WorldWideScience

Sample records for communicate landscape change

  1. Denmark seen from above: communicating landscape change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Hansen, Mette Dahl; Dupont, Henrik

    speaking to “show” the change in the landscape rather than just “tell” about it in scientific reports and statistics. Because of the local scale of images, and national data coverage, the portal makes it possible to connect local experience with knowledge about larger scale landscape ecological processes......One fundamental task for landscape ecologists is to create a public awareness about the on-going structural changes in the landscape. It is widely accepted academically that biodiversity and landscape connectivity has suffered because of intensification and structural development of agricultural...

  2. Ethics of clinician communication in a changing communication landscape: guidance from professional societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Dwyer, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Cancer experts engage in public communication whenever they promote their research or practice, respond to media inquiries, or use social media. In a changing communication landscape characterized by new technologies and heightened attention to cancer controversies, these activities may pose ethical challenges. This study was designed to evaluate existing resources to help clinicians navigate their public communication activities. We conducted a systematic, qualitative content analysis of codes of ethics, policy statements, and similar documents disseminated by professional medical and nursing societies for their members. We examined these documents for four types of content related to public communication: communication via traditional media; communication via social media; other communication to the public, policy, and legal spheres; and nonspecific language regarding public communication. We identified 46 documents from 23 professional societies for analysis. Five societies had language about traditional news media communication, five had guidance about social media, 11 had guidance about other communication domains, and 15 societies offered general language about public communication. The limited existing guidance focused on ethical issues related to patients (such as privacy violations) or clinicians (such as accuracy and professional boundaries), with less attention to population or policy impact of communication. Cancer-related professional societies might consider establishing more specific guidance for clinicians concerning their communication activities in light of changes to the communication landscape. Additional research is warranted to understand the extent to which clinicians face ethical challenges in public communication.

  3. Historical oblique aerial photographs as a powerful tool for communicating landscape changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    as a communicational bridge between “abstract” scientific knowledge about landscape change (e.g. change in hedgerow density per year) and the local landscapes where people are living. As such, the approach described in this paper may contribute to the objectives set out in the European landscape convention...

  4. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    to production, cooperation and communication. Following, we have witnessed a growing number of calls for attention to the effects of new ICT’s on the concept of strategic management and strategizing. Despite the numerous calls, few have answered. In this article we aim at providing a possible response beginning...... with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  5. Historical oblique aerial photographs as a powerful tool for communicating landscape changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a potential new form of data generation and data display to be used for communicating landscape change at local scales, utilizing a huge collection of oblique aerial photographs held by the Royal Library in Copenhagen. The collection contains local scale imagery covering all...

  6. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  7. Strategic roles for behaviour change communication in a changing malaria landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenker, Hannah; Keating, Joseph; Alilio, Martin; Acosta, Angela; Lynch, Matthew; Nafo-Traore, Fatoumata

    2014-01-02

    Strong evidence suggests that quality strategic behaviour change communication (BCC) can improve malaria prevention and treatment behaviours. As progress is made towards malaria elimination, BCC becomes an even more important tool. BCC can be used 1) to reach populations who remain at risk as transmission dynamics change (e.g. mobile populations), 2) to facilitate identification of people with asymptomatic infections and their compliance with treatment, 3) to inform communities of the optimal timing of malaria control interventions, and 4) to explain changing diagnostic concerns (e.g. increasing false negatives as parasite density and multiplicity of infections fall) and treatment guidelines. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the benefits and value for money that BCC brings to all aspects of malaria control, and to discuss areas of operations research needed as transmission dynamics change.

  8. Repeat Photography of Alaskan Glaciers and Landscapes as Both Art and as a Means of Communicating Climat Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    For nearly 15 years, I have used repeat photography of Alaskan glaciers and landscapes to communicate to fellow scientists, policymakers, the media, and society that Alaskan glaciers and landscapes have been experiencing significant change in response to post-Little Ice Age climate change. I began this pursuit after being contacted by a U.S. Department of the Interior senior official who requested unequivocal and unambiguous documentation that climate change was real and underway. After considering several options as to how best respond to this challenge, I decided that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a pair of photographs, both with the same field of view, spanning a century or more, and showing dramatic differences, would speak volumes to documenting that dynamic climate change is occurring over a very broad region of Alaska. To me, understating the obvious with photographic pairs was the best mechanism to present irrefutable, unambiguous, nonjudgmental, as well as unequivocal visual documentation that climate change was both underway and real. To date, more than 150 pairs that meet these criteria have been produced. What has surprised me most is that the many of the photographs contained in the pairs present beautiful images of stark, remote landscapes that convey the majestic nature of this dynamic region with its unique topography and landscapes. Typically, over periods of just several decades, the photographed landscapes change from black and white to blue and green. White ice becomes blue water and dark rock becomes lush vegetation. Repeat photography is a technique in which a historical photograph and a modern photograph, both having the same field of view, are compared and contrasted to quantitatively and qualitatively determine their similarities and differences. I have used this technique from both ground-based photo stations and airborne platforms at Alaskan locations in Kenai Fjords National Park, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

  9. Toto, We’re Not in Kansas Anymore: How the Communication Landscape Has Changed and Why Organizations Must Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    philosopher Heraclitus (c. 535 B.C. - 475 B.C.) first expressed it. Yet, sometimes the significance of change is not fully recognized or understood...during times of breaking news. Second, the media landscape began to fragment into smaller pieces as the number of producers and media channels...34 in domestic and foreign policymaking.65 This increase in creators and publishers has caused further fragmentation of the media landscape

  10. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    After more than 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind-energy landscapes are due for face changes. On-shore construction has ceased and necessary re-powering schemes have not been introduced as yet. Regional planning is discouraging, while conditions for erecting new turbines have become...... more stringent. One of the factors inhibiting development seems to be uncertainty in planning about the future impact on landscapes. Visual impact has rarely been an issue so far, but ever-increasing turbine size and less local involvement may change this. This paper presents a deterministic approach...... of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  11. New Landscapes in Professional Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Zemliansky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This special issue examines theories and practices of professional communication outside the US. In this editorial, we preview each articleof this issue and place those articles in the context of current practices and theories in the fielf. We also outline crucial questions and directions...

  12. The semiotics of landscape design communication: towards a critical visual research approach in landscape architecture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, K.M.C.; Duchhart, I.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Roeleveld, Gerda; Brink, van den A.

    2017-01-01

    In landscape architecture, visual representations are the primary means of communication between stakeholders in design processes. Despite the reliance on visual representations, little critical research has been undertaken by landscape architects on how visual communication forms work or their

  13. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    viewsheds are computed for a variety of thresholds of visual impact, and since overlaid with population and land use data. The results indicate that the construction of new turbines replacing 40% of the old turbine stock and raising the installed capacity by 20% will not add to the comparative impact......Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... appears to be planning uncertainty regarding the future impact on landscapes. Visual impact has seldom been an issue so far, but growing turbine size and less local involvement may change this. This paper presents a deterministic approach of quantifying percieved visual impact on landscapes and population...

  14. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Iverson; Cristian Echeverria; Laura Nahuelhual; Sandra. Luque

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services from landscapes is rapidly gaining momentum as a language to communicate values and benefits to scientists and lay alike. Landscape ecology has an enormous contribution to make to this field, and one could argue, uniquely so. Tools developed or adapted for landscape ecology are being increasingly used to assist with the quantification...

  15. The changing landscape of public health in sub-Saharan Africa: Control and prevention of communicable diseases needs rethinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard E.G. Mboera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, communicable diseases (CDs are the leading public health problems and major causes of morbidity and mortality. CDs result in significant individual suffering, disrupting daily life, threatening livelihoods and causing one-third of the years lost to illness or death worldwide. This paper aims to analyse the current strategies in the control and prevention of CDs in sub-Saharan Africa and proposes an ecohealth approach in relation to current changing epidemiological profiles. Whilst in recent years the burden of HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria have helped to mobilise large amounts of funding and expertise to help address them, many CDs, particularly those affecting the poor, have been neglected. People living in rural areas are also likely to be politically marginalised and living in degraded environments. They often lack assets, knowledge and opportunities to gain access to health care or protect themselves from infections. New diseases are also emerging at unprecedented rates and require attention. Many CDs are rooted in environmental and livelihood conditions and mediated by social and individual determinants. It is now increasingly recognised that a much broader, coordinated and multi-sectoral ecohealth approach is required to address CDs in sub-Saharan Africa. An ecohealth approach has been shown to be more robust in public health interventions than the traditional medical approach. The approach helps to generate an understanding of ecosystem factors that influence the emergence and spread of both old and new diseases, considers temporal and spatial dimensions of disease infection and allows systems thinking. In conclusion, establishing intersectoral and multisectoral linkages is important to facilitate joint efforts to address CDs at the national, district and community levels.

  16. Possible landscapes in norms: how are they designed and communicated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marques Zyngier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are the result of transformations which occur in different time and space scales. When considering a wider time scale, landscapes are the result of applying norms of land use and occupancy, configuring punctual volumes which form, when added together, a complex whole. In a shorter time scale, urban interventions are transformations as precise as surgeries, stirred by entrepreneurism. Considering these observations about how formally planned landscapes are formed, a few questions are raised, motivating this investigation: can a community – which inhabits, observes and constructs in any given landscape – understand, accompany and approve a new spatial configuration, transformed by interventions and controls? Is it possible to contribute, in any way, towards urban managements, promoting the science behind proposals and possibilities within the norms which model a landscape? What is the state-of-the-art of these transformations, especially in the changes promoted by urban management resulting from legislations? From these initial inquiries, a main question sums up the aim of this paper: How the possibilities which involve a designed urban landscape are communicated? Therefore, it’s interesting to analyze case studies in order to elucidate this guiding question. Two territorial realities, as pilot areas, are going to aid this investigation, regarding their similarities and differences.

  17. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  18. Mapping the changing landscape of fish-related journals: Setting a course for successful communication of scientific information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Dettmers, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the number and scope of fish-related journals have changed. New and existing journals are increasingly specialized. Journals that are read and cited are changing because of differential accessibility via electronic databases. In this review, we examine shifts in numbers and foci of existing fish-related journals. We ask how these fish-related metrics differ across type of application, ecological system, taxa, and discipline. Although many journals overlap to some extent in content, there are distinct groups of journals for authors to consider. By systematically reviewing the focus of an individual manuscript, comparing it to the suite of journals available and examining the audience for the manuscript, we believe that authors can make informed decisions about which journals are most suitable for their work. Our goal here is to help authors find relevant journals and deliver scientific publications to the appropriate readership.

  19. Europe: the paradox of landscape change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der Theo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the

  20. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of common methods of determining landscape change usually is to compare maps and photographic images of the same places in different time horizons. Landscape painting, which has a long and rich tradition in the Czech Republic, can be used similarly. Landscape-ecological interpretation of selected works by painters of the 19th century - Julius Mařák, František Kaván and Antonín Slavíček was done in this paper. Some pictures of the Českomoravská vrchovina (Bohemian-Moravian highlands by Josef Jambor from the mid-20th century were used for detailed comparative analysis to the level of habitats. We compared 80 landscape paintings and found that most of the painted sceneries have changed for worse.

  1. Behavior change communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, P

    1997-04-01

    Appropriate and effective communication is central to the success of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV infection. This paper reviews what has been learned about the nature of communication in the behavior change process. It examines the contexts in which communication occurs, as well as the contribution of communication theory, social marketing theory, and structural intervention theory to intervention development. Guidance is offered on the most appropriate ways in which to communicate with different groups and audiences, and future priorities for research and intervention are identified.

  2. Community identities as visions for landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Stewart; Derek Liebert; Kevin W. Larkin

    2004-01-01

    Residents' felt senses of their community can play substantial roles in determining visions for landscape change. Community identities are often anchored in tangible environments and events of a community, and have the potential to serve as visions for landscape planning processes. Photo-elicitation is applied in this study to connect community-based meanings to...

  3. Virtual Museums for Landscape Valorization and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroni, E.

    2017-08-01

    Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional "sensing" and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities' cultural patterns, their sense of "belonging". In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or "monographic", representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  4. TMDL implementation in agricultural landscapes: a communicative and systemic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J; Pitt, David G; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals.

  5. Geological beauties and Landscape: new proposals to communicate the Geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugeri, Francesca; Farabollini, Piero; Amadio, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    The European Landscape Convention proposes a concept of the landscape itself as an expression of the diversity of the natural, cultural and economic development of the population and identifies society as responsible of such a heritage. The landscape has a concrete value as natural resource and basis of functional processes that support life; it also has an important symbolic value: the consequences of the loss of landscape have been and still are devastating, even on a social level. The Landscape is object of human perceptions and, at the same time, can be considered the result of the interaction of many natural and cultural components: therefore it could become a "medium" to communicate the Earth Sciences to the whole society: the geo-morphological sciences are a powerful tool in order to explain and share a "sense of natural identity". The consciousness of being part of an ecosystem, is achieved through the knowledge and the experience of the environment. In order to create effective and efficient sensitivity in individuals and in communities, it is essential to explain the importance of geodiversity, which - integrated to bio diversity- contributes to the concept of "environmental diversity" essential balance of the planet and resource for the economy. The difficulty for the scientific communicators in reaching the wider public, requires new integrated solutions. A very positive experience is related to the project "GeoloGiro" geology at the Giro d'Italia, (realized thanks to a cooperation between ISPRA Geological Survey and the Italian Council of Geologists) which provides a TV time dedicated to make comprehensible the reasons of the geological and environmental beauties of the territory crossed by cyclists during each stage. A further project development, includes the transmission of a short cartoon in which a strange character - a pink dinosaur named GiROSAuro, cycling fan, pink as the jersey worn by the winners of the "Giro d 'Italia"- explains to the

  6. VIRTUAL MUSEUMS FOR LANDSCAPE VALORIZATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pietroni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional “sensing” and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities’ cultural patterns, their sense of “belonging”. In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or “monographic”, representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  7. Scholarly communication changing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The dissertation aims at investigating the changing scholarly communication in general and more specifically the implications of open access on scholarly communication. The overall research question is: What are the effects of open access on scholarly communication? The dissertation...... consists of five empirical studies of various aspects of the implications of open access on scholarly communication. The five studies, published as journal articles, are bibliometric studies conducted on three different levels. The first level consists of two studies of a general, more explorative....... Furthermore, the dissertation includes a chapter that presents and discusses the research findings in a theoretical framework. Initially the chapter presents and discusses terminology needed for analysing open access and scholarly communication. Following the necessary definitions and clarifications...

  8. Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, G; Sage, C

    1994-01-01

    The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot.

  9. Exploring ecosystem-change and society through a landscape lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Kizos, Thanasis; Bieling, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    for landscape research. We review and synthesize findings from six important areas of landscape research in Europe and discuss how these findings may advance the study of ecosystem change and society and its thematic key priorities. These six areas are: (1) linkages between people and the environment......Landscapes are closely linked to human well-being, but they are undergoing rapid and fundamental change. Understanding the societal transformation underlying these landscape changes, as well as the ecological and societal outcomes of landscape transformations across scales are prime areas...... in landscapes, (2) landscape structure and land-use intensity, (3) long-term landscape history, (4) driving forces, processes, and actors of landscape change, (5) landscape values and meanings, and (6) landscape stewardship. We propose that these knowledge areas can contribute to the study of ecosystem change...

  10. Combined effects of waggle dance communication and landscape heterogeneity on nectar and pollen uptake in honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Nürnberger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The instructive component of waggle dance communication has been shown to increase resource uptake of Apis mellifera colonies in highly heterogeneous resource environments, but an assessment of its relevance in temperate landscapes with different levels of resource heterogeneity is currently lacking. We hypothesized that the advertisement of resource locations via dance communication would be most relevant in highly heterogeneous landscapes with large spatial variation of floral resources. To test our hypothesis, we placed 24 Apis mellifera colonies with either disrupted or unimpaired instructive component of dance communication in eight Central European agricultural landscapes that differed in heterogeneity and resource availability. We monitored colony weight change and pollen harvest as measure of foraging success. Dance disruption did not significantly alter colony weight change, but decreased pollen harvest compared to the communicating colonies by 40%. There was no general effect of resource availability on nectar or pollen foraging success, but the effect of landscape heterogeneity on nectar uptake was stronger when resource availability was high. In contrast to our hypothesis, the effects of disrupted bee communication on nectar and pollen foraging success were not stronger in landscapes with heterogeneous compared to homogenous resource environments. Our results indicate that in temperate regions intra-colonial communication of resource locations benefits pollen foraging more than nectar foraging, irrespective of landscape heterogeneity. We conclude that the so far largely unexplored role of dance communication in pollen foraging requires further consideration as pollen is a crucial resource for colony development and health.

  11. Magnesium in North America: A Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan

    The changing landscape of North American manufacturing in the context of global competition is impacting the market of all raw materials, including magnesium. Current automotive fuel economy legislation and pending legislation on the emissions of greenhouse gases are impacting magnesium's largest consuming industries, such as aluminum, automotive components, steel and transition metals. These industries are all considering innovative ways to efficiently incorporate the needed raw materials into their processes. The North American magnesium market differs from other regions based on maturity, supply streams, changing manufacturing capabilities and trade cases, combined with the transformation of North American manufacturing.

  12. Agroforestry landscapes and global change: landscape ecology tools for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Martinez Pastur; Emilie Andrieu; Louis R. Iverson; Pablo Luis. Peri

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are impacted by multiple uses under the influence of global drivers, and where landscape ecology tools may substantially facilitate the management and conservation of the agroforestry ecosystems. The use of landscape ecology tools was described in the eight papers of the present special issue, including changes in forested landscapes due to...

  13. The Globalized Landscape: Rural Landscape Change and Policy in the United States and European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Wascher, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    While some rural areas draw increasing populations to their landscape amenities and some are changed by the long reach of metropolitan sprawl, agriculture defines, and dominates rural landscapes. Amenity characteristics and ecological services of many rural landscapes occur in the context of

  14. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mimet

    Full Text Available Space-for-time substitution-that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations-is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes.Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration.Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time.For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched.The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity.

  15. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimet, Anne; Pellissier, Vincent; Houet, Thomas; Julliard, Romain; Simon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Space-for-time substitution-that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations-is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes. Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration. Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time. For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched. The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity.

  16. Aeolian Landscape Change in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Ruth Chaves

    In the Arctic, aeolian processes can be important drivers of landscape change. Soil deflation, the removal of fine-grained sediment by wind, is one aeolian process that has had a profound impact in the Arctic. While soil deflation has been well studied in Iceland, our understanding of aeolian processes across the rest of the Arctic remains limited. Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms and impacts of soil deflation without direct anthropogenic influence. In Kangerlussuaq, strong katabatic winds have resulted in distinct erosional landforms, here referred to as deflation patches, that are largely devoid of vascular plants and are dominated by biological soil crusts. This dissertation considers the geomorphic and ecological impacts of soil deflation through an interdisciplinary framework. I show that deflation patches are a critical component of the Kangerlussuaq ecosystem, accounting for 22% of the terrestrial landscape and impacting vegetation dynamics by providing habitat for graminoid, herbaceous, and lichen species. Deflation patches formed roughly 230-800 years ago, during a period of cold, dry, and windy climate conditions. Deflation patches expand across the landscape when the active margin, or scarp, becomes undercut and collapses. I estimate that rates of patch expansion are roughly 2.5 cm yr-1, and that geomorphic change can be detected even over the short time period of two years. I suggest that an erosional threshold exists because climate conditions required for initial deflation-patch formation are harsher than those required for continued patch expansion. The future trajectory of deflation patches depends on the role of the biological soil crust as either a successional facilitator or a long-term landscape cover, as well as future climate conditions. While the biological soil crusts slightly enrich soil fertility over time, they decrease soil moisture and create an impenetrable soil surface, which may inhibit

  17. The driving forces of landscape change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Draux, Hélène; Fagerholm, Nora

    2016-01-01

    underrepresented landscapes; (b) clarifying the identification and role of actors in landscape change; (c) deploying more robust tools and methods to quantitatively assess the causalities of landscape change; (d) setting up long-term studies that go beyond mapping land-cover change only; (e) strengthening cross......Over the past decades, landscapes worldwide have experienced changes (e.g., urbanization, agricultural intensification, expansion of renewable energy uses) at magnitudes that put their sustainability at risk. The understanding of the drivers of these landscape changes remains challenging, partly......; low Gross Domestic Product; boreal, steppic, and arctic landscapes; as well as forestland systems are underrepresented in the literature. Third, our review shows that land abandonment/extensification is the most prominent (62% of cases) among multiple proximate drivers of landscape change. Fourthly...

  18. The changing geopolitical landscape of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    The author first discusses the impact of the financial crisis of 2008, and of the large-scale exploitation of shale gases in the USA on energy policies and on the geopolitical landscape of energy. Then, he discusses the influence that events which occurred in 2011 had on these issues: firstly, the Copenhagen and Cancun Conferences, secondly, the Fukushima accident, thirdly, the nuclear phasing-out by Germany and incidentally by Italy, and fourthly, the Arab Spring. In the next parts, he comments the consequences for the European energy policy, and the perspectives for the struggle against climate change

  19. Tracking communications change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    While personal communications on a minesite is critical, the additional equipment and weight miners are forced to contend with hampers work. Often bulky, and fairly heavy, mining communications equipment has not been known for its lightweight manufacture. To overcome this and give miners some relief, NL Technologies has developed a two way messaging and tracking device that is incorporated into their existing cap lamps, the Northern Light Cap Lamp, to service this communications need

  20. Liquidation sales: Land speculation and landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale land-use transitions can occur with astonishing speed, and landscape stability can change with equal suddenness: for example, the catastrophic dustbowl that paralyzed the Midwestern US in the early 1930s came barely 40 years after the derby for homestead land in Oklahoma in 1889. Some human-landscape systems, like the large prehistoric settlements in the Brazilian Amazon, persisted for centuries without environmental collapse. Others quickly exhausted all of the environmental resources available, as occurred with phosphate mining on the Pacific Island of Nauru. Although abrupt shifts from resource plenty to resource scarcity are theoretically interesting for their complexity, the very real consequences of modern social and environmental boom-bust dynamics can catalyze humanitarian crises. Drawing on historical examples and investigative reporting of current events, I explore the hypothesis that land speculation drives rapid transitions in physical landscapes at large spatial scales. "Land grabs" is one of four core environmental justice and equality issues Oxfam International is targeting in its GROW campaign, citing evidence that foreign investors are buying up vast tracts of land in developing countries, and as a consequence exacerbating food scarcity and marginalization of poor families. Al Jazeera has reported extensively on land-rights disputes in Honduras and investment deals involving foreign ownership of large areas of agricultural land in New Zealand, India, Africa, and South America. Overlapping coverage has also appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the BBC News, the Guardian, and other outlets. Although land itself is only one kind of natural resource, land rights typically determine access to other natural resources (e.g. water, timber, minerals, fossil fuels). Consideration of land speculation therefore includes speculative bubbles in natural-resource markets more broadly. There are categorical commonalities in agricultural

  1. Responding to Landscape Change: Stakeholder Participation and Social Capital in Five European Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasis Kizos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of landscape has been increasingly used, in the last decades, in policy and land use planning, both in regard to so-called “special” and to “ordinary” or “everyday” landscapes. This has raised the importance of local and public participation in all issues that refer to landscapes and the definition of the groups that “have a stake” in the landscape. In this paper, we provide insights into how stakeholders perceive the dynamics of local processes of landscape change (and continuity and which processes of landscape change they perceive as important, in positive and negative ways, from five communities within the European Union. These landscapes involve different landscape issues “at stake”, different national and local planning and decision-making traditions and practices, and varying degrees of engagement. The understanding of these complexities and the unraveling of the insights is done through the concept of social capital and its different forms. We report on three series of workshops that have been organized to discuss landscape issues and approaches or ideas for landscape management. We witnessed interactions between the different stakeholders and gained insights into how social capital affects landscape change. We found that despite differences, similarities emerged concerning the interplay between “expert” and “local” knowledge and between “insideness” and “outsideness”. Social capital plays an important part, as it provides the template for personal and collective evaluation of landscape changes, who should manage these changes and how they should be managed. These findings are important to develop in-depth insights on dynamics and values of cultural landscapes and visions for re-coupling social and ecological components in cultural landscapes and translate them into policy and management options.

  2. Responding to the changing landscape: Australian midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Mary

    2012-12-01

    The maternity reform agenda within Australia has seen a considerable shift in the last decade towards recognition of the role of the midwife and promotion of midwifery care. The current legislative changes and focus on providing woman centred models of care have created unprecedented opportunities for midwives to rise to the challenge and work to the full scope of practice of a midwife. Changes to maternity service delivery and the educational preparation of midwives have been accompanied by growing recognition of the distinction between nursing and midwifery. As a result midwifery in Australia is in transition, moving from a position of submersion within nursing to one of a strong well educated autonomous profession with a defined scope of practice. This paper examines the changing landscape of midwifery in Australia within three areas: regulation, education and practice.

  3. The impact of Professional Communication in democratic European landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Araujo Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available REVIEW OF: NEGRINE, R. et al. The Professionalisation of Political Communication. Volume 3 de Changing Media - Changing Europe Series. Bristrol, UK/ Chicago USA: Intellect Books, 2007. 192 páginas. Changes in Communication and Politics in European democracies are described in a historically contextualized and comparative way in The Professionalisation of Political Communication. The book presents the performance of media professionals in eight countries (England, Germany, Sweden, Holland, Italy, Greece, France and Hungary, especially in the election period, to explore how professionalism was introduced and how political and media actors are related in this process during the last decades.

  4. Changing the Way We Communicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laud, Leslie E.

    1998-01-01

    For site-based management to succeed, supervisors must progress from advising teachers to empowering them to make classroom changes. The author changed her communication style by becoming aware of the subtle yet powerful role of communication in school leadership, discovering how unconscious scripts interfered with empowerment efforts,…

  5. OBSERVING LANDSCAPE CHANGES USING DISTANT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Landscape changes are a very common phenomenon in t he area of North-West Bohemia (the Czech Republic as this area is heavy industrialized. This paper presents two methods for observing the landscape – the bathymetric mapping and the aerial mapping. The bathymetric mapping is used to reconstruct the original surface in area where the Nechranice dam was built in 1960’ and to evaluate the sedimentation caused by the Ohře River. The original surface of the Ohře river canyon was reconstructed using old maps and t he bathymetric mapping was performed with Lowrance HDS-5 Sonar. The aerial mapping introduced in this paper is a new method of using Small Format Aerial Photography in connection with an ordinary aircraft. The gimbal (camera stabilization normally used by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is mounted into a small aircraft and allowing the scanning of very large areas – in our case the open-pit mine Tušimice was the target of our study. The derived orthophoto and Digital Surface Models were used to complete the georelief development analysis based on old maps and aerial photographs.

  6. Change Communication: Facts and Fictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Mühlbacher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Change communication is today seen as one of the most important tools enabling successful change processes. Unfortunately, change communication literature is mainly dominated by consultants. This leads to a high number of different checklists and lists of change communication tools, selling different concepts of consulting, most of them with a holistic, one-size-fits-all perspective. However, corporate communication in general and change communication in particular has to be seen as core competence of management. Top managers have to develop trust and communicate their vision of the future; middle managers should communicate and operationalize goals, so that employees have a sense of hope and orientation. These functions cannot easily be outsourced! What are missing in the majority of publications are empirically based tests of the effectiveness and the efficiency of change communication tools. Therefore, in order to increase the efficiency of change communication, this explorative study will offer an empirical survey of different tools and their attribution concerning informational aspects and behavioural influence in the context of a present day merger in the banking sector. Based on 39 semi-structured interviews, the results will show the different information needs of employees and managers and a lack of behavioural modifications. The current distribution of information leads to high costs and a high degree of confusion. Therefore, a kind of target group segmentation is needed to improve information flows and to develop motivation. This can be a first step to developing a new approach for change communication with a company-specific perspective on efficient change communication.

  7. Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürgi, Matthias; Bieling, Claudia; Von Hackwitz, Kim

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Grasping peoples’ perception supplements the analyses of mapped land use and land cover changes and allows to address perceived landscape changes. The list of driving forces determined to be most relevant shows clear limits in predictability: Whereas changes triggered by infrastructural...... perceived landscape changes, and remembered driving forces. Land cover and landscape changes were analysed regarding change, conversions and processes. For all case study areas, narratives on mapped land cover change, perceived landscape changes and driving forces were compiled. Results: Despite a very high...... a comparative study of landscape changes and their driving forces based in six regions across Europe conducted using a consistent method. Methods: A LULC analysis based on historical and contemporary maps from the nineteenth and twentieth century was combined with oral history interviews to learn more about...

  8. Communication for Social Change Anthology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gumucio-Dagron, Alfonso; Tufte, Thomas

    This anthology, the result of 3 years of review of 1000+ articles, now assembles 150 authors with 200 contributions - full articles, excerpts and quotes - ranging from 1927 to 2005. The articles all have been selected upon the criteria of contributing conceptually to the field of communication...... for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community...... Participation, 3) Power, Media and the Public Sphere, 4) Paradigms in Communication for Development, 5) Information Society & Communication Rights....

  9. Evaluation of the changes of landscape types of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita IZAKOVIČOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last period landscape protection, its representative types more and more comes to the limelight. In October 2000 the European Landscape Convention - also known as the Florence Convention was adopted. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organise European co-operation on landscape issues.  Contracting states ought to analyse the landscape types on the whole area of their countries, to analyse their features, record their changes, specify motive power and pressure forming them and assess selected types with respect to special values attributed by engaged participants and inhabitants. Knowledge and identification of single landscape types enable the intensification of care of diversity of single landscape types and landscape biodiversity. It is an unavoidable condition in the strategic planning process and effective protection of regionally special landscape.Slovakia signed ELC in 2005 and became an active participant in its implementation. The Institute of the Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences elaborated methodology for specification and evaluation of the representative landscape types of Slovakia (RLTS.RLTS are defined as homogeneous units considering the landscape character, functions and current land-use. GIS (Geographical Information Systems tool was used to create RLTS, in particular by overlaying of abiotic landscape structure (type of relief, quaternary deposits, climatic regions, and soil types and land-cover map (CORINE Land Cover 2006 - CLC at national scale. This process yielded to a patched map of homogeneous areas, which were further interpreted, generalized, and regionalized to a final map of RLTS.Landscape types of Slovakia were defined by the synthesis of the mentioned maps. Totally there were identified 126 basic landscape types. Each landscape type represents unique combination of land-use in different abiotic conditions and gives the unique

  10. Landscape Change Index as a Tool for Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Piotr; Solecka, Iga; Barbara-Mastalska-Cetera

    2017-10-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal changes in protected landscape of Ślęża Landscape Park in Poland, covering an area of 7724 ha. The main objective was to determine level of landscape change of the research area after Polish accession to European Union by comparing land-cover maps from 2004, 2009 and 2014. With the use of prepared land cover maps, we developed a database of the surface of the main elements constituting the background landscape of the research area. The data obtained made it feasible to assess the level of change in two different periods of time (2004 - 2009 and 2009 - 2014) by means of the landscape change index (LCI). This indicator is described by one value which is the result of all the change types taking place in the background landscape in a given period of time. Comparing the index of different parts of Ślęża Landscape Park helped to identify areas where the landscape changes were the highest and areas where the changes were hardly noticeable. The results show that when we take into account whole research area landscape changes are much more intense in the second of the analysed periods of time (2009 - 2014) (LCI=1,91) then in years 2004 - 2009 (LCI=0,71). The same analysis was done for each part of municipalities located within the Park. This made it possible to determine which part of the park is the most threatened by spatial transformations. In this context, it should be emphasized that the highest rates of landscape changes were recorded in the municipalities where the largest new residential area was located – in the municipalities Sobótka and Łagiewniki. Whereas municipality Dzierżoniów with a high percentage of forests inside the Park and unchanging area of arable land have the lowest landscape change index.

  11. Soil creep and historic landscape changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Many erosion models assume that soil sediments are transported grain-by-grain, and thus calculate loss and deposition according to parameters such as bulk density and average grain size. However, clay-rich soils, such as the widespread Red Mediterranean Soils or Terrae Rossae that are often found near important archaeological sites, can behave differently. This is illustrated by a case study of historic landscape changes in Jordan, where evidence for soil creep as main process of soil movement was found in the context of ancient cemeteries. Due to a dominance of smectites, the Red Mediterranean Soils in this area shrink and form cracks during the dry period. Because of the cracks and underlying limestone karst, they can swallow strong rains without high erosion risk. However, when water-saturated, these soils expand and can start creeping. Buried geoarchaeological features like small water channels on formerly cleared rocks suggest that soils can move a few cm uplslope when wet, and buried graves illustrate that soil creep can create new level surfaces, sealing cavities but not completely filling them. Such processes seem associated with slumping and earth flows as instable rocks might collapse under the weight of a creeping soil. While it is very difficult to measure such processes, landscape archaeology offers at least an indirect approach that could be suited to estimate the scale and impact of soil creep. Analogies with modern rainfalls, including record levels of precipitation during the winter 1991/1992, indicate that similar levels of soil moisture have not been reached during times of modern instrumental rainfall monitoring. This suggests that very strong deluges must have occurred during historical periods, that could potentially cause tremendous damage to modern infrastructure if happening again.

  12. Adaptive Landscapes of Resistance Genes Change as Antibiotic Concentrations Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M; Meza, Juan C; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on the evolution of antibiotic resistance are focused on selection for resistance at lethal antibiotic concentrations, which has allowed the detection of mutant strains that show strong phenotypic traits. However, solely focusing on lethal concentrations of antibiotics narrowly limits our perspective of antibiotic resistance evolution. New high-resolution competition assays have shown that resistant bacteria are selected at relatively low concentrations of antibiotics. This finding is important because sublethal concentrations of antibiotics are found widely in patients undergoing antibiotic therapies, and in nonmedical conditions such as wastewater treatment plants, and food and water used in agriculture and farming. To understand the impacts of sublethal concentrations on selection, we measured 30 adaptive landscapes for a set of TEM β-lactamases containing all combinations of the four amino acid substitutions that exist in TEM-50 for 15 β-lactam antibiotics at multiple concentrations. We found that there are many evolutionary pathways within this collection of landscapes that lead to nearly every TEM-genotype that we studied. While it is known that the pathways change depending on the type of β-lactam, this study demonstrates that the landscapes including fitness optima also change dramatically as the concentrations of antibiotics change. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of multiple concentrations of β-lactams in an environment result in many different adaptive landscapes through which pathways to nearly every genotype are available. Ultimately this may increase the diversity of genotypes in microbial populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Landscape change in upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Bin; He, Xing-Yuan; Li, Yue-Hui; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Mu, Yang; Guan, Zhu-Xin

    2007-12-01

    Based on the fuzzy logic knowledge database designed by NetWeaver tools, and using ecosystem management decision support system (EMDS), a quantitative evaluation was made on the landscape change in the upper reaches of Minjiang River from 1986 to 2000. The results showed that the type, area, amount, and spatial distribution of landscape patches in the reaches changed greatly, and the changing direction was in favor of ecosystem restoration. The changes of forest landscape mainly occurred in the north part of study area (Songpan County and Heishui County), while those of grass landscape mainly occurred both in the north part and in the furthest south part (Wenchuan County). The joint effect of increasing human activities and nature change was the driving force of the landscape changes.

  14. Dynamic-landscape metapopulation models predict complex response of wildlife populations to climate and landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    The increasing need to predict how climate change will impact wildlife species has exposed limitations in how well current approaches model important biological processes at scales at which those processes interact with climate. We used a comprehensive approach that combined recent advances in landscape and population modeling into dynamic-landscape metapopulation...

  15. Empirical methods for modeling landscape change, ecosystem services, and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Ralph. Alig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to synthesize recent economics research aimed at integrating discrete-choice econometric models of land-use change with spatially-explicit landscape simulations and quantitative ecology. This research explicitly models changes in the spatial pattern of landscapes in two steps: 1) econometric estimation of parcel-scale transition...

  16. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-04-01

    Altering the natural disturbance regime of a landscape produces changes in the structure of that landscape as the landscape adjusts to the new disturbance regime. A computer simulation model was designed to enable analyses of the longterm changes to be expected in landscapes as their disturbance regime changes. The model, DISPATCH, is the first dynamic spatial simulation model built around a geographical information system (GIS). The model also includes a new set of programs, the r.le programs, that is the first set of programs designed for calculating landscape structure measures within a GIS. The DISPATCH model was used, to analyze the effects of human alterations of disturbance regimes and global change on landscape structure. Landscapes do not adjust quickly to these alterations based on available data. Landscapes subjected to warming or to longterm fire suppression experience a decline in patch richness, Shannon diversity, the amount of edge and contrast, but an increase in distance between patches, angular second moment (texture measure) and patch size. In contrast, landscapes subjected to cooling, the short-term effects of fire suppression, fragmentation, or traditional prescribed burning tend to respond with increasing richness, Shannon diversity, edge, and contrast, but declining distance, angular second moment, and size. The pattern of response is different at different scales, with important implications for species.

  17. Can uncertain landscape evolution models discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changing future climate? A millennial-scale test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the light of increasing societal interest in the effects of climate change, geomorphologists face the task of discriminating between natural landscape changes and landscape changes that result from human-induced climate change. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) are available for this purpose, but

  18. Changing Landscape of Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Berto J; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2017-03-17

    , the landscape of adult congenital heart disease has changed dramatically, which has to be continued in the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Spatial resilience of forested landscapes under climate change and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa S. Lucash; Robert M. Scheller; Eric J. Gustafson; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2017-01-01

    Context Resilience, the ability to recover from disturbance, has risen to the forefront of scientific policy, but is difficult to quantify, particularly in large, forested landscapes subject to disturbances, management, and climate change. Objectives Our objective was to determine which spatial drivers will control landscape...

  20. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the southern watershed zones. Monitoring land cover change at the watershed scale is more indicative of impact level and where efforts for managing and conserving the urban landscape should be prioritized. Key words: Urban expansion, land cover type, remote sensing, watershed units, urban landscape conservation.

  1. Communication for Social Change Anthology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community...

  2. Telling Stories about the Changing Landscape: One Center's Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. L., Jr.; Wilson, E. H.; Chadwick, C.; Dickson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Since its inception, the Center for Land Use Education and Research (CLEAR) at the University of Connecticut has had a strong applied research and public outreach focus. As a center that focuses on topics that virtually all have a geographic component, the intersection of Web and mapping technologies over the past decade has been an invaluable tool for communicating information. The primary target audience of this information is land use decision makers, who in New England are almost exclusively at the local (municipal) level and are often unpaid volunteers with little or no science background. Data-driven science communication focusing on this very worthy - and very needy - sector of the populace poses problems different from communicating with academic peers at one end of the spectrum, or the general public on the other end. The information must be understandable and accessible to non-technical users, yet specific and authoritative enough to inform decisions. CLEAR's approach to reaching this audience has evolved over the years in response to new internet and GIS technologies on the one hand, and internal deliberations on the other. A critical point was the 2004 public debut of the Center's Changing Landscape project, comprised of complex remotely-sensed land cover data: CLEAR principals decided to make the data publicly available via the Center website, but also to design a website to make the information accessible in as many ways, and for as many different audiences, as possible. This approach has had considerable success, as evidenced in the widespread use of the land cover information by communities, NGOs, federal and state agencies, and academia. Over the past several years, CLEAR has embraced the ESRI story map as a technological tool that embodies the Center's goal of "democratization" of science-based information through multifaceted accessibility. CLEAR's Story Map Gallery currently has six maps, covering a wide range of topics including the Changing

  3. Civil Landscapes and changing modes of participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipsen, D.

    2000-01-01

    The culture of citizen involvement is rapidly changing in most European countries and it has to be proved, if this will be true for other post-industrial societies, too. The philosopher Juergen Habermas argued, in the 80's of the last century, that State bureaucracy and economic organisations will colonize the lebenswelt and jeopardize the basis of social innovation and democratic involvement. Lebenswelt in this context means the level of self-organised knowledge and pattern of communication people have in their own control. This paper argues that this has been true in the period of Fordism, but does mot properly reflect the present situation and the trends we can observe now. The regime of flexible regulation makes the lebenswelt a more important factor for social and economic development than fordistic regulation has done. (author)

  4. Visualization of landscape changes and threatening environmental processes using a digital landscape model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svatonova, H; Rybansky, M

    2014-01-01

    Visualizations supported by new geoinformation technologies prove to be appropriate tools for presenting and sharing the research results by professional and general public. The object of the research was to evaluate the benefits of visualizations for the nonexpert users. The subject of evaluation was: the success rate of interpreting the information; forming of a realistic idea of the unknown landscape; and the preference of the users during selection of the appropriate visualization for the purpose of solving the task. The tasks concerned: assessing the current situation and changes of the landscape; assessing the erosion in the landscape; and the ways of their visualizing. To prepare and process the landscape visualizations, it was necessary to select areas that allow tracking of land use changes and representative environmental processes. Then the digital landscape model was created and a number of visualizations were generated. The results of visualization testing show that the users prefer maps to orthophotos, they are able to formulate correct statements concerning the landscape with the help of visualizations, and that the simulated fly throughs represent a very suitable tool supporting formation of a realistic ideas about the landscape

  5. Changing Political Landscapes for Latinos in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Jason P.; Ibarra, Joanne D.

    2012-01-01

    The increased demographic presence of Latino individuals has gradually resulted in growing political influence and representation. This growing presence and influence has altered the American political landscape, drawing sudden attention among scholars, the media, and political pundits. This article investigates four aspects of the growing…

  6. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-01-29

    The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in climate may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between climatic change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic climatic data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the climatic driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the effects of changes in climate on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado.

  7. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in climate may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between climatic change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic climatic data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the climatic driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the effects of changes in climate on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado

  8. Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard

    2016-01-01

    the field of communication theory are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change. Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta‐theoretical framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing and reproducing shared meanings......The literature on climate change communication addresses a range of issues relevant to the communication of climate change and climate science to lay audiences or publics. In doing so, it approaches this particular challenge from a variety of different perspectives and theoretical frameworks....... Analyzing the body of scholarly literature on climate change communication, this article critically reviews how communication is conceptualized in the literature and concludes that the field of climate change communication is characterized by diverging and incompatible understandings of communication...

  9. Communication Theory and Health Communication Practice: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Brent D

    2016-01-01

    This article considers one of the most fundamental concerns of health communication scholars, educators, and professionals--the relationship between communication theory and health communication practice. Assertions about the important role of communication in health care--as both problem and potential solution--have become increasingly common, as have discussions of theoretical advances in communication and health communication. That said, the fundamental challenge of improving provider-patient communication, and health communication outcomes more generally, persists--and, indeed, appears to be resistant to change. Inadequacies in the articulation and translation of communication theory for health care practice represent a substantial part of the problem. Scholars of communication embrace the complexity and nuanced nature of the process. However, when communication concepts are appropriated within health care discourse and practice, the complexity and nuance are often glossed over, favoring instead simpler, information-exchange perspectives. The changing health care and wellness landscape, with its growing range of health information services, sources, and settings, is unlikely to alleviate the consequences of this translation problem; rather, it threatens to exacerbate it. This article examines these issues, provides illustrations of situations that are emblematic of the translational gap, and highlights concepts that may help to enrich the contribution of communication theory in health care, health education, and professional practice.

  10. The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape produced by irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabe, M.; Morrone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape are producing irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape. The changes take place mainly in: a) Depredation mining activity on the hills, b) Advance of the constructions on the hills. c) Superficial drainage changes by tubes and dike deficiencies) Stuffed of diggings with industrials solids remainders. The presence of System of Tandilia hills grants a high landscaping and economic value to the area. The mining activity and the related tourism constructions are in constant development. The mentioned activities are harnessed by the economic height of last five years, since Tandil is chosen as place of permanent residence by job and educational supply, and tourism by near accessibility from Buenos Aires city. Like consequence, it takes place great urban expansion where particular houses stand out, also districts, countries; and the related ones to the tourist activity like inns, that are located on the hills, generating changes in the landscape. The study area is located in the S-SW-SE sector of the city of Tandil, head of the party homonym of the Southeastern center of the province of Buenos Aires. The purpose of this paper aim to emphasize the anthropological action like main agent the natural landscape alteration, generating environmental problems. Aerial photography, and topographic maps to scale: 1:50000 were used. (author)

  11. Changing Landscapes: The University Archive in a New South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores both a redefinition of the role of the university archive in civil society and fresh perspectives on its changing role. The process of change in the university archives due to changes in societal landscapes is also presented. University archives in South Africa do not have a long history of existence, as they ...

  12. Monitoring agricultural landscape changes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    in situ fieldwork was the dominant methodology. This raises a number of questions related to the way in which information on land use and land cover are combined in current monitoring projects, what role fieldwork methods should play and on what grounds traditional field-based time series data can...... Danish rural landscapes was collected in 1986, 1991 and 1996 as part of the national small biotope monitoring system. In 2008 and 2014 land cover maps at a similar scale were developed, based on a combination of remote sensed LiDAR data and field scale land use data from administrative registers (the Dan...... and temporal resolution. It has also meant that the range of phenomena and attributes being mapped are less varied. Monitoring efforts have in some cases become more deductive, more closely associated with the particular technologies used and narrower or perhaps more precise in scope than was the case when...

  13. Sustaining forest landscape connectivity under different land cover change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, L.; Rodriguez-Freire, M.; Mateo-Sanchez, M. C.; Estreguil, C.; Saura, S.

    2012-11-01

    Managing forest landscapes to sustain functional connectivity is considered one of the key strategies to counteract the negative effects of climate and human-induced changes in forest species pools. With this objective, we evaluated whether a robust network of forest connecting elements can be identified so that it remains efficient when facing different types of potential land cover changes that may affect forest habitat networks and ecological fluxes. For this purpose we considered changes both in the forested areas and in the non-forest intervening landscape matrix. We combined some of the most recent developments in graph theory with models of land cover permeability and least-cost analysis through the forest landscape. We focused on a case of study covering the habitat of a forest dwelling bird (nuthatch, Sitta europaea) in the region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seven land-use change scenarios were analysed for their effects on connecting forest elements (patches and links): one was the simplest case in which the landscape is represented as a binary forest/non-forest pattern (and where matrix heterogeneity is disregarded), four scenarios in which forest lands were converted to other cover types (to scrubland due to wildfires, to extensive and intensive agriculture, and to urban areas), and two scenarios that only involved changes in the non-forested matrix (re naturalization and intensification). Our results show that while the network of connecting elements for the species was very robust to the conversion of the forest habitat patches to different cover types, the different change scenarios in the landscape matrix could more significantly weaken its long-term validity and effectiveness. This is particularly the case when most of the key connectivity providers for the nuthatch are located outside the protected areas or public forests in Galicia, where biodiversity-friendly measures might be more easily implemented. We discuss how the methodology can be applied to

  14. Trophic interactions in changing landscapes: responses of soil food webs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedlund, K.; Griffiths, B.; Christensen, S.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Tscharntke, T.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil communities in landscapes that are rapidly changing due to a range of anthropogenic processes can be regarded as highly transient systems where interactions between competing species or trophic levels may be seriously disrupted. In disturbed communities dispersal in space and time has a role in

  15. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Change in landscape cover types and pattern within Nairobi city .... Rainfall pattern is bimodal with mean monthly rainfall peaks varying from a high of. 195 mm in April to a low of 15 mm in July (Kenya Meteorological .... Classification accuracy assessment report for Landsat satellite images of the year 1976, 1995 and 2000.

  16. US exposure to multiple landscape stressors and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; John B. Kim; Jeffrey D. Kline; Michelle A. Day

    2016-01-01

    We examined landscape exposure to wildfire potential, insects and disease risk, and urban and exurban development for the conterminous US (CONUS). Our analysis relied on spatial data used by federal agencies to evaluate these stressors nationally. We combined stressor data with a climate change exposure metric to identify when temperature is likely to depart from...

  17. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  18. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  19. Rural Landscape Change: Landscape Practices, Values and Meanings The Case of Jagatpur VDC, Chitwan Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pun, Dal Prasad

    2004-01-01

    In Nepal the nature conservation practices started during 1970s and the establishment of the Royal Chitwan National Park laid the foundation stone. Though the nature conservation practices in Nepal have undergone changes to date, from purely protective to participatory conservation at the landscape level, the rural people around the conservation areas in general have faced complicated problems due to the restriction on the use of natural resources and the encroachment and threat of wild anima...

  20. Facilitating climate change adaptation through communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaas, Erik; Gammelgaard Ballantyne, Anne; Neset, Tina Simone

    2015-01-01

    Climate change communication on anticipated impacts and adaptive responses is frequently presented as an effective means to facilitate implementation of adaptation to mitigate risks to residential buildings. However, it requires that communication is developed in a way that resonates...

  1. COMMUNICATIONAL APPROACH IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dragos Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for information and communication increases when organizations experience organizational changes. The paper examines the need of communication in terms of the professor Tichy`s theory of the technical, political and cultural systems of organizati

  2. Landscape genetics in a changing world: disentangling historical and contemporary influences and inferring change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-12-01

    Landscape genetics seeks to determine the effect of landscape features on gene flow and genetic structure. Often, such analyses are intended to inform conservation and management. However, depending on the many factors that influence the time to reach equilibrium, genetic structure may more strongly represent past rather than contemporary landscapes. This well-known lag between current demographic processes and population genetic structure often makes it challenging to interpret how contemporary landscapes and anthropogenic activity shape gene flow. Here, we review the theoretical framework for factors that influence time lags, summarize approaches to address this temporal disconnect in landscape genetic studies, and evaluate ways to make inferences about landscape change and its effects on species using genetic data alone or in combination with other data. Those approaches include comparing correlation of genetic structure with historical versus contemporary landscapes, using molecular markers with different rates of evolution, contrasting metrics of genetic structure and gene flow that reflect population genetic processes operating at different temporal scales, comparing historical and contemporary samples, combining genetic data with contemporary estimates of species distribution or movement, and controlling for phylogeographic history. We recommend using simulated data sets to explore time lags in genetic structure, and argue that time lags should be explicitly considered both when designing and interpreting landscape genetic studies. We conclude that the time lag problem can be exploited to strengthen inferences about recent landscape changes and to establish conservation baselines, particularly when genetic data are combined with other data. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Landscape Changes in Rural Areas: A Focus on Sardinian Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Balestrieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades the Italian rural landscape has undergone drastic alterations as a result of complex and contradictory transformation dynamics. This paper aims to investigate and evaluate these alterations in Sardinia, one of the most rural Italian regions. Land-use maps from different years were studied to identify the dominant rural landscape features of the region and the transformations they were subjected to over the course of time. The analysis investigates changes on three geographical scales: region, provinces, and “agrarian regions”. An overall economic balance of landscape changes was calculated from the value ascribed to types of land use on the basis of the allowances (compensation for expropriation provided by the local authorities (Provincial Commissions. This economic balance was considered in light of the regional policies which accompanied it. Results partially confirm the national and European general trend of loss of agricultural land when it is converted to new forms of exploitation. The analysis at different geographical scales has, in some cases, revealed data against the general trend, especially for some agricultural regions and for certain agricultural products. There is consistent with economic balance. This shows the need of a deep ex post evaluation of the effects of policies financed by regional and national community funds on the evolution of Sardinian landscapes.

  4. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides.

  5. The driving forces of landscape change in Europe: A systematic review of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plieninger, T.; Draux, H.; Fagerholm, N.; Bieling, C.; Bürgi, M.; Kizos, T.; Kuemmerle, T.; Primdahl, J.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, landscapes worldwide have experienced changes (e.g., urbanization, agricultural intensification, expansion of renewable energy uses) at magnitudes that put their sustainability at risk. The understanding of the drivers of these landscape changes remains challenging, partly

  6. Gastroenterology, Academic Medicine and a Changing Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Daniel K

    2015-09-14

    The forces that are reshaping the delivery of health care through much of the developed world are especially acute within academic centers that carry the responsibility for delivering that care while advancing medical knowledge and ensuring well-trained physicians. Gastroenterology will not be spared any of those forces, and in some ways represents the leading edge of their impact. Though the dynamics vary within the context of the health-care delivery and scientific enterprise of individual countries, common elements are demands for greater accountability and transparency in how academic medical centers demonstrate their value while assuring broad access to their expertise. In the United States, underlying many forms of change in the payment scheme are the common elements that will increasingly place the risk for the cost of care on providers rather than on the payers, be it government or private, as has historically been true. At the same time, academic medical centers, with gastroenterology responsible for addressing the burden of digestive diseases, must remain the stem cells for health care integrating all their missions and providing the foundation of medical advances which will ultimately improve human welfare. What will academic gastroenterology units look like if they are able to effectively respond to these forces? Gastrointestinal (GI) divisions and faculty will own new roles including responsibility for system success in caring for patients. They will evolve their training programs to provide the next generation with skills needed to succeed, including the discipline of system improvement, team leadership and others. And there will be new models that will drive the organization of research that are not as conventionally self-contained within the gastroenterology units, but fostering research teams that have hubs and spokes. The vitality of GI divisions will depend on the willingness to seize ownership of the new value proposition of disease management

  7. Changing human landscapes under a changing climate: considerations for climate assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdinan; Winkler, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a fundamental aspect of the Anthropocene. Climate assessments are frequently undertaken to evaluate climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity. Assessments are complex endeavors with numerous challenges. Five aspects of a climate assessment that can be particularly challenging are highlighted: choice of assessment strategy, incorporation of spatial linkages and interactions, the constraints of climate observations, interpretation of a climate projection ensemble, uncertainty associated with weather/climate dependency models, and consideration of landscape-climate influences. In addition, a climate assessment strategy that incorporates both traditional "top-down" and "bottom-up" methods is proposed for assessments of adaptation options at the local/regional scale. Uncertainties associated with climate observations and projections and with weather/climate dependency (i.e., response) models are incorporated into the assessment through the "top-down" component, and stakeholder knowledge and experience are included through the "bottom-up" component. Considerable further research is required to improve assessment strategies and the usefulness and usability of assessment findings. In particular, new methods are needed which better incorporate spatial linkages and interactions, yet maintain the fine grain detail needed for decision making at the local and regional scales. Also, new methods are needed which go beyond sensitivity analyses of the relative contribution of land use and land cover changes on local/regional climate to more explicitly consider landscape-climate interactions in the context of uncertain future climates. Assessment teams must clearly communicate the choices made when designing an assessment and recognize the implications of these choices on the interpretation and application of the assessment findings.

  8. Women in Academic Science: A Changing Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Williams, Wendy M

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written in the past two decades about women in academic science careers, but this literature is contradictory. Many analyses have revealed a level playing field, with men and women faring equally, whereas other analyses have suggested numerous areas in which the playing field is not level. The only widely-agreed-upon conclusion is that women are underrepresented in college majors, graduate school programs, and the professoriate in those fields that are the most mathematically intensive, such as geoscience, engineering, economics, mathematics/computer science, and the physical sciences. In other scientific fields (psychology, life science, social science), women are found in much higher percentages. In this monograph, we undertake extensive life-course analyses comparing the trajectories of women and men in math-intensive fields with those of their counterparts in non-math-intensive fields in which women are close to parity with or even exceed the number of men. We begin by examining early-childhood differences in spatial processing and follow this through quantitative performance in middle childhood and adolescence, including high school coursework. We then focus on the transition of the sexes from high school to college major, then to graduate school, and, finally, to careers in academic science. The results of our myriad analyses reveal that early sex differences in spatial and mathematical reasoning need not stem from biological bases, that the gap between average female and male math ability is narrowing (suggesting strong environmental influences), and that sex differences in math ability at the right tail show variation over time and across nationalities, ethnicities, and other factors, indicating that the ratio of males to females at the right tail can and does change. We find that gender differences in attitudes toward and expectations about math careers and ability (controlling for actual ability) are evident by kindergarten and increase

  9. Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Landscape Evolution, Fire, and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, B. S.; O Connor, C.; Falk, D. A.; Garfin, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape disturbances such as wildfire interact with climate variability to influence hydrologic regimes. We coupled landscape, fire, and hydrologic models and forced them using projected climate to demonstrate climate change impacts anticipated at Fort Huachuca in southeastern Arizona, USA. The US Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes climate change as a trend that has implications for military installations, national security and global instability. The goal of this DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project (RC-2232) is to provide decision making tools for military installations in the southwestern US to help them adapt to the operational realities associated with climate change. For this study we coupled the spatially explicit fire and vegetation dynamics model FireBGCv2 with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) to evaluate landscape vegetation change, fire disturbance, and surface runoff in response to projected climate forcing. A projected climate stream for the years 2005-2055 was developed from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) 4 km statistical downscaling of the CanESM2 GCM using Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. AGWA, an ArcGIS add-in tool, was used to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the KINematic runoff and EROSion2 (KINEROS2) models based on GIS layers. Landscape raster data generated by FireBGCv2 project an increase in fire and drought associated tree mortality and a decrease in vegetative basal area over the years of simulation. Preliminary results from SWAT modeling efforts show an increase to surface runoff during years following a fire, and for future winter rainy seasons. Initial results from KINEROS2 model runs show that peak runoff rates are expected to increase 10-100 fold as a result of intense rainfall falling on burned areas.

  10. Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the legal services revolution in the North West of England. Originally presented as a paper at a conference on Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape" hosted by Lancaster University's Centre for Law and Society on September 27, 2007. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Societ...

  11. NanoData Landscape Compilation. Information and Communication Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, J.E.M.; Buist, H.E.; Chapman, A.; Flament, G.; Hartmann, C.; Jawad, I.; Kuijpers, L.T.; Kuittinen, H.; Noyons, E.; Shukla, A.; Giessen, A.M. van der; Yegros, A.

    2017-01-01

    This report offers a snapshot of the status of the environment for nanotechnology in the context of information and communications technologies (ICT). Analysis of that environment, trends in the data, and the effects of European policies and actions on nanotechnology, will be reported in the

  12. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  13. Gardening and urban landscaping: significant players in global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Global warming leads to shifts in vegetation types in given temperate environments. The fastest species movement is due to the globalized supply and use of exotic plants in gardening and urban landscaping. These standard practices circumvent dispersal limitations and biological and environmental stresses; they have three major global impacts: (i) the enhancement of biological invasions, (ii) the elevation of volatile organic compound emissions and the resulting increase in photochemical smog formation, and (iii) the enhancement of CO(2) fixation and water use by gardened plants. These global effects, none of which are currently considered in global-change scenarios, are increasingly amplified with further warming and urbanization. We urge for quantitative assessment of the global effects of gardening and urban landscaping.

  14. Roundtable--the changing oncology landscape: evolution or revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Roy; Fox, John; Higgins, Susan A; Kohn, Martin; Mahoney, John J; Newcomer, Lee N; von Eschenbach, Andrew; Goodman, Clifford

    2013-05-01

    Complex challenges face all players in the oncology landscape, from health care policy leaders and third-party payers, to practicing physicians and nurses, to patients and their families. In these unsteady economic times, possible answers proposed by some may represent part of the problem to others. A distinguished panel assembled at the NCCN 18th Annual Conference: Advancing the Standard of Cancer Care to explore the changing oncology landscape. This article is the synopsis of that discussion, with panelists shedding light on such issues as the astronomic cost of medical care, the need for clinicians to think outside the formulary, and the therapeutic decision-making process in the new world of "big data."

  15. Modelling interactions and feedback mechanisms between land use change and landscape processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.; Schoorl, J.M.; Verburg, P.H.; Geraedts, L.; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Land use changes and landscape processes are interrelated and influenced by multiple bio-physical and socio-economic driving factors, resulting in a complex, multi-scale system. Consequently in landscapes with active landscape processes such as erosion, land use changes should not be analysed in

  16. Logics of communication and change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, Johan; van Eijck, Jan; Kooi, Barteld

    2006-01-01

    Current dynamic epistemic logics for analyzing effects of informational events often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions involving common knowledge are essential to successful multi-agent communication. We propose new systems that

  17. Placing lochs in their landscapes: linking landscape ecology, ecohydrology and conservation interest in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, M. C.; Spray, C. J.; Rowan, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Scotland is a country with outstanding freshwater systems providing multiple social, economic and cultural functions as well as ecological services of international importance. Scotland's lakes (locally termed lochs) occupy approximately 3% of the country's land mass and contain more than 90% of Great Britain's total freshwater resource. With over 25,000 lochs (surface area greater than 0.1 hectares) standing freshwaters are an iconic part of Scotland's landscape and they come in a myriad of forms and sizes contributing outstanding geodiversity as well as habitats of international importance for numerous species of conservation interest. There is undoubtedly a need to protect the conservation interests of designated sites in the face of changing loch and catchment pressures - which include diffuse pollutants, morphological modification, recreation and invasive species. Climate change presents a new set of challenges with potential impacts across the entire standing water resource base and predicting how these systems might respond to these changes greatly amplifies uncertainties implicit in their environmental management. Global climate change is predicted to be a major cause of change across all ecosystems and there are particular concerns about impacts on freshwater systems due to the coupling of impacts to both hydrology and ecology. Climate change is likely to affect the hydrological cycle in a number of ways, most significantly through changing temperature and precipitation patterns, intensities and extremes. These changes, coupled with reduced snow and ice cover, frequency and duration, will lead to changes in soil moisture conditions and subsequently runoff. This is turn will impact on river flow, loch water levels, epilimnic temperatures, nutrient availability and, subsequently, the ecological structure and function of the entire standing water system. For some species these habitat changes will push them to the very limits of their natural tolerances and a

  18. Changing landscapes to accomodate for climate change impacts: a call for landscape ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Luque, S.; Jones, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of climate change suggest major changes in temperature, rainfall as well as in frequency and timing of extreme weather, all in varying degrees and patterns around the world. Although the details of these patterns changes are still uncertain, we can be sure of profound effects on

  19. Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1986-01-01

    The avifauna of continental North America has changed dramatically since colonial times. Excessive hunting contributed, at least in part, to the extinction of birds such as the great auk (Pinguinus impennis) and passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), while more recently organochlorine insecticide residues have resulted in drastic reductions in numbers of brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) (Anderson et al. 1975) and other species. Generally, however, vertebrate populations change in direct response to changes in their habitats. For example, herring gulls (Larus argentatus) have increased in numners (Kadlec and Drury 1968) with urbanization of the New England coastline, in the same locations formerly occupied by the extinct heath hen (Tympanuchus cupido cupido). Also, passerine birds of forest interiors have declined in numbers with fragmentation of the eastern deciduous forest into small stands; this fragmentation has led to increases in numbers of edge species (Robbins 1979, Ambuel and Temple 1983). Even subtle community shifts can introduce new competitive processes that can augment population changes among species (Brittingham and Temple 1983). Such studies of broad-scale changes in vegetative communities and their influence on native wildlife species have fostered the recent topical emphasis on "conservation biology" (Soule and Wilcox 1980, Soule 1985) and "landscape ecology" (Burgess and Sharpe 1981, Harris 1984:25-43). As changes in landscapes are causing subtle (but potentially dramatic) changes in the distribution of native species, conservation biologists are finding that mere presence-absence data on populations, or even accurate information on reproductive success, is inadequate to evaluate management activities or environmental perturbations. The principles of "conservation genetics" are attracting interest in the management of natural preserves especially (Schonewald-Cox et al. 1983). Changing patterns in landscape complexion or genetic makeup

  20. Integrating spatially explicit representations of landscape perceptions into land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorning, Monica; Van Berkel, Derek B.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of ReviewHuman perceptions of the landscape can influence land-use and land-management decisions. Recognizing the diversity of landscape perceptions across space and time is essential to understanding land change processes and emergent landscape patterns. We summarize the role of landscape perceptions in the land change process, demonstrate advances in quantifying and mapping landscape perceptions, and describe how these spatially explicit techniques have and may benefit land change research.Recent FindingsMapping landscape perceptions is becoming increasingly common, particularly in research focused on quantifying ecosystem services provision. Spatial representations of landscape perceptions, often measured in terms of landscape values and functions, provide an avenue for matching social and environmental data in land change studies. Integrating these data can provide new insights into land change processes, contribute to landscape planning strategies, and guide the design and implementation of land change models.SummaryChallenges remain in creating spatial representations of human perceptions. Maps must be accompanied by descriptions of whose perceptions are being represented and the validity and uncertainty of those representations across space. With these considerations, rapid advancements in mapping landscape perceptions hold great promise for improving representation of human dimensions in landscape ecology and land change research.

  1. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  3. Climate Change Communication in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ryghaug, Marianne; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2016-01-01

    Climate change research, activities, and initiatives in Norway started relatively late, by international comparison. From the beginnings in the early 2000s, research has mainly followed two paths: First, media studies, typically focusing on traditional newspaper representations of climate change and the surrounding debate, and second, research on public perceptions of climate change. Initially, the research field was dominated by media studies and science and technology studies (STS). As clim...

  4. Urban Development in Tuscany. Land Uptake and Landscapes Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Zullo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of urban sprawl has been already recognized as one of the major anthropic threats to natural ecosystems and landscapes while the negative aspects of the phenomenon are still only marginally taken into consideration in the scientific and local government circles. The recent decision of the European Parliament points out that the degradation, fragmentation and non-sustainable use of land in the EU is jeopardizing several important ecosystem services, threatening biodiversity and increasing Europe’s vulnerability to climate change, natural disasters and desertification. The study regards the processing of data on urban land conversion over the past 50 years and the effects in the areas of high environmental vulnerability in one of the most important Italian region: Tuscany. The historical data were compared from a qualitative and quantitative viewpoint with the present-day geography of settlements, which showing changes found in today’s settlement-territorial structure. The conclusion reports focuses on collated environmental criticalities and the margins for recovery of the compromised territories that still today receive little attention from central institutions and local authorities, in addition to data on landscape effects to be construed as signs of specific trends underway today and scarcely taken into account by land management tools.

  5. Wildfire patterns and landscape changes in Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiomar, N; Godinho, S; Fernandes, P M; Machado, R; Neves, N; Fernandes, J P

    2015-12-01

    Fire is infrequent in the oak woodlands of southern Portugal (montado) but large and severe fires affected these agro-forestry systems in 2003-2005. We hypothesised transition from forest to shrubland as a fire-driven process and investigated the links between fire incidence and montado change to other land cover types, particularly those related with the presence of pioneer communities (generically designed in this context as "transitions to early-successional communities"). We present a landscape-scale framework for assessing the probability of transition from montado to pioneer communities, considering three sets of explanatory variables: montado patterns in 1990 and prior changes from montado to early-successional communities (occurred between 1960 and 1990), fire patterns, and spatial factors. These three sets of factors captured 78.2% of the observed variability in the transitions from montado to pioneer vegetation. The contributions of fire patterns and spatial factors were high, respectively 60.6% and 43.4%, the influence of montado patterns and former changes in montado being lower (34.4%). The highest amount of explained variation in the occurrence of transitions from montado to early-successional communities was related to the pure effect of fire patterns (19.9%). Low spatial connectedness in montado landscape can increase vulnerability to changes, namely to pioneer vegetation, but the observed changes were mostly explained by fire characteristics and spatial factors. Among all metrics used to characterize fire patterns and extent, effective mesh size provided the best modelling results. Transitions from montado to pioneer communities are more likely in the presence of high values of the effective mesh size of total burned area. This cross-boundary metric is an indicator of the influence of large fires in the distribution of the identified transitions and, therefore, we conclude that the occurrence of large fires in montado increases its probability of

  6. The consequences of landscape change on fishing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holt, Tracy; Crona, Beatrice; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Gelcich, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    We show how land-use change can affect fisher-harvesting behavior. We test whether fisher harvesting behavior can be predicted by landscape change patterns at local (~200km) and regional (~1200km) levels. Our data suggest that fishers harvesting in areas near tree plantations reduced benthic-invertebrate harvests in favor of demersal and pelagic finfish that are usually located further offshore. Fishers' management areas, which were near tree plantations, had higher chlorophyll-a values, and contained shellfish with more endobionts. Technology (owning a boat) and experience (age, years fishing, and alternative livelihoods) explained little in fisher-harvesting behavior. The flagship Chilean fisheries management program and seafood companies sourcing from these areas will need to respond to these new challenges. Despite complexities in designing cross-scale, social-ecological studies, we can no longer ignore the interconnectedness of commodities in the biosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contrasting spatial and temporal responses of bird communities to landscape changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthoux, Sébastien; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Goulard, Michel; Balent, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    Quantifying the impact of land-use changes on biodiversity is a major challenge in conservation ecology. Static spatial relationships between bird communities and agricultural landscapes have been extensively studied. Yet, their ability to mirror the effects of temporal land-use dynamics remains to be demonstrated. Here, we test whether such space-for-time substitution approaches are relevant for explaining temporal variations in farmland bird communities. We surveyed 256 bird communities in an agricultural landscape in southwest France at the same locations in 1982 and 2007, and quantified the same seven landscape descriptors for each period. We compared the effects of spatial and temporal landscape changes over this 25-year period on bird species distributions and three community-level metrics: species richness and two community indices reflecting birds' specialisation regarding local vegetation structure (local CSI) and landscape composition (landscape CSI). Landscape heterogeneity decreased between 1982 and 2007 and crop area increased sharply at the expense of grassland as a result of agricultural intensification. We found that the correlations between temporal changes in bird distributions or community metrics and landscape components were less consistent than their spatial relationships in each year. This result advocates caution when using a space-for-time substitution approach to assess the effects of landscape changes on biodiversity. Additionally, community metrics showed contrasted responses to landscape changes. Species richness and local CSI for each period were negatively related to the area of crops and positively related to landscape heterogeneity. Conversely, the landscape CSI was positively related to the area of crop and negatively to landscape heterogeneity. To understand the ecological processes linked to changes in farm landscapes, our study underlines the need to develop long-term studies with bird and habitat data collected during several

  8. Causality, transfer entropy, and allosteric communication landscapes in proteins with harmonic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisuleyman, Aysima; Erman, Burak

    2017-06-01

    A fast and approximate method of generating allosteric communication landscapes in proteins is presented by using Schreiber's entropy transfer concept in combination with the Gaussian Network Model of proteins. Predictions of the model and the allosteric communication landscapes generated show that information transfer in proteins does not necessarily take place along a single path, but an ensemble of pathways is possible. The model emphasizes that knowledge of entropy only is not sufficient for determining allosteric communication and additional information based on time delayed correlations should be introduced, which leads to the presence of causality in proteins. The model provides a simple tool for mapping entropy sink-source relations into pairs of residues. By this approach, residues that should be manipulated to control protein activity may be determined. This should be of great importance for allosteric drug design and for understanding the effects of mutations on function. The model is applied to determine allosteric communication in three proteins, Ubiquitin, Pyruvate Kinase, and the PDZ domain. Predictions are in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and experimental evidence. Proteins 2017; 85:1056-1064. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: Changes and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago

    2013-09-01

    Intense erosion processes are widespread in the Mediterranean region, and include sheet wash erosion, rilling, gullying, shallow landsliding, and the development of large and active badlands in both subhumid and semi-arid areas. This review analyses the main environmental and human features related to soil erosion processes, and the main factors that explain the extreme variability of factors influencing soil erosion, particularly recent land use changes. The importance of erosion in the Mediterranean is related to the long history of human activity in a region characterized by low levels of annual precipitation, the occurrence of intense rainstorms and long-lasting droughts, high evapotranspiration, the presence of steep slopes and the occurrence of recent tectonic activity, together with the recurrent use of fire, overgrazing and farming. These factors have resulted in a complex landscape in which intensification and abandonment, wealth and poverty can co-exist. The changing conditions of national and international markets and the evolution of population pressure are now the main drivers explaining land use changes, including farmland abandonment in mountain areas, the expansion of some subsidized crops to marginal lands, and the development of new terraces affected by landslides and intense soil erosion during extreme rainstorm events. The occurrence of human-related forest fires affecting thousands of hectares each year is a significant problem in both the northern and southern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Here, we highlight the rise of new scientific challenges in controlling the negative consequences of soil erosion in the Mediterranean region: 1) to reduce the effects and extent of forest fires, and restructure the spatial organization of abandoned landscapes; 2) to provide guidance for making the EU agricultural policy more adapted to the complexity and fragility of Mediterranean environments; 3) to develop field methods and models to improve the

  10. Social networks: communication and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.

  11. Temporal biodiversity change in transformed landscapes: a southern African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L

    2010-11-27

    Landscape transformation by humans is virtually ubiquitous, with several suggestions being made that the world's biomes should now be classified according to the extent and nature of this transformation. Even those areas that are thought to have a relatively limited human footprint have experienced substantial biodiversity change. This is true of both marine and terrestrial systems of southern Africa, a region of high biodiversity and including several large conservation areas. Global change drivers have had substantial effects across many levels of the biological hierarchy as is demonstrated in this review, which focuses on terrestrial systems. Interactions among drivers, such as between climate change and invasion, and between changing fire regimes and invasion, are complicating attribution of change effects and management thereof. Likewise CO(2) fertilization is having a much larger impact on terrestrial systems than perhaps commonly acknowledged. Temporal changes in biodiversity, and the seeming failure of institutional attempts to address them, underline a growing polarization of world views, which is hampering efforts to address urgent conservation needs.

  12. The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frank Edgerton

    2011-01-01

    Several of the campus heritage plans funded by the Getty Foundation served as laboratories for applying the relatively new field of cultural landscape preservation to campus planning. With a strong landscape component, the heritage plans of The University of Kansas, Cranbrook Academy, the University of California, Berkeley, and elsewhere remind…

  13. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  14. Climate Change, Innovation, and Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate development challenges affecting the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) could play a role in helping communities adapt to the impact of climate change in terms of awareness raising, information sharing, early ...

  15. The Changing Landscape of Early Childhood Education: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslip, Michael J.; Gullo, Dominic F.

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education is changing rapidly due to the dynamic nature of positive and negative trends affecting the profession. In this article, the changing landscape of early childhood education is discussed and analyzed. Both the positive and negative forces contributing to the changing landscape are examined. The focus of this discussion…

  16. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  17. Linking hunter knowledge with forest change to understand changing deer harvest opportunities in intensively logged landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd J. Brinkman; Terry Chapin; Gary Kofinas; David K. Person

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the...

  18. Climate Change, Health, and Communication: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most serious and pervasive challenges facing us today. Our changing climate has implications not only for the ecosystems upon which we depend, but also for human health. Health communication scholars are well-positioned to aid in the mitigation of and response to climate change and its health effects. To help theorists, researchers, and practitioners engage in these efforts, this primer explains relevant issues and vocabulary associated with climate change and its impacts on health. First, this primer provides an overview of climate change, its causes and consequences, and its impacts on health. Then, the primer describes ways to decrease impacts and identifies roles for health communication scholars in efforts to address climate change and its health effects.

  19. Engaging Undergraduates in Methods of Communicating Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Humphreys, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Global Climate Change has become a politically contentious issue in large part because of the failure of scientists to effectively communicate this complex subject to the general public. In a Global Change class, offered within a science department and therefore focused primarily on the underlying science, we have incorporated a citizen science module into the course to raise awareness among future scientists to the importance of communicating information to a broad and diverse audience. The citizen science component of this course focuses on how the predicted climate changes will alter the ecologic and economic landscape of the southeastern region. Helping potential scientists to learn to effectively communicate with the general public is particularly poignant for this predominate southern student body. A Pew Research Center for the People and the Press study found that less than 50% of Southerners surveyed felt that global warming is a very serious problem and over 30% of Southerners did not believe that there was any credible evidence that the Earth is warming. This interdisciplinary and topical nature of the course attracts student from a variety of disciplines, which provides the class with a cross section of students not typically found in most geology classes. This mixture provides a diversity of skills and interest that leads to success of the Citizen Science component. This learning approach was adapted from an education module developed through the Earth System Science Education Alliance and a newly developed component to that program on citizen science. Student teams developed several citizen science-related public service announcements concerning projected global change effects on Charleston and the South Carolina area. The scenario concerned the development of an information campaign for the City of Charleston, culminating with the student presentations on their findings to City officials. Through this real-life process, the students developed new

  20. Alterations to groundwater recharge due to anthropogenic landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Cao, Guoliang; Hall, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    The impacts of anthropogenic modifications to the landscape on groundwater recharge rates, locations, and mechanisms are reviewed. The two major categories of change examined are conversion of land for agriculture and urbanization, both of which have significant effects on groundwater recharge. Techniques for identifying and quantifying the changes in recharge due to these impacts are discussed. Land-clearing for agriculture and surface water transfer for irrigation have resulted in order of magnitude increases in recharge rates in many semi-arid regions worldwide, causing ongoing land and water salinization and water-logging problems. While increased recharge by irrigation return flow may alleviate shallow groundwater depletion in some settings, this is complicated by the effect of unsaturated zone thickening, which reduces the fraction of potential recharge becoming actual recharge, and may result in new water quality risks such as nitrate contamination. Expansion of urban and peri-urban land and their associated surface and sub-surface infrastructure results in complex water balance changes that re-distribute groundwater recharge locations, modify recharge mechanism(s) and result in variable impacts on recharge rates (e.g., overall net decrease, increase or minimal change) and quality. While changes to groundwater recharge resulting from conversion of land for agriculture are relatively well understood, less is documented about the changes resulting from urbanization, due to a paucity of data from field-based studies. Two case studies from Beijing, China and Melbourne Australia are examined, which highlight these impacts and demonstrate some potential methodological techniques for this topic.

  1. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  2. Integrated Research on Midwestern Landscape Change: A Program Description and Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Robert G. Haight; David S. Shriner

    2000-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station has embarked on a new integrated research and development program to identify and understand the development-related aspects of Midwestern landscape change. This paper describes the framework and scope of the Landscape Change Integrated Program and highlights projects begun during the first two years. Partnerships...

  3. Adaptation approaches for conserving ecosystems services and biodiversity in dynamic landscapes caused by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald J. Schmitz; Anne M. Trainor

    2014-01-01

    Climate change stands to cause animal species to shift their geographic ranges. This will cause ecosystems to become reorganized across landscapes as species migrate into and out of specific locations with attendant impacts on values and services that ecosystems provide to humans. Conservation in an era of climate change needs to ensure that landscapes are resilient by...

  4. Landscape Change in the Midwest: An Integrated Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Robert G. Haight; Dave Shriner

    2000-01-01

    Change happens. In the realm of forest landscapes, one of the great realizations of the late 20th century was that forests in the United States and elsewhere often are not the stable systems we once thought them to be, attaining a final "climax" stage through the process of succession. Advances in forest ecology show that landscape change is the rule rather...

  5. Co-production and modeling landscape change - successes and challenges in developing useful climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Reynolds, J.; Littell, J. S.; Murphy, K.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Breen, A. L.; Gray, S. T.; McGuire, A. D.; Rupp, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Responding to the impacts of climate change and generating information that helps inform resource management requires exceptional communication and collaboration among researchers, managers, and other stakeholders. However, there is relatively little guidance on how to practically develop, facilitate, and evaluate this process given the highly specific and localized nature of many co-production efforts in terms of information needs, research questions, partners, and associated institutions. The Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM) for Alaska and Northwest Canada was developed to understand how climate change influences interactions among disturbance (e.g. wildfire, thermokarst), permafrost, hydrology, and vegetation and identify how these changes affect valuable ecosystem services. The IEM was a unique co-production effort in that it was driven by broad management interests (rather than one research question), and because of the landscape-scale outputs, much broader engagement was warranted. Communication between the research team and the broader community of resource managers was facilitated by the Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperatives and the Alaska Climate Science Center. Team members' reflections on the project confirm the importance of deliberate approaches to collaboration, where everyone has frequent opportunities to discuss goals, assumptions, and presumed outcomes of the project itself, as well as the elements of the process (i.e. meetings, reports, etc.). However, managing these activities requires significant time, resources, and perhaps more dedicated personnel. The lessons learned from the design and application of the IEM are highly relevant to researchers and land managers in other regions that are considering the development of a similar tool or an undertaking of similar magnitude, scale, and complexity.

  6. The Landscape Change of Qiang’s Settlements in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River after Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qiang ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in China, mainly living in upper reaches of Minjiang River in southwest of China. Qiang’s traditional settlements are valuable cultural heritages. Unfortunately, most of Qiang’s settlements were damaged during Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in different degree. After the earthquake, settlements were reconstructed in different ways. The landscape of Qiang’s settlements had been changed greatly by dual influences, the destruction of earthquake and reconstruction after earthquake. Researching the changing process of Qiang’s settlements landscape has great significance to the protection of cultural heritage and the inheritance of culture, especially in the period after earthquake. At first, Qiang’s settlements are classified into five types with typology method after field research, according to the different degree of destruction and the different model of reconstruction. The five types are settlements restored to original forms in original location, settlements rebuilt to traditional forms in original location, settlements transformed to traditional forms in original location, settlements rebuilt in new location according to unified planning and settlements rebuilt in new location by villagers themselves. Secondly, the five types of settlements are compared with traditional settlements from several aspects including geographical environment, location of settlements, forms of settlements, space structure, building materials and construction technology, in order to research for the change of the landscape characteristics. Finally, the changing processes of each type of settlements landscape are analyzed. The change of villagers’ demands for settlements space are analyzed with the changes of their production model, life style, traditional customs, cultural communication, national religion and spiritual pursuit. Based on this analysis, the main factors influencing the changes of Qiang

  7. Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.; Boezeman, D.F.; Vink, M.J.; Vink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change communication in the Netherlands started in the 1950s, but it was not until the late 1970s that the issue earned a place on the public agenda, as an aspect of the energy problem, and in the shadow of controversy about nuclear energy. Driven largely by scientific reports and political

  8. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, quantitative methods of research featured prominently above qualitative methods. These trends also show that existing research approach, design and methods on climate change communication to farmers have been purely elitist and quantitative, which may be grossly inappropriate given the socio-cultural, economic ...

  9. Reassessing emotion in climate change communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel A.; Lickel, Brian; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2017-12-01

    Debate over effective climate change communication must be grounded in rigorous affective science. Rather than treating emotions as simple levers to be pulled to promote desired outcomes, emotions should be viewed as one integral component of a cognitive feedback system guiding responses to challenging decision-making problems.

  10. Interpretation of 798: Changes in Power of Representation and Sustainability of Industrial Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic transformation and urban renewal, the protection and sustainable development of urban industrial landscapes has become an important practical issue, and how to maintain the unique local culture of these landscapes is key to solving the problem. By integrating the concept of “layer” and regarding the landscape as text, this paper will investigate the representation of industrial landscapes and the process of changes in power represented by different actors through different texts from the perspective of representation. The paper selected Beijing 798 as the research area to explore the shaping of changes in the industrial landscape of 798 from a weapon manufacturing area to an arts district, creative industry park and the “pan 798” by the factory owners, government, management committee, artists, media and tourists through different presentation forms, revealing the game process of representation of powers among the coalition between artists, management committee and the government. The paper points out that in fact, the representation of industrial landscape by different actors through different texts is a process that continues to explore and define the value of landscape. However, we need to look at this when the value of the industrial landscape is no longer given by localized life practices, but rather depends on different actors to produce and reproduce the value of landscape by representation, and thereby affecting the sustainable development of industrial landscape.

  11. Monitoring Landscape Changes in Japan Using Classification of Modis Data Combined with a Landscape Transformation Sere (LTS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Ippei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Japan, with over 75% forest cover, is one of the most heavily forested countries in the world. Various types of climax forest are distributed according to latitude and altitude. At the same time, human intervention in Japan has historically been intensive, and many forest habitats show the influence of various levels of disturbance. Furthermore, Japanese landscapes are changing rapidly, and a system of efficient monitoring is needed. The aim of this research was to identify major historical trends in Japanese landscape change and to develop a system for identifying and monitoring patterns of landscape change at the national level. To provide a base for comparison, Warmth Index (WI climatic data was digitalized and utilized to map potential climax vegetation for all of Japan. Extant Land Use Information System (LUIS data were then modified and digitalized to generate national level Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC distribution maps for 1900, 1950 and 1985. In addition, MODIS data for 2001 acquired by the Tokyo University of Information Sciences were utilized for remote LU/LC classification using an unsupervised method on multi-temporal composite data. Eight classification categories were established using the ISODATA (cluster analyses method; alpine plant communities, evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, deciduous broad-leaved forest, mixed forest, arable land (irrigated rice paddy, non-irrigated, grassland, urban area, river and marsh. The results of the LUIS analyses and MODIS classifications were interpreted in terms of a Landscape Transformation Sere model assuming that under increasing levels of human disturbance the landscape will change through a series of stages. The results showed that overall forest cover in Japan has actually increased over the century covered by the data; from 72.1% in 1900 to 76.9% in 2001. Comparison of the actual vegetation and the potential vegetation as predicted by WI, however, indicated that in

  12. The changing landscape of home dialysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Matthew B; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2014-11-01

    To discuss the changing landscape of home dialysis in the United States over the past decade, including recent research on clinical outcomes in patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, and to describe the impact of recent payment reforms for patients with end-stage renal disease. Accumulating evidence supports the conclusion that clinical outcomes for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis are as good as or better than for patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. The recent implementation of the Medicare-expanded prospective payment system for the care of end-stage renal disease patients has resulted in substantial growth in the utilization of peritoneal dialysis in the United States. Utilization of home hemodialysis has also grown, but the contribution of the expanded prospective payment system to this growth is less certain. Home dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, represents an important alternative to in-center hemodialysis that is effective and patient-centered. Over the coming decade, the growth in the number of end-stage renal disease patient treated with home dialysis modalities should prompt further comparative and cost-effectiveness research, increased attention to racial and ethnic disparities, and investments in home dialysis education for both patients and providers. http://links.lww.com/CONH/A13.

  13. Estimating the Cumulative Ecological Effect of Local Scale Landscape Changes in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Labiosa, William; Pearlstine, Leonard; Hallac, David; Strong, David; Hearn, Paul; Bernknopf, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration in south Florida is a state and national priority centered on the Everglades wetlands. However, urban development pressures affect the restoration potential and remaining habitat functions of the natural undeveloped areas. Land use (LU) planning often focuses at the local level, but a better understanding of the cumulative effects of small projects at the landscape level is needed to support ecosystem restoration and preservation. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SFL EPM) is a regional LU planning tool developed to help stakeholders visualize LU scenario evaluation and improve communication about regional effects of LU decisions. One component of the SFL EPM is ecological value (EV), which is evaluated through modeled ecological criteria related to ecosystem services using metrics for (1) biodiversity potential, (2) threatened and endangered species, (3) rare and unique habitats, (4) landscape pattern and fragmentation, (5) water quality buffer potential, and (6) ecological restoration potential. In this article, we demonstrate the calculation of EV using two case studies: (1) assessing altered EV in the Biscayne Gateway area by comparing 2004 LU to potential LU in 2025 and 2050, and (2) the cumulative impact of adding limestone mines south of Miami. Our analyses spatially convey changing regional EV resulting from conversion of local natural and agricultural areas to urban, industrial, or extractive use. Different simulated local LU scenarios may result in different alterations in calculated regional EV. These case studies demonstrate methods that may facilitate evaluation of potential future LU patterns and incorporate EV into decision making.

  14. Estimating the Cumulative Ecological Effect of Local Scale Landscape Changes in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Labiosa, William; Pearlstine, Leonard; Hallac, David; Strong, David; Hearn, Paul; Bernknopf, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Ecosystem restoration in south Florida is a state and national priority centered on the Everglades wetlands. However, urban development pressures affect the restoration potential and remaining habitat functions of the natural undeveloped areas. Land use (LU) planning often focuses at the local level, but a better understanding of the cumulative effects of small projects at the landscape level is needed to support ecosystem restoration and preservation. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SFL EPM) is a regional LU planning tool developed to help stakeholders visualize LU scenario evaluation and improve communication about regional effects of LU decisions. One component of the SFL EPM is ecological value (EV), which is evaluated through modeled ecological criteria related to ecosystem services using metrics for (1) biodiversity potential, (2) threatened and endangered species, (3) rare and unique habitats, (4) landscape pattern and fragmentation, (5) water quality buffer potential, and (6) ecological restoration potential. In this article, we demonstrate the calculation of EV using two case studies: (1) assessing altered EV in the Biscayne Gateway area by comparing 2004 LU to potential LU in 2025 and 2050, and (2) the cumulative impact of adding limestone mines south of Miami. Our analyses spatially convey changing regional EV resulting from conversion of local natural and agricultural areas to urban, industrial, or extractive use. Different simulated local LU scenarios may result in different alterations in calculated regional EV. These case studies demonstrate methods that may facilitate evaluation of potential future LU patterns and incorporate EV into decision making.

  15. Changing historical flood behaviour - is there a link to landscape changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogger, Magdalena; Kiss, Andrea; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2014-05-01

    Although large-scale changes in flood behaviour are usually related to the variability and changes of climatic conditions and atmospheric patterns, human impact clearly also played an important role in changing flood behaviour by various types of river regulations and by land use changes (vegetation cover and soil conditions). The influence of land use changes on the flood regime is, however, still poorly understood. Based on scientific literature, we present the major phases of historical landscape changes of the last 1000 years in Europe discussing possible impacts on the related flood regimes. On the one hand, we provide an overview of major landscape changes and phases of changes in Europe dividing the available evidence into four major regions (Central Europe, Mediterranean, North- and West-Europe). On the other hand, we present case studies where we discuss the potential differences in the impacts of changes in specific vegetation types or the abandonment of formerly cultivated areas (with special emphasis on hilly areas) on the flood regime. In this sense, we make a special emphasis on the LIA-MWP (Little Ice Age - Medieval Warm Period) transition (i.e. 13th-15th centuries) as well as on the period of the early industrial revolution (18th-19th centuries).

  16. Local Fitness Landscapes Predict Yeast Evolutionary Dynamics in Directionally Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Florien A; Aarts, Mark G M; Zwaan, Bas J; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2018-01-01

    The fitness landscape is a concept that is widely used for understanding and predicting evolutionary adaptation. The topography of the fitness landscape depends critically on the environment, with potentially far-reaching consequences for evolution under changing conditions. However, few studies have assessed directly how empirical fitness landscapes change across conditions, or validated the predicted consequences of such change. We previously evolved replicate yeast populations in the presence of either gradually increasing, or constant high, concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), and analyzed their phenotypic and genomic changes. Here, we reconstructed the local fitness landscapes underlying adaptation to each metal by deleting all repeatedly mutated genes both by themselves and in combination. Fitness assays revealed that the height, and/or shape, of each local fitness landscape changed considerably across metal concentrations, with distinct qualitative differences between unconditionally (Cd) and conditionally toxic metals (Ni and Zn). This change in topography had particularly crucial consequences in the case of Ni, where a substantial part of the individual mutational fitness effects changed in sign across concentrations. Based on the Ni landscape analyses, we made several predictions about which mutations had been selected when during the evolution experiment. Deep sequencing of population samples from different time points generally confirmed these predictions, demonstrating the power of landscape reconstruction analyses for understanding and ultimately predicting evolutionary dynamics, even under complex scenarios of environmental change. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Changes of Bulgarian Coastal Dune Landscape under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, A.; Young, R.; Stancheva, M.; Stanchev, H.

    2012-04-01

    At one time large sand dune formations were widely distributed along the Bulgarian coast. However, due to increased urbanization in the coastal zone, the areas of total dune landscape has been constantly reduced. Dunes presently comprise only 10% of the entire 412 km long coastline of Bulgaria: they embrace a total length of 38.57 km and a total area of 8.78 km2 Important tasks in dune protection are identification of landscape changes for a certain period of time and accurate delineation of sand dune areas. The present research traces sand dune changes along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast over a 27 year period (1983-2010). This period includes also the time of expanded tourist boom and overbuilding of the coastal zone, and respectively presents the largest dune changes and reductions. Based on the landscape change analyst in GIS environment the study also aims to explore the importance of different natural and human factors in driving the observed dune alterations and destruction. To detect and assess dune changes during the last 3 decades, we used data for sand dunes derived from several sources at different time periods in order to compare changes in shoreline positions, dune contours and areas: i) Topographic maps in 1:5,000 scale from 1983; ii) Modern Very High Resolution orthophotographs from 2006 and 2010; iii) QuickBird Very High Resolution satellite images from 2009; iv) Statistical information for population and tourist infrastructure is also used to consider the influence of human pressure and hotel developments on the dune dynamics. In addition, for more detailed description and visualization of main dune types, digital photos have been taken at many parts of the Bulgarian coast. The study was performed in GIS environment. Based on the results obtained the dunes along the Bulgarian coast were divided into three main groups with relation to the general factors responsible for their alterations: i) Dunes that have decreased in result of shoreline retreat

  18. Landscape ecological security response to land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runsen; Pu, Lijie; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    As coastal development becomes a national strategy in Eastern China, land use and landscape patterns have been affected by reclamation projects. In this study, taking Rudong County, China as a typical area, we analyzed land use change and its landscape ecological security responses in the tidal flat reclamation zone. The results show that land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone is characterized by the replacement of natural tidal flat with agricultural and construction land, which has also led to a big change in landscape patterns. We built a landscape ecological security evaluation system, which consists of landscape interference degree and landscape fragile degree, and then calculated the landscape ecological security change in the tidal flat reclamation zone from 1990 to 2008 to depict the life cycle in tidal flat reclamation. Landscape ecological security exhibited a W-shaped periodicity, including the juvenile stage, growth stage, and maturation stage. Life-cycle analysis demonstrates that 37 years is required for the land use system to transform from a natural ecosystem to an artificial ecosystem in the tidal flat reclamation zone.

  19. Assessment of Landscape Changes: Theoretical Starting Points for Study and the Research Reality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Trnka, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2008), s. 2-15 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : criteria of landscape changes * landscape structures * space- time - dynamics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  20. Communicating change: the influence of information, communication, uncertainty and cynicism on readiness for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we have shown the influence of information and communication on the success of organizational change. We extended that research with the inclusion of cynical responses to top management about the change, change fatigue and turnover intentions. Methodology: This study was

  1. Changes in the U.S. tornado disaster landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Stephen Michael

    Weather disaster severity and frequency are a function of both hazard risk as well as the underlying socioeconomic settings exposed to the hazard. In general, previous studies have concentrated on how risk or vulnerability influence disaster potential, but not on the important interaction of these two disaster constituents. This dissertation examines a single hazard--the tornado--and evaluates how this hazard's evolving risk interrelates with the important human vulnerability component of residential built-environment exposure. The research assesses these interactions across the high tornado risk areas of the central and eastern U.S. from 1940 to 2100 using fine-scale demographic data and a Monte Carlo model that simulates tornado events and associated impacts on the underlying exposed landscape. This investigation reveals that as the built-environment grows and spreads outward across the landscape over time, tornado impact severity and frequency also increases. Results indicate that although the Midwest contains the greatest societal exposure and the Central Plains region encompasses the highest tornado risk, the Southeast has the greatest probability of tornado disaster. This finding is attributed to the relatively elevated tornado risk and high-density developed land area that characterizes the Mid-South. Disaster potential within the U.S. is also projected to increase as much as 36 fold from 1940 to 2100 due to escalating built-environment development and its spatial footprint in at-risk regions. Additional study findings suggest that it is not solely the built-environment magnitude that controls tornado disaster potential; rather the geographic structure, shape, and density of the built environment is also important in determining a region's tornado disaster potential. In general, enlarging (i.e., enhancing sprawl) developed land area increases tornado impact severity, while restricting land use into a more concentrated land use pattern lowers the odds of

  2. Is nuance possible in climate change communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the core challenges of climate communication is finding the balance between honestly portraying the science, with all its complexity, and effectively engaging the audience. At a time when all politics are partisan and the media measures value in clicks, complicated stories can become black-and-white. This loss of nuance is acute in tales told of climate change impacts in the developing world, particularly in the low-lying island states of the Pacific. Atoll countries like Kiribati, Tuvalu, the Marshall Islands and the Maldives are certainly existentially threatened by climate change and sea-level rise. Yet the islands and their residents are also more resilient than the dramatic headlines about sinking islands would have you think. Casting the people as helpless victims, however well-intentioned, can actually hurt their ability to respond to climate change. This presentation examines the risks and benefits of providing such nuance on a climate issue that the public and policy-makers generally view as black-and-white. Drawing on efforts a decade of research in Kiribati and other small island developing states in the Pacific, I describe how a mix of cultural differences, geopolitics, and the legacy of colonialism has made the Pacific Islands a narrative device in a western discussion about climate change. I then describe in detail the challenging process of writing a popular magazine story which questions that narrative - but not the long-term threat of sea-level rise - and the personal and political aftermath of its publication. Building upon this humbling experience and findings from psychology, communications and science and technology studies, I outline the key benefits and risks of engaging publicly with the nuances of a climate change issue, and provide a template for effectively communicating nuance in a politically charged atmosphere.

  3. Scholarly Publishing's Evolving Landscape: Impact Metrics, Electronic-Only Journals, and Open Access in Journalism and Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antell, Karen; Foote, Joe S.; Foote, Jody Bales

    2016-01-01

    This study surveys the landscape of scholarly publishing, with particular emphasis on scholarly journals in the communication discipline, measuring the shift to electronic publishing in six selected disciplines and exploring two other important emerging topics: open-access publishing and new journal citation metrics. The goals are to inform…

  4. Human activity and landscape change at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, central Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiverrell, R. C.; Archibald, Z.

    2009-04-01

    The Classical and early Hellenistic settlement located at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, near Vetren, in the centre of ancient Thrace, is somewhat unusual in displaying well-preserved evidence for the commercial and cultural interactions associated with a river port. The settlement evolved through a series of phases, with traces of activity emerging around the beginning of the fifth, advancing to a progressive close in the second century BCE. The settlement at Adjiyska Vodenitsa owed its raison d'être to river traffic, with the river as the primary means for importing commodities (non-local amphorae and roof tiles). The Pistiros inscription indicates that overland traffic was also important, presumably over the Rhodopes Mountains to the south. The relationship between the site and the Maritsa River is thus important. Located towards the head of the Maritsa basin downstream of the Momina Klissoura gorge near Belovo, the settlement is perched on a steeply-edged toe of the Vetren tributary alluvial fan, with the bluff trimmed by the migrating River Maritsa. The site is c.12-14 metres above the current bed of the River Maritsa, high and dry away from contemporary flooding, intriguing given evidence for flooding during occupation. The fluvial system has clearly been dynamic and changed much during the last 3000 years. Changes in the Maritsa have been constrained with radiocarbon ages obtained for two fan terrace levels. Active channel and overbank environments of the higher B1 terrace are dated to c. 520-400 cal. BC and provide a terminus post quem for the incision to the lower terrace (B2). The radiocarbon dating of basal contexts from the lower terrace palaeo-channels provides a terminus ante quem for abandonment of the higher terrace of cal. AD 1010-1150. Thus basal lowering and a shift to greater lateral channel activity appear to coincide with the abandonment of Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Upstream of the Momina Klissoura Gorge evidence for heightened geomorphic activity probably

  5. Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern and Vulnerability Analysis in Qingyi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Xie, Chaoying; He, Xiaohui; Guo, Hengliang; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Environmental vulnerability research is one of the core areas of global environmental change research. Over the past 10 years, ecologically fragile zones or transition zones had been significantly affected by environmental degradation and climate change and human activities. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability degree in Qingyi River Basin by calculating the landscape sensitivity index and landscape restoration degree index based on Landsat images of 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) The top conversion area was farmland, woodland and grassland area decreased, city land and rural residential land increased fastest. (2) The fragility of the landscape pattern along the Qingyi River gradually increased between 2005 and 2015, the downstream area was influenced by the influence of human activities. (3) Landscape pattern changes and fragility are mainly affected by urbanization. These findings are helpful for understanding the evolution of landscape pattern as well as urban ecology, which both have significant implications for urban planning and minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization in Qingyi River Basin.

  6. Recent changes in Central European landscapes: An integrative ecological approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, Jan; Kučera, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 3-6 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : integrative ecological approach * transdisciplinarity * interdisciplinarity * landscape ecology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  7. The Changing Landscape of Grading Systems in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven B.; Leidman, Mary Beth; Longcore, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The following study explores the landscape of grading systems utilised in higher education, focusing on the frequency of different types of assessment scales (including Straight Letter, Plus/Minus, and other alternative policies). Although numerous studies have explored the relationship between university grading system and student behaviour,…

  8. Plant invaders, global change and landscape restoration | Pyke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restoration may provide a mechanism for ameliorating the impacts of invasive species, but applications of restoration practices over large scales, e.g. ecoregions, will yield benefits earlier when the landscape is prioritised by criteria that identify locations where critical restoration species can grow and where success will be ...

  9. Communicating climate change adaptation information using web-based platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Eleni; Mattern, Kati

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate progress in climate change adaptation policy and practice, it is important not only to ensure the production of accurate, comprehensive and relevant information, but also the easy, timely and affordable access to it. This can contribute to better-informed decisions and improve the design and implementation of adaptation policies and other relevant initiatives. Web-based platforms can play an important role in communicating and distributing data, information and knowledge that become constantly available, reaching out to a large group of potential users. Indeed in the last decade there has been an extensive increase in the number of platforms developed for this purpose in many fields including climate change adaptation. This short paper concentrates on the web-based adaptation platforms developed in Europe. It provides an overview of the recently emerged landscape, examines the basic characteristics of a set of platforms that operate at national, transnational and European level, and discusses some of the key challenges related to their development, maintenance and overall management. Findings presented in this short paper are discussed in greater detailed in the Technical Report of the European Environment Agency Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe.

  10. How landscape ecology informs global land-change science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey L. Mayer; Brian Buma; Am??lie Davis; Sara A. Gagn??; E. Louise Loudermilk; Robert M. Scheller; Fiona K.A. Schmiegelow; Yolanda F. Wiersma; Janet Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Landscape ecology is a discipline that explicitly considers the influence of time and space on the environmental patterns we observe and the processes that create them. Although many of the topics studied in landscape ecology have public policy implications, three are of particular concern: climate change; land use–land cover change (LULCC); and a particular type of...

  11. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  12. Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Talking Climate Science in a Changing Media Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    Founded in 2008 by leading scientists and communications experts at Princeton, Yale and Stanford, Climate Central brings together award-winning journalists and internationally recognized scientists to report the science and impacts of climate change through its research and journalism programs. Climate Central works to tackle the misperception that climate change is a distant thing - affecting other people and other places - by demonstrating the local and personal impacts of global warming. This talk will focus on describing three important Climate Central initiatives. First, our Climate Matters program delivers localized climate information at the regional and local level to weathercasters around the U.S., providing ready-to-use, broadcast quality graphics and analyses that put climate change in a local context. After three years, the program has grown from a pilot with just one TV meteorologist in Columbia, South Carolina to a network of more than 150 weathercasters across the country. Climate Central was also closely involved in the development and production of Years of Living Dangerously - a 9-part global warming documentary that premiered in April 2014. Finally, the World Weather Attribution project is a new initiative that aims to identify the human fingerprint in certain types of extreme weather events, including sea level rise and its contribution to storm surges, extreme heat events, heavy rainfall events/flooding, and drought. Our goal is to objectively and transparently assess certain extreme events and equip journalists and scientists with the tools to provide the larger global warming context in real-time while there is still media interest.

  14. Climate change - The Macedonia's First National Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto; Azhievska, Maja

    2003-01-01

    Climate change impacts, consequences and concerns of the international community; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Activities in the Republic of Macedonia, establishing the Climate Change Project Unit within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and the National Climate Change Committee. Preparation of the Macedonia's First National Communications under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Analyzing on the thematic areas of the Nationals Communications. The inventory of greenhouse gases(GHG) emissions was prepared according to IPCC Guidelines (IPCC), taking into consideration the three main GHGs:carbondioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O). The main sources of CO 2 emissions are the electricity production, the production and the transport. GHG abatement analysis and projections of emissions are prepared in accordance to the Macedonian economy and possibilities for development. The analysis of the energy sector is elaborated in a most advanced way, especially regarding the electricity production. According to the IS92a scenario (prepared by IPCC) the average annual temperature in Macedonia could arise for 4,6 o C by 2100, and the average summer temperature could arise for 5.1 o C. The average sum of precipitation will decrease for 6.3% in 2100, but the most alarming is the sum of precipitation in summer, which could decrease for 2.5%. Venerability assessment and adaptation measures are elaborated in the following sectors: agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, water resources and human health. The National Action Plan sets out the objectives and initial points for undertaking measures, contributing to the reduction of GHG emissions at national level. (Author)

  15. Changing the Ecology of Climate Communication in Your Organization (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, L.; Lewenstein, B.

    2013-12-01

    have become more climate literate and engaged. Having a central entity that brings together the talents of scientists from multiple disciplines is a huge boost to understanding and responding to the changing communication landscape. We will discuss direct ways the scientific community can engage their organization and the public (or more targeted stakeholders) in an integrated and circular pattern of science information delivery. We will also look at indirect methods for raising general awareness of climate change and increasing organizational buy-in, such as harnessing the multi-disciplinary motivation to be energy efficient (nearly all businesses and NGOs) or meet public climate/carbon-reduction commitments (Universities.)

  16. Downscaling of land use change scenarios to assess the dynamics of European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Schulp, C.J.E.; Witte, N.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Europe's rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian structure are likely to have a large impact on landscape quality

  17. Downscaling of land use change scenarios to assess the dynamics of European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, C. J E; De Witte, N.A.J.; Veldkamp, A.

    Europe's rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian structure are likely to have a large impact on landscape quality

  18. Geographical information and landscape history in tourism communication in the age of Web 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Christian; Liburd, Janne J.

    2008-01-01

    and dissemination to specific visitor groups. Due to a contested history and controversial designation of the area as a national park it is argued that caution must be taken in the interpretation and communication of especially historical maps and population data. Three possible user scenarios centered on visitor......Maps and other location-based information have traditionally played an important role in the choice of holiday destination and the selection of sites to visit. Recently new technologies have changed the pattern of tourist information search and use, notably the Internet, mobile communications......-foremost cellular telephony-and Global Positioning System (GPS). Focusing on a national park in the U.S. Virgin Islands, we take stock of available geographic data and their potential use in tourist communication. It is argued that Internet-based neogeography offers strong potential for multilayered interpretation...

  19. The Vigil Network: A means of observing landscape change in drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Emmett, W.W.; Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1991-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of geomorphic, hydrological, and biological characteristics of landscapes provides an effective means of relating observed change to possible causes of the change. Identification of changes in basin characteristics, especially in arid areas where the response to altered climate or land use is generally rapid and readily apparent, might provide the initial direct indications that factors such as global warming and cultural impacts have affected the environment. The Vigil Network provides an opportunity for earth and life scientists to participate in a systematic monitoring effort to detect landscape changes over time, and to relate such changes to possible causes. The Vigil Network is an ever-increasing group of sites and basins used to monitor landscape features with as much as 50 years of documented geomorphic and related observations.

  20. Dynamic change of landscape patterns of Momoge wetland in the last two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guanglei; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Yeqiao; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Zhao, Jianjun

    2009-10-01

    Wetland degradation and its negative effect have long been considered as a hot yet complicated topic. Therefore, it has significance to research landscape patterns and their dynamic changes. Based on Landsat-5 TM data in 1988, 2001, 2007 respectively, the dynamic change of landscape patterns in last two decades is quantitatively analyzed by conversion matrix, landscape index model and centroid model for Momoge National Natural Reserve. The results are as followed: (1) the area of farmland increased from 29594.934 hm2 to 34002.354hm2 during 1988-2007, but the wetland area decreased from 68635.274 hm2 to 59356.598hm2 simultaneously. (2) Human and climate interference caused the change of landscape patterns. In all three periods, landscape patterns of wetland became more fragmentized and the patch counts were 160, 88, 91 respectively. The SHDI was 1.932, 1.770, 1.772 and SHEI was 0.879, 0806, 0.807 respectively. The entironment of Momoge wetland worsened gradually, but the rate of degradation mitigated in some sort since 2001. (3) Decrease of wetland area resulted in a shift of wetland landscape patterns centroid southeastward by 4454.95 meters.

  1. The role of agricultural engineering in the management of landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fumagalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape represents the “sensory aspect” of the land and as such it can be appreciated by all the five senses: sight, smelling, hearing, touch and taste. At the same time, landscape evolves over time and its value – ecological, economical and affective – changes as its constitutive elements change. Engineering can help “to drive” this evolution addressing it towards a condition of balance between individual and community requirements, especially referred to the effect of technological development on landscape. This effect can be referred to three dimensions: perceptive, functional and symbolic dimensions. The possible contribution to the management of landscape changes concerns all the three historic souls of Agricultural Engineering; in particular, Agricultural Hydraulics deals with the topic of landscape referring to both irrigation and the possible recreational use of canal systems; Agricultural Engineering determines plot form and size and woodland view; Rural Building deals with both the recovery of existing buildings and the design and making of new ones and their fitting in the landscape; moreover, the sector has developed new methods for the evaluation and the planning of rural land resources, especially about agriculture and forestry productivity, ecological stability and visual quality of rural land itself.

  2. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Vaissière, Bernard E; Cane, James H; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Cunningham, Saul A; Kremen, Claire; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-02-07

    The extent of our reliance on animal pollination for world crop production for human food has not previously been evaluated and the previous estimates for countries or continents have seldom used primary data. In this review, we expand the previous estimates using novel primary data from 200 countries and found that fruit, vegetable or seed production from 87 of the leading global food crops is dependent upon animal pollination, while 28 crops do not rely upon animal pollination. However, global production volumes give a contrasting perspective, since 60% of global production comes from crops that do not depend on animal pollination, 35% from crops that depend on pollinators, and 5% are unevaluated. Using all crops traded on the world market and setting aside crops that are solely passively self-pollinated, wind-pollinated or parthenocarpic, we then evaluated the level of dependence on animal-mediated pollination for crops that are directly consumed by humans. We found that pollinators are essential for 13 crops, production is highly pollinator dependent for 30, moderately for 27, slightly for 21, unimportant for 7, and is of unknown significance for the remaining 9. We further evaluated whether local and landscape-wide management for natural pollination services could help to sustain crop diversity and production. Case studies for nine crops on four continents revealed that agricultural intensification jeopardizes wild bee communities and their stabilizing effect on pollination services at the landscape scale.

  3. Communication in a Changing World: Contemporary Perspectives on Business Communication Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Jennifer; Durante, Cathryn; Helmuth, Briana; Marcia, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Communication in and around business organizations has changed due to new technologies, the demand for intercultural communication skills, the changing person-organization relationship, and the global nature of organizing. As a result, new communication competencies may be required. The author's objective was to identify specific communication…

  4. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webinar series on communications strategies and methods addresses how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  5. The cultural evolution of democracy: saltational changes in a political regime landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Jansson, Fredrik; Sandberg, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes. Socio-economic changes, such as increases in per capita GNP, education levels, urbanization and communication, have traditionally been found to be correlates or 'requisites' of democratic reform. However, transition times and the number of reform steps have not been studied comprehensively. Here we show that historically, transitions to democracy have mainly occurred through rapid leaps rather than slow and incremental transition steps, with a median time from autocracy to democracy of 2.4 years, and overnight in the reverse direction. Our results show that autocracy and democracy have acted as peaks in an evolutionary landscape of possible modes of institutional arrangements. Only scarcely have there been slow incremental transitions. We discuss our results in relation to the application of phylogenetic comparative methods in cultural evolution and point out that the evolving unit in this system is the institutional arrangement, not the individual country which is instead better regarded as the 'host' for the political system.

  6. Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in a Changing Media Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.......” In this introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations...... of “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique...

  7. "Single-minded, compelling, and unique": visual communications, landscape, and the calculated aesthetic of place branding

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Place branding strategies play a significant role in the professional composition of landscape imagery, including the depiction of “natural” landscapes. In this paper, Brand Blue Mountains, a brand currently implemented in the Blue Mountains region (Australia), is discursively analyzed. The brand sets out an all-encompassing “Vision” defining the identity, values and personality of the World Heritage listed Blue Mountains landscape, summarized in the tagline Elevate Your Senses. This “vision”...

  8. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon's diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the

  9. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiao

    Full Text Available Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc. and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China, in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon's diversity index and aggregation index and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall

  10. Exploring the links between forest transition and landscape changes in the Mediterranean. Does forest recovery really lead to better landscape quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Marull López, Joan; Otero Armengol, Iago; Stefanescu, Constantí; Tello, Enric; Miralles Cassina, Marta; Coll, Francesc; Pons Sanvidal, Manel; Diana, Giovanna L.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies argue that forest transition should be enhanced by policymakers given its potential benefits, for instance in slowing climate change through carbon sequestration. Yet the effects of forest transition in landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity remain poorly understood. In this paper we explore the relationships between the forest transition and the landscape changes occurred in a Mediterranean mountain area. Historical land-use maps were built from cadastral cartog...

  11. Interpreting landscape change in high mountains of northeastern Oregon from long-term repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin; Gerald S. Strickler; Jesse L. Peterson; Arthur W. Sampson

    2001-01-01

    We compared 45 photographs taken before 1925 to photographs taken as late as 1999 and documented landscape changes above 5,000 feet elevation in the Wallowa, Elkhorn, and Greenhorn Mountains of northeastern Oregon. We noted the following major changes from these comparisons: (1) the expansion of subalpine fir into mountain grasslands, (2) the invasion of moist and wet...

  12. From hiking through farmland to farming in a leisure landscape: changing social perceptions of the European landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Pedroli, B.; Luginbühl, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The idea that landscape has been created by human activities on a biophysical basis allows for clear cause-effect reasoning. However, landscape planning and management practice learns that it is impossible to neglect the social perception of landscape, i.e. the ways people think about nature and

  13. Communicating Climate Change: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K. A.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    which it was honed. We were clever enough to figure out how to tap into the rich supply of carbon-based fuels left us by the prolific Paleozoic. The question now is whether we are sagacious enough to find way of keeping the lights on that does not undermine the very ecological conditions that made our evolution possible. There will be no miracles, except the miracle of human creativity itself, but this could be miracle enough for the very nature of creativity is solve problems by stepping outside assumed parameters. Innovation can't be managed but it can be fostered like any other evolved human capacity. Above all else we need to give human ingenuity room and means to operate. This is far more important than advocating any particular solutions that currently present themselves (though that should be done, too). We have to talk openly about the barriers to innovation such as vested interests (corporate, academic, political), entrenched assumptions and conceptual blockages of many sorts, and the near-total lack of mechanisms for financing the social and technological innovations we need. People need to be reminded again and again that those past cultures which survived ecological upheavals were the ones willing to tolerate change. In sum: the most salient thing to communicate is the need for ingenuity in fostering ingenuity.

  14. Developmental dynamics of Ambystoma tigrinum in a changing landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMenamin Sarah K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of pond habitat is catastrophic to aquatic larval amphibians, but even reduction in the amount of time a breeding site holds water (hydroperiod can influence amphibian development and limit reproductive success. Using the landscape variation of a glacial valley in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem as the context for a natural experiment, we examined variation in growth pattern and life history of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum and determined how these developmental characteristics varied with hydroperiod over several summers. Results In ponds that dried early in the season, maximum larval size was reduced relative to the sizes achieved in permanent ponds. Ephemeral ponds were associated with early metamorphosis at small body sizes, while permanent ponds facilitated longer larval periods and later metamorphosis. Paedomorphosis resulted from indefinite metamorphic postponement, and was identified only in the most permanent environments. Patterns of growth and allometry were similar between ponds with different hydroperiods, but considerable life history variation was derived from modulating the timing of and size at metamorphosis. Considering maximum rates of growth and inferring the minimum size at metamorphosis across 25 ponds over the course of three years, we calculated that hydroperiods longer than three months are necessary to support these populations through metamorphosis and/or reproductive maturity. Conclusions Landscape heterogeneity fosters life history variation in this natural population. Modulation of the complex ambystomatid life cycle allows this species to survive in unpredictable environments, but current trends towards rapid pond drying will promote metamorphosis at smaller sizes and could eliminate the paedomorphic phenotype from this region. Metamorphosis at small size is has been linked to altered fitness traits, including reduced survival and fecundity. Thus, widespread

  15. The influence of changes in land use and landscape patterns on soil erosion in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Li, Yueqiang; Yi, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to have a good understanding of the relation between soil erosion and landscape patterns so that soil and water conservation in river basins can be optimized. In this study, this relationship was explored, using the Liusha River Watershed, China, as a case study. A distributed water and sediment model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was developed to simulate soil erosion from different land use types in each sub-basin of the Liusha River Watershed. Observed runoff and sediment data from 1985 to 2005 and land use maps from 1986, 1995, and 2000 were used to calibrate and validate the model. The erosion modulus for each sub-basin was calculated from SWAT model results using the different land use maps and 12 landscape indices were chosen and calculated to describe the land use in each sub-basin for the different years. The variations in instead of the absolute amounts of the erosion modulus and the landscape indices for each sub-basin were used as the dependent and independent variables, respectively, for the regression equations derived from multiple linear regression. The results indicated that the variations in the erosion modulus were closely related to changes in the large patch index, patch cohesion index, modified Simpson's evenness index, and the aggregation index. From the regression equation and the corresponding landscape indices, it was found that watershed erosion can be reduced by decreasing the physical connectivity between patches, improving the evenness of the landscape patch types, enriching landscape types, and enhancing the degree of aggregation between the landscape patches. These findings will be useful for water and soil conservation and for optimizing the management of watershed landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. "Educational Landscaping": A Method for Raising Awareness about Language and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarvaglieri, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces "Educational Landscaping" (EL) as a measure of qualification in educational institutions to support the development of teachers' language awareness (LA). In EL, participating teachers are invited to investigate, analyse and, if necessary, adapt the linguistic landscape of their educational institution. The article…

  17. Susceptibility of pollinators to ongoing landscape changes depends on landscape history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; van Loon, E.E.; Reemer, M.; WallisDeVries, M.F.; Carvalheiro, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Pollinators play an important role in ecosystem functioning, affecting also crop production. Their decline may hence lead to serious ecological and economic impacts, making it essential to understand the processes that drive pollinator shifts in space and time. Land-use changes are thought to be

  18. Change Ringing - communicating climate change through contemporary classical music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ravi; Osborn, Laurence; Shenai, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Change Ringing is a collaborative artwork by artist Peter Shenai and composer Laurence Osborn that forms around a playable sculpture and a large-scale composition. The sculpture incorporates a set of six bronze bells designed and cast by artist Peter Shenai. Their shapes are mathematically derived from graphic statistical representations of summer temperatures at seventeen-year intervals over the course of the twentieth century. Arranged according to the chronology of their corresponding data sets and struck in order, the bells voice a series of inharmonic spectra that communicate sonically the story of climate change during the twentieth century. This series forms the basis for Laurence Osborn's twenty-five minute composition, scored for string orchestra and the bells themselves. In Change Ringing, an artwork that combines music, sculpture, performance, and ritual, we want to move audiences and, in doing so, facilitate their engagement with ideas that are highly relevant today. We believe that the medium of musically organized sound, so often wrongly dismissed as "abstract" and non-referential, can be a more than adequate reflection of lived human experience in the 21st Century, and we work in the hope that Change Ringing will connect with contemporary audiences on the most fundamental level.

  19. ANALYSES OF LANDSCAPE GEOGRAPHIC IMPACTS OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER CSORBA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Change of climate can be a remarkable turning point in the 21st century history of mankind. An important task of landscape geographic research is forecasting environmental, nature protection, land use demands and helping mitigation of disadvantageous processes from the aspect of society. ALADIN and REMO numeric climate models predict strong warming and lack of summer precipitation for the area of Hungary for the period between 2021 and 2100. There is a predictedgrowth in frequency of extreme weather events (heat waves, droughts hailstorms. Changes have been forecasted using data presented in table 1. For analyses of complex landscape geographic impacts ofclimate change the area of Hungary have been divided into 18 mesoregions with 5.000-10.000 km2 area each (figure 1. The main aspect of choosing the regions was that they should have homogeneousphysical, geographic and land use endowments and, for this reason, they should react to climate change the same way. Relationships between landscape forming factors and meteorological elementsexamined by us have been taken into consideration. Results of analyses of impacts of the meteorological factors on the changes of relief through the mass movements are presented in this paper. Changes of landscape sensibility of mesoregions to mass movements have been presented in the last chapter for the periods between 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 according to numeric climate models.

  20. Forestry education in a changing landscape: emerging lessons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical changes in forestry include: the conceptualisation of forests and forestry as complex soft systems; the changing roles of public and private sectors, and of civil society; the changing social, economic and environmental values of different sorts of forests; and the globalisation and commoditisation of many forest ...

  1. Climate as an agent of change in forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Stephen N. Matthews; Matthew P. Peters

    2014-01-01

    Climate is the primary force that controls forest composition and the broad-scale distribution of forests. The climate has always been changing, but the changes now underway are different—they are faster and they are intermingled with other disturbances promoted by increasing human pressures. The projected climate change during the twenty-first century will...

  2. E-commerce in healthcare: changing the traditional landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A K; Travers, S

    2001-01-01

    The healthcare industry, with more than one trillion dollars in revenue, accounts for about one-seventh of the U.S. economy. A significant portion of this revenue is lost to escalating healthcare system costs. This article examines the shortcomings of the traditional healthcare delivery system in terms of information flow, communication standards, case collections, and IT spending. It makes the case that e-commerce has the ability to transact some healthcare business more efficiently and cost-effectively. With the Internet as a delivery platform, several models offer improvement over the status quo.

  3. Rural Districts between Urbanization and Land Abandonment: Undermining Long-Term Changes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates changes in the rural landscapes of a Mediterranean country (Greece over a long time period (1970–2015 encompassing economic expansions and recessions. Using a spatial distribution of 5 basic agricultural land-use classes (arable land, garden crop, vineyards, tree crop and fallow land derived from official statistics at 6 years (1970, 1979, 1988, 1997, 2006, 2015, a quantitative analysis based on correlation and multivariate techniques was carried out to identify recent changes in the Greek agricultural landscape at prefectural level during different economic waves. Empirical results evidenced both intuitive and counter-intuitive landscape transformations, including: (i a progressive, spatially-homogeneous reduction of cropland; (ii a (more or less rapid decrease in the surface of high-input crops, including arable land, horticulture and vineyards; (iii a parallel increase in the surface of tree crops, especially olive; (iv a spatially-heterogeneous decrease of fallow land concentrated in metropolitan and tourism districts, especially in the last decade; and, finally, (v increasingly diversified landscapes in rural, accessible areas close to the sea coast. Based on a correlation analysis with background socioeconomic indicators, our findings reflect the multiple impacts of urbanization and land abandonment on the composition and diversity of rural landscapes. Changes in agricultural land-use were moulded by multiple drivers depending on latent transformations in rural systems and inherent conflicts with expanding urban regions. Together with market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy subsidy regime, social contexts and the economic cycle are important when identifying long-term changes in agricultural landscapes, especially in transitional socio-ecological systems.

  4. Using Landsat imagery to detect, monitor, and project net landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Ryan R.; Sohl, Terry L.; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed landscape information is a necessary component to bird habitat conservation planning. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has been providing information on the Earth’s surface for over 40 years via the continuous series of Landsat satellites. In addition to operating, processing, and disseminating satellite images, EROS is the home to nationwide and global landscape mapping, monitoring, and projection products, including:National Land Cover Database (NLCD) – the definitive land cover dataset for the U.S., with updates occurring at five-year intervals;Global Land Cover Monitoring – producing 30m resolution global land cover;LANDFIRE – Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools–EROS is a partner in this joint program between U.S. Department of Agriculture and Department of Interior that produces consistent, comprehensive, geospatial data and databases that describe vegetation, wildland fuel, and fire regimes across the U.S.;Land Cover Trends – a landscape monitoring and assessment effort to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land use and land cover change; andLand Use and Land Cover (LULC) Modeling – a project extending contemporary databases of landscape change forward and backward in time through moderate-resolution land cover projections.

  5. The Communication Between Children and Female College Students : The Change of Recognition of The Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 文; Aya, Fujita

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the communication between children and female college students. Female college students responded to a questionnaire asking about the recognition of children, the communication skills with them and the confidence of communication with them before and after the observing practice. The results showed that their recognition of communication skills changed after the observing practice. This result indicated that the observing practice effects on the st...

  6. Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security, and identified the hotspots of land use change. Afterward, we quantitatively investigated the degree of land use development and landscape ecological risk patterns that have occured since 2000 and that are expected to occur until 2030. Results revealed that, under the three scenarios, construction land and forest are expanding mainly at the expense of agriculture land and grassland. The hotspots of land use change are located in the vicinity of Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District of Chengde City in the midstream of the Luanhe River Basin, where urbanization has been strong since 2000 and is projected to continue that way until 2030. During this time period, hotspots of land use development have been gradually transferring from the downstream to the midstream since 2000 and, again, is expected to continue that way until 2030, which will impact the spatial distribution of landscape ecological risk. We found that the landscape ecological risk of the entire basin has shown a negative trend. However, a few areas still have serious ecological risk, which are mainly located in the east of upstream (Duolun County and Weichang County, the middle region (Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District, Chengde County, and Xinglong County, and the downstream (Qinglong County. These can provide key information for land use management, and for helping to prepare future eco-environmental policies in the Luanhe River Basin.

  7. Changes in Landscape Greenness and Climatic Factors over ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring and quantifying changes in vegetation cover over large areas using remote sensing can be achieved using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of greenness. However, distinguishing gradual shifts in NDVI (e.g. climate change) versus direct and rapid changes (e.g., fire, land development) is challenging as changes can be confounded by time-dependent patterns, and variation associated with climatic factors. In the present study we leveraged a method, that we previously developed for a pilot study, to address these confounding factors by evaluating NDVI change using autoregression techniques that compare results from univariate (NDVI vs. time) and multivariate analyses (NDVI vs. time and climatic factors) for ~7,660,636 1-km2 pixels comprising the 48 contiguous states of the USA, over a 25-year period (1989−2013). NDVI changed significantly for 48% of the nation over the 25-year in the univariate analyses where most significant trends (85%) indicated an increase in greenness over time. By including climatic factors in the multivariate analyses of NDVI over time, the detection of significant NDVI trends increased to 53% (an increase of 5%). Comparisons of univariate and multivariate analyses for each pixel showed that less than 4% of the pixels had a significant NDVI trend attributable to gradual climatic changes while the remainder of pixels with a significant NDVI trend indicated that changes were due to direct factors. Whi

  8. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  9. IMS Learning Design: How specifications could change the current e-learning landscape (in russian)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Berbegal, Nidia; Griffiths, David; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Please refer to the original article: Burgos, D., Berbegal, N., Griffiths, D., Tattersall, C., Koper, Rob. (2005) IMS Learning Design: How specifications could change the current e-learning landscape, in e-Learning World, issue 2, March-April 2005. ISSN: 1811-069X. Moscow: Moscow State University

  10. Fine-scale genetic response to landscape change in a gliding mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross L Goldingay

    Full Text Available Understanding how populations respond to habitat loss is central to conserving biodiversity. Population genetic approaches enable the identification of the symptoms of population disruption in advance of population collapse. However, the spatio-temporal scales at which population disruption occurs are still too poorly known to effectively conserve biodiversity in the face of human-induced landscape change. We employed microsatellite analysis to examine genetic structure and diversity over small spatial (mostly 1-50 km and temporal scales (20-50 years in the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis, a gliding mammal that is commonly subjected to a loss of habitat connectivity. We identified genetically differentiated local populations over distances as little as 3 km and within 30 years of landscape change. Genetically isolated local populations experienced the loss of genetic diversity, and significantly increased mean relatedness, which suggests increased inbreeding. Where tree cover remained, genetic differentiation was less evident. This pattern was repeated in two landscapes located 750 km apart. These results lend support to other recent studies that suggest the loss of habitat connectivity can produce fine-scale population genetic change in a range of taxa. This gives rise to the prediction that many other vertebrates will experience similar genetic changes. Our results suggest the future collapse of local populations of this gliding mammal is likely unless habitat connectivity is maintained or restored. Landscape management must occur on a fine-scale to avert the erosion of biodiversity.

  11. Changing tree composition by life history strategy in a grassland-forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He

    2014-01-01

    After rapid deforestation in the eastern United States, which generally occurred during the period of 1850-1920, forests did not return to historical composition and structure. We examined forest compositional change and then considered how historical land use and current land use may influence forests in a grassland-forest landscape, the Missouri Plains, where...

  12. Sports Tribes and Academic Identity: Teaching the Sociology of Sport in a Changing Disciplinary Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Using data from 15 semi-structured interviews with UK-based early/mid-career academics, this paper offers an empirically informed assessment of how lecturers teaching/researching the sociology of sport are managing their careers in a changing higher education landscape. Those interviewed were involved in the delivery of sociological content to a…

  13. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus ) in a fire-prone landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Falke; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jason B. Dunham; Kristina M. McNyset; Paul F. Hessburg; Gordon H. Reeves; C. Tara Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River...

  14. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  15. Initial landscape changes associated with Marcellus shale development—implications for forests and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Brittingham; Patrick Drohan; Joseph. Bishop

    2013-01-01

    Marcellus shale development is occurring rapidly across Pennsylvania. We conducted a geographic information system (GIS) analysis using available Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection permit data, before and after photos, ground-truthing, and fi eld measurements to describe landscape change within the fi rst 3 years of active Marcellus exploration and...

  16. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  17. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  18. Creating a provincial landscape: roman imperialism and rural change in Lusitania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C Edmondson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: This paper suggests some general approaches and raises some problems in studying the impact of Rome on the rural landscape in Lusitania. It concentrates on three crucial ways in which the landscape was transformed under Roman rule: (a changes in the pattern of rural settlement; (b changes in the nature of land use and agrarian exploitation; and (c changes in the ways in which the inhabitants of Lusitania perceived and thought about their world. It argues that a synthesis is needed of archaeological evidence from across the province, so that the impact of Rome on rural settlemet patterns may be compared in differing environmental regions. Further intensive field survey should also help to resolve some current problems in reconstructing the pattern of Iron Age and Roman rural settlement. Increased collection and analysis of pollen samples, carbonised wood, seeds, agricultural implements and animal bones is needed to assess more precisely the extent to which the Romans caused major changes in the nature of land use and agrarian exploitation. When accounting for change, it is essential to consider a wide variety of factors and to remember that rural change continued to occur throughout the Roman period. Finally, it was in forcing the inhabitants of Lusitania to perceive their world in radically new ways that the Romans made a lasting impact on the provincial landscape. First, the Romans created broad ethnic identities for their opponents, ignoring the complex, highly fragmented ethnic and regional geography of the area. Then by dividing the region into clearly defined civitates, they forced the inhabitants of Lusitania to envisage the landscape in a very different manner than before. Finally, a series of rituals emphasising Roman power (the census, the holding of judicial assizes, and the activities of the provincial council regularly reinforced these radically new mental maps of the new Roman provincial landscape.

  19. The nexus of population change, agricultural expansion, landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -series landcover mapping for the years 1975, 1990, 2000, 2003, and 2007 with socio-economic variables such as data on agricultural productivity and population parameters to explain the phenomenon of change in the Volta gorge area.

  20. Globalisation, sustainable development and competencies of landscape change in a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    During the last 10 years the collective goals connected with the agenda of sustainable development has been challenged by the globalisation agenda furthering a global liberalised market with the individual producer and consumer in focus. Only in the local planning and management of the concrete...... the perspectives of a globalisation vs. sustainability agenda, focusing on the support for different geographical competences for landscape change devoted to different population groups in the rural community. It is concluded that support for a local sustainable landscape development is depending heavily...... on the ability and strength of local authorities to unite for such goals, and that detailed analyses of the power balance between different geographical competences in the rural community is necessary to evaluate the possibilities for a sustainable landscape development in rural areas under the conditions...

  1. The contribution of vegetation and landscape configuration for predicting environmental change impacts on Iberian birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triviño, Maria; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    of distributions, but they are rarely considered in such assessments. We explore the consequences of using simulated vegetation structure and composition as well as its associated landscape configuration in models projecting global change effects on Iberian bird species distributions. Both present-day and future...... distributions were modelled for 168 bird species using two ensemble forecasting methods: Random Forests (RF) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). For each species, several models were created, differing in the predictor variables used (climate, vegetation, and landscape configuration). Discrimination ability...... using all predictor variables were not significantly better than models fitted with climate variables alone for ca. 50% of the cases. Moreover, models fitted with climate data were always better than models fitted with landscape configuration variables, and vegetation variables were found to correlate...

  2. Tropical amphibians in shifting thermal landscapes under land-use and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, A Justin; Watling, James I; Whitfield, Steven M; Todd, Brian D; Kurz, David J; Donnelly, Maureen A

    2017-02-01

    Land-cover and climate change are both expected to alter species distributions and contribute to future biodiversity loss. However, the combined effects of land-cover and climate change on assemblages, especially at the landscape scale, remain understudied. Lowland tropical amphibians may be particularly susceptible to changes in land cover and climate warming because many species have narrow thermal safety margins resulting from air and body temperatures that are close to their critical thermal maxima (CT max ). We examined how changing thermal landscapes may alter the area of thermally suitable habitat (TSH) for tropical amphibians. We measured microclimates in 6 land-cover types and CT max of 16 frog species in lowland northeastern Costa Rica. We used a biophysical model to estimate core body temperatures of frogs exposed to habitat-specific microclimates while accounting for evaporative cooling and behavior. Thermally suitable habitat area was estimated as the portion of the landscape where species CT max exceeded their habitat-specific maximum body temperatures. We projected changes in TSH area 80 years into the future as a function of land-cover change only, climate change only, and combinations of land-cover and climate-change scenarios representing low and moderate rates of change. Projected decreases in TSH area ranged from 16% under low emissions and reduced forest loss to 30% under moderate emissions and business-as-usual land-cover change. Under a moderate emissions scenario (A1B), climate change alone contributed to 1.7- to 4.5-fold greater losses in TSH area than land-cover change only, suggesting that future decreases in TSH from climate change may outpace structural habitat loss. Forest-restricted species had lower mean CT max than species that occurred in altered habitats, indicating that thermal tolerances will likely shape assemblages in changing thermal landscapes. In the face of ongoing land-cover and climate change, it will be critical to

  3. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Substantial impacts of landscape changes on summer climate with major regional differences: The case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Wu, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    China's rapid socioeconomic development during the past few decades has resulted in large-scale landscape changes across the country. However, the impacts of these land surface modifications on climate are yet to be adequately understood. Using a coupled process-based land-atmospheric model, therefore, we quantified the climatic effects of land cover and land management changes over mainland China from 2001 to 2010, via incorporation of real-time and high-quality satellite-derived landscape representation (i.e., vegetation fraction, leaf area index, and albedo) into numerical modeling. Our results show that differences in landscape patterns due to changes in land cover and land management have exerted a strong influence on summer climate in China. During 2001 and 2010, extensive cooling of up to 1.5°C was found in the Loess Plateau and 1.0°C in northeastern China. In contrast, regional-scale warming was detected in the Tibetan Plateau (0.3°C), Yunnan province (0.4°C), and rapidly expanding urban centers across China (as high as 2°C). Summer precipitation decreased in the northeastern region, with patchy reduction generally landscapes have had substantial impacts on summer climate over the entire mainland China, but these impacts varied greatly on the regional scale, including changes in opposite directions. Therefore, effective national-level policies and regional land management strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation should take explicit account of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-climate interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  6. Climate change and landscape evolution in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Volume 1 - Phase 1: identification of large landscape settings; Volume 2 - Phase 2: Hypotheses for climate change in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region; Phase 3: Predictable effects of climate change on emblematic landscapes and action plan (technical sheets)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to give an insight on possible effects climate change may have on landscapes of the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region on the medium and long term according to current hypotheses regarding global warming for Mediterranean regions. A first phase aimed at identifying the main landscape settings of the region. This comprised a definition of the notion of landscape, a discussion of landscape definitions with respect to a regional scale, a framework for the definition of the main landscape settings, an identification of these landscape settings and their characterisation according to a set of criteria and parameters. The second phase aimed at giving an overview of hypotheses regarding climate change. The authors discuss various issues and knowledge about the world climate, available climate models and their uncertainties, and climatic predictions for the region. The third phase aimed at assessing predictable effects of climate change on emblematic landscapes and at defining actions plans. The different components of these action plans are then discussed for the identified landscapes for which the landscape context and challenges are described, and potential actors are indicated. These different phases are first presented, and more detailed reports are provided for each of them, notably with detailed reports and sheets for each landscape setting

  7. Alternative future analysis for assessing the potential impact of climate change on urban landscape dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qingxu; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Da

    2015-11-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on urban landscape dynamics (ULD) is the foundation for adapting to climate change and maintaining urban landscape sustainability. This paper demonstrates an alternative future analysis by coupling a system dynamics (SD) and a cellular automata (CA) model. The potential impact of different climate change scenarios on ULD from 2009 to 2030 was simulated and evaluated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan megalopolis cluster area (BTT-MCA). The results suggested that the integrated model, which combines the advantages of the SD and CA model, has the strengths of spatial quantification and flexibility. Meanwhile, the results showed that the influence of climate change would become more severe over time. In 2030, the potential urban area affected by climate change will be 343.60-1260.66 km(2) (5.55 -20.37 % of the total urban area, projected by the no-climate-change-effect scenario). Therefore, the effects of climate change should not be neglected when designing and managing urban landscape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  9. Plant species diversity in a changing agricultural landscape: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda. Abstract. Plant diversity in Kaweri Coffee Plantation was inventoried in January 2002. The aim was to document the species in the area before establishment of a coffee plantation and to create a database for monitoring changes in the ecosystem. International Forestry ...

  10. Integrating Biopsychosocial Intervention Research in a Changing Health Care Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Oh, Hyunsung; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Safety net care systems are experiencing unprecedented change from the "Affordable Care Act," Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) uptake, health information technology application, and growing of mental health care integration within primary care. This article provides a review of previous and current efforts in which social…

  11. Exploring the Changing Landscape of Surgical Residency Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Hopmans (Niels)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWithin the past decade, the structure and format of surgical residency training has changed radically by the introduction of competency-based training programs, the progressive fragmentation of general surgery into subspecialties, and the implementation of stringent work hour

  12. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change. Final report, July 15, 1990--January 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-04-01

    Altering the natural disturbance regime of a landscape produces changes in the structure of that landscape as the landscape adjusts to the new disturbance regime. A computer simulation model was designed to enable analyses of the longterm changes to be expected in landscapes as their disturbance regime changes. The model, DISPATCH, is the first dynamic spatial simulation model built around a geographical information system (GIS). The model also includes a new set of programs, the r.le programs, that is the first set of programs designed for calculating landscape structure measures within a GIS. The DISPATCH model was used, to analyze the effects of human alterations of disturbance regimes and global change on landscape structure. Landscapes do not adjust quickly to these alterations based on available data. Landscapes subjected to warming or to longterm fire suppression experience a decline in patch richness, Shannon diversity, the amount of edge and contrast, but an increase in distance between patches, angular second moment (texture measure) and patch size. In contrast, landscapes subjected to cooling, the short-term effects of fire suppression, fragmentation, or traditional prescribed burning tend to respond with increasing richness, Shannon diversity, edge, and contrast, but declining distance, angular second moment, and size. The pattern of response is different at different scales, with important implications for species.

  13. State-and-transition simulation models: a framework for forecasting landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Colin; Frid, Leonardo; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Fortin, Marie-Josée

    2016-01-01

    SummaryA wide range of spatially explicit simulation models have been developed to forecast landscape dynamics, including models for projecting changes in both vegetation and land use. While these models have generally been developed as separate applications, each with a separate purpose and audience, they share many common features.We present a general framework, called a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM), which captures a number of these common features, accompanied by a software product, called ST-Sim, to build and run such models. The STSM method divides a landscape into a set of discrete spatial units and simulates the discrete state of each cell forward as a discrete-time-inhomogeneous stochastic process. The method differs from a spatially interacting Markov chain in several important ways, including the ability to add discrete counters such as age and time-since-transition as state variables, to specify one-step transition rates as either probabilities or target areas, and to represent multiple types of transitions between pairs of states.We demonstrate the STSM method using a model of land-use/land-cover (LULC) change for the state of Hawai'i, USA. Processes represented in this example include expansion/contraction of agricultural lands, urbanization, wildfire, shrub encroachment into grassland and harvest of tree plantations; the model also projects shifts in moisture zones due to climate change. Key model output includes projections of the future spatial and temporal distribution of LULC classes and moisture zones across the landscape over the next 50 years.State-and-transition simulation models can be applied to a wide range of landscapes, including questions of both land-use change and vegetation dynamics. Because the method is inherently stochastic, it is well suited for characterizing uncertainty in model projections. When combined with the ST-Sim software, STSMs offer a simple yet powerful means for developing a wide range of models of

  14. The Changing Landscape of Teaching High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kristin D.; Taylor, Terri M.

    2009-01-01

    High school chemistry teachers have faced a number of changes in their classrooms in recent years. Technology has impacted the way chemistry laboratories are equipped. Teachers have students who are learning English and the language of chemistry simultaneously. The enactment of No Child Left Behind has placed an emphasis on assessment, requiring teachers to develop new protocols to assess their students in line with state and national standards.

  15. Evaluating Landscape and Vegetation Change in Ventura River Watershed, California Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsdale, L.; Dmochowski, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ventura River Watershed in California has changed dramatically in the last century and a half due to both natural and anthropogenic forces, including grazing, urbanization, the introduction of the Matilija and Casitas Dams, periodic droughts, and changes in climate. In order to enhance our understanding of these changes and contribute to the analysis of the potential Matilija Dam removal and watershed recovery, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of vegetation and landscape change over time (1853 to present) using an array of historical and current records, aerial imagery, Landsat remote sensing data and field analysis. The interpretive data ranges from historical ecological maps (160+ year old) and early aerial photos (1950s) to modern satellite imagery. The synthesis of our research methods allows us to (1) present a useful profile of ecological change, (2) provide a time-series analysis of vegetation and landscape change pre- and post-dam construction, and (3) offer a tool for ongoing vegetation monitoring. This interdisciplinary research project provides an exciting opportunity to contribute to resolving challenging landscape evolution and water-use issues.

  16. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps...... remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9 %. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves...

  17. Landscapes of Protection: Forest Change and Fragmentation in Northern West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Paul, Somajita; Pareeth, Sajid; Dutt, Sugato

    2009-11-01

    In the tropics and sub-tropics, where high levels of biodiversity co-exist with some of the greatest levels of population density, achieving complete exclusion in protected area contexts has proved close to impossible. There is a clear need to recognize that parks are significantly impacted by human-environment interactions in the larger landscape within which they are embedded, and to move the frontier of research beyond the boundaries of protected areas in order to examine larger landscapes where multiple forms of ownership and access are embedded. This research evaluates forest change and fragmentation between 1990 and 2000, in a landscape surrounding the Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian state of West Bengal. This protected forest is bounded to the south by a less intensively protected area, the Baikunthapur Reserve Forest, and surrounded by a mosaic of unprotected, largely private land holdings. Results indicate differences in the extent and spatial pattern of forest cover change in these three zones, corresponding to different levels of government protection, access and monitoring. The two protected areas experience a trend toward forest regrowth, relating to the cessation of commercial logging by park management during this period. Yet, there is still substantial clearing toward peripheral areas that are well connected to illegal timber markets by transportation networks. The surrounding landscape, although experiencing some forest regrowth within less intensively cultivated tea plantations, is also becoming increasingly fragmented, with potentially critical impacts on the maintenance of effective wildlife corridors in this ecologically critical region.

  18. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Campos Oswaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units’ delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  19. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Campos, Oswaldo; Cruz-Cárdenas, Gustavo; Aquino, Roque Juan Carrasco; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Machuca, Martha Alicia Velázquez; Meléndez, Luis Arturo Ávila

    2018-03-01

    Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units' delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  20. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE EFFECTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION, THE MOROCCO CASE STUDY (1981 - 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of changes in landscape factors on socioeconomics was analyzedlocally and regionally. The method presented here allows mapping changes in vegetation covertrends over large areas quickly and inexpensively, thus providing policy-makers with a technical

  1. The complexity of organizational change: describing communication during organizational turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Organizational researchers and practitioners have been interested in organizational change for some time. Historically, they have directed most of their efforts at improving the efficiency of planned top-down change. These efforts were strategic attempts at altering parameters leading to transformational change. Most efforts failed to meet their intended purposes. Transformational organizational change has not been likely. The legitimate systems have been robust. There has been little systematic investigation of the communication occurring during these efforts. The purpose of this essay is to describe results of a mixed methods research project answering two research questions. (a) How do organizational members communicate during a time of turbulence? (b) What features of this communication suggest the potential for or resistance to transformative change? Comparing the results at the beginning of the period to other periods, gives insight into how social actors communicate and enact the organization during a threshold period where transformational change was possible. Results reveal identifiable patterns of communication as communication strategies, parameters, or basins of attraction. The overall pattern explains how micro communication patterns intersect and how the accumulation of these patterns may resist or accomplish change at a macro level.

  2. Chloride imbalance in rivers from landscapes undergoing hydrological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B.; Hofmann, H.

    2012-12-01

    There has been much research into the sources of solutes in river systems; however, there has been little emphasis on determining whether medium or large catchments are in long-term chemical balance (i.e., whether the flux of solutes into a catchment is balanced by the export from that catchment). Where surface water and groundwater catchments coincide, the mass balance of a conservative solute (X) is: P*X(P) = SW*X(SW) - GW*X(GW) - ΔST*X(ST) where P, SW, and GW, are precipitation, surface water outflows, and groundwater outflows (in m3/year). ΔST accounts for changes to water held in storage in soils, groundwater, or surface water bodies. X is the concentration of solute X in the various stores (mg/m3). Precipitation and river discharges are commonly well constrained and in many regions there are also rainfall, groundwater, and surface water geochemistry data. Groundwater fluxes and changes to volumes of solutes held in storage are less well known and it is difficult to perform accurate solute balances. However, if the flux of a conservative solute out of a catchment via the river system is larger than the input from rainfall (i.e. where SW*X(SW) > P*X(P)), the catchment is a net exporter of solutes. In turn this implies a change to the amount of water stored in the catchment and/or a change in chemistry of the water in the various stores. We use this approach to assess the chemical balance in several regional-scale catchments (areas up to 15,000 km2) in Victoria, southeast Australia. Rivers from many of these catchments are saline (Total Dissolved Solids, TDS, contents >1000 mg/L). Groundwater in this area is also saline (TDS contents locally up to 100,000 mg/L). Major ion geochemistry indicates that the source of Cl in all catchments dominantly from rainfall and the major geochemical process controlling the salinity of surface water and groundwater is evapotranspiration. Cl concentrations and EC values are well correlated allowing a continual record of Cl

  3. Ambulatory quality improvement in academic medical centers: a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Brian F; Goldfarb, Neil I; Browne, Robert C; Keroack, Mark; Nash, David B

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of ambulatory care have received tremendous attention as bold new initiatives aimed at influencing the environment of care through financial incentives, public transparency, and information technology rapidly spread. Academic medical centers, which represent a long tradition of excellence and innovation in medical care, might be expected to lead the charge in these new arenas, but motivation for change may be mitigated by the unique complexity and multiple goals of these institutions. A survey conducted in the fall of 2006 examined the early impact of these major new influences on faculty practice plans. Respondents reported that many institutions have begun to develop key components of a quality infrastructure, but much work remains before a robust model emerges at most sites. Some academic medical centers have also embraced pay-for-performance and public reporting efforts, but many are not equipped or eager to engage in these new initiatives.

  4. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  5. Ten lessons for the changing European electricity landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, G.

    1999-04-01

    The results of a recent study suggest an environment in which generation will become smaller-scale, the role of natural gas will expand and the ability to manage financial, regulatory, and political risk will be essential. A trans-European gas network will eliminate the electricity-transmission bottleneck. Within 10 years, the electricity industry as it is known in Europe will cease to exist. An unstoppable tidal wave of change, driven by the need to reduce prices and triggered by both the European Union Electricity Directive and technological innovation, is already in motion, transforming the industry and the companies serving it. Electricity companies familiar to so many for so long are already disappearing or fragmenting and new, often inexperienced entrants are pouring into the market. Established electricity companies will have to adapt quickly if they are going to survive.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  7. Quantifying landscape pattern and assessing the land cover changes in Piatra Craiului National Park and Bucegi Natural Park, Romania, using satellite imagery and landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas of Romania have enjoyed particular importance after 1989, but, at the same time, they were subject to different anthropogenic and natural pressures which resulted in the occurrence of land cover changes. These changes have generally led to landscape degradation inside and at the borders of the protected areas. In this article, 12 landscape metrics were used in order to quantify landscape pattern and assess land cover changes in two protected areas, Piatra Craiului National Park (PCNP) and Bucegi Natural Park (BNP). The landscape metrics were obtained from land cover maps derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images from 1987, 1993, 2000, 2009 and 2010. Three land cover classes were analysed in PCNP and five land cover map classes in BNP. The results show a landscape fragmentation trend for both parks, affecting different types of land covers. Between 1987 and 2010, in PCNP fragmentation was, in principle, the result not only of anthropogenic activities such as forest cuttings and illegal logging but also of natural causes. In BNP, between 1987 and 2009, the fragmentation affected the pasture which resulted in the occurrence of bare land and rocky areas because of the erosion on the Bucegi Plateau.

  8. Leadership Evidences: Communication and the Organizational Change Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Voica

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of the organizational communication to the most important leadership effects - the success of changes within the Romanian companies. A set of hypotheses are tested in order to identify the links between the success of change implementation and elements such as objectives and organizational communication components. A set of hypothesis was tested during our research, using specific methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis and the SPSS software. The results of our research, limited to the purpose and the sample size, shows that that organizational communication is liable to the success of changes promoted by leaders within Romanian firms.

  9. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Landscape Dynamics in the US Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, J. K.; Earnhardt, T.; Terando, A. J.; Hulcr, J.; McKerrow, A.

    2010-12-01

    Predicting the potential impacts of climate change on ecosystems is increasingly important for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies. In particular, climate change is likely to significantly affect disturbance dynamics, which have consequences for ecosystems. In forested ecosystems of the Southeast US, two important types of disturbances are wildfires and insect outbreaks. As part of the USGS’s Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP), we examined those disturbances in the context of climate change through 2060 on the landscape of the Ichawaynochaway watershed on the coastal plain of Georgia. In the Ichawaynochaway, we asked: (1) How do wildfires and Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) outbreaks impact the landscape? and (2) How will climate change modify these impacts in the future? To project landscape dynamics, we used TELSA, a spatially-explicit model of ecological succession and disturbance. We measured changes in the landscape in terms of the vegetation state, which is a combination of successional stage (early-, mid-, or late-succession) and vegetation structure (open or closed canopy) for each ecosystem. We based wildfire and SPB outbreak probabilities on recent empirical data from the Ichawaynochaway area. To examine the effect of climate, for both wildfire and SPB outbreaks, we developed an empirical relationship between past climate and each of the disturbances. We projected those relationships to 2060 under current climate, as well as under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1FI emission scenario using an ensemble of downscaled Global Climate Model (GCM) output. Our results show that under current climate, wildfire activity and SPB outbreaks have less of an impact on the landscape than they likely will under climate change. In particular, these results suggest that open, mature stands of longleaf pine, a fire-dependent habitat that is less susceptible to SPB outbreaks, is likely to be favored under future change. In contrast

  11. The Changing Hospital Landscape: An Exploration of International Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Ellen; Pitchforth, Emma; Miani, Celine; Mc Hugh, Sheena

    2014-12-30

    The nature of hospital activity is changing in many countries, with some experiencing a broad trend towards the creation of hospital groups or chains and multi-hospital networks. This study seeks to contribute to the understanding of experiences in other countries about the extent to which different hospital "models" may provide lessons for hospital provision in England by means of a review of four countries: France, Germany, Ireland and the United States, with England included for comparison. We find that there has been a trend towards privatisation and the formation of hospital groups in France, Germany, and the United States although it is important to understand the underlying market structure in these countries explaining the drivers for hospital consolidation. Thus, and in contrast to the NHS, in France, Germany, and the United States, private hospitals contribute to the delivery of publicly funded healthcare services. There is limited evidence suggesting that different forms of hospital cooperation, such as hospital groups, networks or systems, may have different impacts on hospital performance. Available evidence suggests that hospital consolidation may lead to quality improvements as increased size allows for more costly investments and the spreading of investment risk. There is also evidence that a higher volume of certain services such as surgical procedures is associated with better quality of care. However, the association between size and efficiency is not clear-cut and there is a need to balance "quality risk" associated with low volumes and "access risk" associated with the closure of services at the local level.

  12. Landscapes of West Africa: A window on a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2016-01-01

    Our global ecosystem is and has always been complex, dynamic, and in constant flux. Science tells us how natural forces of enormous power have shaped and reshaped Earth’s surface, atmosphere, climate, and biota again and again since the planet’s beginnings about 4.5 billion years ago. For most of the planet’s history those environmental changes were the result of the interaction of natural processes such as geology and climate and were described on the geological time scale in epochs spanning millions of years.When humankind appeared on Earth around 200,000 years ago the influence of human activity on the environment must have been small and localized. The influence of scattered small groups of people on the global ecosystem would have been overwhelmed by the forces of natural systems (Steffen and others, 207). Human population would not grow to 50 million (about 0.7 percent of the Earth’s current population) for another 197,000 years. Population growth accelerated over the centuries that followed until the planet was adding more than that 50 million people every year. Our planet is now home to roughly 7.3 billion people and we are adding 1 million more people roughly every 4.8 days (US Census Bureau, 2011). Before 1950, no one on Earth had lived through a doubling of the human population, but now some people have experienced a tripling in their lifetime (Cohen, 2003).

  13. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved.

  14. PUSAKA SAUJANA BOROBUDUR: PERUBAHAN DAN KONTINUITASNYA (Borobudur Cultural Landscape: Change and Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwita Hadi Rahmi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di kawasan Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah, untuk mengkaji potensi dan nilai keunggulan pusaka saujana Borobudur, serta mengetahui perubahan dan kontinuitasnya. Dengan interpretasi sejarah dan penjelasan secara naratif, wujud pusaka saujana Borobudur dapat diapresiasi dalam bentuk: a pola pengolahan lahan; b tata kehidupan; c arsitektur tradisional kawasan; dan d bentukan-bentukan alami. Potensi yang dimiliki pusaka saujana Borobudur meliputi potensi budaya, sejarah, bentukan-bentukan alami, dan panorama kawasan. Potensi-potensi yang dimiliki kawasan Borobudur, serta kontinuitas kondisi bentanglahan dan budayanya menjadikan kawasan Borobudur sebuah pusaka saujana yang unggul, dan nilai keunggulan ini meliputi: a kandungan sejarah lingkungan kawasan, b kawasan peninggalan benda-benda arkeologi, c saujana-saujana desa yang menunjukkan kehidupan agraris masyarakatnya, dan d panorama indah bentanglahan. Dalam lingkungan yang dinamis, pusaka saujana Borobudur terus mengalami perubahan yang dapat mengancam kontinuitasnya. Perubahan terjadi terutama pada tata guna lahan, kualitas visual, dan sebagian budaya masyarakat, sedangkan kontinuitas masih dapat ditemui pada kegiatan pertanian secara tradisional; sebagian tradisi atau adat istiadat yang berkaitan dengan pertanian, keagamaan, dan kepercayaan; arsitektur tradisional kawasan perdesaan; dan panorama indah bentanglahan. Sampai saat ini, perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi belum berdampak pada hilangnya atau menurunnya kontinuitas pusaka saujana Borobudur. Meskipun demikian, upaya-upaya pelestarian dan pengelolaannya diperlukan untuk menjaga kontinuitasnya.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in Borobudur area, Magelang Regency, Central Java, to examine the potencies and  outstanding values of Borobudur cultural landscape heritage, and to understand its changes and continuity. By historic interpretation and narrative explanation, the forms of Borobudur

  15. Media and Glocal Change - Rethinking Communication for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about exploring both the potential and the limits of communication - of using communication both as a tool and as a way of articulating processes of development and social change, improving, everyday lives, and empowering people to influence their own lives and those of their fellow...

  16. Acinetobacter peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: a changing landscape over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ter Chao

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD peritonitis are rare.All PD peritonitis episodes caused by Acinetobacter that occurred between 1985 and 2012 at a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes were analysed, with stratifications based upon temporal periods (before and after 2000.Acinetobacter species were responsible for 26 PD peritonitis episodes (3.5% of all episodes in 25 patients. A. baumannii was the most common pathogen (54%, followed by A. iwoffii (35%, with the former being predominant after 2000. Significantly more episodes resulted from breaks in exchange sterility after 2000, while those from exit site infections decreased (P = 0.01. The interval between the last and current peritonitis episodes lengthened significantly after 2000 (5 vs. 13.6 months; P = 0.05. All the isolates were susceptible to cefepime, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides, with a low ceftazidime resistance rate (16%. Nearly half of the patients (46% required hospitalisation for their Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis, and 27% required an antibiotic switch. The overall outcome was fair, with no mortality and a 12% technique failure rate, without obvious interval differences.The temporal change in the microbiology and origin of Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis in our cohort suggested an important evolutional trend. Appropriate measures, including technique re-education and sterility maintenance, should be taken to decrease the Acinetobacter peritonitis incidence in PD patients.

  17. Risk Communication, Moral Emotions and Climate Change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the potential role that emotions might play in enticing a lifestyle that diminishes climate change. Climate change is an important challenge for society. There is a growing consensus that climate change is due to our behavior, but few people are willing to significantly adapt

  18. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  19. Rank-Based Methods for Selection of Landscape Metrics for Land Cover Pattern Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakant Sinha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Often landscape metrics are not thoroughly evaluated with respect to remote sensing data characteristics, such as their behavior in relation to variation in spatial and temporal resolution, number of land cover classes or dominant land cover categories. In such circumstances, it may be difficult to ascertain whether a change in a metric is due to landscape pattern change or due to the inherent variability in multi-temporal data. This study builds on this important consideration and proposes a rank-based metric selection process through computation of four difference-based indices (β, γ, ξ and θ using a Max–Min/Max normalization approach. Land cover classification was carried out for two contrasting provinces, the Liverpool Range (LR and Liverpool Plains (LP, of the Brigalow Belt South Bioregion (BBSB of NSW, Australia. Landsat images, Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS of 1972–1973 and TM of 1987–1988, 1993–1994, 1999–2000 and 2009–2010 were classified using object-based image analysis methods. A total of 30 landscape metrics were computed and their sensitivities towards variation in spatial and temporal resolutions, number of land cover classes and dominant land cover categories were evaluated by computing a score based on Max–Min/Max normalization. The landscape metrics selected on the basis of the proposed methods (Diversity index (MSIDI, Area weighted mean patch fractal dimension (SHAPE_AM, Mean core area (CORE_MN, Total edge (TE, No. of patches (NP, Contagion index (CONTAG, Mean nearest neighbor index (ENN_MN and Mean patch fractal dimension (FRAC_MN were successful and effective in identifying changes over five different change periods. Major changes in land cover pattern after 1993 were observed, and though the trends were similar in both cases, the LP region became more fragmented than the LR. The proposed method was straightforward to apply, and can deal with multiple metrics when selection of an appropriate set can become

  20. Dynamic Landscapes and Sea Level Change in Human Evolution and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G. C.; Devès, M. H.; Bailey, G.; Inglis, R.; Williams, M.

    2012-12-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris,are developing systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. These approaches use remote sensing techniques combined with archaeological and tectonic field surveys on land and underwater. Examples are shown from Europe, the Middle East and Africa to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  1. Assessing landscape change and processes of recurrence, replacement, and recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Stier, Michael P.; Auch, Roger F.; Taylor, Janis L.; Griffith, Glenn E.; Hester, David J.; Riegle, Jodi L.; Soulard, Christopher E.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8 % of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15 % of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83 %. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3 % of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  2. Assessing Landscape Change and Processes of Recurrence, Replacement, and Recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A; Stier, Michael P; Auch, Roger F; Taylor, Janis L; Griffith, Glenn E; Riegle, Jodi L; Hester, David J; Soulard, Christopher E; McBeth, Jamie L

    2015-11-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8% of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15% of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83%. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3% of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  3. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  4. Communicative Language Teaching: Changing Students’ Speaking Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Bayu Saputra

    2015-04-01

    This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.

  5. Communicating the Connection between Climate Change and Heat Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explore how public health and environmental professionals can effectively communicate and leverage the connections among climate change, the heat island effect, and public health to raise awareness among the public and to promote progress on these issues.

  6. Drawing time : The representation of change and dynamics in Dutch landscape architectural practice after 1985

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, N.

    2017-01-01

    Landscape architect design involves drawings. The relation between drawing and new landscape seems evident, but is complex and fascinating, due to the particularities of drawings, of landscape and of landscape architecture. Landscape is essentially a time-based medium -think of the seasons (cyclical

  7. East Asia's Changing Urban Landscape : Measuring a Decade of Spatial Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is transforming the developing world. However, understanding the pace, scale, and form of urbanization has been limited by a lack of consistent data. East Asia’s Changing Urban Landscape aims to address this problem by using satellite imagery and other data to measure urban expansion across the East Asia and Pacific region between 2000 and 2010. Illustrated with maps and charts, it presents trends in urban expansion and population growth in more than 850 urban areas -- by country...

  8. Shifting Restoration Policy to Address Landscape Change, Novel Ecosystems, and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy B. Zedler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy to guide ecological restoration needs to aim toward minimizing the causes of ecosystem degradation; where causes cannot be eliminated or minimized, policy needs to shift toward accommodating irreversible landscape alterations brought about by climate change, nitrogen deposition, altered hydrology, degraded soil, and declining biodiversity. The degree to which lost diversity and ecosystem services can be recovered depends on the extent and nature of landscape change. For wetlands that occur at the base of watersheds that have been developed for agriculture or urban centers, the inflows of excess water, sediment, and nutrients can be permanent and can severely challenge efforts to restore historical services, including biodiversity support. In such cases, the historical state of downstream wetlands will not be completely restorable. Wetland restoration policy should promote watershed planning, wherein wetland and upland restoration is prioritized to achieve multiple, specific ecosystem services. For downstream wetlands, it is realistic to aim to enhance nitrogen removal and to establish native plants that are matrix dominants, namely, those that facilitate rather than displace other natives. More ambitious objectives such as maximizing diversity would be suitable for less-altered, upstream wetlands. Policy should also call for adaptive restoration and long-term assessments. For large sites and multiple sites of a given wetland type within a region, experimental tests can determine a wetland's ability to support high levels of ecosystem services. Once projects are underway, long-term monitoring of structural and functional indicators can characterize progress toward each objective. Managers can then learn which targets are unachievable based on data, not just opinion. Where an experimental treatment shows limited progress, practitioners would shift to more promising treatments and targets, thereby adapting restoration efforts to changing

  9. Leadership Evidences: Communication and the Organizational Change Success

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Voica; Marian Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of the organizational communication to the most important leadership effects - the success of changes within the Romanian companies. A set of hypotheses are tested in order to identify the links between the success of change implementation and elements such as objectives and organizational communication components. A set of hypothesis was tested during our research, using specific methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis and the SPS...

  10. Growing the physics community in the Philippines in a changing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, May T.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2015-12-01

    Since the participation of the Philippines in the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the biggest change in the environment has happened online: Social media use is now pervasive. After the change in country leadership in 2010, policy directions were taken that directly affected the science research agenda, which in turn changed the research funding landscape. The uptake of government scholarship support for physics degrees continues to be popular with bachelor's and master's students regardless of gender. The country has also adopted the K-12 education system, and its impact on university employment remains to be seen.

  11. A Social Science Guide for Communication on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.

  12. Strategic Communication during Times of Great Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2008-01-01

    As American schools increasingly are called on to ensure students have the skills necessary to succeed in the 21st century, school districts nationwide are responding with a renewed interest in systemic change. The revived attention notwithstanding, educators, policymakers and the public still misunderstand the true meaning of systemic change in…

  13. Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model

  14. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...

  15. Communicating change at COP22 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... Building a climate-smart world. IDRC's associate director for climate change recently addressed parliamentarians as the featured guest speaker at the popular Bacon and Egghead. View moreBuilding a climate-smart world ...

  16. Communication, sensemaking and change as a chord of three strands: Practical implications and a research agenda for communicating organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The paper aims to propose practical and theoretical consequences of emerging lines of thinking about communication during organizational change. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper suggests several benefits that a sensemaking approach may have in enhancing organizational

  17. Integrated science and art education for creative climate change communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Jacobson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary field trip to a remote marine lab joined graduate students from fine arts and natural resource science departments to think creatively about the topic of climate change and science communication. We followed a learning cycle framework to allow the students to explore marine ecosystems and participate in scientific lectures, group discussions, and an artist-led project making abstract collages representing climate change processes. Students subsequently worked in small groups to develop environmental communication material for public visitors. We assessed the learning activity and the communication product using pre- and post-field trip participant surveys, focus group discussions, and critiques by art and communication experts of the products. Significant changes in knowledge about climate change occurred in program participants. Incorporating artists and the arts into this activity helped engage multiple senses and emphasized social interaction, as well as providing support to participants to think creatively. The production of art helped to encourage peer learning and normalize the different views among participants in communicating about climate change impacts. Students created effective communication products based on external reviews. Disciplinary differences in cultures, language, and standards challenged participating faculty, yet unanticipated outcomes such as potentially transformative learning and improved teacher evaluations resulted.

  18. Plant health and global change--some implications for landscape management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Marco; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Holdenrieder, Ottmar; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Salama, Nabeil; Jeger, Mike J; Lange, Eckart; Hehl-Lange, Sigrid

    2010-11-01

    Global change (climate change together with other worldwide anthropogenic processes such as increasing trade, air pollution and urbanization) will affect plant health at the genetic, individual, population and landscape level. Direct effects include ecosystem stress due to natural resources shortage or imbalance. Indirect effects include (i) an increased frequency of natural detrimental phenomena, (ii) an increased pressure due to already present pests and diseases, (iii) the introduction of new invasive species either as a result of an improved suitability of the climatic conditions or as a result of increased trade, and (iv) the human response to global change. In this review, we provide an overview of recent studies on terrestrial plant health in the presence of global change factors. We summarize the links between climate change and some key issues in plant health, including tree mortality, changes in wildfire regimes, biological invasions and the role of genetic diversity for ecosystem resilience. Prediction and management of global change effects are complicated by interactions between globalization, climate and invasive plants and/or pathogens. We summarize practical guidelines for landscape management and draw general conclusions from an expanding body of literature. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  20. Changing cultural landscape in post-productivism of rice field in Nyuh Kuning Village Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidi, C.; Wulandari, L. D.

    2017-06-01

    Natural landscape in developing countries is facing a challenge due to economic growth, a cultural shift, and population dynamics. Farm land where is close to urban areas tending to be converted into more economically valuable spaces. Watershed Pakerisan listed as World Heritage of UNESCO, rich of cultural value on its landscape, especially the Subak, a traditional irrigation system, has a close relationship to the philosophy of Hindu-Bali culture. Nyuh Kuning, a village (local terms is Banjar) located adjacent to the Pakerisan Watershed, and has a spatial pattern in synergic ally connected with tradition, culture, and their religion. Rice field not only for economical but also its place to worship the Goddess (Dewi Sri). Rice Field in Nyuh Kuning declined significantly along past 10 years. The changing landscape of Nyuh Kuning traced through serial of aerial photographs from 2005 until 2015. Along with the broad decline of rice field, villager’s attachment on their cultural space is also changing. An economic motive pronounces a winner in the bargaining between the motives of economic value and cultural value in the Nyuh Kuning. Villagers revealed arguments that necessities nowadays prosecute high consumption, both for household and for education. Therefore conversion of rice fields to become more economical is understandable among communities. Villagers rent the rice fields to foreigners (migrants), and then foreigners take rice-fields as personal assets, not for the villagers (ritual activities and the cultural traditions) any longer. In theoritical term, villager’s emotional bond to the cultural landscape in post—productivism of rice field, is weakened. Wawedangan Desa and its complex cultural values are not part of their identity anymore. However, place dependence become the reason why the shifting place attachment is happening. Functional economic bond is mentioned as place dependence dominats in villager’s attachment. Certainly it’s not a

  1. Drivers of Change in Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes: Implications for Better Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term socio-ecological production landscapes (SEPLs has recently gained currency in conservation circles because of a recognized need to look beyond protected areas to the management of human-influenced landscapes and ecosystems. We have drawn on a variety of case studies from Asia and other parts of the world to understand the underlying driving forces that have led to the need for greater awareness and sustainable management of SEPLs. We have analyzed the drivers of these changes from socio-political, legal, economic, and socio-cultural perspectives. The analysis shows that SEPLs contribute to local, national, and global economies, and their production and harvesting processes are subject to external demands and pressures. Policy makers should recognize the wide range and diverse values of SEPLs and incorporate these values into broader policy considerations. We have also provided some suggestions for future studies.

  2. Clustering of Groundwater Used in Isfahan Landscape Irrigation and Their Qualititative Changes Over one Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Abedi Koupai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten irrigation wells were selected along Chaharbagh Street and the Zayandehrood River bank to investigate and classify the groundwaters used for irrigating Isfahan landscape for their quality. Monthly sampling was performed and the results of the quality tests were used as seasonal averages. Different measurements such as pH, EC, Na+, C1-, HCO3-, Fe+2 were made according to standard methods and the Surfer program was used and the results were represented as isolines. Also seasonal classification of wells was performed based on similarities found among the water quality of the wells using statistical programs. Results revealed the poor quality of water from some of the study wells due to the discharge of urban and industrial wastewaters, chemical manure, etc. Besides, investigation of changes in water quality indicated the declining irrigation water quality and the increasing availability of water for landscape irrigation.

  3. Cumulative effects of climate and landscape change drive spatial distribution of Rocky Mountain wolverine (Gulo gulo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Nicole; Fisher, Jason T; Clevenger, Anthony; Paczkowski, John; Volpe, John

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary landscapes are subject to a multitude of human-derived stressors. Effects of such stressors are increasingly realized by population declines and large-scale extirpation of taxa worldwide. Most notably, cumulative effects of climate and landscape change can limit species' local adaptation and dispersal capabilities, thereby reducing realized niche space and range extent. Resolving the cumulative effects of multiple stressors on species persistence is a pressing challenge in ecology, especially for declining species. For example, wolverines ( Gulo gulo L.) persist on only 40% of their historic North American range. While climate change has been shown to be a mechanism of range retractions, anthropogenic landscape disturbance has been recently implicated. We hypothesized these two interact to effect declines. We surveyed wolverine occurrence using camera trapping and genetic tagging at 104 sites at the wolverine range edge, spanning a 15,000 km 2 gradient of climate, topographic, anthropogenic, and biotic variables. We used occupancy and generalized linear models to disentangle the factors explaining wolverine distribution. Persistent spring snow pack-expected to decrease with climate change-was a significant predictor, but so was anthropogenic landscape change. Canid mesocarnivores, which we hypothesize are competitors supported by anthropogenic landscape change, had comparatively weaker effect. Wolverine population declines and range shifts likely result from climate change and landscape change operating in tandem. We contend that similar results are likely for many species and that research that simultaneously examines climate change, landscape change, and the biotic landscape is warranted. Ecology research and species conservation plans that address these interactions are more likely to meet their objectives.

  4. Projected gains and losses of wildlife habitat from bioenergy-induced landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Nathan M.; Rubino, Matthew J.; Costanza, Jennifer K.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime A.; Abt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic and foreign renewable energy targets and financial incentives have increased demand for woody biomass and bioenergy in the southeastern United States. This demand is expected to be met through purpose-grown agricultural bioenergy crops, short-rotation tree plantations, thinning and harvest of planted and natural forests, and forest harvest residues. With results from a forest economics model, spatially explicit state-and-transition simulation models, and species–habitat models, we projected change in habitat amount for 16 wildlife species caused by meeting a renewable fuel target and expected demand for wood pellets in North Carolina, USA. We projected changes over 40 years under a baseline ‘business-as-usual’ scenario without bioenergy production and five scenarios with unique feedstock portfolios. Bioenergy demand had potential to influence trends in habitat availability for some species in our study area. We found variation in impacts among species, and no scenario was the ‘best’ or ‘worst’ across all species. Our models projected that shrub-associated species would gain habitat under some scenarios because of increases in the amount of regenerating forests on the landscape, while species restricted to mature forests would lose habitat. Some forest species could also lose habitat from the conversion of forests on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks. The conversion of agricultural lands on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks increased habitat losses for one species with strong associations with pasture, which is being lost to urbanization in our study region. Our results indicate that landscape-scale impacts on wildlife habitat will vary among species and depend upon the bioenergy feedstock portfolio. Therefore, decisions about bioenergy and wildlife will likely involve trade-offs among wildlife species, and the choice of focal species is likely to affect the results of landscape-scale assessments. We offer general principals

  5. Forest restoration in a mixed-ownership landscape under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Catherine; Scheller, Robert M; Mladenoff, David J; White, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    The extent to which current landscapes deviate from the historical range of natural variability (RNV) is a common means of defining and ranking regional conservation targets. However, climate-induced shifts in forest composition may render obsolete restoration strategies and conservation targets based on historic climate conditions and disturbance regimes. We used a spatially explicit forest ecosystem model, LANDIS-II, to simulate the interaction of climate change and forest management in northeastern Minnesota, USA. We assessed the relevance of restoration strategies and conservation targets based on the RNV in the context of future climate change. Three climate scenarios (no climate change, low emissions, and high emissions) were simulated with three forest management scenarios: no harvest, current management, and a restoration-based approach where harvest activity mimicked the frequency, severity, and size distribution of historic natural disturbance regimes. Under climate change there was a trend toward homogenization of forest conditions due to the widespread expansion of systems dominated by maple (Acer spp.). White spruce (Picea glauca), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were extirpated from the landscape irrespective of management activity; additional losses of black spruce (P. mariana), red pine (Pinus resinosa), and jack pine (P. banksiana) were projected in the high-emissions scenario. In the restoration management scenario, retention and conversion to white pine (P. strobus) restricted maple expansion. But, widespread forest loss in the restoration scenario under high-emissions projections illustrates the potential pitfalls of implementing an RNV management approach in a system that is not compositionally similar to the historic reference condition. Given the uncertainty associated with climate change, ensuring a diversity of species and conditions within forested landscapes may be the most effective means of ensuring the

  6. Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts: Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne McGonigle Leyh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and best practices was difficult. Today that situation has significantly changed. The purpose of this article is to explore the changing landscape of civil society documentation of serious human rights violations, and what that means for standardising and professionalising documentation efforts. Using the recent Hisséne Habré case as an example, this article begins by looking at how civil society documentation can successfully influence an accountability process. Next, the article touches upon barriers that continue to impede greater documentation efforts. The article examines the changing landscape of documentation, focusing on technological changes and the rise of citizen journalism and unofficial investigations, using Syria as an example, as well as on the increasing support for documentation efforts both in Syria and worldwide. The changing landscape has resulted in the proliferation of international documentation initiatives aimed at providing local civil society actors guidelines and practical assistance on how to recognise, collect, manage, store and use information about serious human rights violations, as well as on how to minimise the risks associated with the documentation of human rights violations. The recent initiatives undertaken by international civil society, including those by the Public International Law & Policy Group, play an important role in helping to standardise and professionalise documentation work and promote the foundational principles of documentation, namely the ‘do no harm’ principle, and the principles of informed consent and confidentiality. Recognising the drawback that greater professionalisation may bring, it

  7. Catchment sensitivity to changing climate conditions: the importance of landscape characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, C.; Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Bishop, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. However, we recently found that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 neighboring catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV light model. Climate projections were based on 14 regional climate models (ENSEMBLES EU project) and bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that future spring flood peaks will occur much earlier and decrease by 13 to 32 %, whereas winter base flows will increase slightly. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, these values also highlight that there is a large variability amongst the catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. For example, spring flood peaks in catchments without wetlands decrease by only 13 to 15 %, whereas catchments with wetlands show a spring flood peak reduction of 20 to 32 %. In addition to wetlands, we also identified lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that seem to cause a stronger hydrological response to the climate change signal, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils seem to be less strongly affected by a changing climate. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to

  8. Quantifying landscape change in an arctic coastal lowland using repeat airborne LiDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin M; Stoker, Jason M; Gibbs, Ann E; Richmond, Bruce M; Grosse, Guido; Romanovsky, Vladimir E; Douglas, Thomas A; Kinsman, Nicole E M

    2013-01-01

    Increases in air, permafrost, and sea surface temperature, loss of sea ice, the potential for increased wave energy, and higher river discharge may all be interacting to escalate erosion of arctic coastal lowland landscapes. Here we use airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data acquired in 2006 and 2010 to detect landscape change in a 100 km 2 study area on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain of northern Alaska. We detected statistically significant change (99% confidence interval), defined as contiguous areas (>10 m 2 ) that had changed in height by at least 0.55 m, in 0.3% of the study region. Erosional features indicative of ice-rich permafrost degradation were associated with ice-bonded coastal, river, and lake bluffs, frost mounds, ice wedges, and thermo-erosional gullies. These features accounted for about half of the area where vertical change was detected. Inferred thermo-denudation and thermo-abrasion of coastal and river bluffs likely accounted for the dominant permafrost-related degradational processes with respect to area (42%) and volume (51%). More than 300 thermokarst pits significantly subsided during the study period, likely as a result of storm surge flooding of low-lying tundra (<1.4 m asl) as well as the lasting impact of warm summers in the late-1980s and mid-1990s. Our results indicate that repeat airborne LiDAR can be used to detect landscape change in arctic coastal lowland regions at large spatial scales over sub-decadal time periods. (letter)

  9. How Networked Communication Has Changed the Ways We Tell Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Notaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the digital revolution, we are confronted with the task of defining how media will change our lives and how we communicate with each other in the years to come. Narrative, as one of the most ancient communication tools, has undergone substantial structural changes. This paper addresses how these changes impact the way we read and write. Does the same story conveyed through different media channels signify in the same manner? In other words, what are the differences between a printed story and a digitally presented one? Have electronic reader devices altered the way stories are told and created? And how is networked communication changing the ways we tell stories?

  10. Integrating continuous stocks and flows into state-and-transition simulation models of landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Colin J.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Frid, Leonardo; Fortin, Marie-Josée

    2018-01-01

    State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) provide a general framework for forecasting landscape dynamics, including projections of both vegetation and land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The STSM method divides a landscape into spatially-referenced cells and then simulates the state of each cell forward in time, as a discrete-time stochastic process using a Monte Carlo approach, in response to any number of possible transitions. A current limitation of the STSM method, however, is that all of the state variables must be discrete.Here we present a new approach for extending a STSM, in order to account for continuous state variables, called a state-and-transition simulation model with stocks and flows (STSM-SF). The STSM-SF method allows for any number of continuous stocks to be defined for every spatial cell in the STSM, along with a suite of continuous flows specifying the rates at which stock levels change over time. The change in the level of each stock is then simulated forward in time, for each spatial cell, as a discrete-time stochastic process. The method differs from the traditional systems dynamics approach to stock-flow modelling in that the stocks and flows can be spatially-explicit, and the flows can be expressed as a function of the STSM states and transitions.We demonstrate the STSM-SF method by integrating a spatially-explicit carbon (C) budget model with a STSM of LULC change for the state of Hawai'i, USA. In this example, continuous stocks are pools of terrestrial C, while the flows are the possible fluxes of C between these pools. Importantly, several of these C fluxes are triggered by corresponding LULC transitions in the STSM. Model outputs include changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of C pools and fluxes across the landscape in response to projected future changes in LULC over the next 50 years.The new STSM-SF method allows both discrete and continuous state variables to be integrated into a STSM, including interactions between

  11. Fire Data as Proxy for Anthropogenic Landscape Change in the Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Millones

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the earliest and most common tools used by humans to modify the earth surface. Landscapes in the Yucatán Peninsula are composed of a mosaic of old growth subtropical forest, secondary vegetation, grasslands, and agricultural land that represent a well-documented example of anthropogenic intervention, much of which involves the use of fire. This research characterizes land use systems and land cover changes in the Yucatán during the 2000–2010 time period. We used an active fire remotely sensed data time series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, in combination with forest loss, and anthrome map sources to (1 establish the association between fire and land use change in the region; and (2 explore links between the spatial and temporal patterns of fire and specific types of land use practices, including within- and between-anthromes variability. A spatial multinomial logit model was constructed using fire, landscape configuration, and a set of commonly used control variables to estimate forest persistence, non-forest persistence, and change. Cross-tabulations and descriptive statistics were used to explore the relationships between fire occurrence, location, and timing with respect to the geography of land use. We also compared fire frequencies within and between anthrome groups using a negative binomial model and Tukey pairwise comparisons. Results show that fire data broadly reproduce the geography and timing of anthropogenic land change. Findings indicate that fire and landscape configuration is useful in explaining forest change and non-forest persistence, especially in fragmented (mosaicked landscapes. Absence of fire occurrence is related usefully to the persistence of spatially continuous core areas of older growth forest. Fire has a positive relationship with forest to non-forest change and a negative relationship with forest persistence. Fire is also a good indicator to distinguish between

  12. Integrating continuous stocks and flows into state-and-transition simulation models of landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Colin J.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Frid, Leonardo; Fortin, Marie-Josée

    2017-01-01

    State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) provide a general framework for forecasting landscape dynamics, including projections of both vegetation and land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The STSM method divides a landscape into spatially-referenced cells and then simulates the state of each cell forward in time, as a discrete-time stochastic process using a Monte Carlo approach, in response to any number of possible transitions. A current limitation of the STSM method, however, is that all of the state variables must be discrete.Here we present a new approach for extending a STSM, in order to account for continuous state variables, called a state-and-transition simulation model with stocks and flows (STSM-SF). The STSM-SF method allows for any number of continuous stocks to be defined for every spatial cell in the STSM, along with a suite of continuous flows specifying the rates at which stock levels change over time. The change in the level of each stock is then simulated forward in time, for each spatial cell, as a discrete-time stochastic process. The method differs from the traditional systems dynamics approach to stock-flow modelling in that the stocks and flows can be spatially-explicit, and the flows can be expressed as a function of the STSM states and transitions.We demonstrate the STSM-SF method by integrating a spatially-explicit carbon (C) budget model with a STSM of LULC change for the state of Hawai'i, USA. In this example, continuous stocks are pools of terrestrial C, while the flows are the possible fluxes of C between these pools. Importantly, several of these C fluxes are triggered by corresponding LULC transitions in the STSM. Model outputs include changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of C pools and fluxes across the landscape in response to projected future changes in LULC over the next 50 years.The new STSM-SF method allows both discrete and continuous state variables to be integrated into a STSM, including interactions between

  13. Applying Historic Science Communication Lessons to Today's Global Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    As global population surges towards seven billion and anthropogenic impacts ricochet throughout Earth’s environment, effective science communication has become essential. In today’s digital world where science communication must contend with stiff competition for audience attention, it is crucial to understand the lessons gleaned from a century worth of science communication research. Starting in the early part of the twentieth century a cadre of American scientists began to advocate for better public understanding of science, arguing that better understanding of science meant a better quality of life, better public affairs deliberations, and the elevation of democracy and culture. To improve science communication, many models of the communication process have been developed since then. Starting in the 1940s, science communication researchers adopted the linear communication model of electrical engineering. Over time, the one-way scientific communication of the linear model came to be identified with the deficit model approach—which assumes little prior scientific knowledge on the part of the receiver. A major failure of the deficit model was witnessed during the Mad Cow Disease outbreak in the UK: beef safety was over-simplified in the communication process, people were given a false sense of security, many ended up sick, and public trust in government plummeted. Of the many lessons learned from failures of the deficit model, arguably, the most significant lesson is that the public’s prior knowledge and life experience is always brought to bear on the message, i.e. the message must be contextualized. Here, we examine the major science communication lessons of the past century and discuss how they can inform more effective global change communication.

  14. Communicating Climate Change Risks for Adaptation in Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communicating Climate Change Risks for Adaptation in Coastal and Delta Communities in Viet Nam. Decisions concerning climate change adaptation are necessarily made by local and national governments, but households, community groups and private enterprises need to be informed so that they can make decisions ...

  15. Speech and Communication Changes Reported by People with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalling, Ellika; Johansson, Kerstin; Hartelius, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Changes in communicative functions are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there are only limited data provided by individuals with PD on how these changes are perceived, what their consequences are, and what type of intervention is provided. To present self-reported information about speech and communication, the impact on communicative participation, and the amount and type of speech-language pathology services received by people with PD. Respondents with PD recruited via the Swedish Parkinson's Disease Society filled out a questionnaire accessed via a Web link or provided in a paper version. Of 188 respondents, 92.5% reported at least one symptom related to communication; the most common symptoms were weak voice, word-finding difficulties, imprecise articulation, and getting off topic in conversation. The speech and communication problems resulted in restricted communicative participation for between a quarter and a third of the respondents, and their speech caused embarrassment sometimes or more often to more than half. Forty-five percent of the respondents had received speech-language pathology services. Most respondents reported both speech and language symptoms, and many experienced restricted communicative participation. Access to speech-language pathology services is still inadequate. Services should also address cognitive/linguistic aspects to meet the needs of people with PD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Landscape linkages and biodiversity in European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    Linear features are structuring landscape elements. We change our landscapes and rebuild them into new linkages, and landscapes are even constructed around these linkages. Landscape linkages are important for species migration and dispersal on a large scale and a small scale: storks, bats and

  17. Performance assessment of geospatial simulation models of land-use change--a landscape metric-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakieh, Yousef; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-03-01

    Performance evaluation is a critical step when developing land-use and cover change (LUCC) models. The present study proposes a spatially explicit model performance evaluation method, adopting a landscape metric-based approach. To quantify GEOMOD model performance, a set of composition- and configuration-based landscape metrics including number of patches, edge density, mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, largest patch index, class area, landscape shape index, and splitting index were employed. The model takes advantage of three decision rules including neighborhood effect, persistence of change direction, and urbanization suitability values. According to the results, while class area, largest patch index, and splitting indices demonstrated insignificant differences between spatial pattern of ground truth and simulated layers, there was a considerable inconsistency between simulation results and real dataset in terms of the remaining metrics. Specifically, simulation outputs were simplistic and the model tended to underestimate number of developed patches by producing a more compact landscape. Landscape-metric-based performance evaluation produces more detailed information (compared to conventional indices such as the Kappa index and overall accuracy) on the model's behavior in replicating spatial heterogeneity features of a landscape such as frequency, fragmentation, isolation, and density. Finally, as the main characteristic of the proposed method, landscape metrics employ the maximum potential of observed and simulated layers for a performance evaluation procedure, provide a basis for more robust interpretation of a calibration process, and also deepen modeler insight into the main strengths and pitfalls of a specific land-use change model when simulating a spatiotemporal phenomenon.

  18. The importance of ecosystem services for rural inhabitants in a changing cultural landscape in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional cultural landscapes evolved as coupled social-ecological systems. It is important to understand how such systems navigate novel challenges posed by globalization. To address this issue, we bring together two components of a pilot study carried out in a cultural landscape from Central Romania. The region was affected by major social and economic perturbations in the past century, affecting ethnic composition, community cohesion, land property regimes, and the management of common resources. The first component of our study investigated how rural inhabitants appreciated ecosystem services through questionnaires with 98 people in 30 villages. The second component aimed to assess the perception of people about ongoing changes in their communities through semistructured interviews with 50 people in 5 villages. Rural inhabitants particularly valued provisioning ecosystem services such as firewood, water, and crops, but also healthy soils. Rural communities were characterized by a number of social and economic issues, especially individualism, lack of trust, corruption, and poverty. People from communities with many initiatives, e.g., NGOs, associations, and active individuals, were more optimistic regarding the future of their communities than people from villages with few or no initiatives. A major challenge for cultural landscapes such as those in Central Romania is to find new, meaningful ways to keep the social and ecological systems connected. Otherwise there is a risk that (short-term socioeconomic interests may impair the provisioning of important ecosystem services.

  19. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  20. How Fire History, Fire Suppression Practices and Climate Change Affect Wildfire Regimes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  1. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain. We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape

  2. Landscape and hydrologic changes in the permafrost regions of the Western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Canadian Arctic, in the vicinity of the Mackenzie River Delta, is characterized by long cold winters, short summers, low precipitation, thin organic soils, and ice-rich continuous permafrost. Over the last few decades, this region has undergone dramatic changes in climate, with warming air temperature and decreasing winter and summer precipitation. This has resulted in various landscape changes, including the warming of the upper layers of the permafrost, deepening of the active layer, drainage of permafrost affected lakes, an ongoing change from tundra to shrub tundra, and earlier spring breakup of streams, rivers and lakes. However, interactions between climate, hydrology, snow, and vegetation greatly affect both the spatial and temporal changes to the permafrost and hydrology of this region. Knowledge of these changes is important to the understanding of methane dynamics in this permafrost landscape, and for predicting future changes. Two examples of observed landscape change will be discussed. First, ground based observations and analysis of air photo images has demonstrated that shrub expansion is not uniform across the landscape, but instead is characterized by shrub patches of varying size. This patchiness is likely related to existing variations in soil temperature and moisture, active layer depth, snowcover, and tundra fires. As shrub patches further develop, they impact soil temperature and active layer depth. For example, small patches of shrubs typically have snow depths that are deeper than surrounding tundra areas due to the accumulation of blowing snow, and as a result have much warmer soil temperatures and deeper active layers. In contrast to these small shrub patches, large shrub patches have snow depths only slightly larger than found in the surrounding tundra and therefore only slightly warmer winter soil temperatures. However, shading of the surface during the summer may result in cooler summer soil temperatures. The overall effect

  3. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change. Final report, July 15, 1989--July 14, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-01-29

    The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in climate may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between climatic change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic climatic data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the climatic driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the effects of changes in climate on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado.

  4. Monitoring Forest Change in Landscapes Under-Going Rapid Energy Development: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Pickell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.

  5. Modulation of erosion rates of uplifting landscapes by long-term climate change: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussirou, Bérangé; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Whether climatic variations play a major role, or not, in setting the erosion rate of continental landscapes is key for demonstrating the influence of climate on the tectonic evolution of mountain belts, as expected from analytical, numerical and analog modelling approaches. These models actually demonstrate that any modification in surface erosion rate that would affect significantly the gravitational loading of the continental crust might change its state of stress and consequently its deformation. However field evidences of these interactions has proved challenging to demonstrate unambiguously, the question of the climatic control on erosion efficiency at the geological time-scale being among the most critical issues. Here, we investigate how a change in precipitation influences the erosional dynamics of a landscape on the basis of an experimental approach where we surveyed the erosion by runoff of water of laboratory-scale landscapes that evolved under the combination of uplift and rainfall forcings (e.g. Bonnet and Crave, 2006). The experimental facility used is a modified of a device initially developed in the Geosciences Rennes laboratory and now set up in the Geosciences Environnement Toulouse laboratory. Following early experiments of Bonnet and Crave (2003) where the effect of a sudden drop in precipitation was investigated, we consider here the impact of decreasing rainfall events of finite duration on the erosive response of a landscape forced by a constant uplift (10 mm/h) and initially at steady-state (SS1). We performed several experiments with the same amplitude (from 160 to 60mm/h) but with different duration of rainfall drop (Tp: 0, 60, 300, 500, 700 min). As predicted theoretically and already observed in numerical and experimental modelling studies, a sudden drop of precipitation rate (Tp=0) induced a decrease of the mean erosion rate of the landscape (E), resulting in surface uplift. Then, landscape mean elevation stabilized to a higher value

  6. Executive summary: Climate change in the northwest: Implications for our landscapes, waters, and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Meghan M.; Bethel, Jeffrey; Capalbo, Susan M.; Cuhaciyan, J.E.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.; Glick, Patty; Houston, Laurie L.; Littell, Jeremy S.; Lynn, Kathy; Mote, Philip W.; Raymondi, Rick R.; Reeder, W. Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Snover, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities is aimed at assessing the state of knowledge about key climate impacts and consequences to various sectors and communities in the northwest United States. It draws on a wealth of peer-reviewed literature, earlier state-level assessment reports conducted for Washington (2009) and Oregon (2010), as well as a risk-framing workshop. As an assessment, it aims to be representative (though not exhaustive) of the key climate change issues as reflected in the growing body of Northwest climate change science, impacts, and adaptation literature now available. This report will serve as an updated resource for scientists, stakeholders, decision makers, students, and community members interested in understanding and preparing for climate change impacts on Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. This more detailed, foundational report is intended to support the key findings presented in the Northwest chapter of the Third National Climate Assessment.

  7. Catchment Sensitivity to Changing Climate Conditions: The Importance of Landscape Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Karlsen, Reinert; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. We recently found, however, that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 partially nested catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflows were simulated with the hydrological model HBV light based on 15 regional climate model projections that were bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that - in a future climate- the total annual streamflow will be higher, spring flood peaks will occur earlier and decrease considerably, whereas winter base flows will more than double. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, our results also show that there is a large variability amongst these catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. We identified wetlands, lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that had a stronger effect on spring floods, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils showed stronger responses in winter base flows and total annual streamflow. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to landscape characteristics and also depends on the streamflow characteristic as well as season analyzed.

  8. New perspectives on communication of change in corporate identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a gap in the literature on communication of change in corporate identity (CI by investigating the brand migration of Bosch in India. Based on an in-depth case study of Bosch in India, this paper develops seven propositions and conceptualises a framework for strategic communication of change in CI. The key propositions centre around strategic orientation, a constituency focussed approach, dual branding as an intermediate stage, integrating product messages with corporate messages, having a long time horizon to prevent loss of continuity, measuring effectiveness with a hierarchy of effects, and harnessing reciprocity of advertising and public relations.

  9. Change-related expectations and commitment to change of nurses: the role of leadership and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Saiani, Luisa; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Allegrini, Elisabetta

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model linking the impact of expectations on commitment to change and to explore whether change-related communication is a mediating variable between leader-member exchange and expectations. Expectations for change outcomes are an important condition to increase nurses' commitment to change. To understand the role of leadership and communication in expectations development is crucial to promote commitment to change. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 395 nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesized model. Positive expectations had a direct effect on affective commitment to change, whereas negative expectation had a direct effect on continuance commitment to change. Leader-member exchange and communication influenced nurse's expectations about change. Communication partially mediated the relationship between Leader-member exchange and expectations. These findings suggested that nurses' expectation about change were strongly linked to commitment to change. Furthermore, the enhancement of communication and relationship with leader contributed to the development of positive and negative expectations. Strategies to promote commitment to change include developing positive expectations about change outcomes and building high-quality leadership style oriented to the communication. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Entwisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  11. Mapping the Landscape of Qualitative Research on Intercultural Communication. A Hitchhiker's Guide to the Methodological Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Otten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An exploration of the interdisciplinary field of intercultural communication reveals both very inspiring thoughts and instruments to analyze culture in human interaction, and a confusing diversity of methods and arguments to deal with. In this article a "conceptual metaphor" (LAKOFF & JOHNSON, 1980 of exploring unknown territories and spaces is proposed for establishing a heuristic frame to maneuver through a rapidly expanding "galaxy" of research on intercultural communication. The aim is to provide a general framework to assess the methodological coherence of empirical studies on intercultural communication, as well as their relative position in the wider field of qualitative social research methodologies. Three dimensions will be discussed: 1 The theoretical question of the underlying cultural concept of a research project, 2 the methodical question of the basic research design and modes of analysis, and 3 the question of generalizations drawn from the empirical findings. These dimensions constitute what we call a methodological galaxy in which current trends and developments of the field of intercultural communication can be located and traced. The suggested framework may serve as a guiding "compass," using a set of "etic" parameters for navigation while respecting the "emic" nature of qualitative approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901520

  12. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...... of the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl....

  13. [Dynamic changes of urban architecture landscape based on Barista: a case study in Tiexi District of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi; Xiong, Zai-ping; Liu, Miao

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional building information was extracted from high resolution satellite image based on Barista software. Combined with ArcGIS software, the dynamic changes of the building landscape in Tiexi District of Shenyang City during urban renewal process were analyzed from the conversion contribution rate, building density, average building height, and built-up area rate. It was found that during this urban renewal process, four dominant landscape types (vacant lot, residential building, industrial building, and road) were the main parts of the landscape changes. The areas of vacant lot, residential building, commercial building, and road increased, while that of industrial building decreased. The building density decreased, while the average building height increased. There was an obvious regional variation in building landscape. The building density in industrial district was higher than that in residential district, while the average building height was in adverse. The further from the city center, the lower the building density and building average height.

  14. Change of Landscape Structure before and after Winter Olympic Games in Nagano City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Takeda, Toshiharu

    Recently it is desirable to realize the conservation of biodiversity and to create the city with symbiosis with nature even in local city. In this study, we chose Nagano City which was the site of the Winter Olympic Games as the subject of study, investigated the change of land cover by using Landsat TM data of the year 1985 and 1999 which were before and after the Winter Olympic Games, and grasped the change of landscape structure quantitatively by using landscape indices. As a result, we obtained the following conclusions. The expansion of urban area proceeded rapidly before and after the Winter Olympic Games. The area of artificial land cover in the city planning area has increased by 57%. In the meantime the areas of upland field and paddy field have decreased by 45% and 50% respectively. Therefore, agricultural land changed into urban area remarkably. It was found that the shape of paches of paddy field and upland field especially became small and the inequality of the paches decreased before and after the Winter Olympic Games. It became clear that the fragmentation has occurred in agricultural land such as paddy field, upland field and orchard.

  15. Perceptions of Wildfire and Landscape Change in the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jason S.; Gruver, Joshua B.; Flint, Courtney G.; Luloff, A. E.

    2013-10-01

    Despite a broad literature addressing the human dimensions of wildfire, current approaches often compartmentalize results according to disciplinary boundaries. Further, relatively few studies have focused on the public's evolving perceptions of wildfire as communities change over time. This paper responds to these gaps by exploring perceptions of landscape dynamics and wildfire between 2003 and 2007 using a typological framework of intersecting ecological, social, and cultural processes. Designed as a restudy, and using key informant interviews, this research allowed us to observe risk perception as they are related to community challenges and opportunities in the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Risk perceptions were examined as an integral part of community and landscape change. Wildfire was a concern among informants in 2003 and remained a concern in 2007, although informants were less likely to discuss it as a major threat compared to the original study. Informants in the western part of the peninsula tended to express more concern about wildfire than their eastern counterparts largely due to their experiences with recent fires. Other important factors residents considered included changing forest fuels, the expanding wildland urban interface, and contrasting values of new residents. Underscoring the localized nature of risk perceptions, informants had difficulty describing the probability of a wildfire event in a geographical context broader than the community scale. This paper demonstrates how a holistic approach can help wildfire and natural resource professionals, community members, and other stakeholders understand the social and physical complexities influencing collective actions or inactions to address the threat of wildfire.

  16. Communicative participation changes in pre-school children receiving augmentative and alternative communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Robertson, Bernadette; Oddson, Bruce; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports changes in communicative participation skills-systematically measured and described-in an empirical observational case series of eight children receiving augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions. The eight children (seven boys, one girl), ranging from 1 year 4 months to 4 years 11 months (mean = 2.8 years; SD = 1.32 years) received varied AAC interventions (i.e. sign language, assistive technology, PECS), averaging 15 hours of treatment over a 12-month period. Parents completed an outcome measure (FOCUS) three times: at the start, mid-point (6 months) and end of the intervention period (after 12 months). They also completed the ASQ-SE at the start and end of intervention. FOCUS scores increased over the treatment interval, indicating improvement in real-world communication skills as observed by their parents. The ASQ-SE items that pertained to communication also improved, while the items that did not correspond to communication did not. This divergence suggests that the communicative participation improvements resulted from treatment rather than general developmental gains. The largest improvements were noted in receptive language/listening, pragmatics and social/play skills. Improvements in intelligibility were also measured for several children. These results suggest that AAC intervention facilitated improvements in communicative participation skills in pre-school children.

  17. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  18. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  19. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    hydrosphere (no erosion). Adding new elements (differentiated body: horizon, atmosphere: blue/purple etc sky as visually important elements; complex lithology (mountains of tectonic ori- gin); atmosphere (which can alter temperature) and hydrosphere (erosion, rivers, de- position) a more complex landscape will appear. As a first step, by making a "landscape model", we can input general parameters of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, the distance from the Sun, orbital parameters, last resurfacing date, age of the planet and the model will output the pos- 1 sible landscape elements in the planet. This can be refined by inputing the actual pa- rameters (place on planet, climate region etc.) from which the actual landscape can be the result. The landscape altering processes are: exogenic (impact), mass movement, endogenic (volcanism, thermal conditions), weathering, aeolic, fluvial, glacial, biogenic, antro- pogenic processes. Comparing planets and moons, all of these processes work on Earth, only half of them works on Mars and Venus, and even fewer on Mercury and Moon [3], where most of the surface is an "post-impact" landscape. A Planetary view. Science-fiction writers often describe planets with one characteris- tic: "desert planet", "ocean planet", "forest planet". Generally, planetary flyby missions verify these images (Europa - ice plain planet or Io - volcano world), but a orbiter mis- sion makes clear than in any planet, several significantly different landcape units are present, but from planet to planet, the average climatic and lithologic conditions do change and characterize the given planet. LANDSCAPE RESOURCES, LANDSCAPE "HOT SPOTS" Landscape hot spots has "high values" in the factors listed below. Physical landscape values. Small object not detectable from orbiters: individual rocks or the local physical characteristics of the upper layer of the regolith, the sediment or bedrock characteristics along with relief forms will be the important factors of

  20. Seeing the future impacts of climate change and forest management: a landscape visualization system for forest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Melissa Lucash; Johannes Liem; Helen Jenny; Rob Scheller; Kelly Barrett; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly considering how climate change may alter forests' capacity to provide ecosystem goods and services. But identifying potential climate change effects on forests is difficult because interactions among forest growth and mortality, climate change, management, and disturbances are complex and uncertain. Although forest landscape models...

  1. Challenges and potentials in using alternative landscape futures during climate change: A literature review and survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rastandeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the feasibility of applying alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning during climate change to provide a wider perspective and deeper understanding of this approach for better use and more effective application in the future. The study consists of a literature review and an analysis of recent applied projects carried out worldwide. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted from March to September 2014 to examine viewpoints on the use and application of this approach with reference to climate-change impacts. The survey participants were a group of highly experienced researchers from eighteen countries involved in at least one applied project since 2000 relating to this topic. After analysis of more than forty applied projects, the survey results were incorporated into the analysis to create a comprehensive picture regarding the potentials and limitations of alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning with particular attention to climate change. The findings show that this method is one of the most effective decision-making approaches for adopting landscape policies where landscapes change rapidly under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the advances offered by the approach in various dimensions and the complexity of patterns, uncertainties and upheavals in landscapes due to climate-change impacts in the urbanising world. The research indicates that the approach opens up a great opportunity for decision-makers to expand their perspective and adopt appropriate landscape policies before reaching a point of no return from the sustainability point of view. Meanwhile, there are challenges and barriers in the application of alternative futures and scenario analysis for envisioning the landscapes influenced by climate change and urbanisation that should be pushed back. Although informative, this research raises new questions about this

  2. Forest Landscape Restoration as a Key Component of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanturf, John A.; Kant, Promode; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow

    of the major results of this study was the identification and detailed description of the many different ways in which FLR contributes to both mitigating climate effects and helping ecosystems and society to adapt to adverse effects of a changing climate. In addition, this work contributed a stoplight tool......Drawing on state-of-the art scientific knowledge through analysis of restoration case studies and review of scientific literature, IUFRO scientists developed a framework to demonstrate how forest landscape restoration (FLR) can contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. One...... aimed at better presenting complex restoration initiatives, and how they may contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation and vice-versa, in a specific local context....

  3. Multitemporal satellite change detection investigations for documentation and valorization of cultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, n.

    2012-04-01

    The paper focus on the setting up of a methodology for analyzing cultural landscapes to extract information about ancient civilization settlements, land-use variations, stratified anthropogenic environment, human impacts on landscape, as well as climate driven changes over short, medium, and long periods of time. The analysis of cultural landscape along with its protection and preservation strategies requires the contribution of integrated disciplines and data source, and, above all, the fusion of multi-temporal and multi dimensional data available from different sources. In this contest satellite time series may help us in improve knowledge content of cultural landscape and heritage . The methodology approach we devised is focused on multitemporal/multisource/multiscale data analysis as a support for extracting (i) archaeological settlements and (ii) potential ancient land-use patterning. To these aims, DTM from SRTM and ASTER along multispectral data from TM, ASTER and Quikbird have been used. In order to make the satellite data more meaningful and more exploitable for investigations, reliable data processing have been carried out. Over the years a great variety of digital image enhancement techniques have been devised for specific application fields according to data availability. Nevertheless, only recently these methods have captured great attention also in the field of archaeology for an easier extraction of quantitative information using effective and reliable semiautomatic data processing. The setting up of fully-automatic methodologies is a big challenge to be strategically addressed by research communities in the next years. Multitemporal, multiscale and multisensor satellite data sets can provide useful tool for extracting information and traces related both to modern and ancient civilizations still fossilized in the modern landscape. Reference Lasaponara R, Masini N (2006a) On the potential of panchromatic and multispectral Quickbird data for

  4. Land cover and landscape changes in Shaanxi Province during China's Grain for Green Program (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; López-Carr, David; Liang, Xiao-ying

    2015-10-01

    This study examines landscape changes in the context of China's national Grain for Green (GFG) policy, one of the world's largest "payment for environmental/ecosystem services" (PES) programs. We explored landscape structures and dynamics between 2000 and 2010 in Shaanxi Province, the Chinese province with the greatest amount of cropland conversion and reforestation in recent decades. We used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)-derived data and landscape metrics for six land cover classes to determine (1) the major land cover changes during enforcement of the policy, (2) the spatial and temporal variations in these changes, and (3) the effects of land cover changes on landscape structure and dynamics. The results suggested that provincial-level land cover changes modestly reflected the goals of the GFG. Over the 10-year study period, the forest and grassland coverages expanded from 95,737.9 to 97,017.4 km(2) and from 37,235.9 to 40,613.1 km(2), respectively, while the cropland coverage decreased from 59,222.8 to 54,007.6 km(2). The conversion direction differed regionally: the targeted croplands in Shanbei, namely, types III and IV, were mainly transformed into grassland while those in Shannan were mainly transformed into forestland. Reforestation was associated with increased inter-landscape aggregation and connection. Despite this large-scale reforestation trend, we found notable and significant differences in the land cover changes at the subprovincial level.

  5. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  6. Surviving Organizational Change: How management communication helps balancing mixed feelings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, P.W.M.; Selm, M. van

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to examine the correspondence between the use and evaluation of management communication on the one hand and positive and negative responses to a planned organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach – The study was conducted among employees of a Dutch branch

  7. Gender differences in the climate change communication on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, K; Hellsten, I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a study about gender differences in the climate change communication on Twitter and in the use of affordances on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach – The data set consists of about 250,000 tweets and retweets for which the authors’ gender was

  8. Communicating Climate Change Risks for Adaptation in Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Researchers will assess how different stakeholders understand climate and water-related risk; facilitate discussion between different stakeholder groups on potential response mechanisms; devise and test communication tools for disseminating information on changing climate risk and response; and ...

  9. Communication and Institutional Change in Mexican Agricultural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Heliodoro; Felstehausen, Herman

    A theoretical framework for integrating concepts of communication and institutional change based on experience with the Puebla Project in Mexico is given. The Puebla Project is a program to introduce high yield corn technology on a broad scale to 50,000 dry land corn farmers in Puebla, Mexico. The first part of the paper points out how…

  10. Impediments to Media Communication of Social Change in Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Kagurusi. Impediments to effective family planning. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2013; 17(3): 70. REVIEW ARTICLE. Impediments to Media Communication of Social Change in Family. Planning and Reproductive Health: Experiences from East Africa. Kagurusi Patrick T. Regional Center for Quality of ...

  11. Impediments to Media Communication of Social Change in Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC ...

  12. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  13. Changing Models for Researching Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changing models of pedagogy by drawing on recent research with teachers and their students as well as theoretical developments. In relation to a participatory view of learning, the paper reviews existing pedagogical models that take little account of the use of information and communications technologies as well as those that…

  14. In Preparation or Response: Examining Health Care Coalitions Amid a Changing Economic and Political Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornauer, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response within the US Department of Health and Human Services leads the nation in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the adverse health effects of public health emergencies, in part through formal collaborations between hospitals, health systems, community health centers, public health departments, and community organizations via health care coalitions (HCCs). HCCs endeavor to meet the medical surge demands inherent to disasters and to improve health outcomes before, during, and after public health emergencies. Nevertheless, significant changes in health economics and policy can impact the operations, capabilities, and scope of HCCs. Specifically, hospital consolidation and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are altering the national health care landscape, as well as the emergency preparedness sector, and are challenging HCCs to adapt to large-scale, industry-wide transformations. This article examines HCCs in the context of the developments of hospital consolidation and the ACA in order to facilitate future discourse regarding the strategy and policy of HCCs amid a changing economic and political landscape.

  15. Emerging methods for the study of coastal ecosystem landscape structure and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Purkis, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Coastal landscapes are heterogeneous, dynamic, and evolve over a range of time scales due to intertwined climatic, geologic, hydrologic, biologic, and meteorological processes, and are also heavily impacted by human development, commercial activities, and resource extraction. A diversity of complex coastal systems around the globe, spanning glaciated shorelines to tropical atolls, wetlands, and barrier islands are responding to multiple human and natural drivers. Interdisciplinary research based on remote-sensing observations linked to process studies and models is required to understand coastal ecosystem landscape structure and change. Moreover, new techniques for coastal mapping and monitoring are increasingly serving the needs of policy-makers and resource managers across local, regional, and national scales. Emerging remote-sensing methods associated with a diversity of instruments and platforms are a key enabling element of integrated coastal ecosystem studies. These investigations require both targeted and synoptic mapping, and involve the monitoring of formative processes such as hydrodynamics, sediment transport, erosion, accretion, flooding, habitat modification, land-cover change, and biogeochemical fluxes.

  16. A Behavioral Model of Landscape Change in the Amazon Basin: The Colonist Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. A.; Drzyzga, S. A.; Li, Y. L.; Wi, J. G.; Caldas, M.; Arima, E.; Vergara, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a predictive model capable of describing both magnitudes of deforestation and its spatial articulation into patterns of forest fragmentation. In a departure from other landscape models, it establishes an explicit behavioral foundation for algorithm development, predicated on notions of the peasant economy and on household production theory. It takes a 'bottom-up' approach, generating the process of land-cover change occurring at lot level together with the geography of a transportation system to describe regional landscape change. In other words, it translates the decentralized decisions of individual households into a collective, spatial impact. In so doing, the model unites the richness of survey research on farm households with the analytical rigor of spatial analysis enabled by geographic information systems (GIs). The paper describes earlier efforts at spatial modeling, provides a critique of the so-called spatially explicit model, and elaborates a behavioral foundation by considering farm practices of colonists in the Amazon basin. It then uses, insight from the behavioral statement to motivate a GIs-based model architecture. The model is implemented for a long-standing colonization frontier in the eastern sector of the basin, along the Trans-Amazon Highway in the State of Para, Brazil. Results are subjected to both sensitivity analysis and error assessment, and suggestions are made about how the model could be improved.

  17. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Morris1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change. Understanding the relationship among climate, antecedent disturbances, and the legacy effects of settlement-era logging can help identify the patterns and processes that create landscapes susceptible to bark beetle epidemics. Methods: Our analysis uses data from lake sediment cores, stand inventories, and historical records. Sediment cores were dated with radiometric techniques (14C and 210Pb/137Cs and subsampled for pollen and charcoal to maximize the temporal resolution during the historical period (1800 CE to present and to provide environmental baseline data (last 10,500 years. Pollen data for spruce were calibrated to carbon biomass (C t/ha using standard allometric equations and a transfer function. Charcoal samples were analyzed with statistical models to facilitate peak detection and determine fire recurrence intervals. Results: The Wasatch Plateau has been dominated by Engelmann spruce forests for the last ~10,500 years, with subalpine fir becoming more prominent since 6000 years ago. This landscape has experienced a dynamic fire regime, where burning events are more frequent and of higher magnitude during the last 3000 years. Two important disturbances have impacted Engelmann spruce in the historical period: 1 high-grade logging during the late 19th century; and (2 a high severity spruce beetle outbreak in the late 20th century that killed >90 % of mature spruce (>10 cm dbh. Conclusions: Our study shows that spruce-dominated forests in this region are resilient to a range of climate and disturbance regimes. Several lines of evidence suggest that 19th century logging

  18. Sweden's third national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Sweden's national communication to the UN Convention on Climate Change describes everything about the emission and absorption of greenhouse gases, the motives and forces behind emissions, and official Swedish climate policies. Every five years, Sweden submits a communication on practical climate efforts in Sweden to the UN Convention on Climate Change. The Swedish Environmental Protection Board has coordinated the work of producing the basic documentation for the communication, which also describes the measures already taken and those planned for the future. In addition, scenarios have been adopted for developments in Swedish greenhouse gas emissions, Sweden's vulnerability and Swedish research into the climate and climate change

  19. Analysis of changes in farm pond network connectivity in the peri-urban landscape of the Taoyuan area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Li; Lee, Ying-Chieh; Budd, William W; Yang, Min-Chia

    2012-04-01

    The farm pond system for irrigation is the most prominent feature in the Taoyuan area, Taiwan, giving the region a unique landscape and hydrological character. Although this area had more than 3,290 ponds in the 1970s, fewer than 1,800 now remain. This study analyzes changes in irrigation farm ponds and the canal network landscape in the Taoyuan area. The spatial and temporal changes to ponds and the canal network on the Taoyuan plain were examined graphically for each spatial unit (2,765 m × 2,525 m) using aerial photographs for 1979 and 2005. Landscape metrics were calculated to analyze landscape change associated with increased urbanization. Landscape indices of connectivity and circuitry were utilized to describe changes in the configuration of ponds and canal networks. The total length of canals and total number of ponds in the study area decreased significantly during 1979-2005. The average values of connectivity indices (γ- and α-index) also decreased during 1979-2005, reflecting degradation of canal networks due to urban sprawl. A multivariate technique was applied to portion the study area into three zones according to changes to land cover, ponds, and canal networks. The effects of urban sprawl on the spatial pattern of ponds and canal networks are discussed.

  20. Communication as change management vehicle : how to improve change receptivity with organisational communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruissalo, Mari

    2015-01-01

    In today’s organisations changes are no longer happening every now and then, but are the pattern that continuously takes place in various scale. Changes touch people working in the organisation in many ways depending on the impact and frequency of the change efforts. Change resistance is a natural human reaction which may cause significant challenges for those who create and roll out change implementation strategies. Receptivity, or resistance, of employees who face the organisational cha...

  1. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M

    2007-09-19

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (-30.3%), floral types (-23.6%), and floral sizes (-20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly reduces

  2. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  3. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  4. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland.

  5. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  6. Climate change amplifies the interactions between wind and bark beetle disturbances in forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Rammer, Werner

    2017-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that climate change could substantially alter forest disturbances. Interactions between individual disturbance agents are a major component of disturbance regimes, yet how interactions contribute to their climate sensitivity remains largely unknown. Here, our aim was to assess the climate sensitivity of disturbance interactions, focusing on wind and bark beetle disturbances. We developed a process-based model of bark beetle disturbance, integrated into the dynamic forest landscape model iLand (already including a detailed model of wind disturbance). We evaluated the integrated model against observations from three wind events and a subsequent bark beetle outbreak, affecting 530.2 ha (3.8 %) of a mountain forest landscape in Austria between 2007 and 2014. Subsequently, we conducted a factorial experiment determining the effect of changes in climate variables on the area disturbed by wind and bark beetles separately and in combination. iLand was well able to reproduce observations with regard to area, temporal sequence, and spatial pattern of disturbance. The observed disturbance dynamics was strongly driven by interactions, with 64.3 % of the area disturbed attributed to interaction effects. A +4 °C warming increased the disturbed area by +264.7 % and the area-weighted mean patch size by +1794.3 %. Interactions were found to have a ten times higher sensitivity to temperature changes than main effects, considerably amplifying the climate sensitivity of the disturbance regime. Disturbance interactions are a key component of the forest disturbance regime. Neglecting interaction effects can lead to a substantial underestimation of the climate change sensitivity of disturbance regimes.

  7. The effects of hands-free communication device systems: communication changes in hospital organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joshua E; Ash, Joan S

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the effects that hands-free communication device (HCD) systems have on healthcare organizations from multiple user perspectives. This exploratory qualitative study recruited 26 subjects from multiple departments in two research sites located in Portland, Oregon: an academic medical center and a community hospital. Interview and observation data were gathered January through March, 2007. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Because this study was exploratory, data were coded and patterns identified until overall themes 'emerged'. Five themes arose: (1) Communication access-the perception that HCD systems provide fast and efficient communication that supports workflow; (2) Control-social and technical considerations associated with use of an HCD system; (3) Training-processes that should be used to improve use of the HCD system; (4) Organizational change-changes to organizational design and behavior caused by HCD system implementation; and (5) Environment and infrastructure-HCD system use within the context of physical workspaces. HCD systems improve communication access but users experience challenges integrating the system into workflow. Effective HCD use depends on how well organizations train users, adapt to changes brought about by HCD systems, and integrate HCD systems into physical surroundings.

  8. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Kouki, Jari; Strandman, Harri; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2015-02-01

    Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2 = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1 = 66.4%, A1B = 72.3%, A2 = 72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the

  9. Communication skills for behaviour change in dietetic consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, K; Langley-Evans, S C; Tischler, V; Swift, J A

    2009-12-01

    Both the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have recommended increased training for health professionals in communication skills. There is evidence to suggest that communication skills are important in helping people to change health-related behaviour, which is a key role for dietitians. This study investigated the views of UK dietitians about their training needs and experience in relation to communication skills in dietetic practice. In October 2007, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to all British Dietetic Association members (n = 6013). The survey gathered quantitative data and free-text comments to ascertain the level, type and effect of communication skills training received by dietitians at both the pre- and post-registration level. There were 1158 respondents; a response rate of 19.3%. Ninety-eight percent (n = 1117) rated communication skills as either very or extremely important in client consultations. Post-registration training had been undertaken by 73% (n = 904). Of these, over 90% of respondents perceived that post-registration training had led to improvements in their relationships with patients, their confidence in client interviews and their ability to cope with challenging clients. However, 248 (21.4%) felt time keeping in interviews had worsened. Lack of time for client interviews was also the most commonly identified barrier (19%, n = 216) to implementing the skills. This study has explored an important and under-researched area. Respondents strongly endorsed the importance of good communication skills and the benefits of post-registration training in this area. Some felt that good communication was time consuming but others felt that time management had improved. Further research and training is required to support the implementation of these skills into dietetic practice.

  10. Species-Specific Responses of Carnivores to Human-Induced Landscape Changes in Central Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Caruso

    Full Text Available The role that mammalian carnivores play in ecosystems can be deeply altered by human-driven habitat disturbance. While most carnivore species are negatively affected, the impact of habitat changes is expected to depend on their ecological flexibility. We aimed to identify key factors affecting the habitat use by four sympatric carnivore species in landscapes of central Argentina. Camera trapping surveys were carried out at 49 sites from 2011 to 2013. Each site was characterized by 12 habitat attributes, including human disturbance and fragmentation. Four landscape gradients were created from Principal Component Analysis and their influence on species-specific habitat use was studied using Generalized Linear Models. We recorded 74 events of Conepatus chinga, 546 of Pseudalopex gymnocercus, 193 of Leopardus geoffroyi and 45 of Puma concolor. We found that the gradient describing sites away from urban settlements and with low levels of disturbance had the strongest influence. L. geoffroyi was the only species responding significantly to the four gradients and showing a positive response to modified habitats, which could be favored by the low level of persecution by humans. P. concolor made stronger use of most preserved sites with low proportion of cropland, even though the species also used sites with an intermediate level of fragmentation. A more flexible use of space was found for C. chinga and P. gymnocercus. Our results demonstrate that the impact of human activities spans across this guild of carnivores and that species-specific responses appear to be mediated by ecological and behavioral attributes.

  11. Species-Specific Responses of Carnivores to Human-Induced Landscape Changes in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Nicolás; Lucherini, Mauro; Fortin, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B.

    2016-01-01

    The role that mammalian carnivores play in ecosystems can be deeply altered by human-driven habitat disturbance. While most carnivore species are negatively affected, the impact of habitat changes is expected to depend on their ecological flexibility. We aimed to identify key factors affecting the habitat use by four sympatric carnivore species in landscapes of central Argentina. Camera trapping surveys were carried out at 49 sites from 2011 to 2013. Each site was characterized by 12 habitat attributes, including human disturbance and fragmentation. Four landscape gradients were created from Principal Component Analysis and their influence on species-specific habitat use was studied using Generalized Linear Models. We recorded 74 events of Conepatus chinga, 546 of Pseudalopex gymnocercus, 193 of Leopardus geoffroyi and 45 of Puma concolor. We found that the gradient describing sites away from urban settlements and with low levels of disturbance had the strongest influence. L. geoffroyi was the only species responding significantly to the four gradients and showing a positive response to modified habitats, which could be favored by the low level of persecution by humans. P. concolor made stronger use of most preserved sites with low proportion of cropland, even though the species also used sites with an intermediate level of fragmentation. A more flexible use of space was found for C. chinga and P. gymnocercus. Our results demonstrate that the impact of human activities spans across this guild of carnivores and that species-specific responses appear to be mediated by ecological and behavioral attributes. PMID:26950300

  12. Identifying socio-ecological networks in rural-urban gradients: Diagnosis of a changing cultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Schmitz, C; Schmitz, M F; Herrero-Jáuregui, C; Gutiérrez-Angonese, J; Pineda, F D; Montes, C

    2018-01-15

    Socio-ecological systems maintain reciprocal interactions between biophysical and socioeconomic structures. As a result of these interactions key essential services for society emerge. Urban expansion is a direct driver of land change and cause serious shifts in socio-ecological relationships and the associated lifestyles. The framework of rural-urban gradients has proved to be a powerful tool for ecological research about urban influences on ecosystems and on sociological issues related to social welfare. However, to date there has not been an attempt to achieve a classification of municipalities in rural-urban gradients based on socio-ecological interactions. In this paper, we developed a methodological approach that allows identifying and classifying a set of socio-ecological network configurations in the Region of Madrid, a highly dynamic cultural landscape considered one of the European hotspots in urban development. According to their socio-ecological links, the integrated model detects four groups of municipalities, ordered along a rural-urban gradient, characterized by their degree of biophysical and socioeconomic coupling and different indicators of landscape structure and social welfare. We propose the developed model as a useful tool to improve environmental management schemes and land planning from a socio-ecological perspective, especially in territories subject to intense urban transformations and loss of rurality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cartograms Facilitate Communication of Climate Change Risks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra

    2017-12-01

    Communication of climate change (CC) risks is challenging, in particular if global-scale spatially resolved quantitative information is to be conveyed. Typically, visualization of CC risks, which arise from the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, is confined to showing only the hazards in the form of global thematic maps. This paper explores the potential of contiguous value-by-area cartograms, that is, distorted density-equalizing maps, for improving communication of CC risks and the countries' differentiated responsibilities for CC. Two global-scale cartogram sets visualize, as an example, groundwater-related CC risks in 0.5° grid cells, another one the correlation of (cumulative) fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions with the countries' population and gross domestic product. Viewers of the latter set visually recognize the lack of global equity and that the countries' wealth has been built on harmful emissions. I recommend that CC risks are communicated by bivariate gridded cartograms showing the hazard in color and population, or a combination of population and a vulnerability indicator, by distortion of grid cells. Gridded cartograms are also appropriate for visualizing the availability of natural resources to humans. For communicating complex information, sets of cartograms should be carefully designed instead of presenting single cartograms. Inclusion of a conventionally distorted map enhances the viewers' capability to take up the information represented by distortion. Empirical studies about the capability of global cartograms to convey complex information and to trigger moral emotions should be conducted, with a special focus on risk communication.

  14. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli Pekka

    2015-01-01

    capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation......Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate...... change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation...

  15. Next-generation forest change mapping across the United States: the landscape change monitoring system (LCMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen; Yang Zhiqiang; Ken Brewer; Evan Brooks; Noel Gorelick; Mathew Gregory; Alexander Hernandez; Chengquan Huang; Joseph Hughes; Robert Kennedy; Thomas Loveland; Kevin Megown; Gretchen Moisen; Todd Schroeder; Brian Schwind; Stephen Stehman; Daniel Steinwand; James Vogelmann; Curtis Woodcock; Limin Yang; Zhe. Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Forest change information is critical in forest planning, ecosystem modeling, and in updating forest condition maps. The Landsat satellite platform has provided consistent observations of the world’s ecosystems since 1972. A number of innovative change detection algorithms have been developed to use the Landsat archive to identify and characterize forest change. The...

  16. An Interdisciplinary Network Making Progress on Climate Change Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J. C.; Bales, S.; Fraser, J.; Yoder, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Public understanding of climate change continues to lag far behind the scientific consensus not merely because the public lacks information, but because there is in fact too much complex and contradictory information available. Fortunately, we can now (1) build on careful empirical cognitive and social science research to understand what people already value, believe, and understand; and then (2) design and test strategies for translating complex science so that people can examine evidence, make well-informed inferences, and embrace science-based solutions. Informal science education institutions can help bridge the gap between climate scientists and the public. In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, etc.) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Extensive research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change and trust these institutions as reliable sources. Ultimately, we need to take a strategic approach to the way climate change is communicated. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to bring together three key areas of expertise (as recommended by Pidgeon and Fischhoff, 2011): 1. Climate and decision science experts - who can summarize and explain what is known, characterize risks, and describe appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies; 2. Social scientists - who can bring to bear research, theory, and best practices from cognitive, communication, knowledge acquisition, and social learning theory; and 3. Informal educators and program designers - who bring a practitioner perspective and can exponentially facilitate a learning process for additional interpreters. With support from an NSF CCEP Phase I grant, we have tested this approach, bringing together Interdisciplinary teams of colleagues for a five month "study circles" to develop skills to communicate climate change based on research in the social and cognitive sciences. In 2011

  17. Leading organizational change; The role of top management and supervisors in communicating organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Hansma, L.; Elving, W.J.L.; Podnar, K.; Jancic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two studies on the role of top management and direct supervisors on communicating organizational change are presented. The importance of leadership at all organizational levels is demonstrated and published in numerous studies, but empirically hardly tested. In this paper we will present two studies, in which we made a distinction between information and communication. Both concepts were measured, along with trust in top management, role of direct supervisors, support for change...

  18. The Seagrass Effect Turned Upside Down Changes the Prospective of Sea Urchin Survival and Landscape Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Farina

    Full Text Available Habitat structure plays an important mediating role in predator-prey interactions. However the effects are strongly dependent on regional predator pools, which can drive predation risk in habitats with very similar structure in opposite directions. In the Mediterranean Sea predation on juvenile sea urchins is commonly known to be regulated by seagrass structure. In this study we test whether the possibility for juvenile Paracentrotus lividus to be predated changes in relation to the fragmentation of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (four habitat classes: continuous, low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rocks, and to the spatial arrangement of such habitat classes at a landscape scale. Sea urchin predation risk was measured in a 20-day field experiment on tethered individuals placed in three square areas 35×35 m2 in size. Variability of both landscape and habitat structural attributes was assessed at the sampling grain 5×5 m2. Predation risk changed among landscapes, as it was lower where more 'rocks', and thus less seagrass, were present. The higher risk was found in the 'continuous' P. oceanica rather than in the low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rock habitats (p-values = 0.0149, 0.00008, and 0.0001, respectively. Therefore, the expectation that juvenile P. lividus survival would have been higher in the 'continuous' seagrass habitat, which would have served as shelter from high fish predation pressure, was not met. Predation risk changed across habitats due to different success between attack types: benthic attacks (mostly from whelks were overall much more effective than those due to fish activity, the former type being associated with the 'continuous' seagrass habitat. Fish predation on juvenile sea urchins on rocks and 'high-fragmentation' habitat was less likely than benthic predation in the 'continuous' seagrass, with the low seagrass patch complexity increasing benthic activity. Future research should be aimed at

  19. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  20. Assessing ExxonMobil's Climate Change Communications (1977-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supran, G.; Oreskes, N.

    2017-12-01

    Coal, oil, and gas companies have operated - and continue to operate - across myriad facets of the climate problem: scientific, political, and public. Efforts to engage the fossil fuel industry in addressing climate change should therefore be informed by this broad historical context. In this paper, we present an empirical document-by-document textual content analysis and comparison of 187 diverse climate change communications from ExxonMobil spanning 1977 to 2014, including peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, internal company documents, and paid, editorial-style advertisements ("advertorials") in The New York Times. We examine whether these communications sent consistent messages about the state of climate science and its implications - specifically, we compare their positions on climate change as real, human-caused, serious, and solvable. In all four cases, we find that as documents become more publicly accessible, they increasingly communicate doubt. That is, ExxonMobil contributed to advancing climate science - by way of its scientists' academic publications - but promoted doubt about it in advertorials. Our findings shed light on one oil and gas company's multivalent strategic responses to climate change. They offer a cautionary tale against myopic engagement with the fossil fuel industry, demonstrating the importance of evaluating the full spectrum of a company's claims and activities.

  1. Attitude Change in Intercultural Interpersonal Computer- Mediated Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Roshandel Arbatani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to depict the effect of computer-mediated communication on attitude change in intercultural interpersonal communications. The researchers arranged 20 virtual informal deep interviews with non-Iranian interviewees who have been in contact with the researchers via the internet during the last 10 years. Despite the fact that their perceptions about Iranians years ago were very schematic in the first encounters with the researchers, the researchers recognized these attitudes had changed gradually during these years. Observing such a change in the daily communications, the researchers decided to share this ethno-methodological knowledge with their intellectual colleagues; so this paper started to be written systematically. First, in reference to Arbib, Conklin, and Hill, the researcher tried to discover the mechanisms of schema formation about Iranians in the minds of these interviewees. The researchers also classified the schematic perceptions- what Wood defines as Personal Constructs, Prototypes, Stereotypes, and Scripts- about Iranians. Second, an attempt was made to find out why these interviewees, with those pre-maintained negative attitudes about Iranians, became interested to interact with an Iranian on the internet. Next, they have been asked about their mental experiences of facing an Iranian, whose characteristics are in contrast to the prejudice they had maintained about Iranians. Finally, Affective Cognitive Consistency Theory was used by Rosenberg and Abelson to explain how those stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes about Iranians have changed in the context of emotional give-and-takes in friendships.

  2. Education in Changing Communication in Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2009-12-01

    The “Training and Education” Programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change ACCENT (www.accent-network.org, 2004-09) has aimed to introduce a shift in the mindset and approach to science communication among early career scientists and a wider audience. Training workshops in science communication organized across Europe and the Far East past the last five years dealt with the question where traditional lines of communication fail and how this can be remedied. In inspiring partnerships with stakeholder groups, opportunities were created for mutual learning and gaining experience in the process of translating air quality and climate change science to non-scientists. The core message is that the next generation of leaders in the field should make sure that the translation is scientifically acceptable, and should stay in control of the translation process. Evolving good practice in science communication education for future leaders in the field of atmospheric sciences in Europe and the Far East is illustrated based on ACCENT experiences.

  3. Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the

  4. Modelling the impact of climate and landscape changes on snow distribution and melt in regions with limited data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, L. E.; Essery, R.; Dugmore, A.

    2010-12-01

    The quantity and distribution of snow across landscapes and timing of the spring snowmelt is key to a diverse range of processes, from the hydrological cycle and glaciation through to ecological and human-environment interactions. Many snow-covered landscapes are remote, inaccessible and lack observation data, especially at high resolutions and spanning multi-decadal time periods. Models are therefore valuable tools for understanding and simulating temporal and spatial variations in snow cover. The aim is to determine the most robust method of modelling snow distribution and melt across regional landscapes with limited data availability, and to apply models to understand and project variations in snow cover as a result of landscape and climate change. Physically based, high resolution snow distribution and melt models are tested through fieldwork in Sweden and Norway at research sites with detailed landscape and climate data. The impact of pseudo-limiting input data spatially and temporally on model performance and uncertainty is assessed. Methods of snow model transferral (including parameter estimation and transfer) between areas of different spatial scales and over varying time periods are explored alongside the effects on model uncertainty, with the use of additional field data from research sites in North America and Finland. The impact of variations in topography, vegetation and climate on snow distribution and melt is assessed through both fieldwork and model application, with exploration of the implications for landscape processes and populations.

  5. Analysis on landscape pattern change and ecosystem services value of modern agriculture corridor: a case study of Jingcheng Highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Gu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Jing; Du, Chong; Di, Xingcui

    2009-10-01

    Based on SPOT images and other geoscience data, this paper gets the land use and land cover information of Modern Agriculture Corridor from 2006 to 2008 by RS and GIS technology and makes analysis of land use changes in landscape ecology view. Then we build a quantitative evaluation model which select vegetation coverage as adjustment coefficient to monitor the changes of ecological services value. The results show that: In the aspect of landscape pattern index, the landscape heterogeneity of the region is increasing, the land use types become various, degree of landscape fragmentation has increased; woodland, farmland and construction land play a leading role in the dynamic changes of landscape. In the view of ecosystem service value, the total value of ecosystem services of Modern Agriculture Corridor from 2006 to 2008 are respectively 186, 188, 193 million Yuan, and the annual average rate is 2%; ecosystem qualities are different in different seasons, and quality in summer is best which has 33% contribution to the full-year value of ecosystem services; the average contribution rates of forest and waters ecosystems are the highest, respectively 37% and 33%; increase of woodland, grassland and water area is the main reason that enhancing ecosystem services.

  6. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  7. Optimal nutrition and the ever-changing dietary landscape: a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, A; Drewnowski, A; Willcox, D C; Krämer, L; Lausted, C; Eggersdorfer, M; Mathers, J; Bell, J D; Randolph, R K; Witkamp, R; Griffiths, J C

    2017-05-01

    The field of nutrition has evolved rapidly over the past century. Nutrition scientists and policy makers in the developed world have shifted the focus of their efforts from dealing with diseases of overt nutrient deficiency to a new paradigm aimed at coping with conditions of excess-calories, sedentary lifestyles and stress. Advances in nutrition science, technology and manufacturing have largely eradicated nutrient deficiency diseases, while simultaneously facing the growing challenges of obesity, non-communicable diseases and aging. Nutrition research has gone through a necessary evolution, starting with a reductionist approach, driven by an ambition to understand the mechanisms responsible for the effects of individual nutrients at the cellular and molecular levels. This approach has appropriately expanded in recent years to become more holistic with the aim of understanding the role of nutrition in the broader context of dietary patterns. Ultimately, this approach will culminate in a full understanding of the dietary landscape-a web of interactions between nutritional, dietary, social, behavioral and environmental factors-and how it impacts health maintenance and promotion.

  8. Changing the constitutional landscape for firearms: the US Supreme Court's recent Second Amendment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Rutkow, Lainie; Webster, Daniel W; Teret, Stephen P

    2011-11-01

    In 2 recent cases-with important implications for public health practitioners, courts, and researchers-the US Supreme Court changed the landscape for judging the constitutionality of firearm laws under the Constitution's Second Amendment. In District of Columbia v Heller (2008), the court determined for the first time that the Second Amendment grants individuals a personal right to possess handguns in their home. In McDonald v City of Chicago (2010), the court concluded that this right affects the powers of state and local governments. The court identified broad categories of gun laws-other than handgun bans-that remain presumptively valid but did not provide a standard to judge their constitutionality. We discuss ways that researchers can assist decision makers.

  9. Changes and continuity of wood-pastures in the lowland landscape in Czechia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, Michal; Skalos, Jan; Pereponova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    and time. Despite the recent increase in the number of related studies, information on historic patterns of wood-pastures in many European locations, such as Czechia, remains incomplete. The goal of this study is to assess the habitat continuity of current wood-pastures and to analyse the land......-use/land-cover changes of historical and current wood-pastures in lowlands and warm landscapes of hills and basins of Czechia. To achieve this, nine sites covering a total area of 98.6 km2 were studied in Czechia. The situation on three time horizons (1820–1840s, the early 1950s and today) was analysed. The results have...

  10. New challenges for communication for sustainable development and social change: a review essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servaes, J.; Lie, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,

  11. Disciplines in the field of communication for development and social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,

  12. WIND PROTECTION OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubitsyna Natalja Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction between the wind regime and the landscape. Examples of objects of landscape architecture in high-tech and science-intensive spheres, such as the launch pad of a spacecraft, are given. Wind protection is represented as a result of work on wind power engineering and a means of increasing bioclimatic comfort. The terms of landscape architecture are disclosed and mutual influence on the climate and impact on woody-shrub vegetation and field crops are analyzed. The phenomenon of air permeability for optimal operation of windproof structures and orientations of geoplastics and dendroplastics is described. In this paper, a classification of terrain types is described with a description of their elemental composition, as well as various categories of landscape. The proposal to consider the landscape as a territorial complex, and landscape buildings, landscape-architectural structures as objects of landscape architecture possessing properties of wind protection and air permeability was introduced. Thus, the concept of a landscape-architectural complex as a single group of landscape-architectural objects located on the territory and connected by a common system of communications, functions, technical elements and a visual image is formulated. Further research is based on the rationale for the use of the term ensemble in relation to the objects of the landscape and architectural complex and the identification of their design and planning features that can affect the parameters of wind protection and air permeability. The paper concludes that frequent coincidence of favorable for the fauna wind regime and mimicry of landscape architecture objects. The combination in the landscape of functions for wind protection and aesthetics is analyzed with analysis of such elements of landscape architecture as hedges and windproof properties of green plantations. In the work examples of wind engineering small architectural forms are

  13. Climate change risk communication : a stakeholder-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyres, J.; Sibold, K. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Binns, B.; Davis, N. [ICF Consulting, (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The risks that global climate change presents for a variety of vulnerable populations was discussed. The Climate Outreach and Innovation Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an interactive risk communication effort to increase awareness of the risks of climate change so that vulnerable populations can make informed decisions about risk management strategies for addressing global warming. Its ultimate goal was to promote meaningful voluntary mitigation actions that will lead to reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation measures that will result in reducing the risk of climate change impacts. The Division chose constituencies that are either affected by climate change, capable of participating in mitigation and adaptation strategies, or can assist in communicating the risks of climate change to the public. The targeted constituencies consisted of the following six groups: meteorologists, coastal communities, outdoor enthusiasts, public health professionals, businesses, and state and local government leaders. The objective was to develop partnerships between these groups so that they could work together to inform the organisation's membership about the risks of climate change. 1 tab.

  14. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape....... Interpolations are calculated using the Bayesian inference approach integrated nested Laplace approximation. We empirically tested this method on a continuous population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) spanning two counties in Sweden. Results Two areas were identified as differentiated from the remaining...

  15. Social identity framing: Leader communication for social change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyranian, Viviane

    Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF

  16. An evolving political landscape: Political reform, boundary changes and the 2014 local elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Adrian P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the May 2014 local election contests in the Republic of Ireland, while also offering a brief overview of the contests in Northern Ireland. These local elections took place in the context of radical changes to local government structures on both sides of the border – changes which would frame the types of choices open to voters at the May 2014 contests. The new – and generally larger – constituency areas opened up opportunity spaces for new candidates (including new female candidates to participate in local electoral politics, although these opportunities, in turn, were very much framed by geography. The overall reduction in local representation levels in rural areas in the Republic of Ireland meant that incumbency factors acted as significant brakes on the entry of new candidates in these areas. The radically changing political landscape associated with the era of austerity politics saw a major swing against the government parties in the Republic of Ireland, with notable gains made by Sinn Féin and a number of other anti-establishment parties and groupings. These changes have brought about the formation of new alliances to control different local authorities, which, in turn, have posed an increasing set of challenges in terms of the governance of such councils, as evident in a number of conflicts over council budgets in the winter of 2014.

  17. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount and configuration (arrangement for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  18. Communicating Climate Change: Sometimes It's Not about the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an overwhelming scientific consensus that humans are driving modern day climate change, a significant portion of Americans are not convinced. This gap in understanding challenges both instructors and students who wish to effectively communicate climate change science. Individuals subconsciously resist factual information that threatens their worldview. Their misperceptions are reinforced by journalistic false balance, coordinated misinformation campaigns, and incorrect or misleading information that is easily accessible via social media. Here the author presents effective refutation strategies that avoid the most common backfire effects while also offering strategies to properly frame the discussion to audiences holding diverse worldviews.

  19. Direct and indirect climate change effects on carbon dioxide fluxes in a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Desai, Ankur R; Kljun, Natascha; Quinton, William L; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    In the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada, boreal forest carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fluxes will be altered directly by climate change through changing meteorological forcing and indirectly through changes in landscape functioning associated with thaw-induced collapse-scar bog ('wetland') expansion. However, their combined effect on landscape-scale net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE LAND ), resulting from changing gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), remains unknown. Here, we quantify indirect land cover change impacts on NEE LAND and direct climate change impacts on modeled temperature- and light-limited NEE LAND of a boreal forest-wetland landscape. Using nested eddy covariance flux towers, we find both GPP and ER to be larger at the landscape compared to the wetland level. However, annual NEE LAND (-20 g C m -2 ) and wetland NEE (-24 g C m -2 ) were similar, suggesting negligible wetland expansion effects on NEE LAND . In contrast, we find non-negligible direct climate change impacts when modeling NEE LAND using projected air temperature and incoming shortwave radiation. At the end of the 21st century, modeled GPP mainly increases in spring and fall due to reduced temperature limitation, but becomes more frequently light-limited in fall. In a warmer climate, ER increases year-round in the absence of moisture stress resulting in net CO 2 uptake increases in the shoulder seasons and decreases during the summer. Annually, landscape net CO 2 uptake is projected to decline by 25 ± 14 g C m -2 for a moderate and 103 ± 38 g C m -2 for a high warming scenario, potentially reversing recently observed positive net CO 2 uptake trends across the boreal biome. Thus, even without moisture stress, net CO 2 uptake of boreal forest-wetland landscapes may decline, and ultimately, these landscapes may turn into net CO 2 sources under continued anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. We conclude that NEE LAND changes are more likely to be

  20. The What and So What? of Climate Change Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirn, M.

    2016-12-01

    Social science suggests that in order for climate change communication to be effective, it must engage the affective domain of emotions, feelings, values, attitudes and beliefs along with the cognitive realm of mind, intellect, "facts," reasoning, and analysis. More bluntly, science and other STEM fields can provide the "What" of climate change, including the Who? When? Where? Why? and How? of its happening, but without the "So What?" - What does it mean to me personally, my family, friends, and colleagues? "Why should I care?" most people are too busy, disengaged, disaffected, or guarded to shift to understanding let alone more sustainable living. Although there are exceptions, science lives most comfortably in the cognitive realm, communicating through text, numbers, charts, and graphs, while the arts live most comfortably in the affective realm, communicating through metaphors, images, and storytelling. The arts, working with science and other disciplines, offer us a path in to climate change communication that helps deliver the information in a way that engages both sides of our brains, pops past the politics, and reaches deep into our hearts, to ignite the emotions that fuel the action we so urgently need. Through a series of images and discussion of historical and contemporary examples, this presentation will explore ways that the arts, in collaboration with science and other fields, have ignited people, communities, movements, and countries to do things they would otherwise not have had the interest, courage, energy, or endurance to do. It will also provide suggestions about why the arts have been unrecognized non-arts allies since the Industrial Revolution, along with a handout listing resources for arts/science/sustainability information and collaboration.

  1. Change in the forested and developed landscape of the Lake Tahoe basin, California and Nevada, USA, 1940-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raumann, C.G.; Cablk, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The current ecological state of the Lake Tahoe basin has been shaped by significant landscape-altering human activity and management practices since the mid-1850s; first through widespread timber harvesting from the 1850s to 1920s followed by urban development from the 1950s to the present. Consequences of landscape change, both from development and forest management practices including fire suppression, have prompted rising levels of concern for the ecological integrity of the region. The impacts from these activities include decreased water quality, degraded biotic communities, and increased fire hazard. To establish an understanding of the Lake Tahoe basin's landscape change in the context of forest management and development we mapped, quantified, and described the spatial and temporal distribution and variability of historical changes in land use and land cover in the southern Lake Tahoe basin (279 km2) from 1940 to 2002. Our assessment relied on post-classification change detection of multi-temporal land-use/cover and impervious-surface-area data that were derived through manual interpretation, image processing, and GIS data integration for four dates of imagery: 1940, 1969, 1987, and 2002. The most significant land conversion during the 62-year study period was an increase in developed lands with a corresponding decrease in forests, wetlands, and shrublands. Forest stand densities increased throughout the 62-year study period, and modern thinning efforts resulted in localized stand density decreases in the latter part of the study period. Additionally forests were gained from succession, and towards the end of the study period extensive tree mortality occurred. The highest rates of change occurred between 1940 and 1969, corresponding with dramatic development, then rates declined through 2002 for all observed landscape changes except forest density decrease and tree mortality. Causes of landscape change included regional population growth, tourism demands

  2. Painted Bunting Breeding Bird Survey trends associated with landscape changes in Georgia and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape changes during the first 3 decades of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) may account for the Painted Bunting's declining population trend. In the southeastern U.S., it is estimated that this bunting has declined 3.5 % per year since 1966. I collected landscape data centered on identical 5-stop areas (n = 33, 306 ha each) of the BBS during early (1960s - 1970s) and late decades (1980s - 1990s). Peak 30-yr counts for Painted Buntings were found at the center of the 5-stop areas. I used stepwise multiple regression analysis to model the mean number of Painted Buntings (in the area during 3 yr, dependent variable) associated with landscape metrics (independent variables). During the early decades the average amount of edge on developed land (p = 0.10), average patch size of agriculture land (p = 0.01), average size of shrub-scrub and young forest (p = 0.09), and average amount of edge for emergent wetlands (p = 0.03) explained 40% of the variation in Painted Buntings counts. In the late decades average amount of edge on developed land (p = 0.04) and average amount of edge on emergent wetlands (p = 0.005) explained 35% of the variation in Painted Bunting counts. Large losses of agricultural land (proportion = 0.177 to 0.094), which was developed or converted to intensively managed pin plantations, may have reduced potential bunting breeding habitat. Shrub-scrub and young forest habitat was constant (proportion = 0.136 to 0.134) but did not affect mean counts of buntings in the late decades. Protected emergent wetlands remained constnat also from the early to late decades (proportion = 0.056 to 0.06) and may provide habitat to maintain a smaller Painted Bunting population. At this time, it's unclear how develped land, which is increasing (proportion = 0.036 to 0.088), may be affecting the Painted Bunting population in GS and SC.

  3. Recent landscape change at the ecoregion scale in Southern Québec (Canada), 1993-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Benoît; Latendresse, Claudie; Grenier, Marcelle; Maisonneuve, Charles; Sebbane, Aïssa

    2010-05-01

    Landsat images covering the St. Lawrence Lowlands (30,000 km(2)) and Appalachians (33,000 km(2)) ecoregions of southern Québec, Canada, have been classified for the years 1993 and 2001 to (1) quantify land use/land cover (LULC) changes and changes to agricultural landscapes and (2) relate LULC changes to changes of farm-related descriptors of economic and farming activities. Over 25 LULC classes were identified on each classification which were merged into 5 LULC classes (anthropogenic, annual crop, perennial crop, forest, water/wetlands) used to delineate a gradient of five types of agricultural landscapes. Transition matrices reveal a shift in major agricultural classes in the St. Lawrence Lowlands where perennial crops have been converted into annual crops. Furthermore, suburban sprawl was observed adjacent to major cities whereas overall forest cover was reduced. Changes in agricultural land classes were few in the agroforested landscapes of the Appalachian ecoregion. Landscapes dominated by intensive agriculture expanded onto adjacent regions previously under extensive agriculture. Most farm-related variables extracted from agriculture censuses showed an increase, reflecting an intensification of agriculture in both ecoregions though no clear association with LULC changes were revealed. Increase in annual crops may be related to intensive corn production associated with pig farming. Differences in landscape changes between the two ecoregions may be related to proximal causal factors such as soil topography and suitability for high-quality crops. Our analysis will provide baseline information to implement a monitoring program of habitat dynamics in this vast region.

  4. South-East Asian Region (SEAR): Sea Basin Landscape Mapping for Paleoclimatology & Recent Climate Change Impacts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work includes the coastal scenario, risks and development of coastal paleoclimatology through landscape mapping; by highlighting the...

  5. A Landscape Disturbance Process in the Marine Environment: Revising Expectations of Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, C.; Halpin, P. M.; Schrecengost, R.; Orr, D.; Aleman-Zometa, J.

    2016-02-01

    Episodic disturbance is a ubiquitous feature of natural communities. An archetype for theory in the marine environment is wave-torn gaps in the cover of intertidal mussel beds. We mapped gap formation in eight mussel beds over eight successive years in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. We constructed a GIS database integrating small-scale measurements of topography, wave force, the 3-D structure of the mussel aggregations, and photo-mosaics of the mussel covers. Photographic analysis showed that gaps recurred predominantly in the center of the beds. The more stable peripheral regions of the beds are continually thinned by physical and biotic stresses, while the center region thickens and differentiates into layers. The mussels comprising the superficial layer attach to each other and have no direct attachment to the rock. Furthermore, the superficial layer suppresses mussels in the interior, weakening their attachment. Spatial analyses showed that it is these structural differences, rather than the spatial distribution of wave force, that account for landscape patterns of gap formation. Thus, sub-regions of disturbance arise from processes intrinsic to the community, including self-organization of the mussel aggregation, which interact with the external forcing of waves in a stochastic but coherent landscape process. This view differs from published models, which assume wave force alone generates gaps randomly across the mussel beds. Long-term records of seismographic activity and indicate the wave beat on the shore is increasing with global warming. We may fail to accurately anticipate the consequences of the elevated wave forcing, unless we also take into consideration changes in ocean production and other factors affecting mussel bed structure.

  6. Environmental conditions and human drivers for changes to north Ethiopian mountain landscapes over 145 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Hurni, Hans; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Crummey, Donald; Ritler, Alfons; Portner, Brigitte; Nievergelt, Bernhard; Moeyersons, Jan; Munro, Neil; Deckers, Jozef; Billi, Paolo; Poesen, Jean

    2014-07-01

    As quantitative or spatially distributed studies of environmental change over truly long-term periods of more than 100 years are extremely rare, we re-photographed 361 landscapes that appear on historical photographs (1868-1994) within a 40,000 km(2) study area in northern Ethiopia. Visible evidence of environmental changes apparent from the paired photographs was analyzed using an expert rating system. The conditions of the woody vegetation, soil and water conservation structures and land management were worse in the earlier periods compared to their present conditions. The cover by indigenous trees is a notable exception: it peaked in the 1930s, declined afterwards and then achieved a second peak in the early 21st century. Particularly in areas with greater population densities, there has been a significant increase in woody vegetation and soil and water conservation structures over the course of the study period. We conclude that except for an apparent upward movement of the upper tree limit, the direct human impacts on the environment are overriding the effects of climate change in the north Ethiopian highlands and that the northern Ethiopian highlands are currently greener than at any other time in the last 145 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impacts of direct human activity and climate change on north Ethiopian mountain landscapes over 140 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Hurni, Hans; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Ritler, Alfons; Crummey, Donald; Nievergelt, Bernhard; Moeyersons, Jan; Munro, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Studies on recent environmental change in tropical areas are generally conducted over limited time scales. This study makes a multi-scale assessment over a time span of 140 years, in one of the world's most degraded areas: the highlands of Northern Ethiopia. 300 landscapes, pictured on historical photographs, starting 1868, were re-photographed and environmental changes apparent on the paired photographs were analysed through expert rating. General tendencies appearing include an improved vegetation cover nowadays as compared to any period of the last 140 years, with a second optimum in the early 20th century. In the uppermost areas (above 3500 m a.s.l.) an upward shift of the upper tree line (Erica arborea) is observed, demonstrating that global warming takes also place in this region. At lower elevations, increased vegetation cover is the result of 25 years of intense rehabilitation activities. Physical soil and water conservation follows the same trend. Regional variations occurring in these trends are observed and discussed. The findings are substantiated by field investigations. The positive changes that result from these conservation activities in the north Ethiopian highlands are an issue of global concern as they show that (1) in our study area direct human impact on the environment is overriding and (2) severe land degradation should not always be irreversible.

  8. Assessing large spatial scale landscape change effects on water quality and quantity response in the lower Athabasca River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Nicole E; Westbrook, Cherie J; Dubé, Monique G; Squires, Allison J

    2013-07-01

    Increased land use intensity has been shown to adversely affect aquatic ecosystems. Multiple landscape stressors interact over space and time, producing cumulative effects. Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is the process of evaluating the impact a development project may have on the ecological surroundings, but several challenges exist that make current approaches to cumulative effects assessment ineffective. The main objective of this study was to compare results of different methods used to link landscape stressors with stream responses in a highly developed watershed, where past work has shown that the river has experienced significant water quality and quantity changes to improve approaches to CEA. The study site was the lower reaches of the Athabasca River, Canada that have been subjected to a diverse range of intense anthropogenic developments since the late 1960s. Linkages between landscape change and river response were evaluated using correlation analyses, stepwise, multiple regression, and regression trees. Notable landscape changes include increased industrial development and forest cut-blocks, made evident from satellite imagery and supporting ancillary data sets. Simple regression analyses showed water use was closely associated with total phosphorus (TP) and Na(+) concentrations, as well as specific conductance. The regression trees for total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and Na(+) showed that the landscape variables that appear as the first characteristic were the same variables that showed significant relations for their respective simple regression models. Simple, stepwise, and multiple regressions in conjunction with regression trees were useful in this study for capturing the strongest associations between landscape stressors and river response variables. The results highlight the need for improved scaling methods and monitoring strategies crucial to managing cumulative effects to river systems. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Human management and landscape changes at Palaikastro (Eastern Crete) from the Late Neolithic to the Early Minoan period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Riera-Mora, S.; Orengo, H. A.; Livarda, A.; Knappett, C.

    2018-03-01

    On the east Mediterranean island of Crete, a hierarchical society centred on large palatial complexes emerges during the Bronze Age. The economic basis for this significant social change has long been debated, particularly concerning the role of olive cultivation in the island's agricultural system. With the aim of studying vegetation changes and human management to understand the landscape history from Late Neolithic to Bronze Age, two palaeoenvironmental records have been studied at Kouremenos marsh, near the site of Palaikastro (Eastern Crete). Pollen, NPP and charcoal particles analyses evidenced seven phases of landscape change, resulting from different agricultural and pastoral practices and the use of fire probably to manage vegetation. Moreover, the Kouremenos records show the importance of the olive tree in the area. They reflect a clear trend for its increasing use and exploitation from 3600 cal yr BC (Final Neolithic) to the Early Minoan period, that is coeval with an opening of the landscape. The increase of Olea pollen was due to the expansion of the tree and its management using pruning and mechanical cleaning. The onset of olive expansion at c. 3600 cal yr BC places Crete among the first locales in the eastern Mediterranean in the management of this tree. Between c. 2780 and 2525 cal yr BC the landscape was largely occupied by olive and grasslands, coinciding with an increase in grazing practices. The high Olea pollen percentages (40-45%) suggest an intensive and large-scale exploitation of the olive tree. The results suggest that a complex and organized landscape with complementary land uses and activities was already in place since the Final Neolithic. The notable expansion of olive trees suggests the relevance of olive exploitation in the socio-economic development of Minoan towns of eastern Crete. Other crops, such as cereals and vine, and activities such as grazing have also played an important role in the configuration of the past landscape.

  10. Modulation of the erosion rate of an uplifting landscape by long-term climate change: An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussirou, Bérangé; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Whether or not climatic variations play a major role in setting the erosion rate of continental landscapes is a key factor in demonstrating the influence of climate on the tectonic evolution of mountain belts and understanding how clastic deposits preserved in sedimentary basins may record climatic variations. Here, we investigate how a change in precipitation influences the erosional dynamics of laboratory-scale landscapes that evolved under a combination of uplift and rainfall forcings. We consider here the impact of a decrease in the precipitation rate of finite duration on the erosive response of a landscape forced by a constant uplift and initially at a steady state (SS1). We performed several experiments with the same amplitude but different durations of precipitation decrease (Tp). We observe that the decrease in precipitation induces a phase of surface uplift of landscapes to a new steady state condition (SS2); however, the details of the uplift histories (timing, rate) differ between the experiments according to Tp. We also observe a decrease in the erosion rate induced by the precipitation change; however, the timing and amplitude of this decrease vary according to Tp, defining a delayed and damped erosion signal. Our data show that the landscape response to precipitation change is dictated by a critical water-to-rock ratio (ratio of precipitation over uplift) that likely corresponds to a geomorphic threshold. Our study suggests that variations in precipitation that occur at a geological time scale (> 106 years) may have a weak impact on the erosion of landscapes and on the delivery of siliciclastic material to large rivers and sedimentary basins.

  11. Methods to Enhance Climate Change Imagery for Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmon, R. B.; Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Allen, J.; Riebeek, H.; Przyborski, P.; Scott, M.

    2011-12-01

    One of the commonly used tools used in communicating climate change to non-experts is data visualization. Images of measurements, model results, and physical processes can be powerful for enhancing understanding of complex scientific topics. However, many of the graphics that are used in public communication were designed for scientific peers, and not lay audiences. These graphics can often be improved by applying principles drawn from graphic design and information visualization. This presentation will offer case studies of graphics from NASA press releases and the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and show how they could have been improved. The revised imagery maintains the content of the originals, but presents it more clearly. I will also show an example of imagery that employs these ideas that we have published on the NASA Earth Observatory web site.

  12. Accounting for Biomass Carbon Stock Change Due to Wildfire in Temperate Forest Landscapes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B.; Mackey, Brendan G.; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha−1, which represented 6–7% and 9–14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha−1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities

  13. Accounting for biomass carbon stock change due to wildfire in temperate forest landscapes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B; Mackey, Brendan G; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1), which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1) depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities.

  14. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome.

  15. Assessment of landscape change associated with tropical cyclone phenomena in Baja California Sur, Mexico, using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Genaro

    Baja California Sur (Mexico), as well as mainland Mexico, is affected by tropical cyclone storms, which originate in the eastern north Pacific. Historical records show that Baja has been damaged by intense summer storms. An arid to semiarid climate characterizes the study area, where precipitation mainly occurs during the summer and winter seasons. Natural and anthropogenic changes have impacted the landscape of southern Baja. The present research documents the effects of tropical storms over the southern region of Baja California for a period of approximately twenty-six years. The goal of the research is to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to detect the important effects of tropical storms including: (a) evaluation of change detection algorithms, and (b) delineating changes to the landscape including coastal modification, fluvial erosion and deposition, vegetation change, river avulsion using change detection algorithms. Digital image processing methods with temporal Landsat satellite remotely sensed data from the North America Landscape Characterization archive (NALC), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images were used to document the landscape change. Two image processing methods were tested including Image differencing (ID), and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Landscape changes identified with the NALC archive and TM images showed that the major changes included a rapid change of land use in the towns of San Jose del Cabo and Cabo San Lucas between 1973 and 1986. The features detected using the algorithms included flood deposits within the channels of active streams, erosion banks, and new channels caused by channel avulsion. Despite the 19 year period covered by the NALC data and approximately 10 year intervals between acquisition dates, there were changed features that could be identified in the images. The TM images showed that flooding from Hurricane Isis (1998) produced new large deposits within the stream channels

  16. Screes as important landscape structures for xeric and psychrophilic biota conservation and monitoring environmental change in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zacharda, Miloslav; Boucníková, Eva

    Sup.1/2005, č. 24 (2005), s. 28-38 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : scree * landscape diversity * biota * conservation * global change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  17. Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, E.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental,

  18. Sustainable landscapes in a world of change: tropical forests, land use and implementation of REDD+: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Yude Pan; Richard Houghton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in the Earth system; however, tropical landscapes have changed greatly in recent decades because of increasing demand for land to support agriculture and timber production, fuel wood, and other pressures of population and human economics. The observable results are a legacy of persistent deforestation, forest degradation, increased...

  19. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  20. Is This Global Warming? Communicating the Intangibles of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, L.; Henson, R.

    2004-05-01

    Unlike weather, which is immediate, tangible, and relevant on a daily basis, climate change is long-term, slow to evolve, and often difficult to relate to the public's daily concerns. By explaining global-change research to wide and diverse audiences through a variety of vehicles, including publications, exhibits, Web sites, and television B-roll, UCAR has gained experience and perspective on the challenges involved. This talk will explore some of the lessons learned and some of the key difficulties that face global-change communicators, including: --The lack of definitive findings on regional effects of global change -- The long time frame in which global change plays out, versus the short attention span of media, the public, and policy makers --The use of weather events as news pegs (they pique interest, but they may not be good exemplars of global change and are difficult to relate directly to changes in greenhouse-gas emissions) --The perils of the traditional journalistic technique of point-counterpoint in discussing climate change --The presence of strong personal/political convictions among various interest groups and how these affect the message(s) conveyed

  1. What are the transitions of woodlands at the landscape level? Change trajectories of forest, non-forest and reclamation woody vegetation elements in a mining landscape in North-western Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skaloš, J.; Novotný, M.; Woitsch, Jiří; Zacharová, J.; Berchová, K.; Svoboda, M.; Křováková, K.; Romportl, D.; Keken, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 58, March (2015), s. 206-216 ISSN 0143-6228 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Forest history * Change trajectories * GIS * Mining landscape Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2015

  2. Exploring Landscape Change in Mountain Environments With the Mountain Legacy Online Image Analysis Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Sanseverino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, Mountain Legacy Project (MLP researchers have been exploring change in Canada's mountain environments through the use of systematic repeat photography. With access to upwards of 120,000 systematic glass plate negatives from Canada's mountain west, the MLP field teams seek to stand where historic surveyors stood and accurately reshoot these images. The resulting image pairs are analyzed, catalogued, and made available for further research into landscape changes. In this article we suggest that repeat photography would fit well within the Future Earth research agenda. We go on to introduce the Image Analysis Toolkit (IAT, which provides interactive comparative image visualization and analytics for a wide variety of ecological, geological, fluvial, and human phenomena. The toolkit is based on insights from recent research on repeat photography and features the following: user-controlled ability to compare, overlay, classify, scale, fade, draw, and annotate images; production of comparative statistics on user-defined categories (eg percentage of ice cover change in each image pair; and different ways to visualize change in the image pairs. The examples presented here utilize MLP image pairs, but the toolkit is designed to be used by anyone with their own comparative images as well as those in the MLP collection. All images and software are under Creative Commons copyright and are open access for noncommercial use via the Mountain Legacy Explorer website. The IAT is at the beginning of its software life cycle and will continue to develop features required by those who use repeat photography to discover change in mountain environments.

  3. Development of delta professionals: the need for fundamental change in mainstream education on landscape related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Landscapes are under severe pressure. These landscapes are being used for several functions and interests that compete with each other for influence on and space in the countryside. The application of only a disciplinary or sectoral perspective does no longer provide us with satisfactory answers for

  4. Model forest landscape change in the Missouri Ozarks under alternative management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; David R. Larsen; William D. Dijak

    2000-01-01

    We used a spatially explicit landscape model, LANDIS, to simulate the effects of five management alternatives on a 3216 ha forest landscape in southeast Missouri, USA. We compared management alternatives among two intensities of even-aged management with clearcutting, uneven-aged management with group selection harvest, a mixture of even- and uneven-aged management,...

  5. Towards ecologically scaled landscape indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.; Verboom, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of

  6. Quantifying Landscape Spatial Pattern Changes in the Caucasian Black Grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi Habitat in Arasbaran Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Darvishi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Large scale land use/cover changes and habitat fragmentation have been associated with the decline of many wildlife populations in ecological sensitive regions. The main goal of this study was to quantify the spatial pattern changes in Caucasian Black Grouse habitat in Arasbaran Biosphere Reserve, Northwest of Iran in a period of 24 years (1987–2011. Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran area, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. This study focuses on the landscape structure changes of black grouse habitat in Arasbaran Biosphere reserve. We used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite images from 1987 and 2011, and ETM+ from 2001, for analysis of the spatial patterns of land use/cover patches. The satellite images were geometrically corrected and classified. For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived from spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS, including NP (Number of Patches, LPI (Largest Patch Index and TE (Total Edge. The results indicated that the proportion of forest was significantly decreased from 39.95% to 31.95%, and proportion of grassland was decreased from 44.45% to 38.44% during the last 24 years, while proportion of dominated by astragalus was increased from 3.30% to 15.65%. Total Edge (TE was decreased 8000 meters at altitude over 1800 meters. Our result provided quantitative data on habitat loss and landscape fragmentation in Arasbaran Biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat.

  7. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Urban Land Cover Changes in Kigali, Rwanda Using Multitemporal Landsat Data and Landscape Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugiraneza, T.; Haas, J.; Ban, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Mapping urbanization and ensuing environmental impacts using satellite data combined with landscape metrics has become a hot research topic. The objectives of the study are to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of urbanization patterns of Kigali, Rwanda over the last three decades (from 1984 to 2015) using multitemporal Landsat data and to assess the associated environmental impact using landscape metrics. Landsat images, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) variance texture and digital elevation model (DEM) data were classified using a support vector machine (SVM). Eight landscape indices were derived from classified images for urbanization environment impact assessment. Seven land cover classes were derived with an overall accuracy exceeding 88 % with Kappa Coefficients around 0.8. As most prominent changes, cropland was reduced considerably in favour of built-up areas that increased from 2,349 ha to 11,579 ha between 1984 and 2015. During those 31 years, the increased number of patches in most land cover classes illustrated landscape fragmentation, especially for forest. The landscape configuration indices demonstrate that in general the land cover pattern remained stable for cropland but it was highly changed in built-up areas. Satellite-based analysis and quantification of urbanization and its effects using landscape metrics are found to be interesting for grassroots and provide a cost-effective method for urban information production. This information can be used for e.g. potential design and implementation of early warning systems that cater for urbanization effects.

  8. Teaching Information Literacy for Engineering Students in a Rapidly Changing Information Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lönneborg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The KTH Library has a long tradition of teaching information searching to technology students. Over the last years teaching information searching has become teaching information literacy, including more evaluation and source criticism. Traditionally, there have been three forms of teaching: independent credit-giving courses, integrated shorter modules in subject-specific courses and support via individual face-to-face supervision. Although evaluation and source criticism are now important parts of our teaching, much focus is still on search methodology. During this spring we, and our teaching colleagues at the KTH library, will revise and develop the content and pedagogical methodology for the courses and integrated modules in information literacy. In doing so, we need to address important questions on how to face the changing information landscape. Should the teaching be adapted to the search behaviour observed in our students or should we keep trying to change that behaviour? Do we put our effort into directing students to traditional scientific subject databases or should we put more emphasis on the importance of critically evaluating the search results, regardless of their source? How do we find the balance between these alternatives? Recently published studies have already covered these questions to some extent. The findings from a systematic literature search, together with insights collected from our development work during Spring 2016, will be used in an analysis of these questions in the context of teaching information literacy for engineering students.

  9. Unveiling changes in the landscape of patient populations in cancer early drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, Cinta; Azaro, Analía; Argilés, Guillem; Elez, Elena; Gómez, Patricia; Carles, Joan; Rodon, Jordi

    2017-02-21

    The introduction of new Molecularly Targeted Agents (MTA) has changed the landscape in Early Drug Development (EDD) over the last two decades, leading to an improvement in clinical trial design. Previous Phase 1 (Ph1) studies with cytotoxics focused on safety objectives, only recruiting heavily pre-treated cancer patients, have been left behind. In this review, we will illustrate the slow although unstoppable change that has increasingly been observed in those populations candidate to participate in EDD trials with the advent of MTA. As more evidence regarding oncogene addiction becomes available, molecular-biomarker driven selection has been implemented among Molecularly-Selected Population (MSP) studies. New Window-Of-Opportunity (WOO) and Phase 0 (Ph0) studies have been developed in order to assess whether a MTA produces the hypothetical proposed biological effect. The rising need of getting early pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data has led to the conduction of Healthy Volunteer (HV) studies, in part favoured for the particular and different toxicity profile of these MTA. However, several challenges will need to be addressed in order to boost the implementation of these new clinical trial designs in the forthcoming years. Among the problems to overcome, we would highlight a better coordination effort between centers for ensuring adequate patient accrual among small patient populations and a deepening into the ethics implied in enrolling patients in studies with no therapeutic intent. However, these tribulations will be certainly compensated by the possibility of opening a new horizon of treatment for diseases with dismal prognosis.

  10. Obsolete or resurgent? The International Energy Agency in a changing global landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Graaf, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Founded in response to the 1973 oil shock, the International Energy Agency (IEA) is arguably still the most important multilateral organization for energy-importing countries. Yet, the global geopolitical landscape has changed considerably since the IEA's creation. The rise of new energy consumers, new energy-related challenges and new international energy forums prompt a rethink of the agency's current role and institutional design. This article seeks to contribute to the recent debate on the future role of the IEA by examining specific drivers, avenues and constraints for institutional reform. The method used is SWOT analysis, which allows to summarize the key factors emanating from an assessment of an organization's internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) and its external environment (opportunities and threats). Building on this SWOT analysis, the article formulates a strategy for the IEA to remain the focal point in global energy governance. Key elements of this strategy include: stronger engagement with new consumers, rapprochement with OPEC, becoming a leading voice in the energy transition, and changing the agency's internal governance practices. - Highlights: ► The IEA is challenged by the rise of new consumers, threats and organizations. ► Assessment of the agency’s internal characteristics and external environment. ► The IEA needs to step up its outreach policy and fully embrace sustainable energy.

  11. Improving Climate Change Communication Skills through Community Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, J.

    2015-12-01

    While many undergraduate Atmospheric Science departments are expanding their curriculums to focus on the science of climate change, often overlooked is the need to educate students about how this topic can be effectively communicated to others. It has become increasingly difficult for young scientists to comfortably discuss this polarizing topic with people outside of the classroom. To address this, Atmospheric Science faculty at Lyndon State College are providing undergraduate students the opportunity to practice this important skill by reaching out to the local community. Over the past year, students have been meeting regularly to discuss climate change and its impacts, and to present this information to the general public at local schools and organizations. The group was organized with the primary goal of teaching undergraduate students about effective ways to communicate basic climate science to nonscientists, but to also improve public understanding of anthropogenic climate change while starting a conversation among young people in the community. We will identify lessons learned after one year, discuss effective strategies, and summarize student feedback.

  12. Key landscape ecology metrics for assessing climate change adaptation options: Rate of change and patchiness of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Miller, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Under a changing climate, devising strategies to help stakeholders adapt to alterations to ecosystems and their services is of utmost importance. In western North America, diminished snowpack and river flows are causing relatively gradual, homogeneous (system-wide) changes in ecosystems and services. In addition, increased climate variability is also accelerating the incidence of abrupt and patchy disturbances such as fires, floods and droughts. This paper posits that two key variables often considered in landscape ecology—the rate of change and the degree of patchiness of change—can aid in developing climate change adaptation strategies. We use two examples from the “borderland” region of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. In piñon-juniper woodland die-offs that occurred in the southwestern United States during the 2000s, ecosystem services suddenly crashed in some parts of the system while remaining unaffected in other locations. The precise timing and location of die-offs was uncertain. On the other hand, slower, homogeneous change, such as the expected declines in water supply to the Colorado River delta, will likely impact the entire ecosystem, with ecosystem services everywhere in the delta subject to alteration, and all users likely exposed. The rapidity and spatial heterogeneity of faster, patchy climate change exemplified by tree die-off suggests that decision-makers and local stakeholders would be wise to operate under a Rawlsian “veil of ignorance,” and implement adaptation strategies that allow ecosystem service users to equitably share the risk of sudden loss of ecosystem services before actual ecosystem changes occur. On the other hand, in the case of slower, homogeneous, system-wide impacts to ecosystem services as exemplified by the Colorado River delta, adaptation strategies can be implemented after the changes begin, but will require a fundamental rethinking of how ecosystems and services are used and valued. In

  13. Yedomas in Alaska: Evolution of ice-rich landscapes in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Fortier, D.; Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Dillon, M.; Bray, M.

    2011-12-01

    Yedomas (Ice complexes) have developed on lands that remained unglaciated during the Late-Pleistocene. Ground exposure to cold climate allowed large syngenetic ice wedges to form typically in fine-grained, organic-rich, and ice-rich enclosing sediments, resulting in particularly ice-rich and thick sequences. Changing climate since has triggered geomorphological changes of these ice-rich landscapes and now contemporary climate conditions generally favour their degradation. Yedoma remnants have been observed in areas of Alaska including in the northern part of Seward Peninsula and Iktilik River area where we studied their metrics, cryostratigraphy, soil properties, and their degradation processes. Understanding the dynamic of this particular periglacial landscape and determining its properties is essential for modeling its future evolution in a changing climate. At our three study sites, presence of typical geomorphological features and cryostratigraphic units revealed information on the landscape evolution since deposition of these ice-rich strata. A Yedoma deposit in the northern part of Seward Peninsula comprised ice wedges at least 36 m-deep. The enclosing sediment was characterized by an ice-rich cryofacies of coarse silt with microlenticular cryostructure and abundant fine rootlets. The intermediate layer, a typical extremely ice-rich layer located below the active layer, was observed above the Yedoma deposit in areas less affected by thermo-degradation. In the thermo-degraded areas characterized by an irregular terrain surface, the intermediate layer was replaced by the generally ice-poor taberal cryofacies which corresponds to a deposit that was formerly ice-rich, thawed, drained, and eventually refrozen. Yedoma remnants in their contemporary degrading state can be recognized with their abundant thermokarst lakes, drained lake basins, and drainage gullies. Thermokarst lakes can be particularly deep because of the considerable amount of ground ice that can

  14. Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

    2013-04-01

    The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes

  15. Landscape-scale geomorphic change detection: Quantifying spatially variable uncertainty and circumventing legacy data issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.; Belmont, Patrick; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2015-12-01

    Repeat surveys of high-resolution topographic data enable analysis of geomorphic change through digital elevation model (DEM) differencing. Such analyses are becoming increasingly common. However, techniques for developing robust estimates of spatially variable uncertainty in DEM differencing estimates have been slow to develop and are underutilized. Further, issues often arise when comparing recent to older data sets, because of differences in data quality. Airborne lidar data were collected in 2005 and 2012 in Blue Earth County, Minnesota (1980 km2) and the occurrence of an extreme flood in 2010 produced geomorphic change clearly observed in the field, providing an opportunity to estimate landscape-scale geomorphic change. Initial assessments of the lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) indicated both a vertical bias attributed to different geoid models and localized offset strips in the DEM of difference from poor coregistration of the flightlines. We applied corrections for both issues and describe the methods we used to discern those issues and correct them. We then compare different threshold models to quantify uncertainty. Poor quantification of uncertainty can erroneously over- or underestimate real change. We show that application of a uniform threshold, often called a minimum level of detection, overestimates change in areas where change would not be expected, such as stable hillslopes, and underestimates change in areas where it is expected and has been observed, such as channel banks. We describe a spatially variable DEM error model that combines the influence of slope, point density, and vegetation in a fuzzy inference system. Vegetation is represented with a metric referred to as the cloud point density ratio that assesses the complete point cloud to describe the density of above ground features that may hinder bare-earth returns. We compare the significance of spatially variable versus spatially uniform DEM errors on change detection by

  16. LiDAR and Orthophoto Synergy to optimize Object-Based Landscape Change: Analysis of an Active Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Kamps

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Active landslides have three major effects on landscapes: (1 land cover change, (2 topographical change, and (3 above ground biomass change. Data derived from multi-temporal Light Detection and Ranging technology (LiDAR are used in combination with multi-temporal orthophotos to quantify these changes between 2006 and 2012, caused by an active deep-seated landslide near the village of Doren in Austria. Land-cover is classified by applying membership-based classification and contextual improvements based on the synergy of orthophotos and LiDAR-based elevation data. Topographical change is calculated by differencing of LiDAR derived digital terrain models. The above ground biomass is quantified by applying a local-maximum algorithm for tree top detection, in combination with allometric equations. The land cover classification accuracies were improved from 65% (using only LiDAR and 76% (using only orthophotos to 90% (using data synergy for 2006. A similar increase from respectively 64% and 75% to 91% was established for 2012. The increased accuracies demonstrate the effectiveness of using data synergy of LiDAR and orthophotos using object-based image analysis to quantify landscape changes, caused by an active landslide. The method has great potential to be transferred to larger areas for use in landscape change analyses.

  17. A Landscape Approach for Detecting and Assessing Changes in an Area Prone to Desertification in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giordano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification processes represent a serious problem in many areas of Sardinia (Italy, as in the Nurra region where urbanization, overgrazing, and fires have induced environmental degradation and rapid land-use change. In this study, using satellite remote sensing and geographical information system, landcover and landscape change dynamics were investigated. Comparing two Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper, it was possible to assess landcover transformations, and with the FRAGSTATS software it was possible to quantify the changes of landscape characteristics in the Nurra region over a 10-years period. The images were classified into seven landcover types, and a stepwise indicator approach was adopted. The results show a decrease in cropland and an increase of forestland and urban areas. The overall change was estimated to be about 2.5% of the total study area, with two most frequent landcover conversion types: cropland to urban areas and cropland to forestland.

  18. The local impact of global climate change: reporting on landscape transformation and threatened identity in the English regional newspaper press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Budd, Lucy; Bell, Morag; Rendell, Helen

    2011-09-01

    This paper contributes to extant understandings of media representations of climate change by examining the role of the English regional newspaper press in the transformation and dissemination of climate change discourse. Unlike previous accounts, this paper contends that such newspapers shape public understandings of climate change in ways that have yet to be adequately charted. With this in mind, this paper examines the ways in which global climate change is translated into a locally relevant phenomenon. That is, it focuses on its "domestication." Although we acknowledge that there are a number of ways in which this process occurs, specific attention is drawn to stories that highlight the destruction of local landscape features, the transformation of important habitats, and the arrival of "alien" species. The broader significance of such stories is considered in relation to long-standing debates concerning the importance of landscape to notions of national and regional identity.

  19. Host life history strategy, species diversity, and habitat influence Trypanosoma cruzi vector infection in Changing landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gottdenker

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama.R. pallescens vectors (N = 643 were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3% vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3% dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as r(max, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase, and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of r(max were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site.In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T. cruzi, potentially by changing host community structure to favor hosts

  20. Landscape changes, traditional ecological knowledge and future scenarios in the Alps: A holistic ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoni, Clara; Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Zatelli, Paolo; Ciolli, Marco

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, a dramatic landscape change has occurred in the European alpine region: open areas have been naturally recolonized by forests as traditional agricultural and forest activities were reduced and reorganized. Land use changes (LUC) are generally measured through GIS and photo interpretation techniques, but despite many studies focused on this phenomenon and its effects on biodiversity and on the environment in general, there is a lack of information about the transformation of the human-environment connection. The study of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), such as the ability to recognize wild plants used as medicine or food, can suggest how this connection evolved through time and generations. This work investigates the relationship between the natural forest cover expansion that influences the loss of open areas and the loss of TEK. Different data sources and approaches were used to address the topic in all its complexity: a mix of questionnaire investigations, historical maps, GIS techniques and modelling were used to analyse past land use changes and predict future scenarios. The study area, Trentino, Italy, is paradigmatic of the alpine situation, and the land use change in the region is well documented by different studies, which were reviewed and compared in this paper. Our findings suggest that open area loss can be used as a good proxy to highlight the present state and to produce future scenarios of Traditional Ecological Knowledge. This could increase awareness of the loss of TEK in other Alpine regions, where data on TEK are lacking, but where environmental trends are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  2. Changes in soil fungal communities across a landscape of agricultural soil land-uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural management is a major driver of changes in soils and their resident microbial communities, but we do not yet have a clear picture of how agriculture affects soil fungi. This is an important gap in our knowledge since fungi play an important role in many soil processes. Previous research has suggested that organic management practices can lead to an increase in soil fungal community diversity, which could have impacts on soil processes and alter the long term trajectory of soil quality in agricultural systems. Also, the relationship between management effects, biogeography, and soil fungi is not clear. The biogeography of macroscopic species is well described by taxa-area relationships and distance decay models, and recent research has suggested that certain subsets of fungi (e.g. AMF, litter sapotrophs) demonstrate similar patterns. However there is little information on how soil fungi as a whole are distributed across a landscape with soils under different managements. The goal of this project was to examine how different management practices alter soil fungal communities across a landscape of agricultural fields in upstate NY. We asked several specific questions: 1) Do different types of agricultural land-uses lead to divergent or convergent communities of soil fungi? 2) If soil type is held constant, do soil fungal communities diverge with geographic distance? 3) What are the major fungal groups that change in response to soil management, and are they cosmopolitan or endemic across the landscape? We studied these questions across agricultural fields in upstate NY that ranged from conventional corn, organic grains/corn, and long-term pasture. We sampled four fields (conventional, 10 and 20 year organic, and pasture) that had identical soils types and ranged from 100 m to 4 km apart. We utilized a multiplexed pyrosequencing approach on genomic DNA to analyze the structure of the soils' fungal communities. This approach allowed us to study soil fungi

  3. Species and media effects on soil carbon dynamics in the landscape: opportunities for climate change mitigation from urban landscape plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most scientists now agree that climate change is occurring as a direct result of human activities. Agricultural production has been shown to be a major emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, horticulture production is unique in that it also has the potential to serve as a major carbon (...

  4. Holocene evolution of Lake Shkodra: Multidisciplinary evidence for diachronic landscape change in northern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Galaty, Michael; Bejko, Lorenc; Sadori, Laura; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Koçi, Rexhep; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    matter input into the lake and thus, resulting on the disappearance of the Characeae due to higher turbidity in lake waters. This change occurred shortly after the arrival of the Romans. At 1200 cal yrs BP the marshland evolved into the large shallow lake we know today. This change is marked in the ostracod assemblages of both cores and agrees with trends in aquatic and riparian plants and may have allowed or encouraged exponential population growth beginning in the early-middle Medieval period and peaking in the late Medieval, as indicated in PASH settlement data. The use of different but complementary methods, drawn from palaeontology and archaeology, allowed reconstruction of Shkodra's past landscapes, linking the natural evolution of a Mediterranean lacustrine basin to regional population and settlement dynamics. This is the first research project to explore the relationship between natural and cultural landscapes and environmental change in northern Albania, forming the basis for further, more detailed studies.

  5. Latest Changes to NASA's Laser Communication Relay Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.; Israel, David J.; Vithlani, Seema K.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last couple of years, NASA has been making changes to the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project (LCRD), a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). The changes made makes LCRD more like a future Earth relay system that has both high speed optical and radio frequency links. This will allow LCRD to demonstrate a more detailed concept of operations for a future operational mission critical Earth relay. LCRD is expected to launch in June 2019 and is expected to be followed a couple of years later with a prototype user terminal on the International Space Station. LCRD's architecture will allow it to serve as a testbed in space and this paper will provide an update of its planned capabilities and experiments.

  6. A changing culture in interpersonal and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadacz, Thomas R

    2003-06-01

    In summary it is essential that we improve our interpersonal and communication skills. We can learn and be taught better skills. We will be evaluated on these skills in the future, and it is important for us to establish ourselves as good role models for the future surgeons who will be entering our profession. It is of benefit to our patients and will give them a better understanding of their disease and elevate their level of healthcare. It is also important to us to help reduce our stress and to eliminate burnout. We can improve our interpersonal and communication skills in many ways. First we must be aware that there is a problem and recognize this as a problem that can be solved and that we do need to improve our current skills. This can be done through multiple educational tools such as lectures, videos, and self-assessments. The responsibility for this culture change ranges from top to bottom, but really begins at the bottom. It is important for all of us especially individuals such as myself, who is not only a practicing surgeon but also a surgeon in a leadership position, a surgeon who teaches medical students and residents, and a chairman who develops the careers of young faculty members. It is important for organizations such as the Southeastern Surgical Congress to recognize this need of our members and to conduct seminars, luncheons, and courses in helping us acquire better skills and also giving us some assessment of the current status of our skills. The American College of Surgeons has already addressed this issue by forming the Task Force on Communication and Educational Skills. Various examining boards have already incorporated this into requirements and expectations of future physicians and surgeons. We must establish ourselves as good role models. Being a good role model cannot be overemphasized. We are very fortunate in being good role models in medical knowledge and mastering phenomenal technical feats; however, this is not enough. It is also

  7. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  8. Changing climate and the value of the tea landscape in Assam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Gupta, N.; Duncan, J.; Saikia, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tea production has a measurable impact upon millions of people's livelihoods in northeast India. The region is experiencing changes in climate characteristics which are placing added pressure on the tea industry for sustaining livelihoods. To increase understanding of the role of tea within the Assam landscape, this research has engaged with multiple local tea-producing stakeholders. Approximately 65% of Assam's tea is produced in large plantations, with the remaining 35% produced in smallholdings. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on land management practices operationalised by plantation managers and smallholders. Focus group sessions using the Delphi technique were conducted with tea workers (labourers for the plantations) to ascertain the level of importance of the tea sector to sustaining their livelihoods. Questionnaires and focus group surveys also attempted to establish stakeholder understanding of climate change. Data were analysed using spatial statistics to investigate intra- and inter-region variation in responses. Focus group responses were categorised to determine the livelihood asset base available to tea workers within plantations, with patterns of (dis)similarity observed spatially. Results indicate that land management practices (e.g. fertiliser and pesticide application), tea processing methods (e.g. onsite factory and energy generation), and social provisions for tea workers (e.g. sanitation and education facilities) varied greatly across the main tea growing regions of Assam. Tea workers listed numerous environmental and social factors as important for sustaining livelihoods, with the top ranked factors similar across some plantations (e.g. drinking water availability and access). Plantation managers are highly concerned with how climate conditions are affecting tea production, and although workers were aware of climate change issues in some plantations, socioeconomic conditions seemed of more pressing concern to their livelihoods.

  9. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  10. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  11. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-09

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  12. Fifty-year spatiotemporal analysis of landscape changes in the Mont Saint-Hilaire UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Quebec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Marc; Germain, Daniel; Ianăş, Ana-Neli

    2017-05-01

    Diachronic analysis with a GIS-based classification of land-use changes based on aerial photographs, orthophotos, topographic maps, geotechnical reports, urban plans, and using landscape metrics has permitted insight into the driving forces responsible for landscape fragmentation in the Mont Saint-Hilaire (MSH) Biosphere Reserve over the period 1958-2015. Although the occurrence of exogenous factors, such as extreme weather and fires, can have a significant influence on the fragmentation of the territory in time and space, the accelerated development of the built environment (+470%) is nevertheless found to be primarily responsible for landscape fragmentation and the loss of areas formerly occupied by orchards, agriculture, and woodlands. The landscape metrics used corroborate these results, with a simplification of the shape of polygons, and once again reveal the difficulties of harmonizing different land uses. MSH has become somewhat of a forest island in a sea of residential development and agriculture. To counter this isolation of fragmented habitat components, forest corridors have been proposed and developed for the Biosphere Reserve and particularly for the core area. Two corridors, to the north and south, are used to connect the protected area and other wooded areas at the regional scale, in order to promote genetic exchange between populations of various species. In that regard, the forest buffer zone around the hill continues to play a key role and has great ecological value for species and ecological preservation and conservation. However, appropriate management and landscape preservation actions should recognize and focus on landscape composition and the associated geographical configuration.

  13. Architecture and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Hudnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents effects of technology, science and capital strategies on changes in traditional forms and definitions of space, architecture and bodies. It confronts us with new processes of thinking and living that are constantly being transformed into new dynamic time and spatial contexts. Space is becoming the information filter, communication network. A cross-section of three landscapes: landscape of megastructures, nomadic landscapes and psychedelic landscapes, theory contributes to understanding of media and space-age technology, information technology and electronical language. It offers designs of various megastructures, media surfaces and envelopes of contemporary information society: the anthropological module, hyper- and infra-bodies, bio-electronical bodies and population genetics bodies. It presents the architecture of communication.

  14. Sediment accumulation in prairie wetlands under a changing climate: The relative roles of landscape and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Burris, Lucy E.; Granfors, Diane A.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment accumulation threatens the viability and hydrologic functioning of many naturally formed depressional wetlands across the interior regions of North America. These wetlands provide many ecosystem services and vital habitats for diverse plant and animal communities. Climate change may further impact sediment accumulation rates in the context of current land use patterns. We estimated sediment accretion in wetlands within a region renowned for its large populations of breeding waterfowl and migrant shorebirds and examined the relative roles of precipitation and land use context in the sedimentation process. We modeled rates of sediment accumulation from 1971 through 2100 using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a sediment delivery ratio and the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition model (USPED). These models predicted that by 2100, 21–33 % of wetlands filled completely with sediment and 27–46 % filled by half with sediments; estimates are consistent with measured sediment accumulation rates in the region reported by empirical studies. Sediment accumulation rates were strongly influenced by size of the catchment, greater coverage of tilled landscape within the catchment, and steeper slopes. Conservation efforts that incorporate the relative risk of infilling of wetlands with sediments, thus emphasizing areas of high topographic relief and large watersheds, may benefit wetland-dependent biota.

  15. City landscape changes effects on land surface temperature in Bucharest metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastru, Dan M.; Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the influences of city land cover changes and extreme climate events on land surface temperature in relationship with several biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania through satellite and in-situ monitoring data. Remote sensing data from IKONOS, Landsat TM/ETM+ and time series MODIS Terra/Aqua and NOAA AVHRR sensors have been used to assess urban land cover- temperature interactions over 2000 - 2016 period. Time series Thermal InfraRed (TIR) satellite remote sensing data in synergy with meteorological data (air temperatureAT, precipitations, wind, solar radiation, etc.) were applied mainly for analyzing land surface temperature (LST) pattern and its relationship with surface landscape characteristics, assessing urban heat island (UHI), and relating urban land cover temperatures (LST). The land surface temperature, a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also analyzed in relation with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at city level. Results show that in the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, LST and AT possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at metropolitan scale respectively. The NDVI was significantly correlated with precipitation. The spatial average air temperatures in urban test areas rise with the expansion of the urban size.

  16. The changing landscape of clinical trial and approval processes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Min; Wu, Yi-Long

    2017-09-01

    In the past decade, the standards of clinical trials in China have moved closer to international standards, thus encouraging the development of innovative drugs. However, a large backlog of pending applications for both drug approval and clinical trial registration has arisen owing to the complexity of the approval process, the volume of applications and a lack of staff available to process these applications, among other reasons. To improve the drug approval process, a 'four-colour-light' strategy was introduced. Different drugs are classified into redefined categories of innovative and generic drugs, with priority being given to approval decisions concerning innovative drugs. Other improvement strategies are now also being implemented, including the development of a new clinical trial approval system and several measures designed to encourage greater participation of Chinese researchers and research centres in international clinical trials. In this Perspective, the changing landscape of clinical approval in China is described, including the difficulties that drug approval authorities face in this rapidly developing nation and the novel strategies that are being used to find solutions.

  17. Mapping Process to Pattern in the Landscape Change of the Amazonian Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover are dynamic processes reflecting a sequence of decisions made by individual land managers. In developing economies, these decisions may be embedded in the evolution of individual households, as is often the case in indigenous areas and agricultural frontiers. One goal of the present article is to address the land use and land-cover decisions of colonist farmers in the Amazon Basin as a function, in part, of household characteristics. Another goal is to generalize the issue of tropical deforestation into a broader discussion on forest dynamics. The extent of secondary forest in tropical areas has been well documented in South America and Africa. Agricultural-plot abandonment often occurs in tandem with primary forest clearance and as part of the same decision-making calculus. Consequently, tropical deforestation and forest succession are not independent processes in the landscape. This article presents a framework that integrates them into a model of forest dynamics at household level, and in so doing provides an account of the spatial pattern of deforestation that has been observed in the Amazon's colonization frontiers.

  18. Landscape variability of vegetation change across the forest to tundra transition of central Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Mitchell Thurston

    Widespread vegetation productivity increases in tundra ecosystems and stagnation, or even productivity decreases, in boreal forest ecosystems have been detected from coarse-scale remote sensing observations over the last few decades. However, finer-scale Landsat studies have shown that these changes are heterogeneous and may be related to landscape and regional variability in climate, land cover, topography and moisture. In this study, a Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series (1984-2016) was examined for a study area spanning the entirety of the sub-Arctic boreal forest to Low Arctic tundra transition of central Canada (i.e., Yellowknife to the Arctic Ocean). NDVI trend analysis indicated that 27% of un-masked pixels in the study area exhibited a significant (p temperatures, shrubland and forest land cover, closer proximity to major drainage systems, longer distances from major lakes and lower elevations were generally more important and associated with larger positive NDVI trends. These findings indicate that the largest positive NDVI trends were primarily associated with the increased productivity of shrubby environments, especially at, and north of the forest-tundra ecotone in areas with more favorable growing conditions. Smaller and less significant NDVI trends in boreal forest environments south of the forest-tundra ecotone were likely associated with long-term recovery from fire disturbance rather than the variables analyzed here.

  19. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  20. Information and Communication Technology and Cultural Change How ICT Changes Self-Construal and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control

  1. Leading organizational change; The role of top management and supervisors in communicating organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansma, L.; Elving, W.J.L.; Podnar, K.; Jancic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two studies on the role of top management and direct supervisors on communicating organizational change are presented. The importance of leadership at all organizational levels is demonstrated and published in numerous studies, but empirically hardly tested. In this paper we will

  2. Constraining processes of landscape change with combined in situ cosmogenic 14C-10Be analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Reconstructing Quaternary landscape evolution today frequently builds upon cosmogenic-nuclide surface exposure dating. However, the study of complex surface exposure chronologies on the 102-104 years' timescale remains challenging with the commonly used long-lived radionuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl). In glacial settings, key points are the inheritance of nuclides accumulated in a rock surface during a previous exposure episode and (partial) shielding of a rock surface after the main deglaciation event, e.g. during phases of glacier readvance. Combining the short-lived in situ cosmogenic 14C isotope with 10Be dating provides a valuable approach to resolve and quantify complex exposure histories and burial episodes within Lateglacial and Holocene timescales. The first studies applying the in situ14C-10Be pair have demonstrated the great benefit from in situ14C analysis for unravelling complex glacier chronologies in various glacial environments worldwide. Moreover, emerging research on in situ14C in sedimentary systems highlights the capacity of combined in situ14C-10Be analysis to quantify sediment transfer times in fluvial catchments or to constrain changes in surface erosion rates. Nevertheless, further methodological advances are needed to obtain truly routine and widely available in situ14C analysis. Future development in analytical techniques has to focus on improving the analytical reproducibility, reducing the background level and determining more accurate muonic production rates. These improvements should allow extending the field of applications for combined in situ14C-10Be analysis in Earth surface sciences and open up a number of promising applications for dating young sedimentary deposits and the quantification of recent changes in surface erosion dynamics.

  3. Interactions of landscape disturbances and climate change dictate ecological pattern and process: spatial modeling of wildfire, insect, and disease dynamics under future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Loehman; Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Zhiwei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Interactions among disturbances, climate, and vegetation influence landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. Climate changes, exotic invasions, beetle outbreaks, altered fire regimes, and human activities may interact to produce landscapes that appear and function beyond historical analogs. Objectives We used the mechanistic...

  4. Landscape-and regional-scale shifts in forest composition under climate change in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Jacob S. Fraser; William D. Dijak

    2016-01-01

    Tree species distribution and abundance are affected by forces operating at multiple scales. Niche and biophysical process models have been commonly used to predict climate change effects at regional scales, however, these models have limited capability to include site-scale population dynamics and landscape- scale disturbance and dispersal. We applied a landscape...

  5. Could gradual changes in Holocene Saharan landscape have caused the observed abrupt shift in North Atlantic dust deposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Sabine; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian; Stanelle, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    The abrupt change in North Atlantic dust deposition found in sediment records has been associated with a rapid large scale transition of Holocene Saharan landscape. We hypothesize that gradual changes in the landscape may have caused this abrupt shift in dust deposition either because of the non-linearity in dust activation or because of the heterogeneous distribution of major dust sources. To test this hypothesis, we investigate the response of North Atlantic dust deposition to a prescribed 1) gradual and spatially homogeneous decrease and 2) gradual southward retreat of North African vegetation and lakes during the Holocene using the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM. In our simulations, we do not find evidence of an abrupt increase in dust deposition as observed in marine sediment records along the Northwest African margin. We conclude that such gradual changes in landscape are not sufficient to explain the observed abrupt changes in dust accumulation in marine sediment records. Instead, our results point to a rapid large-scale retreat of vegetation and lakes in the area of significant dust sources.

  6. Conserving agrobiodiversity amid global change, migration, and nontraditional livelihood networks: the dynamic uses of cultural landscape knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl S. Zimmerer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined agrobiodiversity in smallholder cultural landscapes with the goal of offering new insights into management and policy options for the resilience-based in situ conservation and social-ecological sustainability of local, food-producing crop types, i.e., landraces. I built a general, integrative approach to focus on both land use and livelihood functions of crop landraces in the context of nontraditional, migration-related livelihoods amid global change. The research involved a multimethod, case-study design focused on a cultural landscape of maize, i.e., corn, growing in the Andes of central Bolivia, which is a global hot spot for this crop's agrobiodiversity. Central questions included the following: (1 What are major agroecological functions and food-related services of the agrobiodiversity of Andean maize landraces, and how are they related to cultural landscapes and associated knowledge systems? (2 What are new migration-related livelihood groups, and how are their dynamic livelihoods propelled through global change, in particular international and national migration, linked to the use and cultural landscapes of agrobiodiversity? (3 What are management and policy options derived from the previous questions? Combined social-ecological services as both cultivation and food resources are found to function in relation to the cultural landscape. Results demonstrated major variations of maturation-based, phenologic traits and food-use properties that are cornerstones of the landrace-level agrobiodiversity of Andean maize. Knowledge of these parameters is widespread. Linkage of these production and consumption functions yields a major insight into dynamics of Andean maize agrobiodiversity. Concurrently, this smallholder cultural landscape has become increasingly dependent on new rural conditions, especially increased livelihood diversification and migration amid growing peri-urban influences. Viability of landrace-level maize

  7. The Communication Model and the Nature of Change in Terms of Deforestation in China since 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dexin; Chao, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the communication model and nature of change in terms of deforestation in China since 1949. Through Lasswell's communication model and the theory of change and via historical analysis and extended literature review, we have discovered: First, Mao's government adopted an effective one-way top-down communication model with…

  8. Determining the size of a complete disturbance landscape: multi-scale, continental analysis of forest change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian; Costanza, Jennifer K; Riitters, Kurt

    2017-11-21

    The scale of investigation for disturbance-influenced processes plays a critical role in theoretical assumptions about stability, variance, and equilibrium, as well as conservation reserve and long-term monitoring program design. Critical consideration of scale is required for robust planning designs, especially when anticipating future disturbances whose exact locations are unknown. This research quantified disturbance proportion and pattern (as contagion) at multiple scales across North America. This pattern of scale-associated variability can guide selection of study and management extents, for example, to minimize variance (measured as standard deviation) between any landscapes within an ecoregion. We identified the proportion and pattern of forest disturbance (30 m grain size) across multiple landscape extents up to 180 km 2 . We explored the variance in proportion of disturbed area and the pattern of that disturbance between landscapes (within an ecoregion) as a function of the landscape extent. In many ecoregions, variance between landscapes within an ecoregion was minimal at broad landscape extents (low standard deviation). Gap-dominated regions showed the least variance, while fire-dominated showed the largest. Intensively managed ecoregions displayed unique patterns. A majority of the ecoregions showed low variance between landscapes at some scale, indicating an appropriate extent for incorporating natural regimes and unknown future disturbances was identified. The quantification of the scales of disturbance at the ecoregion level provides guidance for individuals interested in anticipating future disturbances which will occur in unknown spatial locations. Information on the extents required to incorporate disturbance patterns into planning is crucial for that process.

  9. Make a CHANGE: optimising communication and pain management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Morlion, Bart; Kalso, Eija; Schäfer, Michael; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Kocot-Kepska, Magdalena; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Margarit, Cesar; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Mavrocordatos, Philippe; Alon, Eli; Collett, Beverly; Aldington, Dominic; Nicolaou, Andrew; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Varrassi, Giustino

    2011-02-01

    The major objectives of the CHANGE PAIN International Advisory Board are to enhance understanding of chronic pain and to develop strategies for improving pain management. At its second meeting, in November 2009, evidence was presented that around one person in five in Europe and the USA experiences chronic pain, and the delay before referral to a pain specialist is often several years. Moreover, physicians' pharmacological approach to chronic pain is inconsistent, as evidenced by the huge variation in treatment between different European countries. It was agreed that efficient communication between physician and patient is essential for effective pain management, and that efficacy/side-effect balance is a key factor in choosing an analgesic agent. The multifactorial nature of chronic pain produces various physical and psychological symptoms, so the management of chronic pain should be tailored to the individual. Pharmacological therapy must be matched to the causative mechanisms responsible, or it is likely to prove ineffective and risk the development of a 'vicious circle'; doses are increased because of inadequate pain relief, but this increases side-effects so doses are reduced, pain relief is then inadequate, so doses are increased, and so on. Pain management decisions should not therefore be based solely on the severity of pain. Based on the concept of individual treatment targets (ITT), the CHANGE PAIN Scale was adopted - a simple, user-friendly assessment tool to improve communication between physician and patient. The 11-point NRS enables the patient to rate the current pain intensity and to set a realistic individual target level. On the reverse are six key parameters affecting the patient's quality of life; clinicians simply need to agree with patients whether improvement is needed in each one. Regular use can establish the efficacy and tolerability of pain management, and the rate of progress towards individual treatment targets.

  10. Landscape-based upstream-downstream prevalence of land-use/cover change drivers in southeastern rift escarpment of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesgen, Habtamu; Wu, Wei; Legesse, Abiyot; Yirsaw, Eshetu; Bekele, Belew

    2018-02-23

    Characterized by high population density on a rugged topography, the Gedeo-Abaya landscape dominantly contains a multi-strata traditional agroforests showing the insight of Gedeo farmers on natural resource management practices. Currently, this area has been losing its resilience and is becoming unable to sustain its inhabitants. Based on both RS-derived and GIS-computed land-use/cover changes (LUCC) as well as socioeconomic validations, this article explored the LUCC and agroecological-based driver patterns in Gedeo-Abaya landscape from 1986 to 2015. A combination of geo-spatial technology and cross-sectional survey design were employed to detect the drivers behind these changes. The article discussed that LUCC and the prevalence of drivers are highly diverse and vary throughout agroecological zones. Except for the population, most downstream top drivers are perceived as insignificant in the upstream region and vice versa. In the downstream, land-use/cover (LUC) classes are more dynamic, diverse, and challenged by nearly all anticipated drivers than are upstream ones. Agroforestry LUC has been increasing (by 25% of its initial cover) and is becoming the predominant cover type, although socioeconomic analysis and related findings show its rapid LUC modification. A rapid reduction of woodland/shrubland (63%) occurred in the downstream, while wetland/marshy land increased threefold (158%), from 1986 to 2015 with annual change rates of - 3.7 and + 6%, respectively. Land degradation induced by changes in land use is a serious problem in Africa, especially in the densely populated sub-Saharan regions such as Ethiopia (FAO 2015). Throughout the landscape, LUCC is prominently affecting land-use system of the study landscape due to population pressure in the upstream region and drought/rainfall variability, agribusiness investment, and charcoaling in the downstream that necessitate urgent action.

  11. Landscape changes, agriculture, multifunctionality and carbo-scenarios in case of Nové Hrady, The Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    Sup.1/2005, č. 24 (2005), s. 83-95 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/640/18/03; GA MPS(CZ) 1J055/05-DP1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : landscape changes * agriculture multifunctionality * CO2 scenarios Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  12. Ethnoecology of the tropical Andes avian indicators of landscape change in highland Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiento, F. O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Andean birds offer clues to rethink the ethnoecology of neotropical cloud forests, challenging the notion of conservation based only in water resources and biodiversity. Using both archaeological and actuoecological evidence, the role of humans in shaping high Andean landscapes' location and maintenance is argued as an important factor for conservation priorities of tropical montane cloud forests, particularly in the equatorial mountains. Avian examples demonstrate intricate linkages of culture and nature in the tropical Andes. Traditional knowledge associated to ornithological clues, helps understanding the dynamics of cultural landscapes, with birds as proxy of synergisms affecting the complexities of both, nature and culture. A paradox of conservation is highlighted with avian indicators. The four selected species were cases where landscape change and biodiversity help in determining ethnoecological insights. Unlike the preservation of absolute nature reserves, landscape stewardship, conservation easements and cultural la^tdscapes are listed as options for inclusion in the repertoire of conservation scenarios for cloud forests survival, which includes sacred places and spiritual domains as intangibles worth protecting in the Tropical Andes.

    [fr] Quatre oiseaux andins nous donnent des raisons pour repenser Vethnoécologie des forêts néotropicales humides, ce qui met en question l'idée de la conservation basée sur les ressources d'eau et la biodiversité seules. En se servant des évidences archéologiques et écologiques actuelles, on soutient que les êtres humains ont un rôle dans la formation des hauts paysages andins. On soutient aussi que l'entretien est un facteur important dans la conservation des forêts tropicales humides en montagne, surtout dans les montagnes équatoriales. Les exemples aviaires démontrent les liens compliqués entre la culture et la nature dans les Andes tropicales. Les connaissances

  13. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  14. The MCH training program: developing MCH leaders that are equipped for the changing health care landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Laura; Menser, Michelle; Pooler, Jennifer; Mathis, Sheryl; Ramos, Lauren Raskin

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the success of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's MCH Training Program in producing the next generation of MCH leaders, equipped with interdisciplinary, leadership skills necessary for the changing health care landscape. A secondary data analysis of performance measure data (2007-2011) collected through the discretionary grant information system was performed. Grantees were grouped by grant program (n = 10) for this analysis. Outcomes of interest 5 years post-program completion included: (1) the percentage of long-term training program graduates who demonstrate field leadership; (2) the percentage of long-term trainees (LTT) who remain in MCH, work with underserved and/or vulnerable populations, or work in a public health agency/organization; and (3) the percentage of LTT working in an interdisciplinary manner to serve the MCH population. Summary output data on the number of LTT reached was also calculated. The number of LTT participating in the MCH Training Program increased between 2007 and 2011. Over 84% of LTT demonstrate field leadership 5 years after program completion, while 78.2% of LTT remain in MCH work and 83% are working with underserved or vulnerable populations. At 5-years post-program completion, over 75% of LTT are working in an interdisciplinary manner to serve the MCH population. The MCH Training Program has produced well-positioned leaders. Continued investment in the MCH Training Program is critical to ensure a well-trained pipeline of health professionals equipped to address the special health needs of MCH populations in an evolving health system.

  15. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, J.; Lovejoy, C.; Crevecoeur, S.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a north-south permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units, OTUs), and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify variables controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley; however, the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial "keystone species". These highly connected nodes (OTUs) in the network were not merely the numerically dominant taxa, and their loss would alter the organization of microbial consortia and ultimately the food web structure and functioning of these aquatic ecosystems.

  16. The Changing Landscape of Neuroscience Research, 2006–2015: A Bibliometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Goto, Tazuko K.; Leung, W. Keung

    2017-01-01

    neuroscience research. Ten journals were frequently identified (≥8 years) as core journals within the survey period. Discussion: The landscape of neuroscience research has changed recently, and this paper provides contemporary overview for researchers and health care workers interested in this field's research and developments. Brain imaging and brain connectivity terms had high relative citation scores. PMID:28377687

  17. Past and future landscape dynamics in pasture-woodlands of the Swiss Jura Mountains under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Peringer

    2013-09-01

    We present a refined version of the spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model WoodPaM with improved climate sensitivity of simulated vegetation. We investigate pasture-woodland dynamics by applying an innovative combination of retrospective simulations starting in the Middle Ages with prospective simulations following two climate change scenarios. The retrospective simulations demonstrate the strong dependency of the landscape mosaic on both climate and management. In high elevation mountain pastures, climate cooling during the Little Ice Age hindered simulated tree regeneration and reduced forage production of grasslands. Both led to an increase in open grassland and to a structural simplification of the landscape. In turn, climate warming afterwards showed the opposite effect. At lower elevations, high cattle stocking rates generally dominate simulated succession, leading to a slow development of quite homogenous landscapes whose structures are hardly affected by historical climate variability. Aerial photographs suggest that logging and windstorms critically shaped the current landscape, both homogenizing mosaic structures that emerge from selective grazing. Simulations of climate change scenarios suggest delayed but inevitable structural changes in the landscape mosaic and a temporary breakdown of the ecosystem service wood production. The population of currently dominating Norway spruce collapses due to simulated drought. Spruce is only slowly replaced either by beech under moderate warming or by Scots pine under extreme warming. In general, the shift in tree species dominance results in landscapes of less structural richness than today. In order to maintain the mosaic structure of pasture-woodlands, we recommend a future increase in cattle stocking on mountain pastures. The (re- introduction of mixed herds (cattle with horses, sheep, and goats could mitigate the simulated trend towards structural homogenization of the forest-grassland mosaic because

  18. Integration of Landscape Metrics and Variograms to Characterize and Quantify the Spatial Heterogeneity Change of Vegetation Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of spatial heterogeneity can be used to examine the structure of ecological systems. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake caused severe vegetation damage. In addition to simply detecting change, the magnitude of changes must also be examined. Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques were used to produce landscape maps before and after the earthquake and analyze the spatial-temporal change of the vegetation pattern. Landscape metrics were selected to quantify the spatial heterogeneity in a categorical map at both the class and landscape levels. The results reveal that the Wenchuan earthquake greatly increased the heterogeneity in the study area. In particular, forests experienced the most fragmentation among all of the landscape types. In addition, spatial heterogeneity in a numerical map was studied by using variogram analysis of normalized difference vegetation indices derived from Landsat images. In comparison to before the earthquake, the spatial variability after the earthquake had doubled. The structure of the spatial heterogeneity represented by the range of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI variograms also changed due to the earthquake. Moreover, the results of the NDVI variogram analysis of three contrasting landscapes, which were farmland, broadleaved forest, and coniferous forest, confirm that the earthquake produced spatial variability and changed the structure of the landscapes. Regardless of before or after the earthquake, farmland sites are the most heterogeneous among the three landscapes studied.

  19. Analysis of human induced changes in a karst landscape - the filling of dolines in the Kras plateau, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačič, Gregor; Ravbar, Nataša

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the increased pressure on karst landscapes due to expansive economic and urban development is presented with the aim of evaluating changes in land use and their deleterious effects on karst relief forms. The study focuses on two areas surrounding the relatively quickly growing settlements of Hrpelje-Kozina and Divača on the Kras plateau (Slovenia) that have been subjected to intensive urban and business development and traffic since the motorway was brought to their vicinity fifteen years ago. National legislation loopholes and technological improvement were the cause of the commonly unsupervised human encroachment which caused the widespread degradation of the landscape. By comparing different topographical and ortophotographical materials from the past four decades and by detailed field inspection of land use and environmental changes, as well as the morphometrical characterization of dolines, the following results have been found: due to the population growth in the past four decades (39% and 50%, respectively), an increase of settlement area by 18 and 11 percentage points took place. Consequently, between 25 and 27% of dolines have disappeared or have been extensively modified (filled up and leveled). According to the local spatial plans, an additional 18% to 28% dolines are endangered. Broad human induced changes in the karst landscape have resulted in a noticeable increase in landscape deterioration, which is consistent with similar phenomena observed in other regions. Due to the extreme susceptibility of the karst to human activities that may lead to the degradation of its exceptional esthetic and environmental value, the alteration of karst processes such as corrosion, endangering of unique habitats and the quality of non-renewable natural resources, it is necessary to promptly define measures for its protection at the national level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Tourism Growth on the Changing Landscape of a World Heritage Site: Case of Luang Prabang, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceelia Leong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid tourism development adversely impacts and negatively transforms World Heritage Sites. This study aimed at examining how tourism growth has impacted the built environment of Luang Prabang, Lao PDR through an empirical approach. Luang Prabang has received a critical warning from World Heritage Committee for the escalating development pressure on its vulnerable landscape. Hence, this study examined two aspects: (1 the spatial pattern of the increase of touristic usage; and (2 the relation between the increase of touristic usage and the significant changes in the built environment. For this, geographical information systems (GIS are combined with statistical methods such as logistic regression and chi-square test of independence. The results affirmed that the change from other types of usage to touristic usage in existing buildings has a higher chance to occur along riverbank areas than in the middle of the peninsula in the core heritage area. Change to touristic usage is also related with three significant changes in the built environment, namely: (1 change from other types of architecture to Lao traditional architecture; (2 change from modern to traditional roof materials; and (3 change from traditional to modern building materials. This indicates that the increase in touristic usage has contributed to strengthening the heritage elements of the landscape.

  1. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  2. Spatiotemporal changes of landscape pattern in response to deforestation in Northeastern Turkey: a case study in Rize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günlü, Alkan; Kadioğullari, Ali Ihsan; Keleş, Sedat; Başkent, Emin Zeki

    2009-01-01

    Recognition and understanding of landscape dynamics as a historical legacy of disturbances are necessary for sustainable management of forest ecosystems. This study analyzes spatial and temporal changes in land use and forest cover patterns in a typical mountain forest area in Rize Forest Enterprise of the Northeastern part of Turkey. The area is investigated by evaluated the temporal changes of spatial structure of forest conditions through spatial analysis of forest cover type maps from 1984 and 2007 using GIS and FRAGSTATS. The quantative evidences presented here showed that there were drastic changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of land use/forest cover. As an overall change between 1984 and 2007, there was a net decrease of 2.30% in total forested areas. On one hand, productive forest areas decreased 12,506 ha, on the other hand, degraded forest areas increased 14,805 ha. In examining the changes of crown closure and development stages of forest ecosystem during the study period, the forest stand area with medium crown closures increased. Regenerated area increased while the other development stages were left to grow to mature development stages in the period. These results regarding to crown closure and development stage showed that forest quality has increased but total forest areas decreased. This is partially due to out-migration of rural population in Rize and Cayeli towns. In terms of spatial configuration, analysis of the metrics revealed that landscape structure in Study area had changed substantially over the 23-year study period, resulting in fragmentation of the landscape as indicated by the large patch numbers and the smaller mean patch sizes due to heavy timber subtraction, illegal cutting, and uncontrolled stand treatments.

  3. Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Otto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.

  4. Peculiarities of changes in the soil cover of landscapes adjacent to a megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, Margarita; Aparin, Boris; Sukhacheva, Elena

    2017-04-01

    , the contours of: - non-soil formations; - soils of the initial soil formation; - soils of agricultural lands within their existing boundaries; - soils and soil combinations that are specific for human settlements and horticultural land plots; - fallow lands; - anthropogenically disturbed soils. During the analysis of the created digital medium-scale soil map, we identified some changes in the soil cover of the territories adjacent to Saint Petersburg. Virtually in all the landscapes, we found a large number of soil cover structures, the components of which, along with natural soils, are anthropogenically disturbed soils, anthropogenic soils and non-soil formations. We revealed that the human impact on the soil cover is manifested within the range that varies from insignificant changes in soil parameters to radical transformations of the soil profile, complete destruction of soil and "creation" of new soil forms and soil cover organization forms. We have developed a typology of anthropogenically changed and anthropogenically created soil cover structures, taking into consideration the types of the economic impact on and the quality of environmental functions performed by the soils.

  5. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and the Changing Tertiary Education Landscape in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author provides information about the Australian education landscape and discusses three articles that focus on innovative laboratory teaching programs. Each of the articles presents a novel laboratory teaching mechanism that has evolved to successfully address a perceived weakness or problem in the laboratory program. It…

  6. Changing Pedagogic Codes in a Class of Landscape Architects Learning "Ecologically Sustainable Development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional discourse in education has been the focus of research conducted mostly with teachers and professional practitioners, but the work of students in the built environment has largely been ignored. This article presents an analysis of students' visual discourse in the final professional year of a landscape architecture course in Brisbane,…

  7. Patterns and drivers of land use change in selected European rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Busck, Anne Gravsholt; van der Sluis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Many of the semi-natural landscape elements found in rural areas, such as woodlots, hedgerows and grasslands, were originally maintained as part of the agricultural system. During the 20th century, they lost most of their functions and were often removed or transformed. Presently, production...

  8. Managing the changing risk of fire in the South African landscape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of fi re in the South African landscape BW VAN WILGEN1, S ARCHIBALD2 AND P FROST3 1 CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P O Box 320, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa 2 CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001...

  9. Using hydrologic landscape classification to assess streamflow vulnerability to changes in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying regions with similar hydrology is useful for assessing water quality and quantity across the U.S., especially areas that are difficult or costly to monitor. For example, hydrologic landscapes (HLs) have been used to map streamflow variability and assess the spatial di...

  10. The Gendered Dimensions of Bushfire in Changing Rural Landscapes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Christine; Gill, Nicholas; Head, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences in awareness, preparedness and attitudes towards bushfire amongst landholders in rural landscapes affected by amenity-led in-migration in southeast Australia. It considers the potential of conceptualising bushfire not as a gender-neutral natural phenomenon but as an important means by which traditional gender…

  11. Urban landscapes can change virus gene flow and evolution in a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M.; Craft, Meggan E.; Funk, W. Chris; Kozakiewicz, Chris; Trumbo, Daryl; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Lee, Justin S.; VandeWoude, Sue; Carver, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission. Even though bobcats were often trapped within the urban matrix, FIV transmission events were more likely to occur in areas with more natural habitat elements. Urban fragmentation also resulted in lower rates of pathogen evolution, possibly owing to a narrower range of host genotypes in the fragmented area. Combined, our findings show that urban landscapes can have impacts on a pathogen and its evolution in a carnivore living in one of the most fragmented and urban systems in North America. The analytical approach used here can be broadly applied to other host-pathogen systems, including humans.

  12. It is time to change land use and landscape management in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřík, Petr; Fanta, J.; Petrtýl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 9 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 2332-8878 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity loss * European Landscape Convention * sustainable management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  14. Impacts on the Urban Environment: Land Cover Change Trajectories and Landscape Fragmentation in Post-War Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Peter Gbanie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An influential underlying driver of human-induced landscape change is civil war and other forms of conflict that cause human displacement. Internally displaced persons (IDPs increase environmental pressures at their destination locations while reducing them at their origins. This increased pressure presents an environment for increased land cover change (LCC rates and landscape fragmentation. To test whether this hypothesis is correct, this research sought to understand LCC dynamics in the Western Area of Sierra Leone from 1976 to 2011, a period including pre-conflict, conflict, and post-conflict eras, using Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery. A trajectory analysis of classified images compared LCC trajectories before and during the war (1976–2000 with after the war (2003–2011. Over the 35-year period, the built-up land class rapidly increased, in parallel with an increase in urban and peri-urban agriculture. During the war, urban and peri-urban agriculture became a major livelihood activity for displaced rural residents to make the region food self-sufficient, especially when the war destabilised food production activities. The reluctance of IDPs to return to their rural homes after the war caused an increased demand for land driven by housing needs. Meanwhile, protected forest and other forest declined. A significant finding to emerge from this research is that landscape fragmentation increased in conjunction with declining forest cover while built-up areas aggregated. This has important implications for the region’s flora, fauna, and human populations given that other research has shown that landscape fragmentation affects the landscape’s ability to provide important ecosystem services.

  15. CONTEMPORARY CHANGES OF THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE CASPIAN SEMI-DESERT LANDSCAPES OF THE EASTERN CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Ataev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the changes in the hydrothermal conditions within the pricaspian littoral plains accumulation and denudation-accumulative in places aeolian landscapes saltwort, saltwort-sagebrush deserts and semi-deserts in light chestnut soils based on data from weather stations "Makhachkala" for years 1945-2005.Tendencies of changes in temperature, precipitation, and hydrothermal coefficient and coefficient of moisture are shown. Tendency of modern fluctuations suggests that the climatic conditions of the last period contribute to the development of dry steppes and significant deviations from the conditions of the previous period do not occur.

  16. Evaluating the impact of abrupt changes in forest policy and management practices on landscape dynamics: analysis of a Landsat image time series in the Atlantic Northern Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaard, Kasey R; Sader, Steven A; Simons-Legaard, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging Management regimes impacted different areas to different degrees, producing different trajectories

  17. The linkage between marine sediment records and changes in Holocene Saharan landscape: simulating the dust cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Sabine; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian; Stanelle, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment records reveal an abrupt and strong increase in dust deposition in the North Atlantic at the end of the African Humid Period about 4.9 ka to 5.5 ka ago (deMenocal et al., 2000; McGee et al., 2013). The change in dust flux has been attributed to varying Saharan land surface cover. Alternatively, the enhanced dust accumulation is linked to enhanced surface winds and a consequent intensification of coastal upwelling. We present simulation results from a recent sensitivity study, where we demonstrate for the first time the direct link between dust accumulation in marine cores and changes in Saharan land surface during the Holocene. We have simulated timeslices of he mid-Holocene (6 ka BP) and pre-industrial (1850 AD) dust cycle as a function of Saharan land surface cover and atmosphere-ocean conditions using the coupled atmosphere-aerosol model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.1. We prescribe mid-Holocene vegetation cover based on a vegetation reconstruction from pollen data (Hoelzmann et al., 1998) and mid-Holocene lake surface area is determined using a water routing and storage model (Tegen et al., 2002). In agreement with data from marine sediment cores, our simulations show that mid-Holocene dust deposition fluxes in the North Atlantic were two to three times lower compared with pre-industrial fluxes. We identify Saharan land surface characteristics to be the main control on dust transport from North Africa to the North Atlantic. We conclude that the variation in dust accumulation in marine cores is likely related to a transition of the Saharan landscape during the Holocene and not due to changes in atmospheric or ocean conditions alone. Reference: deMenocal, P., Ortiz, J., Guilderson, T., Adkins, J., Sarnthein, M., Baker, L., and Yarusinsky, M.: Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period:: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing, Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 347-361, 2000. Hoelzmann, P., Jolly, D., Harrison, S. P., Laarif, F

  18. Land cover change in the zone of sporadic permafrost causes shift in landscape-scale turbulent energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, M.; Wischnewski, K.; Kljun, N.; Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W. L.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal forests in the sporadic permafrost zone have been shown to decline at the expense of wetlands following permafrost disappearance. These land cover changes cause shifts in ecosystem properties and affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The goal of our study is to examine the effects of permafrost disappearance on landscape-scale sensible (H) and latent heat fluxes (LE) and related potential feedbacks on regional air temperatures (Ta) We use a combination of nested eddy covariance flux towers, flux footprint and planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamic modelling, and MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing products to resolve spatio-temporal dynamics in H and LE at the landscape scale at Scotty Creek, NWT (61º18' N; 121º18' W) and in radiometric land surface temperatures (LST) at the regional scale across the southern Taiga Plains in the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada. The heterogeneous landscape comprises boreal forests with permafrost and permafrost-free wetlands. Our results show that H above the heterogeneous landscape was about twice as high as above a nearby treeless, permafrost-free bog. In contrast, landscape-scale LE was only about 50 % of LE over the bog. These differences were primarily driven by higher heat transfer efficiency of the aerodynamically rougher forest and lower albedo of the forest compared to the bog (about 10 % lower during summer and about 40 % lower during late winter). Aerodynamic LST increased with the fraction of forest in the flux footprints. This effect was strongest (r2 = 0.55, slope = 0.06 K per % forest) at the end of winter when contrasts in albedo are largest. Bulk surface conductance increased with the fraction of wetlands in the footprints. On a regional scale, radiometric MODIS LST increased with tree cover during the snow cover period (0.06 K per % tree cover), but decreased during the summer (-0.04 K per % tree cover). Modelling results showed that a shift from the

  19. The Changing Context of Interpersonal Communication in Political Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.

    Critiques and studies have found the traditional two-step flow model of social influence inadequate to describe and explain relationships between interpersonal and mass communications during political campaigns. A study was undertaken to incorporate a wider range of variables pertinent to both kinds of political communication behaviors to redefine…

  20. Communicating Sustainability: Student Perceptions of a Behavior Change Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, D. Matthew; Feng, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the impacts of a science-based environmental communication campaign at a university dining hall. The impacts are assessed in terms of student attitudes toward sustainability, food consumption choices and perceptions and understanding of the campaign and the information it communicated.…

  1. Structural Changes of Desertified and Managed Shrubland Landscapes in Response to Drought: Spectral, Spatial and Temporal Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarin Paz-Kagan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought events cause changes in ecosystem function and structure by reducing the shrub abundance and expanding the biological soil crusts (biocrusts. This change increases the leakage of nutrient resources and water into the river streams in semi-arid areas. A common management solution for decreasing this loss of resources is to create a runoff-harvesting system (RHS. The objective of the current research is to apply geo-information techniques, including remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS, on the watershed scale, to monitor and analyze the spatial and temporal changes in response to drought of two source-sink systems, the natural shrubland and the human-made RHSs in the semi-arid area of the northern Negev Desert, Israel. This was done by evaluating the changes in soil, vegetation and landscape cover. The spatial changes were evaluated by three spectral indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Crust Index (CI and landscape classification change between 2003 and 2010. In addition, we examined the effects of environmental factors on NDVI, CI and their clustering after successive drought years. The results show that vegetation cover indicates a negative ∆NDVI change due to a reduction in the abundance of woody vegetation. On the other hand, the soil cover change data indicate a positive ∆CI change due to the expansion of the biocrusts. These two trends are evidence for degradation processes in terms of resource conservation and bio-production. A considerable part of the changed area (39% represents transitions between redistribution processes of resources, such as water, sediments, nutrients and seeds, on the watershed scale. In the pre-drought period, resource redistribution mainly occurred on the slope scale, while in the post-drought period, resource redistribution occurred on the whole watershed scale. However, the RHS management is effective in reducing leakage, since these systems are located on the

  2. Long-term changes in game species over a long period of transformation in the Iberian Mediterranean landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario

    2009-06-01

    Agricultural change has transformed large areas of traditional farming landscapes, leading to important changes in the species community assemblages in most European countries. We suspect that the drastic changes in land-use that have occurred in Andalusia (southern Spain) over recent decades, may have affected the distribution and abundance of game species in this region. This article compares the distribution of the main game species in Andalusia during the 1960s and 1990s, using data from maps available from the Mainland Spanish Fish, Game and National Parks Service and from recent datasets on hunting yield distributions, respectively. Big-game and small-game species were significantly segregated in southern Spain during the 1990s, as two clearly independent chorotypes (groups of species whose abundances are similarly distributed) were obtained from the classification analysis. In contrast, big-game and small-game species were not significantly segregated several decades ago, when there was only one chorotype consisting of small-game species and wild boar. The other three ungulates did not constitute a significant chorotype, as they showed positive correlations with some species in the group mentioned above. These changes seem to be a consequence of the transformations that have occurred in the Iberian Mediterranean landscape over the last few decades. The abandoning of traditional activities, and the consequent formation of dense scrubland and woodland, has led to an expansion of big-game species, and a decrease of small-game species in mountain areas. Moreover, agricultural intensification has apparently depleted small-game species populations in some agricultural areas. On the other hand, the increasingly intensive hunting management could be artificially boosting this segregation between small-game and big-game species. Our results suggest that the conservation and regeneration of traditional agricultural landscapes (like those predominating in the 1960s

  3. Glomed-Land: a research project to study the effect of global change in contrasted mediterranean landscapes and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Hueso-González, Paloma; León-Gross, Teodoro; Molina, Julián; Remond, Ricardo; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2017-04-01

    The Global Change is referred to the occurrence of great environmental changes associated to climatic fluctuations and human activity as wel (Vitousek et al., 1997; Steffen et al., 2004; Dearing et al., 2006). García-Ruiz et al. (2015) indicated that the relief varies very slowly in time while the changes in vegetation, overland flow generation and erosion occurred very rapidly and conditioned by their interactions and the climate variability as well. The GLOMED-LAND Project has its bases and scientific justification on the combination of the experience of the members of the research team, from one side, in the analysis of the dynamics and eco-geomorphological and climatic processes in Mediterranean environments of southern Spain, in the context of current Global change, and from another, in the study, development and application of new tools for simulation and modelling of future scenarios, and finally, in the analysis of the impact that society exercises the broadcast media related to the problem derived from the awareness and adaptation to Global change. Climate change (CC), directly affects the elements that compose the landscape. Both in the analysis of future climate scenarios raised by the IPCC (2013), such as the regionalisation carried out by AEMET, the Mediterranean region and, especially, the South of Spain, - with its defined longitudinal pluviometric gradient - configured as one of the areas of greatest uncertainty, reflected in a higher concentration of temporal rainfall, and even a reduction in the rainfall. Faced with this situation, the CC can modify the current landscape setting, with all the environmental impacts that this would entail for the terrestrial ecosystems and the systemic services rendered to the society. The combination of different work scales allows the analysis of the dynamics of the landscape and the consequence of its modifications on, hydro-geomorphological processes, closely related to degradation processes that can affect the

  4. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho

    Full Text Available Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively, landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m. It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately

  5. Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of

  6. Social change communication in the service of the sustainability education movement in BC

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, Candace Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the communication challenges of the BC Sustainability Education Movement and formulated a communications framework and guideBlog to address these challenges. Designed to assist movement members in developing holistic and comprehensive communication plans for advancing movement goals, the framework and guideBlog were developed by applying current social change communications theory and community capital models to the challenges and barriers presented at the “How Sustainabi...

  7. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  8. Assessing Restoration Potential of Semi-natural Grasslands by Landscape Change Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Timo P.; Mussaari, Maija; Käyhkö, Niina

    2014-04-01

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects.

  9. Human induced coastal changes and their impact on the coastal urban landscape. The case of Heraklion, Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempis, Nikolaos; Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a vital part of human society due to sea activities. Α variety of activities and uses are present and are further developing in the coastal and marine are. Coastal ecosystems and landscape are under severe pressure due to population growth and continuous expansion of human activities and supplemented from the effects of climate change (e.g. coastal flooding, erosion). Heraklion is the largest urban center in Crete. Its suburban and coastal area receives intensive urban sprawl pressures, changing the urban landscape and resulting negative impacts on the human and natural environment. The saturation of coastal area of Heraklion creates the need for new development interventions (e.g. new marina, coastal protection, urban regeneration). This study examine the impacts of the new programmed coastal development intervention in the coastal landscape of Heraklion. A decision analytic approach was implemented, based on the need of stakeholders for the protection and further development of coastal area of Heraklion. In this direction, local authorities have proposed the realization of several development interventions which include a new marina, expansion of bathing beaches and coastal regeneration project in a large beach. The results indicate that the realization of any coastal development projects, also increases the negative effects that are related to land-sea interaction. The negative effects are a result of the interaction between different human activities but also between human activities and the environment. The development of the marina in the selected location, increases the pressure on the sea area as the navigation will increase, but also increases the pressure on land space, as traffic flows will change, creating new pressures in urban areas. The extension of bathing beaches implies larger number of bathers, thus creating greater needs for infrastructures in land area for their service. Coastal protection projects, as planned, will upgrade the

  10. Vegetation change alters soil profile δ15N values at the landscape scale in a subtropical savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mushinski, R. M.; Hyodo, A.; Wu, X. B.; Boutton, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of spatial variation in soil δ15N could provide integrative insights on soil N cycling processes across multiple spatial scales. However, little is known about spatial patterns of δ15N within soil profiles in arid and semiarid ecosystems, especially those undergoing vegetation change with a distinct shift in dominance and/or functional type. We quantified how changes from grass to woody plant dominance altered spatial patterns of δ15N throughout a 1.2 m soil profile by collecting 320 spatially-specific soil cores in a 160 m × 100 m subtropical savanna landscape that has undergone encroachment by Prosopis glandulosa (an N2-fixer) during the past century. Leaf δ15N was comparable among different plant life-forms, while fine roots from woody species had significantly lower δ15N than herbaceous species across this landscape. Woody encroachment significantly decreased soil δ15N throughout the entire soil profile, and created horizontal spatial patterns of soil δ15N that strongly resembled the spatial distribution of woody patches and were evident within each depth increment. The lower soil δ15N values that characterized areas beneath woody canopies were mostly due to the encroaching woody species, especially the N2-fixer P. glandulosa, which delivered 15N-depleted organic matter via root turnover to soils along the profile. Soil δ15N increased with depth, reached maximum values at an intermediate depth, and decreased at greater depths. Higher δ15N values at intermediate soil depths were correlated with the presence of a subsurface clay-rich argillic horizon across this landscape which may favor more rapid rates of N-cycling processes that can cause N losses and 15N enrichment of the residual soil N. These results indicate that succession from grassland to woodland has altered spatial variation in soil δ15N across the landscape and to considerable depth, suggesting significant changes in the relative rates of N-inputs vs. N-losses in this

  11. Changing concepts of positive patient communication in dentistry and orthodontics: South Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran AnbuSelvan; Subramani Raja; Praburajan Vilvanathan; Nazargi Megabob; Krishnan Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    The world of communication has changed greatly over the centuries of mankind from sounds, sign languages, speech, development of language and in modern times using machines like the computer, mobile and internet. Over the past five decades, the change in communication is remarkable. Similarly positive patient communication is always necessary to build confidence, increased rapport and cooperation and minimizes misunderstanding. Returning the patient in our fold promotes the patient for furthe...

  12. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  13. The Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVO) local exemplar: A cloud based local landscape learning visualisation tool for communicating flood risk to catchment stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Beven, Keith; Brewer, Paul; El-khatib, Yehia; Gemmell, Alastair; Haygarth, Phil; Mackay, Ellie; Macklin, Mark; Marshall, Keith; Quinn, Paul; Stutter, Marc; Thomas, Nicola; Vitolo, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Today's world is dominated by a wide range of informatics tools that are readily available to a wide range of stakeholders. There is growing recognition that the appropriate involvement of local communities in land and water management decisions can result in multiple environmental, economic and social benefits. Therefore, local stakeholder groups are increasingly being asked to participate in decision making alongside policy makers, government agencies and scientists. As such, addressing flooding issues requires new ways of engaging with the catchment and its inhabitants at a local level. To support this, new tools and approaches are required. The growth of cloud based technologies offers new novel ways to facilitate this process of exchange of information in earth sciences. The Environmental Virtual Observatory Pilot project (EVOp) is a new initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for new tools and approaches to support the challenges as outlined above (http://www.evo-uk.org/). The long term vision of the Environmental Virtual Observatory is to: • Make environmental data more visible and accessible to a wide range of potential users including public good applications; • Provide tools to facilitate the integrated analysis of data, greater access to added knowledge and expert analysis and visualisation of the results; • Develop new, added-value knowledge from public and private sector data assets to help tackle environmental challenges. As part of the EVO pilot, an interactive cloud based tool has been developed with local stakeholders. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tool attempts to communicate flood risk in local impacted communities. The tool has been developed iteratively to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. This tool (assessable via a web portal) combines numerous cloud based tools and services, local catchment datasets, hydrological models and

  14. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  15. Unbridgeable gap between evolution of blueprint codes and communication – paradigm changing in production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márk Győri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional 2D drawing (hand drawing in engineering has a commonly known communication code. These communication codes (type of line, width of line or other marks makes the engineering communication easier, faster and safer. In the last couple of decades new computer aided design and manufacturing methods have been developed. The communication has been changed. This article aims to investigate the gap between software development and rules of communication. Although software support has developed the communication codes and basics have not been significantly changed. 2D drawing code is not yet fully included in modern 3D CAD software. Automatic 2D drawing generation from 3D computer models results problems, for example in sections, cuts and break-outs. This paper shows the most common problems and makes recommendation through harmonisation of the communication codes.

  16. Modeling and projecting land-use and land-cover changes with Cellular Automaton in considering landscape trajectories : An improvement for simulation of plausible future states

    OpenAIRE

    Houet , Thomas; Hubert-Moy , Laurence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The modeling and projecting of land use change is essential to the assessment of consequent environmental impacts. In agricultural landscapes, land use patterns nearly always exhibit spatial autocorrelation, that is due in large part, to the clustered distribution of landscape features as hedgerows and wetlands, and also to the spatial interactions between land uses types itself. The importance of such structural spatial dependencies has to be taken into account when c...

  17. Controlled experiments of hillslope co-evolution at the Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory: toward prediction of coupled hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, T. H. M.; Sengupta, A.; Pangle, L.; Abramson, N.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Breshears, D. D.; Bugaj, A.; Chorover, J.; Dontsova, K.; Durcik, M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Harman, C. J.; Hunt, E.; Huxman, T. E.; Kim, M.; Maier, R. M.; Matos, K.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Meredith, L. K.; Monson, R. K.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Ruiz, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Schaap, M. G.; Sibayan, M.; Tuller, M.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, X.; Troch, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the process interactions and feedbacks among water, microbes, plants, and porous geological media is crucial for improving predictions of the response of Earth's critical zone to future climatic conditions. However, the integrated co-evolution of landscapes under change is notoriously difficult to investigate. Laboratory studies are typically limited in spatial and temporal scale, while field studies lack observational density and control. To bridge the gap between controlled lab and uncontrolled field studies, the University of Arizona - Biosphere 2 built a macrocosm experiment of unprecedented scale: the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO). LEO consists of three replicated, 330-m2 hillslope landscapes inside a 5000-m2 environmentally controlled facility. The engineered landscapes contain 1-m depth of basaltic tephra ground to homogenous loamy sand that will undergo physical, chemical, and mineralogical changes over many years. Each landscape contains a dense sensor network capable of resolving water, carbon, and energy cycling processes at sub-meter to whole-landscape scale. Embedded sampling devices allow for quantification of biogeochemical processes, and facilitate the use of chemical tracers applied with the artificial rainfall. LEO is now fully operational and intensive forcing experiments have been launched. While operating the massive infrastructure poses significant challenges, LEO has demonstrated the capacity of tracking multi-scale matter and energy fluxes at a level of detail impossible in field experiments. Initial sensor, sampler, and restricted soil coring data are already providing insights into the tight linkages between water flow, weathering, and (micro-) biological community development during incipient landscape evolution. Over the years to come, these interacting processes are anticipated to drive the model systems to increasingly complex states, potentially perturbed by changes in climatic forcing. By intensively monitoring

  18. Anthropocene landscape change and the legacy of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Catchment, Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Kotikian, Maneh; Wicherski, Will; Samuels, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-century rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.

  19. Landscape transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2014-01-01

    In my work, titled Landscape transformation, in the first theoretical-art part, I focus on a landscape painting style in fifteen exposed works, done by different authors. While analyzing depictions of the landscape I establish how the development of photography has in any way affected the transformation of the landscape. In the practical part I describe my work, soft ground graphics with the motive of the landscape, mountain landscape and caves. I devoted the last chapter of my thesis to the ...

  20. Lithologic Effects on Landscape Response to Base Level Changes: A Modeling Study in the Context of the Eastern Jura Mountains, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, Brian J.; Becker, Jens K.; Madritsch, Herfried; Schnellmann, Michael; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2017-11-01

    Landscape evolution is a product of the forces that drive geomorphic processes (e.g., tectonics and climate) and the resistance to those processes. The underlying lithology and structural setting in many landscapes set the resistance to erosion. This study uses a modified version of the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) landscape evolution model to determine the effect of a spatially and temporally changing erodibility in a terrain with a complex base level history. Specifically, our focus is to quantify how the effects of variable lithology influence transient base level signals. We set up a series of numerical landscape evolution models with increasing levels of complexity based on the lithologic variability and base level history of the Jura Mountains of northern Switzerland. The models are consistent with lithology (and therewith erodibility) playing an important role in the transient evolution of the landscape. The results show that the erosion rate history at a location depends on the rock uplift and base level history, the range of erodibilities of the different lithologies, and the history of the surface geology downstream from the analyzed location. Near the model boundary, the history of erosion is dominated by the base level history. The transient wave of incision, however, is quite variable in the different model runs and depends on the geometric structure of lithology used. It is thus important to constrain the spatiotemporal erodibility patterns downstream of any given point of interest to understand the evolution of a landscape subject to variable base level in a quantitative framework.

  1. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  2. A Method for Gauging Landscape Change as a Prelude to Urban Watershed Regeneration: The Case of the Carioca River, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Tangari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural systems undergo processes, flows, and rhythms that differ from those of urban sociocultural systems. While the former takes place over eras or many generations, the latter may occur within years or even months. Natural systems change includes no principle of intentional progress or enhancement of complexity. In contrast, sociocultural systems change occurs through inherited characteristics, learning, and cultural transmission [1]. Both are dynamic, heterogeneous, and vulnerable to regime shifts, and are inextricably linked. The interrelations among natural and anthropogenic factors affecting sustainability vary spatially and temporally. This paper focuses on landscape changes along the Carioca River valley in Rio de Janeiro, located in the Brazilian Neotropical Southeastern Region, and its implications for local urban sustainability. The study incorporates a transdisciplinary approach that integrates landscape ecology and urban morphology methodologies to gauge landscape change and assess social-ecological systems dynamics. The methodology includes a variety of landscape change assessments; including on-site landscape ecological, landscape morphology, biological and urbanistic surveys, to gauge urban watershed quality. It presents an adapted inventory for assessment of urban tropical rivers, Neotropical Urban Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (NUSVAP, and correlates the level of stream and rainforest integrity to local urban environmental patterns and processes. How can urban regional land managers, planners and communities work together to promote shifts toward more desirable configurations and processes? An understanding of the transient behavior of social-ecological systems and how they respond to change and disturbance is fundamental to building appropriate management strategies and fostering resilience, regenerative capacity, and sustainable development in urban watersheds. The sociocultural patterns, processes and dynamics of Rio

  3. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.

  4. Characterization of climate- and human-induced slope, soil and grassland dynamics in Bavarian landscapes under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltl, Peter; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Since the Neolithic Revolution the intensification of agriculture has been causing increased erosion in Bavarian landscapes. The correlated sediments often induce the formation of new colluvial and alluvial soils (WRB: Regic Anthrosol and Fluvisol i.a.). The soils themselves are able to absorb, bind, and store considerable amounts of C- and N-compounds. Therefore, they are important reactors regarding climate-relevant greenhouse-gas balances in the atmosphere. Learning about the exact spatial extent and thickness of these soils in representative landscapes, but also about their geneses and processes is essential. It allows for a detailed quantification and understanding of the current and potential properties and characteristics of these soils in their role of greenhouse-gas reactors. Two research locations were elected as representative Bavarian landscapes composed of different lithology and pedo-chemical environments (limestone versus crystalline setting): Rottenbuch is situated at the Ammer River in the Upper Bavarian pre-alpine forelands (Lkr. Weilheim-Schongau). The Otterbach Creek lies at the southwestern foothills of the Bavarian Forest at the Donaurandbruch tectonic line next to Donaustauf (Lkr. Regensburg). Detailed information on the soil horizons and layers within these research areas are accumulated by sounding or burrowing soil profiles and subsequently analyzing the soil samples in the lab. Geophysical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), seismic refraction tomography (SRT), and ground penetrating radar (GPR), allow for the extension of this point-source information into three dimensions. By repeatedly and regularly applying these methods, also temporal changes such as soil hydrology or freeze and thaw cycles can be monitored and their influence on fluxes and exchanges can be taken into account.

  5. Behaviour and communication change in reducing HIV: is Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identify a similar, early behaviour and communication response in other situations where HIV has declined: Thailand, Zambia and the US Gay community. In Thailand, visits to sex workers decreased by 55% and non-regular partners declined from 28% to 15% (1990-1993): as important as the -100% condom use policy ...

  6. Change, Process and the Future of Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conville, Richard L.

    Currently, two trends are converging that will shape the future of communication theory. One is "the new narcissism"--a phenomenon characterized by prescriptions for personal fulfillment such as those reflected in popular psychologies and religions. The second trend is the scientific revolution concerned with exchanging static models of reality…

  7. Communication and Cultural Change in University Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Faculty culture and communication networks are pivotal components of technology transfer on university campuses. Universities are focused upon diffusing technology to external clients and upon building structure and support systems to enhance technology transfer. However, engaging faculty members in technology transfer requires an internal…

  8. Interactions of landscape disturbances and climate change dictate ecological pattern and process: spatial modeling of wildfire, insect, and disease dynamics under future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Wu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    ContextInteractions among disturbances, climate, and vegetation influence landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. Climate changes, exotic invasions, beetle outbreaks, altered fire regimes, and human activities may interact to produce landscapes that appear and function beyond historical analogs.ObjectivesWe used the mechanistic ecosystem-fire process model FireBGCv2 to model interactions of wildland fire, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) under current and future climates, across three diverse study areas.MethodsWe assessed changes in tree basal area as a measure of landscape response over a 300-year simulation period for the Crown of the Continent in north-central Montana, East Fork of the Bitterroot River in western Montana, and Yellowstone Central Plateau in western Wyoming, USA.ResultsInteracting disturbances reduced overall basal area via increased tree mortality of host species. Wildfire decreased basal area more than beetles or rust, and disturbance interactions modeled under future climate significantly altered landscape basal area as compared with no-disturbance and current climate scenarios. Responses varied among landscapes depending on species composition, sensitivity to fire, and pathogen and beetle suitability and susceptibility.ConclusionsUnderstanding disturbance interactions is critical for managing landscapes because forest responses to wildfires, pathogens, and beetle attacks may offset or exacerbate climate influences, with consequences for wildlife, carbon, and biodiversity.

  9. Physical mechanism of mind changes and tradeoffs among speed, accuracy, and energy cost in brain decision making: Landscape, flux, and path perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Han; Wang Jin; Zhang Kun

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behaviors are determined by underlying neural networks. Many brain functions, such as learning and memory, have been successfully described by attractor dynamics. For decision making in the brain, a quantitative description of global attractor landscapes has not yet been completely given. Here, we developed a theoretical framework to quantify the landscape associated with the steady state probability distributions and associated steady state curl flux, measuring the degree of non-equilibrium through the degree of detailed balance breaking for decision making. We quantified the decision-making processes with optimal paths from the undecided attractor states to the decided attractor states, which are identified as basins of attractions, on the landscape. Both landscape and flux determine the kinetic paths and speed. The kinetics and global stability of decision making are explored by quantifying the landscape topography through the barrier heights and the mean first passage time. Our theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental observations: more errors occur under time pressure. We quantitatively explored two mechanisms of the speed-accuracy tradeoff with speed emphasis and further uncovered the tradeoffs among speed, accuracy, and energy cost. Our results imply that there is an optimal balance among speed, accuracy, and the energy cost in decision making. We uncovered the possible mechanisms of changes of mind and how mind changes improve performance in decision processes. Our landscape approach can help facilitate an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms of cognitive processes and identify the key factors in the corresponding neural networks. (paper)

  10. Science to support the understanding of south Texas surface-water and groundwater resources in a changing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Garcia, Travis J.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of constant cycles of extreme hydrologic conditions ranging from oppressive droughts to life-threatening floods, the water-resource landscape of south Texas is undergoing constant change. Demands on water resources are increasing because of changes related to population growth, energy demands, agricultural practices, and other human-related activities. In south Texas, the Nueces, San Antonio, and Guadalupe River Basins cover approximately 50,000 square miles and include all or part of 45 counties. These stream systems transect the faulted and fractured carbonate rocks of the Edwards aquifer recharge zone and provide the largest sources of recharge to the aquifer. As the streams make their way to the Gulf of Mexico, they provide water for communities and ecosystems in south Texas and deliver water, sediment, and nutrients to the south Texas bays and estuaries.

  11. Development of a Parameterization for Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling and Application to Landscape and Climate Change in the Interior Alaska Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, Abraham Melesse

    The Interior Alaska boreal forest ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems on earth and lies between the warmer southerly temperate and colder Arctic regions. The ecosystem is underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The presence or absence of permafrost primarily controls water pathways and ecosystem composition. As a result, the region hosts two distinct ecotypes that transition over a very short spatial scale--often on the order of meters. Accurate mesoscale hydrological modeling of the region is critical as the region is experiencing unprecedented ecological and hydrological changes that have regional and global implications. However, accurate representation of the landscape heterogeneity and mesoscale hydrological processes has remained a big challenge. This study addressed this challenge by developing a simple landscape model from the hill-slope studies and in situ measurements over the past several decades. The new approach improves the mesoscale prediction of several hydrological processes including streamflow and evapotranspiration (ET). The impact of climate induced landscape change under a changing climate is also investigated. In the projected climate scenario, Interior Alaska is projected to undergo a major landscape shift including transitioning from a coniferous-dominated to deciduous-dominated ecosystem and from discontinuous permafrost to either a sporadic or isolated permafrost region. This major landscape shift is predicted to have a larger and complex impact in the predicted runoff, evapotranspiration, and moisture deficit (precipitation minus evapotranspiration). Overall, a large increase in runoff, evapotranspiration, and moisture deficit is predicted under future climate. Most hydrological climate change impact studies do not usually include the projected change in landscape into the model. In this study, we found that ignoring the projected ecosystem change could lead to an inaccurate conclusion. Hence climate induced vegetation and

  12. An innovative computer design for modeling forest landscape change in very large spatial extents with fine resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; Yangjian. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Although forest landscape models (FLMs) have benefited greatly from ongoing advances of computer technology and software engineering, computing capacity remains a bottleneck in the design and development of FLMs. Computer memory overhead and run time efficiency are primary limiting factors when applying forest landscape models to simulate large landscapes with fine...

  13. IMPACT OF LAND USE CHANGE TO THE SOIL EROSION ESTIMATION FOR CULTURAL LANDSCAPES: CASE STUDY OF PAPHOS DISRICT IN CYPRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cucaa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 UNESCO report has identified soil loss as one of the main threats of climate change with possible impact to natural and cultural heritage. The study illustrated in this paper shows the results from geomatic perspective, applying an interdisciplinary approach undertaken in order to identify major natural hazar