% incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis in our institution and reaffirmed the right-side predominance of this anomaly. We found a high frequency of other associated arterial variations in the carotid system. (orig.)

  5. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  6. Spontaneous Arterial Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Tobias; Caplan, Louis

    2001-09-01

    There is no controlled study for the best treatment or management of cervico-cerebral artery dissection (CAD). Rationale initial empiric treatment in acute CAD to prevent secondary embolism is partial thromboplastin time (PTT)-guided anticoagulation by intravenous heparin followed by anticoagulation with warfarin. Carotid surgery for treatment of CAD is not recommended anymore with the possible exception of persisting severe stenosis of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). There could be use of carotid angioplasty by balloon dilatation and stenting in selected cases of severe cerebral hemodynamic impairment by bilateral CAD. Duration of secondary prophylaxis by anticoagulation is best guided by Doppler sonography follow-up, and should be continued until normalization of blood flow or until at least 1 year after the vessel is occluded. There is no evidence that pseudoaneurysms increase the risk for embolic complication, and there is no evidence for surgery or continuation of anticoagulation in patients with pseudoaneurysms. Caution should be recommended for exercises that involve excessive head movements (eg, bungee jumping, trampoline jumping, and chiropractic maneuvers). The patient should be informed that recurrent rate is low in nonfamilial cases. Doppler sonography is a low-cost and high-sensitivity method for patients at risk.

  7. Pericardial effusion in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious condition that can lead to right heart failure and death. Pericardial effusion in PAH is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and its pathogenesis is complex and poorly understood. There are few data on the prevalence of pericardial effusion in PAH, and more importantly, the management of pericardial effusion is controversial. Current literature abounds with case reports, case series, and retrospective studies that have limited value for assessing this association. Hence, we summarize the available evidence on this ominous association and identify areas for future research. PMID:24618534

  8. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  9. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo; Liu, Ligang; Zheng, Hanlin; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    , and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw

  10. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  11. Communication between Thiamin Cofactors in the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex E1 Component Active Centers EVIDENCE FOR A DIRECT PATHWAY BETWEEN THE 4′-AMINOPYRIMIDINE N1′ ATOMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeria, Natalia S; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Mossad, Madouna; Tittmann, Kai; Furey, William; Jordan, Frank [Pitt; (Goettingen); (VA); (Rutgers)

    2010-11-03

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and structural analysis tested the hypothesis that a chain of residues connecting the 4{prime}-aminopyrimidine N1{prime} atoms of thiamin diphosphates (ThDPs) in the two active centers of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component provides a signal transduction pathway. Substitution of the three acidic residues (Glu{sup 571}, Glu{sup 235}, and Glu{sup 237}) and Arg{sup 606} resulted in impaired binding of the second ThDP, once the first active center was filled, suggesting a pathway for communication between the two ThDPs. (1) Steady-state kinetic and fluorescence quenching studies revealed that upon E571A, E235A, E237A, and R606A substitutions, ThDP binding in the second active center was affected. (2) Analysis of the kinetics of thiazolium C2 hydrogen/deuterium exchange of enzyme-bound ThDP suggests half-of-the-sites reactivity for the E1 component, with fast (activated site) and slow exchanging sites (dormant site). The E235A and E571A variants gave no evidence for the slow exchanging site, indicating that only one of two active sites is filled with ThDP. (3) Titration of the E235A and E237A variants with methyl acetylphosphonate monitored by circular dichroism suggested that only half of the active sites were filled with a covalent predecarboxylation intermediate analog. (4) Crystal structures of E235A and E571A in complex with ThDP revealed the structural basis for the spectroscopic and kinetic observations and showed that either substitution affects cofactor binding, despite the fact that Glu{sup 235} makes no direct contact with the cofactor. The role of the conserved Glu{sup 571} residue in both catalysis and cofactor orientation is revealed by the combined results for the first time.

  12. Championship Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerveer, Beth; Butterick, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses team development and focuses specifically on championship communication and team-building activities. Team development takes time and the process typically occurs in stages. Regardless of the sport or what the competitive field may look like, communication is an often overlooked, yet vital element in cultivating a…

  13. Effective communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) the responsibilities assigned to public affairs (PA) include communications to two main groups: institutional representatives and the general public. Research data indicates that these two populations perceive risk in different fashions. This paper discusses these distinct perceptions and how the communication programs at WIPP have been designed to accommodate these two differences

  14. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  15. Team science for science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Strauss, Benjamin H

    2014-09-16

    Natural scientists from Climate Central and social scientists from Carnegie Mellon University collaborated to develop science communications aimed at presenting personalized coastal flood risk information to the public. We encountered four main challenges: agreeing on goals; balancing complexity and simplicity; relying on data, not intuition; and negotiating external pressures. Each challenge demanded its own approach. We navigated agreement on goals through intensive internal communication early on in the project. We balanced complexity and simplicity through evaluation of communication materials for user understanding and scientific content. Early user test results that overturned some of our intuitions strengthened our commitment to testing communication elements whenever possible. Finally, we did our best to negotiate external pressures through regular internal communication and willingness to compromise.

  16. Transportation Infrastructure: Progress on and Challenges to Central Artery/Tunnel Project's Cost and Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Central Artery/Tunnel project in Boston, Massachusetts--one of the largest, most complex, and most expensive highway construction projects ever undertaken--is well under way, with contracts worth nearly $8 billion either completed or awarded. Con...

  17. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondheimer, H.M.; Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease

  18. Clinical analysis of three cases of Percheron artery infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-juan PENG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features, imaging, treatment and prognosis of 3 cases of Percheron artery infarction were analyzed retrospectively. Risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases existed in all patients. They presented acute onset, with varying degrees of disturbance of consciousness, lags in response, dysgnosia and mental changes, but without movement disorders. Two cases also presented eye movement disorders. Brain MRI showed symmetrical long T1 and long T2 signal in bilateral thalami and midbrain. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI showed hyperintensity, and FLAIR of one case showed "V sign" in midbrain. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA of one case demonstrated right posterior cerebral artery (PCA was mainly extended posterior communicating artery (PCoA, with dysplastic P1 segment, which was embryonal PCA. The clinical symptoms of 3 cases were improved significantly after cerebrovascular disease treatment. The classical clinical symptoms, symmetrical high signal in bilateral paramedian thalami on DWI and "V sign" in midbrain on FLAIR, can improve early diagnosis of Percheron artery infarction. Unilateral embryonal PCA may be underlying risk factor for Percheron artery infarction. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.11.011

  19. Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George

    2008-11-01

    High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.

  20. Embolization of Isolated Lumbar Artery Injuries in Trauma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip; Schubert, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery