van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna
This paper reports on an experimental study investigating alternative communication modes to English as a Lingua Franca. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of different modes of communication and to gain insight in communication strategies used by interlocutors to solve referential conflicts. Findings show that ELF may not necessarily be…
de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.
This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care
Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank
This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...
In this article, the author compares the ways in which parent-child communication--a major indicator of parental involvement--influences children's educational achievement across 14 countries. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the author examines the extent to which social class differences in the effect of…
What are the perceived effects of Telecollaboration (TC), compared to other types of communication-scenarios with peers (i.e. local peers in small groups and Erasmus students abroad)? This is the question this exploratory study tackles within a blended language learning course. The analysis of students' perceptions paints a rather contrastive…
Koponen, Jonna; Pyörälä, Eeva; Isotalus, Pekka
Despite numerous studies exploring medical students' attitudes to communication skills learning (CSL), there are apparently no studies comparing different experiential learning methods and their influence on students' attitudes. We compared medical students' attitudes to learning communication skills before and after a communication course in the data as a whole, by gender and when divided into three groups using different methods. Second-year medical students (n = 129) were randomly assigned to three groups. In group A (n = 42) the theatre in education method, in group B (n = 44) simulated patients and in group C (n = 43) role-play were used. The data were gathered before and after the course using Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Students' positive attitudes to learning communication skills (PAS; positive attitude scale) increased significantly and their negative attitudes (NAS; negative attitude scale) decreased significantly between the beginning and end of the course. Female students had more positive attitudes than the male students. There were no significant differences in the three groups in the mean scores for PAS or NAS measured before or after the course. The use of experiential methods and integrating communication skills training with visits to health centres may help medical students to appreciate the importance of CSL.
Boesch, Miriam C; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.
At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) the responsibilities assigned to public affairs (PA) include communications to two main groups: institutional representatives and the general public. Research data indicates that these two populations perceive risk in different fashions. This paper discusses these distinct perceptions and how the communication programs at WIPP have been designed to accommodate these two differences
Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki
Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.
Homma, Satoki; Imamura, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Toru; Fujimura, Kaori; Ito, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Yuji; Kaneko, Ikuyo
We performed a comparative study of a health education programme that was delivered either through one-way communication with printed media, or through interactive videophone interviews. We aimed to ascertain which mode of counselling, when used in combination with telemonitoring, is more effective at lifestyle modification intended to improve health status. Participants, who were residents of Kurihara city in Miyagi prefecture, Japan, were randomized into two groups: one group received individualized monthly documented reports (n = 33; 22 females; average age: 67.2 years), and the other received interactive videophone communication (n = 35; 22 females; average age: 65.1 years) for three months. Telemonitoring was conducted on both groups, using a pedometer, weighing scale and a sphygmomanometer. Pre- and post-intervention, anthropometric measurements and blood tests were performed; the participants also completed self-administered questionnaires. The two groups showed similar degrees of health status improvement and satisfaction levels. However, the participants in the videophone group were more aware of improvements in their lifestyles than were the participants in the document group. The individualized printed communication programme was less time-consuming compared to videophone communication. Further studies are needed to formulate a balanced protocol for a counselling-cum-telemonitoring programme that provides optimal health improvement and cost performance with the available human resources. © The Author(s) 2015.
A study was designed to test the hypothesis that different communication stages between nations--primitive, traditional, modern, and neomodern--provide important variables for explaining differences in pre-adults' conception of war in different countries. Although the two samples used in the study were drawn from two cultures which fall into the…
Shani, J.; Sarel, O.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.
Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed /sup 99m/Tc, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Whereas lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depressed myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures
Shani, J.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.
Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed Tc-99m, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Wheras lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depresses myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures
Hamilton, Gillian; Ortega, Rosio; Hochstetler, Vicki; Pierson, Kristen; Lin, Peiyi; Lowes, Susan
Communication skills are critical in hospice care but challenging to teach. Therefore, a hospice agency developed a communication skills laboratory for nurses and social workers. Learners role-played 3 common hospice scenarios. The role-play modalities were in-person, Second Life, and telephone. Learners were scored on 4 communication aspects. Learners in all modalities rated the laboratory as very effective. However, learners in the Second Life and phone modality showed greater improvements from scene 1 to 3 than those in the in-person modality. There were no significant differences in improvement between the Second Life and phone modalities. Results support the effectiveness of this communication skills laboratory while using different teaching modalities and show phone and Second Life role-plays were more effective than an in-person role-play. © The Author(s) 2013.
My bachelor thesis is called "The Effective Communication With Seniors". The aim of this thesis is to describe communication, its various kinds and the basic principles of the effective communication. I will also describe the communication with seniors suffering from dementia. Another aim of this thesis is to find out whether workers in the senior houses know and use the principles of the effective communication.
Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning
An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…
Denis Alexandrovich Zhuravliev
Full Text Available There is a wide-spread approach in a research literature to regard terrorism as a communicative process. From this point of view, the author offers a comparative analysis of the three most common communication strategies of terrorist groups, including transforming the role of the mass media, the Internet and a combined approach. The author also argues that a particular communication strategy determines a structure of a terrorist organization.
Full Text Available Over the last 10-20 years, comparative research in the feld of communication has almost become fashionable. Many factors are responsible for this, for example: an increased awareness of globalisation as a communication-driven process; an awareness of increased transnational conglomerization of media organizations; and the increasing use of the Internet which facilitates easier access to information around the world. But the big question is how to organize collaborative international communication research efectively? Which models of cooperation are available to us, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? In this article, I analyze fve ways of doing collaborative researches and their respective challenges.
Managheb, S. E.; Zamani, A.; Shams, B.; Farajzadegan, Z.
Background: Effective communication is essential to the practice of high-quality medicine. There are methodological challenges in communication skills training. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of communication skills training by video feedback method versus traditional formats such as lectures on clinical…
Schultz Jobst H
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the student perspective on acceptability, realism, and perceived effect of communication training with peer role play (RP and standardised patients (SP. Methods 69 prefinal year students from a large German medical faculty were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving communication training with RP (N = 34 or SP (N = 35 in the course of their paediatric rotation. In both groups, training addressed major medical and communication problems encountered in the exploration and counselling of parents of sick children. Acceptability and realism of the training as well as perceived effects and applicability for future parent-physician encounters were assessed using six-point Likert scales. Results Both forms of training were highly accepted (RP 5.32 ± .41, SP 5.51 ± .44, n.s.; 6 = very good, 1 = very poor and perceived to be highly realistic (RP 5.60 ± .38, SP 5.53 ± .36, n.s.; 6 = highly realistic, 1 = unrealistic. Regarding perceived effects, participation was seen to be significantly more worthwhile in the SP group (RP 5.17 ± .37, SP 5.50 ± .43; p Conclusions RP and SP represent comparably valuable tools for the training of specific communication skills from the student perspective. Both provide highly realistic training scenarios and warrant inclusion in medical curricula. Given the expense of SP, deciding which method to employ should be carefully weighed up. From the perspective of the students in our study, SP were seen as a more useful and more applicable tool than RP. We discuss the potential of RP to foster a greater empathic appreciation of the patient perspective.
Background To assess the student perspective on acceptability, realism, and perceived effect of communication training with peer role play (RP) and standardised patients (SP). Methods 69 prefinal year students from a large German medical faculty were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving communication training with RP (N = 34) or SP (N = 35) in the course of their paediatric rotation. In both groups, training addressed major medical and communication problems encountered in the exploration and counselling of parents of sick children. Acceptability and realism of the training as well as perceived effects and applicability for future parent-physician encounters were assessed using six-point Likert scales. Results Both forms of training were highly accepted (RP 5.32 ± .41, SP 5.51 ± .44, n.s.; 6 = very good, 1 = very poor) and perceived to be highly realistic (RP 5.60 ± .38, SP 5.53 ± .36, n.s.; 6 = highly realistic, 1 = unrealistic). Regarding perceived effects, participation was seen to be significantly more worthwhile in the SP group (RP 5.17 ± .37, SP 5.50 ± .43; p < .003; 6 = totally agree, 1 = don't agree at all). Both training methods were perceived as useful for training communication skills (RP 5.01 ± .68, SP 5.34 ± .47; 6 = totally agree; 1 = don't agree at all) and were considered to be moderately applicable for future parent-physician encounters (RP 4.29 ± 1.08, SP 5.00 ± .89; 6 = well prepared, 1 = unprepared), with usefulness and applicability both being rated higher in the SP group (p < .032 and p < .009). Conclusions RP and SP represent comparably valuable tools for the training of specific communication skills from the student perspective. Both provide highly realistic training scenarios and warrant inclusion in medical curricula. Given the expense of SP, deciding which method to employ should be carefully weighed up. From the perspective of the students in our study, SP were seen as a more useful and more applicable tool than RP
Watson, Arden K.; Dodd, Carley H.
Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which assumes that a person can change an emotional disturbance by discovering and disputing the irrational ideas giving rise to that emotion, has been used effectively in treating public speaking anxiety. To compare RET with other treatments for communication apprehension, 52 high communication…
Compares the four international systems of linguistic communication used in the field (systems used in the United Nations, multinationals, the European Union, and Esperanto organizations) on select criteria (e.g., previous government investment). Discusses research that shows unilingual systems (English used alone, Esperanto) are those that…
Aronow, Wilbert S; Shamliyan, Tatyana A
Critical appraisal of all available evidence regarding the role of noninvasive communication technology for improving patient survival and reducing hospital admissions in adults with chronic heart failure (HF). Systematic literature review and grading of the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group approach. Four databases were searched in March 2018 to find 2 high-quality meta-analyses and published and unpublished data from 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared noninvasive communication technology with usual care in community-dwelling adults with HF. Direct meta-analysis of aggregate data with random effects models. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that there are no differences in all-cause mortality between telemonitoring and usual care, whereas complex telemonitoring that includes transmission of patient parameters and analysis by health care professionals decreases all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62, 0.99; 2885 people in 12 RCTs). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that telemonitoring prevents HF-related hospitalizations (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.62, 0.88; 4001 people in 11 RCTs). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that structured telephone support decreases all-cause mortality (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.77, 0.97; 9535 people in 24 RCTs) and HF-related hospitalizations (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.73, 0.94; 7030 people in 16 RCTs). Use of a mobile personal digital assistant prevents HF-related hospitalizations (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.44, 0.77; 674 people in 3 RCTs). The evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of specific telecommunication devices is insufficient. The results from many completed studies are not available. Clinicians should offer noninvasive monitoring with communication technology applications to all HF patients. Future research should examine comparative effectiveness of technology applications in patient subpopulations
Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Cooper, Lisa A
We designed a continuing medical education (CME) program to teach primary care physicians (PCP) how to engage in cancer risk communication and shared decision making with patients who have limited health literacy (HL). We evaluated whether training PCPs, in addition to audit-feedback, improves their communication behaviors and increases cancer screening among patients with limited HL to a greater extent than only providing clinical performance feedback. Four-year cluster randomized controlled trial. Eighteen PCPs and 168 patients with limited HL who were overdue for colorectal/breast/cervical cancer screening. Communication intervention PCPs received skills training that included standardized patient (SP) feedback on counseling behaviors. All PCPs underwent chart audits of patients' screening status semiannually up to 24 months and received two annual performance feedback reports. PCPs experienced three unannounced SP encounters during which SPs rated PCP communication behaviors. We examined between-group differences in changes in SP ratings and patient knowledge of cancer screening guidelines over 12 months; and changes in patient cancer screening rates over 24 months. There were no group differences in SP ratings of physician communication at baseline. At follow-up, communication intervention PCPs were rated higher in general communication about cancer risks and shared decision making related to colorectal cancer screening compared to PCPs who only received performance feedback. Screening rates increased among patients of PCPs in both groups; however, there were no between-group differences in screening rates except for mammography. The communication intervention did not improve patient cancer screening knowledge. Compared to audit and feedback alone, including PCP communication training increases PCP patient-centered counseling behaviors, but not cancer screening among patients with limited HL. Larger studies must be conducted to determine whether lack of
Roozen, Irene; Genin, Emile
Nowadays most companies acknowledge the importance of SMS marketing in reaching and interacting with their customers (Kavassalis et al. 2003; Dickinger et al. 2004; Tsang, Ho & Liang 2004; Sharl, Dickinger & Murphy 2005; Muk 2007). However, there is much discussion in the press regarding the effectiveness when it comes to SMS marketing. Are customers willing to accept, reading and using SMS messages: how effective is SMS marketing compared to traditional marketing communications? The goal of ...
Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.
The present study compared two different types of English-language teaching approaches, the grammatical approach (GA) and the communicative approach (CA), by the cotwin control method. This study has two purposes: to study the effects of teaching approaches and to estimate genetic influences upon learning aptitudes. Seven pairs of identical twins (MZ) and 4 pairs of fraternal twins (DZ) participated in the experiment along with 68 other nontwin fifth graders. Each cotwin was assigned to the GA and CA respectively and received 20 hours of lessons over a 10-day period. The behavioral similarities between MZ cotwins were statistically and descriptively depicted. No major effect of either teaching approach was noted, but the genetic influence upon individual differences of learning achievement was obvious. Furthermore, an interesting interaction between the teaching approaches and intelligence was found, that is, that the GA capitalises on and CA compensates for intelligence. This interactional pattern could be interpreted as an example of genotype-environment interaction. The relationship between genetic factors and learning aptitudes is discussed.
Cleveland, F.; Malcolm, W.; Nordell, D.E.; Zirker, J.
When people involved in the power industry think of Solar Magnetic Disturbances (SMD), they normally consider the potential for disrupting power transmission which results form solar-induced disturbances to the earth's magnetic field known as geomagnetic storms. However, in addition to the disruption of power transmission, solar phenomena can interfere with utility communication systems. Utilities use many different types of communication media, some of which can be affected by various solar phenomena. These include wire-based facilities (metallic cables and power line carrier), radio systems (HF, VHF, UHF mobile radio, microwave networks, and satellite transmissions), and fiber optic systems. This paper reports that the solar flares and other solar phenomena can affect these media through different mechanisms: Radio communications can be disturbed by flare-induced changes in the ionispheric layer of the atmosphere; Cable communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced changes in the magnetosphere which surrounds the earth. These changes, in turn, induce currents in the power equipment that energizes long communications cables; Satellite communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced perturbations of satellite orbits and equipment
Børøsund, Elin; Cvancarova, Milada; Moore, Shirley M; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Ruland, Cornelia M
While Web-based interventions have been shown to assist a wide range of patients successfully in managing their illness, few studies have examined the relative contribution of different Web-based components to improve outcomes. Further efficacy trials are needed to test the effects of Web support when offered as a part of routine care. Our aim was to compare in regular care the effects of (1) an Internet-based patient provider communication service (IPPC), (2) WebChoice, a Web-based illness management system for breast cancer patients (IPPC included), and (3) usual care on symptom distress, anxiety, depression, (primary outcomes), and self-efficacy (secondary outcome). This study reports preliminary findings from 6 months' follow-up data in a 12-month trial. We recruited 167 patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing treatment from three Norwegian hospitals. The nurse-administered IPPC allowed patients to send secure e-messages to and receive e-messages from health care personnel at the hospital where they were treated. In addition to the IPPC, WebChoice contains components for symptom monitoring, tailored information and self-management support, a diary, and communication with other patients. A total of 20 care providers (11 nurses, 6 physicians, and 3 social workers) were trained to answer questions from patients. Outcomes were measured with questionnaires at study entry and at study months 2, 4, and 6. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were fitted to compare effects on outcomes over time. Patients were randomly assigned to the WebChoice group (n=64), the IPPC group (n=45), or the usual care group (n=58). Response rates to questionnaires were 73.7% (123/167) at 2 months, 65.9 (110/167) at 4 months, and 62.3% (104/167) at 6 months. Attrition was similar in all study groups. Among those with access to WebChoice, 64% (41/64) logged on more than once and 39% (25/64) sent e-messages to care providers. In the IPPC group, 40% (18/45) sent e
In daily life, everyone has to communicate with the medium of language. How to communicate effectively is a question bothering each of us through our lifetime. This thesis analyzes the situations of communication between Chinese people and foreigners from the perceptive of Levinson's face theory and Gu Yueguo's theory about politeness in Chinese culture in order to further find out the different cultural characteristics of communication in China and the West.
VPN and Tor is a technology based on anonymity communication. These two technologies have their advantage and disadvantage. The objective of this paper is to find the difference between VPN and Tor technologies by comparing their security of communication on the public network based on the CIA triad concept. The comparative study in this paper is based on the survey method. At last, the result of this paper is a recommendation on when to use a VPN and Tor to secure communication
Mahdi Mohsenian Rad
Full Text Available The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in new communication theories. Accordingly, as the abovementioned authorities’ viewpoint of audiences exposed to media messages keeps distance from the true nature of media activities, media‐message receivers and their current position in the booming market of media, as termed by Mohsenyan Rad as “Message Bazaar”, there will possibly be disastrous social, cultural, political, and even economic consequences with regard to media uses.Then the history and definitions of “audience”, "uses & gratifications theory" and the concept of "Audience Phantasm" is described. After that, based on those and the increased options as well as the right of selecting of today-audience in the situation of message bazaar, as a result the characteristics of them are explained.
Ahsan Bashir (Corresponding Author
Full Text Available Importance of effective communication can hardly be ignored in any sphere of life. This is achieved through various means. One such instrument is Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP which has now taken roots in various aspects of learning and education. Its potential spans education and learning, language teaching, business management and marketing, psychology, law, and several other fields. In our work, we will briefly explore various facets of NLP with special reference to effective communication.
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...
This paper explores the various options available for dealing with the demands and costs of communication in a world of many languages. Globalization has increased the demand for language services necessary to accomplish effective communication. It is argued that the day is not far off when the complications, costs, and inequalities of language…
Comparative effects of valsartan plus either cilnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide on home morning blood pressure surge evaluated by information and communication technology-based nocturnal home blood pressure monitoring.
Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Kario, Kazuomi
The authors tested the hypothesis that a valsartan/cilnidipine combination would suppress the home morning blood pressure (BP) surge (HMBPS) more effectively than a valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in patients with morning hypertension, defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg assessed by a self-measuring information and communication technology-based home BP monitoring device more than three times before either combination's administration. This was an 8-week prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial. The HMBPS, which is a new index, was defined as the mean morning SBP minus the mean nocturnal SBP, both measured on the same day. The authors randomly allocated 129 patients to the valsartan/cilnidipine (63 patients; mean 68.4 years) or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (66 patients; mean 67.3 years) combination groups, and the baseline HMBPS values were 17.4 mm Hg vs 16.9 mm Hg, respectively (P = .820). At the end of the treatment period, the changes in nocturnal SBP and morning SBP from baseline were significant in both the valsartan/cilnidipine and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide groups (P information and communication technology-based home BP monitoring device may become an alternative to ambulatory BP monitoring, which has been a gold standard to measure nocturnal BP and the morning BP surge. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lopez, Laureen M; Steiner, Markus; Grimes, David A; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Schulz, Kenneth F
Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness is crucial to making an informed choice. The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness. To review all randomized controlled trials comparing strategies for communicating to consumers the effectiveness of contraceptives in preventing pregnancy. Through February 2013, we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. Previous searches also included EMBASE. We also examined references lists of relevant articles. For the initial review, we wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared methods for communicating contraceptive effectiveness to consumers. The comparison could be usual practice or an alternative to the experimental intervention.Outcome measures were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness, attitude about contraception or toward any particular contraceptive, and choice or use of contraceptive method. For the initial review, two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan, and a second author verified accuracy. For the update, an author and a research associate extracted, entered, and checked the data.For dichotomous variables, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous variables, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria and had a total of 4526 women. Five were multi-site studies. Four trials were conducted in the USA, while Nigeria and Zambia were represented by one study each, and one trial was done in both Jamaica and India.Two trials provided multiple sessions for participants. In one study that examined contraceptive choice, women in
.... It addresses the purpose, developmental process, content, and implementation of a strategic communication plan offering specific recommendations for the creation and effective use of a successful plan...
Polito, Jacquelyn M
A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior
Tan, Lan Liana; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Storch, Neomy
In today's second language classrooms, students are often asked to work in pairs or small groups. Such collaboration can take place face-to-face, but now more often via computer mediated communication. This paper reports on a study which investigated the effect of the medium of communication on the nature of pair interaction. The study involved…
Lanzerotti, Louis J.
In the 150 years since the advent of the first electrical communication system - the electrical telegraph - the diversity of communications technologies that are embedded within space-affected environments have vastly increased. The increasing sophistication of these communications technologies, and how their installation and operations may relate to the environments in which they are embedded, requires ever more sophisticated understanding of natural physical phenomena. At the same time, the business environment for most present-day communications technologies that are affected by space phenomena is very dynamic. The commercial and national security deployment and use of these technologies do not wait for optimum knowledge of possible environmental effects to be acquired before new technological embodiments are created, implemented, and marketed. Indeed, those companies that might foolishly seek perfectionist understanding of natural effects can be left behind by the marketplace. A well-considered balance is needed between seeking ever deeper understanding of physical phenomena and implementing `engineering' solutions to current crises. The research community must try to understand, and operate in, this dynamic environment.
A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication Systems in Ata Igala ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... I adopted particpant observation as an instrument of ethnographic design of fact finding, ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...
Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s). In this paper, I present some practical advice for developing, delivering and evaluating effective science communication initiatives, based on over a decade of experience as being a professional science communicator. I provide advice regarding event logistics, suggestions on how to successfully market and advertise your science communication initiatives, and recommendations for establishing effective branding and legacy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille
Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...
Develop the skills you need to communicate effectively and in ways that motivate your faculty towards success. Written especially for principals and other administrators, this book will empower you to communicate well as you work to promote a student-centered environment best suited to schoolwide achievement. Learn to approach one-on-one…
Moore, Philippa; Gómez, Gricelda; Kurtz, Suzanne; Vargas, Alex
Effective Communication Skills form part of what is being a good doctor. There is a solid evidence base that defines the components of effective communication. This article offers a practical conceptual framework to improve physician patient communication to a professional level of competence. There are six goals that physicians and patients work to achieve through their communication with each other. These are to construct a relationship, structure an interview, start the interview, gather information, explain, plan and close the interview. The outcomes that can be improved with an effective communication and the "first principles" of communication are described. A brief look at the historical context that has influenced our thinking about communication in health care is carried out. Finally, the Calgary Cambridge Guide, an approach for delineating and organizing the specific skills required of an effective communication with patients is described. It is clear from the literature that better communication skills improve patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes.
Wongrattanavichit, Teewin; Wang, Haiyan
Date: 2008 June 08 Course: Master thesis Authors: Haiyan Wang, Teewin Wongrattanavichit Tutor: Jan Löwstedt Title: The study of marketing communication effectiveness and customer perception of Tuna Park shopping centre Introduction: The research about the effectiveness of marketing communication tool and customer perception was studied in Tuna Park shopping center, Eskilstuna. The marketing strategy and objective was to compare with the results from the questionnaire in order to measure the e...
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.
Sundling, Vibeke; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager; Eide, Hilde
The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason
A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key
This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction.
This study compared the effects of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and sign language training on the acquisition of mands (requests for preferred items) of students with autism. The study also examined the differential effects of each modality on students' acquisition of vocal behavior. Participants were two elementary school students…
Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.
The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…
Greenaway, Katharine H; Wright, Ruth G; Willingham, Joanne; Reynolds, Katherine J; Haslam, S Alexander
The ability to communicate with others is one of the most important human social functions, yet communication is not always investigated from a social perspective. This research examined the role that shared social identity plays in communication effectiveness using a minimal group paradigm. In two experiments, participants constructed a model using instructions that were said to be created by an ingroup or an outgroup member. Participants made models of objectively better quality when working from communications ostensibly created by an ingroup member (Experiments 1 and 2). However, this effect was attenuated when participants were made aware of a shared superordinate identity that included both the ingroup and the outgroup (Experiment 2). These findings point to the importance of shared social identity for effective communication and provide novel insights into the social psychology of communication. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Stimulant Therapy (Ritalin Neurofeedback, and Parental Management Training and Interaction of the Three Approaches on Improving ADHD and Quality of Mother -Child Communication
Sh. Basteh Hoseini
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This research was designed to investigate and compare the effective-ness of stimulant therapy (Ritalin, neurofeedback, parental management training and interac-tion of the treatments on the improvement of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, and quality of mother-child communication. Materials & Methods: This is a pseudo-experimental research with pretest-posttest de-sign including ADHD children living in Tehran; 40 subjects were randomly selected from clients of child psychiatric/psychological clinic, and then placed in 4 intervention groups based on objectives of the research. The subjects were measured by Conner's Parenting Scale-48 and Parental Stress Index before and after the interventions. Recruited data were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings of the research reveals that there is a significant difference among the treatments on improving conduct and attention/concentrationproblems; in other words, interaction of the treatments caused more therapeutic effect than other treatments. Also, there was no significant difference among the treatments on improving psychosomatic problems, impulsivity, anxiety, parent reinforcement, parental attachment, and parental competency. Conclusion: Finally, interaction of treatments and then ritalin had the most therapeutic effect compared to other treatments. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:133-143
van der Kam, WJ; Moorman, PW; Koppejan-Mulder, MJ
Objective: To obtain insight into the effects of electronic communication on GPs by studying those publications in literature describing the effects of structured electronic clinical communication in general practice. Methods: We retrieved all publications in the English language indexed in MEDLINE
Светлана Валентиновна Ионова
Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “positive form of communication” is demonstrated. Special attention is given to the following types of positive emotional communication: tolerant emotional communication, emotional emphasis, emotional neglect, and emotional tabooing. The utterances in situations of real and textual communication demonstrate negative effects of statements expressed in a positive form and identify the specifics of positive forms of emotional communication in comparison with rational communication.
Pitoy, Sammy P.
Information and Language for Effective Communication (ILEC) is a language teaching approach emphasizing learners' extensive exposure in different language communicative sources. In ILEC, the language learners will first receive instructions of ILEC principles and application. Afterwards, they will receive autonomous, direct, purposeful, and…
Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...
In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of "Effective Communication Skills" ("ECS") coursebook that has been introduced as…
Burgoon, Judee K.; Le Poire, Beth A.
Investigates the perseverance of preinteraction expectancies in the face of actual communication behavior, the separate effects of personal attribute and communication expectancies, and the role of expectancy confirmation or disconfirmation on postinteraction evaluations. Confirms the validity of expectancy violations theory. (SR)
Giles, Howard; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan; Choi, Charles W
Guided by the communicative predicative model of aging, American and Iranian young adults' perceptions of communication with their peers, middle-aged and elderly adults were examined; subjective boundaries for these age categories were also explored. As age of target increased, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, attributions of personal vitality and communication satisfaction decreased linearly. Path analysis was also adopted to examine the simultaneous relationships between the variables under study, and ultimately with cultural caveats largely supported, a hypothesized model was derived. The data were discussed in terms of their yielding refinements and elaborations to the communicative predicament and enhancement models of aging.
Comparative Effects of an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB)/Diuretic vs. ARB/Calcium-Channel Blocker Combination on Uncontrolled Nocturnal Hypertension Evaluated by Information and Communication Technology-Based Nocturnal Home Blood Pressure Monitoring - The NOCTURNE Study.
Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hajime; Uchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Kanda, Kiyomi; Hasegawa, Shinji; Hoshide, Satoshi
Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events. The NOCTURNE study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) using our recently developed information and communication technology (ICT) nocturnal home BP monitoring (HBPM) device, was performed to compare the nocturnal HBP-lowering effects of differential ARB-based combination therapies in 411 Japanese patients with nocturnal hypertension (HT).Methods and Results:Patients with nocturnal BP ≥120/70 mmHg at baseline even under ARB therapy (100 mg irbesartan daily) were enrolled. The ARB/CCB combination therapy (irbesartan 100 mg+amlodipine 5 mg) achieved a significantly greater reduction in nocturnal home systolic BP (primary endpoint) than the ARB/diuretic combination (daily irbesartan 100 mg+trichlormethiazide 1 mg) (-14.4 vs. -10.5 mmHg, P<0.0001), independently of urinary sodium excretion and/or nocturnal BP dipping status. However, the change in nocturnal home systolic BP was comparable among the post-hoc subgroups with higher salt sensitivity (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and elderly patients). This is the first RCT demonstrating the feasibility of clinical assessment of nocturnal BP by ICT-nocturnal HBPM. The ARB/CCB combination was shown to be superior to ARB/diuretic in patients with uncontrolled nocturnal HT independently of sodium intake, despite the similar impact of the 2 combinations in patients with higher salt sensitivity.
Jul 1, 2016 ... In almost every human interaction, listening plays a vital role and so ... provided in order enhance effective communication. ... listening as “a deliberate process through which we seek to understand and retain aural (heard).
Full Text Available This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected. The concept of the marketing communication effectiveness assumes that there are variables that can have a positive influence on the effectiveness of marketing communications, which incorporates facets of the marketing communication strategy and bidirectional communications. The results suggest that Slovenian organisations which design and implement marketing communication strategy, also have more effective marketing communications. The development of marketing communications strategy was correlated with increased effectiveness of marketing communications in their organisation. Managerial implications are discussed along with directions for further research.
Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee
'Crisis communication' refers one of the activities done by the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NROs) in order to protect the public and the environment from the possible harmful effects. As denoted by the BMU, German NRO, crisis communication is not only 'public information' or 'information for the public', but also communication between authorities in order to guarantee that public information is consistent. This study proposes some recommendable practices for developing a guideline of well-prepared nuclear crisis communication system, including its management framework, and for introducing good insights, based on the study of international aspects provided by relevant OECD/NEA WPGC (Working Group on Public Communication for Nuclear Regulatory Organizations)i working group
Henrich, Natalie J
Communicating effectively with the public about the importance of vaccination during a pandemic poses a challenge to health communicators. The public's concerns about the safety, effectiveness and necessity of vaccines lead many people to refuse vaccination and the current communication strategies are often unsuccessful at overcoming the public's resistance to vaccinate. Convincing the public to receive a vaccination, especially during a pandemic when there can be so much uncertainty about the vaccine and the disease, requires a revised communication approach. This revised approach should integrate into messages information that the public identifies as important, as well as presenting messages in a way that is consistent with our evolved social learning biases. These biases will impact both the content of the message and who delivers the message to different target populations. Additionally, an improved understanding between media and health communicators about the role each plays during a crisis may increase the effectiveness of messages disseminated to the public. Lastly, given that the public is increasingly seeking health information from on-line and other electronic sources, health communication needs to continue to find ways to integrate new technologies into communication strategies.
Butchibabu, Abhizna; Sparano-Huiban, Christopher; Sonenberg, Liz; Shah, Julie
We investigated implicit communication strategies for anticipatory information sharing during team performance of tasks with varying degrees of complexity. We compared the strategies used by teams with the highest level of performance to those used by the lowest-performing teams to evaluate the frequency and methods of communications used as a function of task structure. High-performing teams share information by anticipating the needs of their teammates rather than explicitly requesting the exchange of information. As the complexity of a task increases to involve more interdependence among teammates, the impact of coordination on team performance also increases. This observation motivated us to conduct a study of anticipatory information sharing as a function of task complexity. We conducted an experiment in which 13 teams of four people performed collaborative search-and-deliver tasks with varying degrees of complexity in a simulation environment. We elaborated upon prior characterizations of communication as implicit versus explicit by dividing implicit communication into two subtypes: (a) deliberative/goal information and (b) reactive status updates. We then characterized relationships between task structure, implicit communication, and team performance. We found that the five teams with the fastest task completion times and lowest idle times exhibited higher rates of deliberative communication versus reactive communication during high-complexity tasks compared with the five teams with the slowest completion times and longest idle times (p = .039). Teams in which members proactively communicated information about their next goal to teammates exhibited improved team performance. The findings from our work can inform the design of communication strategies for team training to improve performance of complex tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Lane, Joseph P; Stone, Vathsala I
This paper describes a series of three randomized controlled case studies comparing the effectiveness of three strategies for communicating new research-based knowledge (Diffusion, Dissemination, Translation), to different Assistive Technology (AT) stakeholder groups. Pre and post intervention measures for level of knowledge use (unaware, aware, interested, using) via the LOKUS instrument, assessed the relative effectiveness of the three strategies. The latter two approaches were both more effective than diffusion but also equally effective. The results question the value added by tailoring research findings to specific audiences, and instead supports the critical yet neglected role for relevance in determining knowledge use by stakeholders.
Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Man Cheol
In the case of human operators working in a large process control system, the consequence of inappropriate communications would be significant because they have to carry out many kinds of crucial activities based on communications. This means that one of the practical methods would be the investigation of communication contents, through which we are able to identify useful insights pertaining to the prevention of inappropriate communications. For this reason, communications of main control room (MCR) operating crews are analyzed to characterize communication contents. After that, communication contents and the associated crew performance data are compared. As a result, it seems that the performance of operating crews is proportional to the amount of 3-way communications. However, it is also revealed that a theoretical framework that is able to characterize the communication of MCR operating crews is needed because it is insufficient to retrieve insightful information from simple comparisons based on the empirical observation of crew communications
Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the world of rapid technological evolution and economy of digitalization, consumers are continuously changing. Tourists are among the first. Their behaviour, media consumption, engagement level and expectations must influence on transformation of applied communication tools. In recent decades, the pace of change became faster. Media consumption has shifted to Internet, Mobile and innovative mediums. The paper proposes modern forms of communication tools on different stages of making-decision process and describes role of each to build marketing communications of tourism industry actors in a more effective way.
Jenifer Raymond R. Tallungan
Full Text Available Educational managers transport information, thoughts and attitudes through a system of verbal and nonverbal language. What differs across diverse personalities is the level of communication effectiveness which ascertains the success in the flow of messages not only at the organizational level but also in the classroom where learning takes place. This study, which aimed to disclose correlations between language constructs and communication effectiveness, puts the light to the randomly selected educational management students of a state university in Cagayan Valley. Using a language test and a questionnaire, it was revealed that the level of language proficiency of the respondents as to correct usage, presentation and writing is very satisfactory, and as to subject-verb agreement, vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and action research, satisfactory; while their level of communication effectiveness along using non-verbal language, transmitting messages and receiving messages is high. At 0.05 level analysis, significant correlations exist between communication effectiveness (along using nonverbal language and receiving messages and language proficiency along reading. These findings provided insights in enhancing communication in classroom management, organizational management as well as in communication management instruction..
Full Text Available In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of Effective Communication Skills (ECS coursebook that has been introduced as a pilot project implemented in 2011 by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. For the current study, data has been collected on the basis of materials study, and questionnaires. The qualitative analysis has been conducted with a total sample of around 214 students, and 3 instructors. The results show that in spite of some shortcomings, there is a general satisfaction about this textbook as it is exclusively produced by the local experts for the tertiary level. The study concludes with suggestions and recommendations for the improvement of the Effective Communication Skills. Keywords: Coursebook evaluation, communicative English, Pilot Project, ECS
In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of Effective Communication Skills (ECS) coursebook that has been introduced as a pilot project implemented in 2011 by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. For the current study, data has been collected on the basis of materials study, and quest...
Farace, Richard V.; Johnson, Jerome David
This paper briefly describes the organization of a "data bank" containing research on communication networks, specifies the kinds of information compiled about various network properties, discusses some specific results of the work done to date, and presents some general conclusions about the overall project and its potential advantages to…
Irene García-Ureta, Ph.D
Full Text Available Communication studies have been integrating the latest developments in cognitive sciences and acknowledging the importance of understanding the subjective processes involved in communication. This article argues that communication studies should also take into account the psychology of the communicator. This article presents the theoretical basis and the results of a training programme designed for audiovisual communicators. The programme is based on the theories of self-efficacy and flow and seeks to improve students’ communication competencies through the use of presentation techniques and psychological skills to tackle communication apprehension. The programme involves an active methodology that is based on modelling, visualisation, immediate feedback and positive reinforcement. A repeated-measures ANOVA shows that the programme successfully decreases the level of communication apprehension, improves the perceived self-efficacy, improves the psychological state needed to perform better in front of the cameras (flow, and improves students’ communication skills. A path analysis proved that the perceived self-efficacy and anxiety levels predict the level of flow during the communication act. At the end of the training programme, those who experienced higher levels of flow and enjoyment during the communication task achieved higher quality levels in their communication exercise. It is concluded that the concepts of self-efficacy and flow facilitate advancing in the understanding of the factors that determine a communicator’s credibility and ability to connect with the audience.
Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Zhu; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
Intuition from our everyday lives gives rise to the belief that information exchanged between remote parties is carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, in a recent theoretical study [Salih H, Li ZH, Al-Amri M, Zubairy MS (2013) Phys Rev Lett 110:170502], quantum mechanics was found to allow for communication, even without the actual transmission of physical particles. From the viewpoint of communication, this mystery stems from a (nonintuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics—wave-particle duality. All particles can be described fully by wave functions. To determine whether light appears in a channel, one refers to the amplitude of its wave function. However, in counterfactual communication, information is carried by the phase part of the wave function. Using a single-photon source, we experimentally demonstrate the counterfactual communication and successfully transfer a monochrome bitmap from one location to another by using a nested version of the quantum Zeno effect.
Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.
Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…
Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David
The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…
Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Vyas, Shruti; Anand, Varun
A scientific poster is a summary of one's research that is presented in a visually engaging manner. Posters are presented as a means of short and quick scientific communications at conferences and scientific meetings. Presenting posters has advantages for the presenters and for conference attendees and organizers. It also plays a part in dissemination of research findings and furthering science. An effective poster is the one that focuses on a single message and conveys it through a concise and artistically attractive manner. This communication intends to provide tips on creating an effective poster to young scientists. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.
Giordano, J A
Age-sensitive communication skills must be developed to achieve greater effectiveness in assisting older adults. These skills should be guided by research findings on the development changes related to normal aging. A listening-responding technique is presented outlining six principles that can be applied in a wide variety of situations. These principles are governed by the intention to preserve self-esteem and to clarify the needs of elderly clients. By using this approach with the older adult, the practitioner will achieve an effective communication process that generates accurate information, supports self-determination, and achieves a therapeutic process.
Jerman, Damjana; Završnik, Bruno
This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected...
The study examined the impact of effective communication in secondary school administration in Enugu State. It was a descriptive study. The study comprised 659 respondents made up of 28 principals and 631 teachers. The population of the study was obtained through random sampling technique. The instrument used for ...
Anvari, Roya; Atiyaye, Dauda Mohammed
This study aims to investigate the relationship between effective communication and transferring information. In the present correlational study, a cross-sectional research design was employed, and data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. 46 students were chosen based on random sampling and questionnaires were distributed among…
The study ascertained effectiveness of information and communication technology (ICT) utilization among extension agents in owerri Agricultural Zone Of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 57 randomly selected respondents with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive ...
waterfalls, historical relics, captivating beaches, rock out-crops, rolling lulls coupled with hospitable and culturally active people that are capable of making tourism a delight in Nigeria. The study therefore assessed the effectiveness of selected communication media on awareness creation towards tourism for rural ...
Van Cott, H.P.; Bauman, M.B.
This paper describes the assessment of the work structure and organizational communication in nuclear power plants. Questionnaires were given to a cross-section of plant personnel, and structured ''critical incident'' interviews were conducted to verify the questionnaire results. The data showed that a variety of work structure factor problem areas do exist in nuclear power plants. This paper highlights many aspects of organizational communication found to be problematic, and identifies weak links in the chain of coordination and information processing required to effectively perform corrective and preventive maintenance in the plants
Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.
Full Text Available An argument that many foreign language students encounter oral communication problems while they try to express their meaning to their partners has encouraged a number of eminent scholars to analyze the use of communication strategies based on the type of the task activity and the level of proficiency. In this paper, the task type effect and the students’ proficiency levels on the communication strategies employed by Kosovan and Bosnian speakers of English were investigated. The purpose of the study was to determine if the students’ proficiency levels and the task type influenced the choice and the number of communication strategies at lexical degree in verbal communication. The study numbered 20 participants in total; Kosovan and Bosnian languages that use English as a foreign language. The subjects were selected upon their degree of proficiency (i.e. Elementary and Intermediate levels and were asked to carry out three different types of the tasks: ten minutes of oral communication, picture story narration and photographic description. The data of the assigned tasks came from audio and video-recording. Thus, the current study used the taxonomy of communication strategies employed by Tarone (1977. Likewise, the communication strategies used by both levels of the students were observed and compared in special instances. It was summarized that the task type and the level of proficiency influenced the number and the choice of different communication strategies in verbal performances. To indicate the present observable facts, two main aspects of the nature of the given tasks were pointed out: context in the task and task demands, respectively.
Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...
Presta, A.; Sole, A.; de Luca, G.
Scientific, technological and methodological knowledge regarding the risks caused by natural events are in continuous evolution. A careful analysis of the communication and information, practiced by administrations and institutions involved in the decision-making processes, show a peculiar difference between the quality of the theoretical-operating level and the effectiveness of communication systems of the risk obtained. This is the level which involves directly citizens and institutions and needs, therefore, an efficacious and shared system whose aim is to inform the whole community, in a simple and clear way, during the different phases correlated to the environmental risk. The hypotesis is, in fact, to create a distinct typology of message, corresponding to each phase: • prevention of the risk > sensitization > information. If the potential risk is imminent or changes into real emergency, it is necessary to plan a communication aimed at supporting a very fast alarm to the community. • anticipation of the risk > pre-alert > information • imminence of the risk > alert > alarm • post-event /risk > information > precept and rules. The lack of a uniform and coerent planning process, both on the linguistic field (the typology of the message, iconic and verbal) and technical (the typology of supports) it is clear analysing the reference scenario in Italy. This involves the creation of deeply discordant systems which don't communicate the different typologies of risk efficaciously during distinct moments. To come to a systemic vision of the problem we proceed to collect and to obtain documentation about the "alarm" and communication systems existing in Italy nowadays. So we will have a classification of the different typologies about natural risk and communication systems related to them. The aim of this research is to propose a rationalization and a standard coding of signals. The logical conclusion of this course can be the creation of a national
Chao, Hui-Chen; Kaas, Merrie; Su, Ying-Hwa; Lin, Mei-Feng; Huang, Mei-Chih; Wang, Jing-Jy
Effective communication between nurses and patients with dementia promotes the quality of patient care by improving the identification of patient needs and by reducing the miscommunication-related frustration of patients and nurses. This study evaluates the effects of an advanced innovative Internet-based communication education (AIICE) program on nurses' communication knowledge, attitudes, frequency of assessing patient communication capacity, and communication performance in the context of care for patients with dementia. In addition, this study attempts to evaluate the indirect effects of this program on outcomes for patients with dementia, including memory and behavior-related problems and depressive symptoms. A quasi-experimental research design with a one-group repeated measure was conducted. Convenience sampling was used to recruit nurses from long-term care facilities in southern Taiwan. Data were analyzed using general estimating equations to compare changes over time across three points: baseline, fourth-week posttest, and 16th-week posttest. One hundred five nurses completed the AIICE program and the posttest surveys. The findings indicate that nurses' communication knowledge, frequency in assessing patients' communication capacity, and communication performance had improved significantly over the baseline by either the 4th- or 16th-week posttest (p < .01). However, communication attitude showed no significant improvement in the posttest survey (p = .40). Furthermore, the findings indicate that the memory and behavior-related problems and the depressive symptoms of patients had decreased significantly by the 16th-week posttest (p = .05). This study showed that the AIICE program improves nurses' communication knowledge, frequency to assess patients' communication capacity, and communication performance and alleviates the memory and behavior-related problems and depressive symptoms of patients. The continuous communication training of nurses using the
Green, J.W. Jr.
Credibility can be enhanced and communication can be made somewhat more effective by informally talking to a small group of people as opposed to speaking to large groups. The more informal the situation can be, and the approximation of a one-to-one speaker-to-audience ratio assists the audience in obtaining a feeling they are being treated equitably. This also assists the speaker in getting a feel for the chief concerns of that particular audience. The authors have also found that this same principle has worked rather well in dealing with the media. So far they have experienced fewer mistakes and fewer sensationalisms from the media personnel with which they have had the opportunity to sit down one-on-one and explain the program. The media reaches a much greater segment of the public than any of us as individuals, and an informed media can communicate much more effectively with the public than an uninformed one
Communication is at the heart of medical practice management. Yet there are many barriers to effective communication that can interfere with the smooth running of the practice. This article describes the 10 most common barriers to effective medical practice team communication and offers six steps the practice manager can take to break them down. This article also suggests that the practice develop a team communication strategy. It suggests 10 communication principles readers can share directly with their teams and describes three hallmarks of effective team communication. Finally, this article provides a list of 25 practical questions practice managers can use to improve their team's communication.
Светлана Валентиновна Ионова
The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “pos...
Coleman, Carissa K; Fanning, Kim; Williams, Kristine N
Educating nursing home (NH) staff to provide person-centered care is complicated by scheduling, costs, and other feasibility issues. The current study compared outcomes for an in-service program focused on person-centered communication provided in onsite and online formats. The Changing Talk program was provided onsite in seven NHs (n = 327 staff). The online program included eight NHs (n = 211 staff). Analysis of variance revealed an interaction between format type and pre-/post-test scores with improved recognition of person-centered communication in the onsite group only. Group program evaluations based on the modified Diffusion of Innovation in Long-Term Care Battery indicated no significant differences between training formats. Staff perception of the program was similar. Although statistically significant gains were noted in posttest scores indicating awareness of person-centered communication for the onsite group, gains were of limited clinical significance. Feasibility and effectiveness are important considerations for in-service education supporting NH culture change. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Tourenq, Sophie; Boustras, George; Gutteling, Jan M.
This study aims at analyzing differences between risk communication policies in Cyprus, compared to the Netherlands, and France. It analyzes risk communication policies indirectly through a qualitative analysis of the information provided by official websites, which are considered to be proxies of
Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana
The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive.
Xu, Y; Wald, A; Cappiello, J
It is important for biomedical engineering supervisors to master the art of effective communication. Supervisors who have effective communication skills can successfully initiate creative programs and generate a harmonious working atmosphere. Using effective communication, they can promote good working conditions, such as high morale, worker initiative and loyalty to the department, which are almost impossible to measure but imperative for a successful department. However, effective communication tends to be neglected by supervisors who are either functional specialists or managerial generalists. This paper presents several cases of what effective communication truly is and discusses some potential factors that may lead to ineffective communication.
The article highlights some aspects of vertical and horizontal intra-organizational communication in personnel management system, the basic problems and ways of forming a communication strategy within the organization, analyzed the most prevalent forms of communication interaction.
Giroldi, Esther; Veldhuijzen, Wemke; Bareman, Frits; Bueving, Herman; van der Weijden, Trudy; van der Vleuten, Cees; Muris, Jean
Consultations with talkative patients present a challenge to doctors. It is difficult to gather all the necessary information within the available time, without damaging the doctor-patient relationship. Based on the listed existing literature and doctors' experiences, we present ten tips for gathering information from talkative patients in an effective manner whilst maintaining a good therapeutic alliance. In consultations with talkative patients, it is important to explore the cause of patients' talkativeness and to adapt one's communication approach accordingly.- Familiar communication strategies such as 'summarizing' can still be applied. When taking this route, a more directive communication approach--e.g. by means of a 'closed-ended summary'--can prevent the patient interrupting the doctor or departing from his subject. There are strategies aimed at avoiding a damaging effect to the doctor-patient relationship when applying this approach: don't be overly directive, make the patient co-responsible for efficient time management in the consultation, and make use of empathic interrupting and humour.
In 1986, GPU Nuclear Corporation announced a plan to evaporate into the atmosphere 2.3 million gal of water remaining from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The water would be processed to remove most of the radioactivity, but still remaining were >1,000 Ci of tritium to be released to the atmosphere during the evaporation process. It was expected that, following regulatory approvals, it would take >2 yr to complete the process. Fed by well-established antinuclear groups, public concern about evaporating the TMI-2-accident-generated water ran high among residents living near the plant. In the years since the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear had developed a highly effective communications program in the communities surrounding TMI. This ongoing program provided a solid foundation on which to create and implement a risk communications approach to community understanding and acceptance of the evaporation process
Effective communication with people of different cultures is challenging. Different cultures lead to various communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of such problems, they are more likely to fall victim to them. This paper describes two main cultural barriers in the communication between Chinese and English-speaking people and demonstrates the importance of cross-culture communication.
Merdian, Hannah Lena; Warrior, John Kyle
This study investigated students' communication preferences in educational settings, resulting in an empirical model of effective communication between students and lecturers. Students from a psychology department at a UK university were asked about their preferred communication tool for academic purposes, including social networking, emails,…
Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Emmitt, S.
Purpose – Effective teams use a balance of synchronous and asynchronous communication. Team communication is dependent on the communication acts of team members and the ability of managers to facilitate, stimulate and motivate them. Team members from organizations using different information systems
Nimocks, Mittie J.; Bromley, Patricia L.; Parsons, Theron E.; Enright, Corinne S.; Gates, Elizabeth A.
This study examined the effect of covert modeling on communication apprehension, public speaking anxiety, and communication competence. Students identified as highly communication apprehensive received covert modeling, a technique in which one first observes a model doing a behavior, then visualizes oneself performing the behavior and obtaining a…
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo
Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…
Kholisoh, Nur; Sulastri, Ria
The article was intended to investigate various benefits of Whatsapp Messenger application for an effective intenal communication in PT Euro Management Indonesia. In addition, this research also aimed to map the organizational internal communication pattern through the use of Whatsapp Messenger application. The research used theories of organizaional communication, new media communication pattern, and computer mediated communication (CMC). Moreover, paradigm used in the research was construct...
Sanden, Guro Refsum
One important effect of globalisation for the multinational corporation (MNC) is the increasing diversity of the workforce, which becomes clear through the variety of different language backgrounds found among employees at all levels of the organisation. In order to overcome the linguistic barriers...... presented by the multilingual workforce, MNCs may try to implement various language policies or strategies to regulate the internal communicative environment, for example by adopting a common corporate language, or deploy language management tools such as language training for employees or use...
The purpose of this study is analyzing the effectiveness of communication skills and effective dialogue on marital satisfaction and commitment of young couples. The research plan was the trueexperiment pre-test, post-test experimental and control groups. The statistical population was consisted of all couples (married less ...
Alonso, E; Rubio, A; March, J C; Danet, A
The aim of this study is to compare the emotional climate, quality of communication and performance indicators in a clinical management unit and two traditional hospital services. Quantitative study. questionnaire of 94 questions. 83 health professionals (63 responders) from the clinical management unit of breast pathology and the hospital services of medical oncology and radiation oncology. descriptive statistics, comparison of means, correlation and linear regression models. The clinical management unit reaches higher values compared with the hospital services about: performance indicators, emotional climate, internal communication and evaluation of the leadership. An important gap between existing and desired sources, channels, media and subjects of communication appear, in both clinical management unit and traditional services. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Personal interviews were held with MoDOT personnel to assess MoDOTs current communication practices and existing customer segmentation practices. Focus groups were then held to help gauge the effectiveness of existing communication practices and t...
Jan 18, 2011 ... Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ... communication is a means to education vis-à-vis education is a means .... Strategies in Extention. ... Marketing Profile Among Rural Households in South Eastern.
Full Text Available Across a wide range of animal taxa, prosodic modulation of the voice can express emotional information and is used to coordinate vocal interactions between multiple individuals. Within a comparative approach to animal communication systems, I hypothesize that the ability for emotional and interactional prosody (EIP paved the way for the evolution of linguistic prosody - and perhaps also of music, continuing to play a vital role in the acquisition of language. In support of this hypothesis, I review three research fields: i empirical studies on the adaptive value of EIP in nonhuman primates, mammals, songbirds, anurans and insects; ii the beneficial effects of EIP in scaffolding language learning and social development in human infants; iii the cognitive relationship between linguistic prosody and the ability for music, which has often been identified as the evolutionary precursor of language.
Blundel, Richard; Ippolito, Kate; Donnarumma, David
Effective Organisational Communication gives students from all backgrounds the tools to communicate both within and between organisations of all kinds. With thorough coverage of the theoretical background of organisational communication, as well as practical content that helps readers develop their own communication skills, this is the perfect resource for those who want to improve their ability to work effectively with others. \\ud \\ud This heavily revised fourth edition reflects the rapidly ...
Lin, Grace Hui Chin
The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…
A Perceptual Communication Model is proposed in the study to explain the relationship between communication and perception. The study concludes by suggesting that communicators should design messages in terms of their receivers' perceptual inclination rather than focusing entirely on the elements of the ...
This study examined the effect of ICT facilities on students' performance by comparing ... The comparison was conducted using subtests of English language and ... ICT facilities in all secondary schools to enhance teaching and learning.
Wilson, K.N.; Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, K.V.; Payne, J.
Bright lines in environmental risk communication refer to the specific levels at which an environmental risk becomes a serious health threat and action should be taken to mitigate its effects. This study examined the effect of ''bright lines'' in risk communication by emphasizing the radon exposure threshold level of 4 picocuries per liter. Specifically, the authors developed a computer-assisted interview containing bright-line versions of risk information. The bright-line version contained a range of possible radon levels, the corresponding number of estimated lung cancer cases, the relative health risk from radon compared to other health risks, and the EPA guidelines for mitigating levels above 4 picocuries in the home. The non-bright line version was identical to the bright-line version, except it did not include the EPA's mitigation recommendations. Effect measures included respondents' change in perceived risk after reading their materials, intended testing behavior, and advice to their neighbor for a specified radon level either above or below the 4 picocury threshold level. This paper discusses broader policy implications for designing effective risk communication programs
Full Text Available The article was intended to investigate various benefits of Whatsapp Messenger application for an effective intenal communication in PT Euro Management Indonesia. In addition, this research also aimed to map the organizational internal communication pattern through the use of Whatsapp Messenger application. The research used theories of organizaional communication, new media communication pattern, and computer mediated communication (CMC. Moreover, paradigm used in the research was constructivist with qualitative approach and the research method was case study. The research result finds that the use of new media Whatsapp Messenger as a tool of communication can build effective internal communication in PT Euro Management Indonesia. Moreover, it also shows that the internal organizational communication pattern in PT Euro Management Indonesia used in Whatsapp Messenger application is conversation pattern.
den Otter, Ad; Emmitt, Stephen
Effective teams use a balance of synchronous and asynchronous communication. Team communication is dependent on the communication acts of team members and the ability of managers to facilitate, stimulate and motivate them. Team members from organizations using different information systems tend...... to have different understanding, opinions, and rates of adoption and skills levels regarding specific IT tools. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effective use of tools for communication in design teams and the strategies for the use of specific tools....
Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda
Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.
Shevchenko Dmitrii Anatolevich
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the theoretical justification for the means and methods of communication effectiveness of advertising, which are used in research and the real practice of communications companies. In this paper, advertising is seen as part of the communication process.
van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dalen, Jan; van Dulmen, Sandra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert
Contextual factors are known to influence the acquisition and application of communication skills in clinical settings. Little is known about residents' perceptions of these factors. This article aims to explore residents' perceptions of contextual factors affecting the acquisition and application of communication skills in the medical workplace. We conducted an exploratory study comprising seven focus groups with residents in two different specialities: general practice (n=23) and surgery (n=18). Residents perceive the use of summative assessment checklists that reduce communication skills to behavioural components as impeding the learning of their communication skills. Residents perceive encouragement to deliberately practise in an environment in which the value of communication skills is recognised and support is institutionalised with appropriate feedback from role models as the most important enhancing factors in communication skills learning. To gradually realise a clinical working environment in which the above results are incorporated, we propose to use transformative learning theory to guide further studies. Provided it is used continuously, an approach that combines self-directed learning with observation and discussion of resident-patient consultations seems an effective method for transformative learning of communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Lavner, Justin A; Bryant, Chalandra M; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H
Enhancing communication as a means of promoting relationship quality has been increasingly questioned, particularly for couples at elevated sociodemographic risk. In response, the current study investigated communication change as a mechanism accounting for changes in relationship satisfaction and confidence among 344 rural, predominantly low-income African American couples with an early adolescent child who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program. Approximately 9 months after baseline assessment, intent-to-treat analyses indicated ProSAAF couples demonstrated improved communication, satisfaction, and confidence compared with couples in the control condition. Improvements in communication mediated ProSAAF effects on relationship satisfaction and confidence; conversely, neither satisfaction nor confidence mediated intervention effects on changes in communication. These results underscore the short-term efficacy of a communication-focused, culturally sensitive prevention program and suggest that communication is a possible mechanism of change in relationship quality among low-income African American couples.
Communications are essential to the licensing and general regulatory program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper attempts to identify and address certain aspects of, and approaches to, maintaining effective and efficient communications. It considers, from the perspective of the high-level radioactive waste repository program, both internal communication within the DOE itself and external communication with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and interested parties. Many of the points presented are based on lessons learned from electric utility experience with nuclear plants
Physicians' ability to effectively and compassionately communicate information is key to a successful patient-physician relationship. The current health care environment demands increasing clinical productivity and affords less time with each patient, which can impede effective patient-physician communication. The use of patient-centered interviewing, caring communication skills, and shared decision making improves patient-physician communication. Involving advanced practice nurses or physician assistants may improve the patient's experience and understanding of her visit. Electronic communication with established patients also can enhance the patient experience in select situations.
Solmaz Sellahvarzi; Vahid Reza Mirabi; Mehdi Iran Nejad Parizi
Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) is one of the needed concepts in competitive edge. IMC is defined as a cross functional process for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or impacting all messages sent to these groups. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together. This study investigates the effectiveness of marketing communication in an Iranian automaker named Khodr...
Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.
The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.
How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are often contradictive in that optimizing one objective may deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this letter presents a systematic approach to achieve a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elegantly chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effective design, especially when other aspects cannot be determined beforehand.
Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir
This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…
The breakthrough in the information communication technology reveals the digital face of farming and thus making the practice of farming to be precision agriculture. In this way the use of sensors, digital application controllers, communication links, the global positioning system, computers and innovative software solutions ...
Schebell, Shannon; Shepley, Collin; Mataras, Theologia; Wunderlich, Kara
Children with communication delays often display difficulties labeling stimuli in their environment, particularly related to actions. Research supports direct instruction with video and picture stimuli for increasing children's action labeling repertoires; however, no studies have compared which type of stimuli results in more efficient,…
Chaiprasurt, Chantorn; Esichaikul, Vatcharaporn
Mobile technologies have helped establish new channels of communication among learners and instructors, potentially providing greater access to course information, and promoting easier access to course activities and learner motivation in online learning environments. The paper compares motivation between groups of learners being taught through an…
Zhou, P.; Su, X.; Leydesdorff, L.
We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas—political science and Marxism, library and information science, and economics—are compared with their
Durandet, E.; Gibert, R.J.
The internal structures of a breeder reactor as SUPERPHENIX are mainly axisymmetrial shells separated by fluid volumes which are connected by small communications holes. These communications can destroy the axisymmetry of the problem and their effects on the inertial terms due to the fluid are important. An equivalent axisymmetrical element based on a local tridimensional solution in the vicinity of the fluid communication is defined. An axisymmetrical modelization using this type of element is built in order to calculate the horizontal seismic behaviour of the reactor internals. The effect due to three typical fluid communications are studied and compared. (orig.)
Orrell, Dean H., II
Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.
Eric Toman; Bruce Shindler
In this paper we discuss four principles identified through recent research for effective citizen-agency communication and examine their use in accomplishing fire management objectives. Principles include the following: (1) effective communication is a product of effective planning; (2) both unidirectional (one-way) and interactive approaches are part of successful...
A study of decision making processes and communication rules, in a corporate setting undergoing change as a result of organizational ineffectiveness, examined whether (1) decisions about formal communication reporting systems were linked to management assumptions about technical creativity/effectiveness, (2) assumptions about…
Wu, Yanbin; Ding, Jianxiong
The 2008 Sanlu milk scandal shocked the whole China and the world as well. Sanlu, the main actor of this scandal, was accused of producing and selling tainted milk products and was sentenced to bankruptcy in the end. IKEA, the Swedish furnishing giant, was involved into the horsemeat scandal in 2013. Through a serial of effective crisis communication strategies, IKEAwent through the crisis successfully. This paper will conduct a comparative case study via the content analysis method to explor...
Lindekilde, Lasse; Parker, David; Pearce, Julia
Growing concerns about small-scale, low sophistication terrorist attacks, and the difficulties they present for security services, make public coproduction of security increasingly necessary. Communication to ensure that the public(s) is aware of the role they can play will be central to this....... This article, based on interviews with 30 expert practitioners, explores challenges associated with communication designed to prevent radicalisation, interdict attack planning and mitigate the impacts of a terrorist attack in the UK and Denmark. The interplay between these challenges and the contemporary...... terrorist context are analysed, highlighting that new, or adapted, communications and approaches may be necessary....
The study examined interpersonal and communication relationships among ... A graphic representation of sociometric data obtained showed predominance of ... Measures that would build trust, break social barriers and, consequently, ...
Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, V.K.; Rink, H.H.
Two sets of materials and corresponding delivery strategies for communicating radon risk were evaluated, compared with a 'no-special-treatment' strategy in a comparison community. One community received radio public-service announcements and utility bill inserts. The second received these plus posters, local government sponsorship of a radon awareness week, and local slide presentations. The most-intensive efforts (multiple channels, multiple hits) were more effective than the less intensive effort, which had little impact compared with no special treatment. From a marketing perspective, the effort was very successful, increasing the share of homeowners who tested for radon from 5% to 15%. This may not be viewed as sufficiently effective from a public-health perspective, however
De Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R.; Smeets, Monique A M
Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued
Bakker, M.H.; Kerstholt, J.H.; Giebels, E.
This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in
Bakker, Marije; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena; Giebels, Ellen
This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in
In almost every human interaction, listening plays a vital role and so determines the effectiveness of such communication events. Sadly the comportment of many university undergraduates during lectures leaves much to be desired. This to a large extent impedes their communication effectiveness. The purpose of this study ...
Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.
Vertino, Kathleen A
Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives.
Son, Seung-Hyun; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E
This study compared acquisition and preference for two types of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in three pre-schoolers with autism. Acquisition of requesting behaviour using a picture-exchange system vs a voice-output communication aide (VOCA) was compared in an alternating treatments design. Following acquisition, both ACC systems were simultaneously available and the child could select which one of the two systems to use. There was little difference between picture-exchange and VOCA in terms of acquisition rates. Two children demonstrated a consistent preference for picture-exchange and the third showed a preference for the VOCA. Both speed of acquisition and system preference should be considered when designing AAC interventions for children with autism and related developmental disabilities.
Carruthers, Helen; Astin, Felicity; Munro, Wendy
To assess the effectiveness of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) strategies to enable people who are temporarily voiceless due to medical intervention, to communicate. A systematic review informed by a protocol published on an international register. Ten databases were searched from January 2004 to January 2017. Included studies assessed the effect of using AAC strategies on patient related outcomes and barriers to their use. All included studies were quality appraised. Due to the heterogeneity of interventions and outcome measures findings were narratively reviewed. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review reporting outcomes from 1981 patient and 454 health professional participants. The quality of included studies were moderate to weak. AAC communication strategies increased the number of communication interactions, improved patient satisfaction with communication and reduced communication difficulties. Barriers to usage were device characteristics, the clinical condition of the patient, lack of timeliness in communication and staff constraints. There is preliminary, but inconsistent evidence that AAC strategies are effective in improving patient satisfaction with communication and reducing difficulties in communication. A lack of comparable studies precluded the identification of the most effective AAC strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hwang, Tae Kyun.
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Cost and Effectiveness models are developed by using of cost-effectiveness technique for fiber optic cable and satellite communication media. The models are applied to the Korean international communication problem. Alternative selection is required since the two medias different in cost and effectiveness. The major difficulties encountered were data gathering and measuring the effectiveness of the Korean international ...
Belanger, M; Harris, P G; Nikolis, A; Danino, A M
Our aim was to analyze the communications about three outstanding medical reports. Was there any difference in the reports of the three allografts? Was there a correlation between the media and the scientific world? The Internet sites of three major newspapers were used for the media database. Those results were compared with PubMed between 2005 and 2007 using these key words: "facial graft," "facial allograft," "composite tissue allograft," and names of surgeons of the graft. We did a comparative analysis using a word processor and a quality analysis software. We analyzed 51 articles from the media and six from the PubMed database. In PubMed, 100% of the articles were on the first graft and respected the privacy of the patient compared to 67% of the media who unveiled the identity. The communication following a medical premiere depends on the team, which performes the act. We observed a major difference between the three cases. Ethical considerations are different for the media and for scientists. The communication management of a medical premiere takes preparation and evaluation.
Rice, Kathleen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Russell, Ann; Reeves, Scott
Interprofessional communication and collaboration are promoted by policymakers as fundamental building blocks for improving patient safety and meeting the demands of increasingly complex care. This paper reports qualitative findings of an interprofessional intervention designed to improve communication and collaboration between different professions in general internal medicine (GIM) hospital wards in Canada. The intervention promoted self-introduction by role and profession to a collaborating colleague in relation to the shared patient, a question or communication regarding the patient, to be followed by an explicit request for feedback from the partner professional. Implementation and uptake of the intervention were evaluated using qualitative methods, including 90 hours of ethnographic observations and interviews collected in both intervention and comparison wards. Documentary data were also collected and analysed. Fieldnotes and interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Our findings suggested that the intervention did not produce the anticipated changes in communication and collaboration between health professionals, and allowed us to identify barriers to the implementation of effective collaboration interventions. Despite initially offering verbal support, senior physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals minimally explained the intervention to their junior colleagues and rarely role-modelled or reiterated support for it. Professional resistances as well as the fast paced, interruptive environment reduced opportunities or incentive to enhance restrictive interprofessional relationships. In a healthcare setting where face-to-face spontaneous interprofessional communication is not hostile but is rare and impersonal, the perceived benefits of improvement are insufficient to implement simple and potentially beneficial communication changes, in the face of habit, and absence of continued senior clinician and management support.
Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian
Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…
This article introduces elements of the theory of lexicographical communication and applies them to scaffold such a framework. It is argued that indicators in dictionary articles can be regarded as lexicographic utterances that carry various types of lexicographic messages. These can be systematically and formally analysed ...
word nie; dit het naamlik gelyk of die voorbeeldsin op slegs 'n negatiewe aspek van die ... scaffold the proposed framework will be developed, after which the focus will ... tainer, the dictionary as the medium of lexicographical communication. ...... 25. This conclusion is based on the fact that LU10 is evaluated as inaccurate.
Nordin, Eric John
The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…
National Academies Press, 2016
Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…
Cavusgil, Erin; Calantone, Roger
Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both "push" and "pull" communication strategies operate on consumers and gatekeepers alike, in an atmosphere of unrelenting product innovation and broad competition. Furthermore, we explore how two contingency variables-(a) the competitive landscape, and (b) the product's length of time on the market-interact with these communication efforts and affect brand and category sales.
Lindsay J. Blazin
Full Text Available Effective communication is essential to the practice of pediatric oncology. Clear and empathic delivery of diagnostic and prognostic information positively impacts the ways in which patients and families cope. Honest, compassionate discussions regarding goals of care and hopes for patients approaching end of life can provide healing when other therapies have failed. Effective communication and the positive relationships it fosters also can provide comfort to families grieving the loss of a child. A robust body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of optimal communication for patients, families, and healthcare providers. This review aims to identify key communication skills that healthcare providers can employ throughout the illness journey to provide information, encourage shared decision-making, promote therapeutic alliance, and empathically address end-of-life concerns. By reviewing the relevant evidence and providing practical tips for skill development, we strive to help healthcare providers understand the value of effective communication and master these critical skills.
ter Horst, G.; Leeds, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.
27 1st-yr dental students participated in a 3-day communication-skills training, and 39 nonparticipating 1st-yr dental students served as controls, to investigate the short-term effects of the training on participating Ss' communication skills. The general objective of the training was to advance
Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas
The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…
In a study designed to document empirically perceptions about women managers' communication skills and training needs, 101 managers (53 females and 48 males) responded to two open-ended questions: (1) From your observation and experience, what specific communication skills do women possess that might help promote their managerial effectiveness?…
Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret
To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S.…
Shamash, Emily R.; Martin, Alyson M.
This article offers a variety of strategies for pre-service and beginning teachers to utilize in order to create positive and effective relationships with families that are built on clear communication and trust. It is crucial for new and veteran teachers to understand the importance of successful communication with parents and families of…
Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.
Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)
Thompson, Vetta L Sanders; Kalesan, Bindu; Wells, Anjanette; Williams, Sha-Lai; Caito, Nicole M
This study examined the effects (affective reactions, cognitive reactions and processing, perceived benefits and barriers and intent to screen) of targeted peripheral+evidential (PE) and peripheral+evidential+socio-cultural (PE+SC) colorectal cancer communications. This study was a two-arm randomized control study of cancer communication effects on affective, cognitive processing, and behavioral outcomes over a 22-week intervention. There were 771 African American participants, 45-75 years, participating in the baseline survey related to CRC screening. Three follow-up interviews that assessed intervention effects on affective response to the publications, cognitive processing, and intent to obtain CRC screening were completed. There were no statistically significant differences between PE and PE+SC intervention groups for affect, cognitive processing or intent to screen. However, there were significant interactions effects on outcome variables. The advantages and disadvantages of PE+SC targeted cancer communications and implications of sex differences are considered. While there do not appear to be significant differences in behavioral outcomes when using PE and PE+SC strategies, there appear to be subtle differences in affective and cognitive processing outcomes related to medical suspicion and ethnic identity, particularly as it relates to gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nathanson, Amy I.; Rasmussen, Eric E.
This study compared the amount and style of maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers while mother-child pairs watched TV, read books, and played with toys. We found that mother-child communication was less frequent and less verbally responsive when dyads viewed TV compared with when they read books, and in many cases, when they played…
Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl
This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.
Street, Richard L.; Cox, Vanessa; Kallen, Michael A.; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.
Objective This study tested a pathway whereby acupuncturists’ communication of optimism for treatment effectiveness would enhance patients’ satisfaction during treatment, which in turn would contribute to better pain and function outcomes for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Secondary analysis from a 2 arm (real vs. sham acupuncture, high vs. neutral expectations) RCT. 311 patients with knee osteoarthritis received acupuncture over 10–12 sessions. Coders rated the degree to which acupuncturists communicated optimism for the treatment’s effectiveness. Satisfaction with acupuncture was assessed 4 weeks into treatment. Pain and function were assessed 6 weeks following treatment. Results Patients experiencing better outcomes were more satisfied with acupuncture during treatment, were younger, and had better baseline pain and function scores. Satisfaction during treatment was greater when patients interacted with more optimistic clinicians and had higher pretreatment expectations for acupuncture efficacy. Conclusion Acupuncturists’ communication of optimism about treatment effectiveness contributed to pain and function outcomes indirectly through its effect on satisfaction during treatment. Future research should model pathways through which clinician-patient communication affects mediating variables that in turn lead to improved health outcomes. Practical Implications While clinicians should not mislead patients, communicating hope and optimism for treatment effectiveness has therapeutic value for patients. PMID:22857778
Full Text Available The issue of the evaluation of marketing activity in each institution most often refers to marketing communications and therefore promotional activities of the company. Whereas measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications results, we can use many tools-indicators, the use of which will track the progress and assess the effectiveness of our institution run by marketing communications. With a view to implementing effective marketing strategy we must be able to measure our success. In this article, has been made a review of selected indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing communications. Cited indicators are commonly used. According to the authors, each institution should create its own set of indicators by which the effects of its operations will be best measured.
Tian, L; An, R; Zhang, J; Sun, Y; Zhao, R; Liu, M
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia in laryngeal cancer patients after total laryngectomy. Sixty-five patients who had undergone total laryngectomy were randomly divided into three groups: a routine communication group, a patient communication group (that received the patient-to-patient communication model) and a physician communication group. Questionnaires were used to compare quality of life and swallowing problems among all patient groups. The main factors causing dysphagia in total laryngectomy patients were related to fear and mental health. The patient communication group had improved visual analogue scale scores at one week after starting to eat. Quality of life in swallowing disorders questionnaire scores were significantly higher in the patient communication and physician communication groups than in the routine communication group. In addition, swallowing problems were much more severe in patients educated to high school level and above than in others. The patient-to-patient communication model can be used to resolve swallowing problems caused by psychological factors in total laryngectomy patients.
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication tends to guide the way of management in companies worldwide. For multinational company, where expatriate is exist to blend with local partners or employee, the way they communicate to each other will determine the future of their company communication activities. The result of this research could be utilized by foreign managers and their Indonesian colleagues. Based on this research, which is supported by qualitative and literature methods, it can be found the effective method of communication to enhance job performance. The purpose of qualitative method that used by the author is to gain much information from employees and foreign managers in several companies. Besides interviewing them, author also joined in their interpersonal. The effective way of interpersonal communication to improve employee working performance is to form a sharing forum, informal meetings or communities of practice.
Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen
The mandatory adoption of IFRS by many countries worldwide fuels the expectation that financial accounting information might become more comparable across countries. This expectation is opposed to an alternative view that stresses the importance of incentives in shaping accounting information. We provide early evidence on this debate by investigating the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information around the world. Using two comparability proxie...
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism, concurrently taking into account standardized psychometric data, standardized functional assessment of adaptive behaviour, and information on social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Eighteen preschool children (mean age = 38.78 months) were assigned to two intervention approaches, i.e. PECS and Conventional Language Therapy (CLT). Both PECS (Phases I-IV) and CLT were delivered three times per week, in 30-min sessions, for 6 months. Outcome measures were the following: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores for Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction; Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Results demonstrated that the two groups did not differ at Time 1 (pre-treatment assessment), whereas at Time 2 (post-test) the PECS group showed a significant improvement with respect to the CLT group on the VABS social domain score and on almost all the social-communicative abilities coded in the unstructured setting (i.e. joint attention, request, initiation, cooperative play, but not eye contact). These findings showed that PECS intervention (Phases I-IV) can improve social-communicative skills in children with autism. This improvement is especially evident in standardized measures of adaptive behaviour and measures derived from the observation of children in an unstructured setting. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Mabuto, Tonderai; Charalambous, Salome; Hoffmann, Christopher J
Early in the global response to HIV, health communication was focused toward HIV prevention. More recently, the role of health communication along the entire HIV care continuum has been highlighted. We sought to describe how a strategy of interpersonal communication allows for precision health communication to influence behavior regarding care engagement. We analyzed 1 to 5 transcripts from clients participating in longitudinal counseling sessions from a communication strategy arm of a randomized trial to accelerate entry into care in South Africa. The counseling arm was selected because it increased verified entry into care by 40% compared with the standard of care. We used thematic analysis to identify key aspects of communication directed specifically toward a client's goals or concerns. Of the participants, 18 of 28 were female and 21 entered HIV care within 90 days of diagnosis. Initiating a communication around client-perceived consequences of HIV was at times effective. However, counselors also probed around general topics of life disruption-such as potential for child bearing-as a technique to direct the conversation toward the participant's needs. Once individual concerns and needs were identified, counselors tried to introduce clinical care seeking and collaboratively discuss potential barriers and approaches to overcome to accessing that care. Through the use of interpersonal communication messages were focused on immediate needs and concerns of the client. When effectively delivered, it may be an important communication approach to improve care engagement.
Dulmen, A.M. van; Weert, J.C.M. van
Objective: To investigate the effects of an experimental communication course on how gynaecologists handle psychosocial issues in gynaecological consultation. Design: Pre-post testing. Multilevel analysis was used to take into account the similarity among encounters with the same gynaecologist.
Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.; van den Putte, B.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.
Personalized communication has become a very popular marketing strategy, but the research on its effectiveness is still limited. This study examined the persuasiveness of personalized digital newsletters in terms of increased attention, cognitive activity, evaluation, attitude, intention, and
The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
Full Text Available The paper is intended to raise awareness of some recurrent problems related to cultural and linguistic security in translation alongside strategies of achieving it. Globalisation means global thinking, individual accountability and the development of new sensitivities and capabilities. Different models of Intercultural Communicative Competence are scrutinised in an attempt to identify a common core of generalisable traits, which could be further applied to a wide range of translation situations. The (intercultural load is of paramount importance in translation being, more often than not, the cause of serious misunderstanding if the translator does not adequately equate the two cultures or bridge the cultural gap.
Sinaceur, Marwan; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Neale, Margaret A; Adam, Hajo; Haag, Christophe
Is communicating anger or threats more effective in eliciting concessions in negotiation? Recent research has emphasized the effectiveness of anger communication, an emotional strategy. In this article, we argue that anger communication conveys an implied threat, and we document that issuing threats is a more effective negotiation strategy than communicating anger. In 3 computer-mediated negotiation experiments, participants received either angry or threatening messages from a simulated counterpart. Experiment 1 showed that perceptions of threat mediated the effect of anger (vs. a control) on concessions. Experiment 2 showed that (a) threat communication elicited greater concessions than anger communication and (b) poise (being confident and in control of one's own feelings and decisions) ascribed to the counterpart mediated the positive effect of threat compared to anger on concessions. Experiment 3 replicated this positive effect of threat over anger when recipients had an attractive alternative to a negotiated agreement. These findings qualify previous research on anger communication in negotiation. Implications for the understanding of emotion and negotiation are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Dr. Juan M. Monserrat Gauchi
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the communication strategies used by Spanish franchises which, targeting at any objective public, would like to promote their market expansion and marketing organization. In this paper, we establish a comparative study between the strategies used by franchises in their first stage of market expansion and those used by established franchisors. To accomplish this, we base our research upon qualitative (participant observation and quantitative methods (survey to a fixed number of franchise companies. In conclusion, we attempt to set the possible differences between strategies followed by this kind of companies, according to their location in the market.
Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug
The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.
Steinhaeusler, F.; Wieland, P.
Concerns of political decision makers, the media, and members of the public with regard to high-tech industries focus upon two main issues: safety and socio-economic impact. In this regard the nuclear industry and biotechnology, commonly associated as 'high risk and low trust situation', face the problems of the assessment of potentially dangerous or negative socio-economic consequences of very improbable risks and the communication with the various audiences. It is common for the national authorities in this case to conduct the process of quantified risk analysis (QRA). Unfortunately, hitherto the communication of the results obtained by QRA to the different non-scientific/non-technical target groups listed above is generally dissatisfactory, resulting in the frequent rejection of nuclear- and biotechnology. The main reason is that it has generally not been recognized that QRA is but the final step in the cognition of risk from both real as well as perceived hazards, preceded by risk estimation (RES) and risk evaluation (REV). RES is largely the scientific identification of hazards leading formally to the assessment of mechanisms of harmful consequences, and latterly to the assessment of the probability of its occurrence. Contrary to that, REV deals with the subjective judgment of the significance of assessed individual and societal risks. As such, REV involves individual cognitions of hazards and risks, such as perceptions, knowledge and understanding. In this paper the role of risk cognition in communicating issues associated with high-tech industrial activities, such as nuclear industry and biotechnology, is discussed. Common factors influencing risk perception are dealt with in a comparative manner in order to draw practically applicable lessons from it. This comparative analysis revealed the following results: (1)QRA-derived risk estimation measures used to quantify the risk from potential hazard associated with high-tech industries per se are not suitable
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Richer, Amanda M.; Erkut, Sumru
This brief report examined teenagers’ sexuality communication with their parents and extended families. It compared who teens of early parents (those who had children when they were adolescents) and teens of later parents (those who were adults when they had children) talk to about sex. Eighth grade students (N=1281) in 24 schools completed survey items about their communication about sex. Structural equation modeling was used to predict communication profiles, while adjusting for the nesting...
Full Text Available Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC is one of the needed concepts in competitive edge. IMC is defined as a cross functional process for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders by strategically controlling or impacting all messages sent to these groups. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together. This study investigates the effectiveness of marketing communication in an Iranian automaker named Khodro using IMC system. The study tries to audit the rate of marketing relationship integrity and its outcome on organization performance. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who use this firm’s services and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.974. Hypotheses of this survey are exanimated by Pearson correlation test as well as pairwise t-student tests. The results show the effects of integrated marketing Communication on organization performance. In addition, there is a significant positive correlation relationship between integrated marketing communication with mission marketing, Cross functional Strategic Planning and Interactivity. Finally, there is a significant positive correlation relationship between dimensions of IMC.
Wu, Robert C; Tran, Kim; Lo, Vivian; O'Leary, Kevin J; Morra, Dante; Quan, Sherman D; Perrier, Laure
To conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify, describe and assess interventions of information and communication technology on the processes of communication and associated patient outcomes within hospital settings. Studies published from the years 1996 to 2010 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology interventions to improve clinical communication within hospitals. Two authors abstracted data from full text articles, and the quality of individual articles were appraised. Results of interventions were summarized by their effect. There were 18 identified studies that evaluated the use of interventions that included alphanumeric paging, hands-free communication devices, mobile phones, smartphones, task management systems and a display based paging system. Most quantitative studies used a before and after study design and were of lower quality. Of all the studies, there was only one prospective randomized study, but this study used only simulated communication events. Quantitative studies identified improved perceptions of communication and some improvement in communication metrics. Qualitative studies described improvements in efficiency of communication but also issues of loss of control and reliability. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communications technology over the last decade, there is limited evidence suggesting improvements in the ability of health professionals to communicate effectively. Given the critical nature of communication, we advocate further evaluation of information and communication technology designed to improve communication between clinicians. Outcome measures should include measures of patient-oriented outcomes and efficiency for clinicians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to examine the communication dynamics leading to the adoption of new attitudes and cognitions in health education sessions. We examined the verbal interactions at work in persuasive communication in 16 health education sessions. The study found that the medical expertise of the educator and the initial level of commitment of the participants had a positive effect on adherence to recommendations. However, persuasive communication in health education sessions appears to involve a paradoxical process in which criticism of the message can go hand in hand with the expression of an intention to implement new risk-reducing behaviors.
Bauman, M.B.; VanCott, H.P.
The primary purpose of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of two techniques for improving organizational communication: (1) an Automated Maintenance Management System (AMMS) and (2) Interdepartmental Coordination Meetings. Additional objectives concerned the preparation of functional requirements for an AMMS, and training modules to improve group communication skills. Four nuclear power plants participated in the evaluation. Two plants installed AMMSs, one plant instituted interdepartmental job coordination meetings, and the fourth plant served as a control for the evaluation. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect evaluative data. The evaluation focused on five communication or information criteria: timeliness, redundancy, withholding or gatekeeping, feedback, and accuracy/amount
Milliman, Ronald E.; Decker, Phillip J.
Demonstrates the use and potentially positive effects of postpurchase communication on order refund requests and reorder rates. Finds that dissonance was effectively reduced through postpurchase communication. (MG)
van de Bovenkamp, H.M.; Trappenburg, M.J.
Because family members take on caring tasks and also suffer as a consequence of the illness of the patient, communication between health-care professionals and family members of the patient is important. This review compares communication practices between these two parties in three different parts
Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.
Manisaligil, Alperen; Bilimoria, Diana
We describe an in-class activity that helps students improve their skills in media selection and use to reinforce effective communication. The activity builds on media richness and channel expansion theories through an examination of the media selection and use of NBA athlete LeBron James and Cleveland Cavaliers majority owner Dan Gilbert during…
Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah
This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.
the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2017 Approved by: Ric A. Romero Thesis Co-Advisor...the shape of the radar signal in the frequency domain, differing only in magnitude. The PSDs for the communications signal alone at various RCR levels ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS VARIOUS EFFECTS OF EMBEDDED INTRAPULSE COMMUNICATIONS ON PULSED RADAR by Allison Hunt June 2017
Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina ... Both plant infusions inhibited viability and cell growth of SW480 and SW620 cells. .... 100 g of dry extract, from a gallic acid calibration curve . ..... antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of colon.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide and bumetanide on ingestive behavior in rodents. Twelve groups (with six in each group) of male mice (25 to 35 g) were used in the experiments. They were housed in labelled plastic cages in the departmental ...
Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina and Ilex paraguariensis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Cytotoxic ...
The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol
ionosphere using IRI-Plas-G software. One of the outstanding features of IONOLAB-RAY is the opportunity of Global Ionospheric Map-Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC) assimilation. This feature enables more realistic representation of ionosphere, especially for the times when ionosphere deviates from the generalized models, such as during geomagnetic storms. This feature is critical to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals under ionospheric storm conditions. In this study TURKSAT satellite data is used to compare the results of IONOLAB-RAY and evaluate the effect of ionosphere. TURKSAT is one of the world's leading companies providing all sorts of satellite communications through the satellites of TURKSAT as well as the other satellites. Providing services for voice, data, internet, TV, and radio broadcasting through the satellites across a wide area extending from Europe to Asia. The latest satellite of TURKSAT, namely Turksat 4B was launched on October 2015, before that various versions of TURKSAT satellites are launched since 1994. In the future enlargement of broadcasting area towards equatorial region is aimed, where the ionospheric anomalies and storms are highly expected. In the future this study can be applied to the satellite signals in equatorial regions and effects of ionosphere especially under storm conditions can be discussed. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114E541, 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.
Jones, C.G.; Roessler, G.S.; Brent, R.L.
About the Health Physics Society. The Health Physics Society (HPS) is a professional organization whose mission is excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety. Since its formation in 1956, the Society has grown to approximately 6,000 scientists, physicians, engineers, lawyers, and other professionals representing academia, industry, government, national laboratories, and other organizations. Society activities include encouraging research in radiation science, developing standards, and disseminating radiation safety information. Society members are involved in understanding, evaluating, and controlling the potential risks from radiation relative to the benefits. Although the Society already was publishing the Health Physics Journal and Newsletter, in 1996, as part of furthering the HPS mission of information communication and radiological protection education, an HPS Web site was created at www.hps.org to disseminate information on the Society's activities, objectives, membership, news and events, publications, education, and public information. In September 2001, Web structure for the site was further developed and refined, and it was during this development phase that the concept of the ask the experts (ATE) feature was born. (orig.)
Jones, C.G. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Roessler, G.S. [Healthy Physics Society, Elysian, MN (United States); Brent, R.L. [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Environmental and Clinical Teratology Lab., Wilmington, DE (United States)
About the Health Physics Society. The Health Physics Society (HPS) is a professional organization whose mission is excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety. Since its formation in 1956, the Society has grown to approximately 6,000 scientists, physicians, engineers, lawyers, and other professionals representing academia, industry, government, national laboratories, and other organizations. Society activities include encouraging research in radiation science, developing standards, and disseminating radiation safety information. Society members are involved in understanding, evaluating, and controlling the potential risks from radiation relative to the benefits. Although the Society already was publishing the Health Physics Journal and Newsletter, in 1996, as part of furthering the HPS mission of information communication and radiological protection education, an HPS Web site was created at www.hps.org to disseminate information on the Society's activities, objectives, membership, news and events, publications, education, and public information. In September 2001, Web structure for the site was further developed and refined, and it was during this development phase that the concept of the ask the experts (ATE) feature was born. (orig.)
Hsu, Li-Ling; Huang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsieh, Suh-Ing
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a simulated communication training course on nurses' communication competence, self-efficacy, communication performance, myocardial infarction knowledge, and general satisfaction with their learning experience. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre-test and two post-tests. The experimental group underwent simulated communication training course and the control group received a case-based communication training course. The experimental group made more significant improvement in competence and self-efficacy in communication from pre-test to the second post-test than the control group. Although both groups' satisfaction with their learning experience significantly increased from the first post-test to the second post-test, the experimental group was found to be more satisfied with their learning experience than the control group. No significant differences in communication performance and myocardial infarction knowledge between the two groups were identified. Scenario-based communication training can be more fully incorporated into in-service education for nurses to boost their competence and self-efficacy in communication and enhance their communication performance in myocardial infarction patient care. Introduction of real-life communication scenarios through multimedia in communication education could make learners more motivated to practice communication, hence leading to improved communication capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paasch, Bettina Sletten
The use of wireless phones in hospital units are increasing, inducing practitioners to carry a working phone each. A study performed in a medical hospital unit demonstrates that wireless phones can impair communication between health care practitioners and patients (Paasch, in press). Also wireless...... phones can compromise patient safety, both by disturbing the practitioners’ concentration, causing mistakes, and by transporting bacteria between patients. This qualitative Ph.D.-study wishes to further investigate the effect of wireless phones on communication and treatment in hospital units, using...... participant observations, ethnographic interviews and video observations. The study will explore how wireless phones mediate and is mediated by practitioners communication with each other and patients. As hospitals are constructed and reconstructed by all communication within, this insight will enable...
Full Text Available Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral about the expected treatment outcome affected (i participants’ expectations and (ii short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n=243, mean age of 42 were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p=0.002. There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p=0.022. Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials.
Thompson, Erin H; Hampton, James A
Research into emotional communication to date has largely focused on facial and vocal expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, and Keltner (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touch. The study showed that strangers were unable to communicate the self-focused emotions embarrassment, envy and pride, or the universal emotion surprise. Literature relating to touch indicates that the interpretation of a tactile experience is significantly influenced by the relationship between the touchers (Coan, Schaefer, & Davidson, 2006). The present study compared the ability of romantic couples and strangers to communicate emotions solely via touch. Results showed that both strangers and romantic couples were able to communicate universal and prosocial emotions, whereas only romantic couples were able to communicate the self-focused emotions envy and pride. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.
Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the
Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie
While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…
Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe; Artmann, Elizabeth
This article discusses the application of theories of argumentation and communication to the field of medicine. Based on a literature review, the authors compare Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and the work of Todd and Fisher, derived from American sociolinguistics. These approaches were selected because they belong to the pragmatic field of language. The main results were: pragma-dialectics characterizes medical reasoning more comprehensively, highlighting specific elements of the three disciplines of argumentation: dialectics, rhetoric, and logic; Toulmin's model helps substantiate the declaration of diagnostic and therapeutic hypotheses, and as part of an interpretive medicine, approximates the pragma-dialectical approach by including dialectical elements in the process of formulating arguments; Fisher and Todd's approach allows characterizing, from a pragmatic analysis of speech acts, the degree of symmetry/asymmetry in the doctor-patient relationship, while arguing the possibility of negotiating treatment alternatives.
Presentations and transcripts focus on how communities can effectively showcase the benefits and successes of a clean energy initiative to ensure additional funding opportunities, continued engagement, and sustained behavior change.
Segal, Jodi B.; Kapoor, Wishwa; Carey, Timothy; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Murray, Michael D.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Schumock, Glen; Jonas, Daniel; Steinman, Michael; Weinberger, Morris; Filart, Rosemarie; Selker, Harry
The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Workgroup for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Education, Training, and Workforce Development identified a need to delineate the competencies that practitioners and users of CER for patient centered outcomes research, should acquire. With input from CTSA representatives and collaborators, we began by describing the workforce. We recognize the workforce that conduct CER and the end users who use CER to improve the health of individual...
Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.
Francesco La Barbera
Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman
The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS
Berkhof, Marianne; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
Physicians need good communication skills to communicate effectively with patients. The objective of this review was to identify effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to qualified physicians. PubMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and COCHRANE were searched in October 2008 and in March 2009. Two authors independently selected relevant reviews and assessed their methodological quality with AMSTAR. Summary tables were constructed for data-synthesis, and results were linked to outcome measures. As a result, conclusions about the effectiveness of communication skills training strategies for physicians could be drawn. Twelve systematic reviews on communication skills training programmes for physicians were identified. Some focused on specific training strategies, whereas others emphasized a more general approach with mixed strategies. Training programmes were effective if they lasted for at least one day, were learner-centred, and focused on practising skills. The best training strategies within the programmes included role-play, feedback, and small group discussions. Training programmes should include active, practice-oriented strategies. Oral presentations on communication skills, modelling, and written information should only be used as supportive strategies. To be able to compare the effectiveness of training programmes more easily in the future, general agreement on outcome measures has to be established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of economic incentives and communication on the cognitive and behavioral responses after an alleged trust violation. We argue that these responses depend on the type of solution used to foster cooperation between agents. On the cognitive level, we compare the effects that structural (economic incentives and motivational (communication solutions exert on trusting beliefs and trusting intentions after an adverse event. On the behavioral level, we compare these effects on the willingness to bear risk. Our experiment shows that, after a negative event, relationships wherein communication is used to foster cooperation are associated to greater external causal attribution, greater perceived benevolence/integrity, and greater willingness to reconcile and to accept risks related to other's behavior. These findings suggest that relationships based on motivational solutions are more resilient to negative events than ones based on structural solutions.
Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R
The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score
) uptake and dry matter yield of maize. The relative agronomic effectiveness of DPR partially acidulated with 50% of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) required for complete acidulation, in increasing P uptake and dry matter yield was 60% and 75%, ...
Mujumdar, Sandhya; Santos, Diana
Teamwork and communication failures are leading causes of patient safety incidents in health care. Though health care providers must work in teams, they are not well-trained in teamwork and communication skills. Health care faces the problems of differences in communication styles, communication failures and poor teamwork. There is enough evidence in the literature to show that communication failure is detrimental to patient safety. It is estimated that 80% of serious medical errors worldwide take place because of miscommunication between medical providers. NUH recognizes that effective communication and teamwork are essential in the delivery of high quality safe patient care, especially in a complex organization. NUH is a good example, where there is a rich mix of nationalities and races, in staff and in patients, and there is a rapidly expanding care environment. NUH had to overcome these challenges by adopting a multi-pronged approach. The trials and tribulations of NUH in this journey were worthwhile as the patient safety climate survey scores improved over the years.
Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen
Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James; Saffold, Jay
Combat resiliency is the ability of a commander to prosecute, control, and consolidate his/her's sphere of influence in adverse and changing conditions. To support this, an infrastructure must exist that allows the commander to view the world in varying degrees of granularity with sufficient levels of detail to permit confidence estimates to be levied against decisions and course of actions. An infrastructure such as this will include the ability to effectively communicate context and relevance within and across the battle space. To achieve this will require careful thought, planning, and understanding of a network and its capacity limitations in post-event command and control. Relevance and impact on any existing infrastructure must be fully understood prior to deployment to exploit the system's full capacity and capabilities. In this view, the combat communication network is considered an integral part of or National communication network and infrastructure. This paper will describe an analytical tool set developed at ORNL and RNI incorporating complexity theory, advanced communications modeling, simulation, and visualization technologies that could be used as a pre-planning tool or post event reasoning application to support response and containment.
Carstens, Johan K P; Boersma, Katja; Schrooten, Martien G S; Linton, Steven J
Increasing recall of instructions and advice in a pain consultation is important, since it is a prerequisite for adherence to treatment recommendations. However, interference due to pain-related distress may result in poor recall. Whereas there are some indications that recall can be increased by empathic communication that reduces interference, this interesting possibility remains largely untested experimentally. The current experiment aimed at studying effects of empathic communication, and more specifically validation, on recall during a pain test and possible mediators and moderators of this effect. Participants received either validating (N=25) or invalidating responses (N=25) from the experimenter during a pain provoking task, followed by self-report measures of interference (affect, situational pain catastrophizing) and recall (accurate and false memories of words). As expected, the validated group exhibited higher accurate recall and less false memories following the pain test as compared to the invalidated group. This was partly due to the effect of interference being counteracted by moderating the relationship between pain catastrophizing and recall. These novel results suggest that validating communication can counteract interference due to pain catastrophizing on recall, at least in a controlled experimental setting. Good communication by health professionals is of utmost importance for adherence to pain management. The current results expand our knowledge on the effects of pain communication by establishing and explaining a clear link between empathic communication and recall, highlighting the role of pain catastrophizing. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
In this regard, the appropriate communication is directly related to the efficient and safe system operation, and inappropriate communication is one of the main causes of the accidents in various industries since inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants. According to the study conducted by Y. Hirotsu in 2001, about 25 percents of human error caused incidents in NPPs were related to communication issues. Also, other studies were reported that 85 percents of human error caused incidents in aviation industry and 92 percents in railway industry were related to communication problems. Accordingly, the importance of the efforts for reducing inappropriate communications has been emphasized in order to enhance the safety of pre-described systems. As a result, the average ratio of inappropriate communication in digital MCRs was slightly higher than that in conventional MCRs when the average ratio of no communication in digital MCRs was much smaller than that in conventional MCRs. Regarding the average ratio of inappropriate communication, it can be inferred that operators are still more familiar to the conventional MCRs than digital MCRs. More case studies are required for more delicate comparison since there were only three examined cases for digital MCRs. However, similar result is expected because there are no differences in communication method, although there are many differences in the way of procedure proceeding.
Ghosh, Pulak K. [Department of Chemistry, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Li, Yunyun, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Marchegiani, Giampiero [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Marchesoni, Fabio [Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)
A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer’s diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer’s propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer’s axis. The corresponding swimmer’s diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.
Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich
Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.
León, Alberto L.; Rosales, Rocío
We evaluated the effects of tact training when instruction was presented in English only compared to tact training in a bilingual format (in English and the home language, Portuguese) for a participant diagnosed with a communication disorder. The participant's parents completed a questionnaire describing his exposure to both languages prior to the…
Ulrey, K L; Amason, P
Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.
Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M
Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.
Huang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling
Limited disease knowledge is frequently the cause of disease-related anxiety in myocardial infarction patients. The ability to communicate effectively serves multiple purposes in the professional nursing practice. By communicating effectively with myocardial infarction patients, nurses may help reduce their anxiety by keeping them well informed about their disease and teaching them self-care strategies. This research evaluates the communication skills of nurses following scenario-based simulation education in the context of communication with myocardial infarction patients. This study used an experimental design and an educational intervention. The target population comprised nurses of medicine (clinical qualified level N to N2 for nursing) working at a municipal hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total 122 participants were enrolled. Stratified block randomization divided participants into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication. The control group received traditional class-based education for communication. Both groups received a pre-test and a Communication Skills Checklist post-test assessment. Results were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows software. A t-test showed significant increases in communication skills (p skills following the education intervention. The results indicate that clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication is significantly more effective than traditional class-based education in enhancing the ability of nurses to communicate effectively with myocardial infarction patients.
Effect of information and communication technology on culture of the people of Saki west local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. PO Eniola, Mf Siyanbola, OA Olaniyi. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (3) 2007: pp. 214-219. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...
Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA, particularly on small farms. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information as effectively as possible. Many...
Yao, Jun-Liang; Li, Chen; Ren, Hai-Peng; Grebogi, Celso
In additive white Gaussian noise channel, chaos has been shown to be the optimal coherent communication waveform in the sense of using a very simple matched filter to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, Lyapunov exponent spectrum of the chaotic signals after being transmitted through a wireless channel has been shown to be unaltered, paving the way for wireless communication using chaos. In wireless communication systems, inter-symbol interference caused by multipath propagation is one of the main obstacles to achieve high bit transmission rate and low bit-error rate (BER). How to resist the multipath effect is a fundamental problem in a chaos-based wireless communication system (CWCS). In this paper, a CWCS is built to transmit chaotic signals generated by a hybrid dynamical system and then to filter the received signals by using the corresponding matched filter to decrease the noise effect and to detect the binary information. We find that the multipath effect can be effectively resisted by regrouping the return map of the received signal and by setting the corresponding threshold based on the available information. We show that the optimal threshold is a function of the channel parameters and of the information symbols. Practically, the channel parameters are time-variant, and the future information symbols are unavailable. In this case, a suboptimal threshold is proposed, and the BER using the suboptimal threshold is derived analytically. Simulation results show that the CWCS achieves a remarkable competitive performance even under inaccurate channel parameters.
Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara
Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…
SHORT COMMUNICATION. THE EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND LEDUM PALUSTRE ON SERUM URIC. ACID LEVEL IN PATIENTS ... It is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of uric acid in the blood. The pain and swelling due to gout can be sudden and may appear and disappear over ...
Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…
Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate of indigenous Nguni cattle under in situ conservation in the low-input communal production ... as not at risk of extinction, while the individual enterprises were classified as being endangered-maintained without the exchange of germ plasm among them.
Proefrock, David W.; Bloom, Robert
The relationship between a therapist's verbal and nonverbal communication of therapeutic effectiveness was investigated. In a design intended to eliminate many of the methodological problems which exist in this area of research, subjects (N=102) were asked to rate videotaped segments showing combinations of three different levels of both verbal…
Blue, Misty; McBride, Maranda; Weatherless, Rachel; Letowski, Tomasz
In this study, the impact of including a bone conduction transducer in a three-channel spatialized communication system was investigated. Several military and security forces situations require concurrent listening to three or more radio channels. In such radio systems, spatial separation between three concurrent radio channels can be achieved by delivering separate signals to the left and right earphone independently and both earphones simultaneously. This method appears to be effective; however, the use of bone conduction as one channel may provide both operational and performance benefits. Three three-channel communication systems were used to collect speech intelligibility data from 18 listeners (System I, three loudspeakers; System 2, stereo headphones; System 3, stereo headphones and a bone conduction vibrator). Each channel presented signals perceived to originate from separate locations. Volunteers listened to three sets of competing sentences and identified a number, color, and object spoken in the target sentence. Each listener participated in three trials (one per system). Each trial consisted of 48 competing sentence sets. Systems 2 and 3 were more intelligible than System I. Systems 2 and 3 were overall equally intelligible; however, the intelligibility of all three channels was significantly more balanced in System 3. Replacing an air conduction transducer with a bone conduction transducer in a multichannel audio device can provide a more effective and balanced simultaneous monitoring auditory environment. These results have important design and implementation implications for spatial auditory communication equipment.
Broder, Hillary L; Janal, Malvin; Mitnick, Danielle M; Rodriguez, Jasmine Y; Sischo, Lacey
Previous studies have shown that a communications program using patient instructors (PIs) facilitates data-gathering and interpersonal skills of third-year dental students. The aim of this study was to address the question of whether those skills are retained into the students' fourth year and generalized from the classroom to the clinic. In the formative training phase, three cohorts of D3 students (N=1,038) at one dental school received instruction regarding effective patient-doctor communication; interviewed three PIs and received PI feedback; and participated in a reflective seminar with a behavioral science instructor. In the follow-up competency phase, fourth-year students performed two new patient interviews in the clinic that were observed and evaluated by clinical dental faculty members trained in communications. Mean scores on a standardized communications rating scale and data-gathering assessment were compared over training and follow-up sessions and between cohorts with a linear mixed model. The analysis showed that the third-year students' mean communication and data-gathering scores increased with each additional encounter with a PI (pcommunication scores were not only maintained but increased during the fourth-year follow-up competency evaluations (pcommunications curriculum, prior instruction facilitated the students' clinical communication performance at baseline (pCommunications program improved students' data-gathering and interpersonal skills. Those skills were maintained and generalized through completion of the D4 students' summative competency performance in a clinical setting.
The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)
The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)
Hartog, Christiane S
Patients are increasingly attracted to homeopathy despite the unproven effectiveness of homeopathic remedies. Clinical benefit of homeopathy may be due to communication. This review aims to identify and assess effective communication patterns in homeopathy. Narrative review and synthesis of published communication patterns, patient narratives and the author's professional experience as a homeopathic practitioner. In the biomedical model, where the focus is on disease, communication is physician-centered with early redirection of patients' concerns, and associated with reduced compliance, increasing risk of malpractice claims and low professional fulfillment. The biopsychosocial and the developing integrative medicine models are based on biomedicine but aim to include the whole person. Patient-centeredness is a behavior that elicits, respects and incorporates patients' wishes, allows active patient participation and is related to improved outcomes. The homeopathic model is based on holism and comprehension of the totality of the patient and uses patient-centered communication with a high degree of physician co-operation, empathy, hopefulness, enablement and narrative competence, all of which can improve outcomes. Both biopsychosocial and homeopathic models rely on patient-centered communication. Regardless of conceptual differences, they overlap in their common respect for the totality and individuality of the patient. The study of the homeopathic model shows that respect for the whole person is a basic requirement to entrench patient-centeredness more firmly in medicine. Medical education should include values such as individual coping strategies, the benefits of a sound and healthy life-style and the necessity of hope and enablement. Health care should be redesigned to honor physicians who practice these values.
Ganz, Jennifer B; Parker, Richard; Benson, Joanne
Many children with autism require intensive instruction in the use of augmentative or alternative communication systems, such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This study investigated the use of PECS with three young boys with autism to determine the impact of PECS training on use of pictures for requesting, use of intelligible words, and maladaptive behaviors. A multiple baseline-probe design with a staggered start was implemented. Results indicated that all of the participants quickly learned to make requests using pictures and that two used intelligible speech following PECS instruction; maladaptive behaviors were variable throughout baseline and intervention phases. Although all of the participants improved in at least one dependent variable, there remain questions regarding who is best suited for PECS and similar interventions.
Hubbard, Glenn T.; Kang, Jin-Ae; Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp
National survey of college mass communication students (N = 247) analyzed attitudes on the teaching of print and electronic media skills, using journalism students as comparison group. Previous research had not explored strategic communication student responses to convergence. Found identity variables within public relations (PR) field related to…
In the 21st century, oral communication skills are increasingly important for business graduates who will start their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the best method to help business students enhance their oral communication skills during their college years. This research also helps professors to make their…
Peeters, J.M.; Mistiaen, P.; Francke, A.L.
We conducted a systematic review of video communication in home care to provide insight into the ratio between the costs and financial benefits (i.e. cost savings). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, CINAHL) were searched for studies on video communication for patients living at home
Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)
Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often
Johnson Adelani Abodunrin
Full Text Available Artists in Nigeria perceived effective communication differently irrespective of the socio-economic status.Communication effectiveness depends largely on the understanding of the message being passed between a sender and a receiver. Painting has been used over time to express emotion and feeling to the perceiving audience. The study is audience’s perception of communication in Nigeria painting and how it varies with the socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, gender, and being professional artist or art lovers. Questionnaires were distributed and administered to examine how the status of the art audience makes or mars effective communication in painting. The inferential statistics that were employed include “chi-square test” to test the relationship between different variables. The data were taken in ordinal form using Likert’s scale, and transformed into interval data. This was done by attaching statistical weights to the responses in the order of importance which were summed up for the parametric testing. Findings show that gender factor has nothing to do with the understanding of paintings. Also, the level of education obtained by the audience does not have much to do with understanding of contemporary Nigerian painting but a better exposure to the issue concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting. Art practitioners must adequately be guided on stylistic trend in painting, art education should be more intensified in educational curriculum in Nigeria. The paper concludes that audience requires a better exposure to the issues concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting for effective communication to take place.
D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D
As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nuclear energy had a promising start as an unlimited, inexpensive and environmentally benign source of energy for electricity generation. However, over the decades its growth was severely retarded due to concerns about its possible detrimental effects on the well-being of mankind and the environment. Since such concerns are essentially due to the gigantic magnitude of radioactivity and ionizing radiations associated with nuclear energy, this article starts with a comprehensive account of effects of the ionizing radiation on living systems. Quantitative description of types of radiation exposure and their varied effects is given. The origin, type and magnitude of mutagenic effects of radiation are described. The concept of radiation risk factors, basis for their evaluation and their currently accepted values are presented. With this background, origin and magnitude of radioactivity and associated ionizing radiations in nuclear reactors are presented and the elaborate measures to contain them are described. It is recognized that notwithstanding all the measures taken in the nuclear industry, certain amount of radiation exposure, however small, is inevitable and the values, based on the experience world over, are presented. Estimated health risk due to such exposures is evaluated. For a comparative analysis, risks in other options of electricity generation such as hydel and fossil-fuelled plants are described. It is seen that on an overall basis, the nuclear option is no more risky than the other commonly employed options, and is in fact, significantly less. Lastly, since every option of electricity generation entails some risk, the case of 'no addition of electricity, and its impact on the society are considered. Based on the analysis of extensive data provided by UNDP on the human development parameters for different countries in the world, it is shown that at least for developing countries, any option of addition of electricity would be far more desirable than the
Full Text Available In this work, various Lithium-ion (Li-ion battery models are evaluated according to their accuracy, complexity and physical interpretability. An initial classification into physical, empirical and abstract models is introduced. Also known as white, black and grey boxes, respectively, the nature and characteristics of these model types are compared. Since the Li-ion battery cell is a thermo-electro-chemical system, the models are either in the thermal or in the electrochemical state-space. Physical models attempt to capture key features of the physical process inside the cell. Empirical models describe the system with empirical parameters offering poor analytical, whereas abstract models provide an alternative representation. In addition, a model selection guideline is proposed based on applications and design requirements. A complex model with a detailed analytical insight is of use for battery designers but impractical for real-time applications and in situ diagnosis. In automotive applications, an abstract model reproducing the battery behavior in an equivalent but more practical form, mainly as an equivalent circuit diagram, is recommended for the purpose of battery management. As a general rule, a trade-off should be reached between the high fidelity and the computational feasibility. Especially if the model is embedded in a real-time monitoring unit such as a microprocessor or a FPGA, the calculation time and memory requirements rise dramatically with a higher number of parameters. Moreover, examples of equivalent circuit models of Lithium-ion batteries are covered. Equivalent circuit topologies are introduced and compared according to the previously introduced criteria. An experimental sequence to model a 20 Ah cell is presented and the results are used for the purposes of powerline communication.
Khodadadi, Esmail; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Moghaddasian, Sima; Babapour, Jalil
Having an effective relationship with the patient in the process of treatment is essential. Nurses must have communication skills in order to establish effective relationships with the patients. This study evaluated the impact of communication skills training on quality of care, self-efficacy, job satisfaction and communication skills of nurses. This is an experimental study with a control group that has been done in 2012. The study sample consisted of 73 nurses who work in hospitals of Tabriz; they were selected by proportional randomizing method. The intervention was only conducted on the experimental group. In order to measure the quality of care 160 patients, who had received care by nurses, participated in this study. The Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13). Comparing the mean scores of communication skills showed a statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups after intervention. The paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference in the experimental group before and after the intervention. Independent t-test showed a statistically significant difference between the rate of quality of care in patients of control and experimental groups after the intervention. The results showed that the training of communication skills can increase the nurse's rate of communication skills and cause elevation in quality of nursing care. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of nursing care it is recommended that communication skills be established and taught as a separate course in nursing education.
Singer, Alexander; Duarte Fernandez, Roberto
The Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is becoming increasingly common in health care settings. Research shows that EMRs have the potential to reduce instances of medication errors and improve communication between pharmacists and prescribers; however, more research is required to demonstrate whether this is true. This study aims to determine the effect of a newly implemented EMR system on communication between pharmacists and primary care clinicians. A retrospective chart analysis of primary care EMR data comparing faxed pharmacy communications captured before and after the implementation of an EMR system at an academic family medicine clinic. Communication requests were classified into the following various categories: refill accepted, refill denied, clarification, incorrect dose, interaction, drug insurance/coverage application, new prescription request, supplies request, continued care information, duplicate fax substitution, opioid early release request, confirmation by phone call, and other. The number and percentage of clarification requests, interaction notifications, and incorrect dose notifications were lower after the implementation of the EMR system. The number and percentage of refills accepted and new prescription requests increased after the implementation of the EMR system. The implementation of an EMR in an academic family medicine clinic had a significant effect on the volume of communication between pharmacists and prescribers. The amount of clarification requests and incorrect dosing communications decreased after EMR implementation. This suggests that EMRs improve prescribing safety. The increased amount of refills accepted and new prescription requests post EMR implementation suggests that the EMR is capable of changing prescription patterns.
Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Reichle, Joe
This study compared college students' attitudes toward a peer who used a nonelectronic augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system with and without a partner reauditorization strategy and also examined the effect of reauditorization on reported (a) ease of understanding the peer who used AAC, (b) willingness to engage in interactions with the peer who used AAC, and (c) preferences regarding AAC systems. Sixty-four participants completed surveys after viewing each of 2 counterbalanced conditions involving a video of a peer who communicated using AAC. Mean survey ratings were compared between conditions. Participants reported (a) more positive attitudes toward, (b) a greater ease in understanding, and (c) an increased willingness to interact with the peer who used nonelectronic AAC with partner reauditorization. Participants indicated that reauditorization contributed positively to the observed conversation. Reported preferences for nonelectronic AAC systems did not vary as a function of reauditorization, and most participants reported a preference for an electronic speech-generating device when compared with a nonelectronic system. Partner reauditorization may play a role in improving attitudes that individuals hold about peers who use nonelectronic AAC and may contribute to ease of understanding the aided message and increased likelihood of peer interactions.
Hobart-Porter, Laura; Wade, Shari; Minich, Nori; Kirkwood, Michael; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, Hudson Gerry
To characterize the effects of caregiver mental health and coping strategies on interactions with an injured adolescent acutely after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Multi-site, cross-sectional study. Outpatient setting of 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 2 tertiary general medical centers. Adolescents (N = 125) aged 12-17 years, 1-6 months after being hospitalized with complicated mild to severe TBI. Data were collected as part of a multi-site clinical trial of family problem-solving therapy after TBI. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of caregiver and environmental characteristics to the dimensions of effective communication, warmth, and negativity during caregiver-adolescent problem-solving discussions. Adolescent and caregiver interactions, as measured by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. Caregivers who utilized problem-focused coping strategies were rated as having higher levels of effective communication (P teen interactions. Problem-focused coping strategies are associated with higher levels of effective communication and lower levels of caregiver negativity during the initial months after adolescent TBI, suggesting that effective caregiver coping may facilitate better caregiver-adolescent interactions after TBI. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
L. Taylor and D. Barney
CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...
The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...
Rochon, Elizabeth; Sidani, Souraya; Shaw, Alexander; Ben-David, Boaz M.; Saragosa, Marianne; Boscart, Veronique M.; Wilson, Rozanne; Galimidi-Epstein, Karmit K.
Background: Effective communication between residents with dementia and care providers in long-term care homes (LTCHs) is essential to resident-centered care. Purpose: To determine the effects of a communication intervention on residents’ quality of life (QOL) and care, as well as care providers’ perceived knowledge, mood, and burden. Method: The intervention included (1) individualized communication plans, (2) a dementia care workshop, and (3) a care provider support system. Pre- and postintervention scores were compared to evaluate the effects of the intervention. A total of 12 residents and 20 care providers in an LTCH participated in the feasibility study. Results: The rate of care providers’ adherence to the communication plans was 91%. Postintervention, residents experienced a significant increase in overall QOL. Care providers had significant improvement in mood and perceived reduced burden. Conclusion: The results suggest that the communication intervention demonstrates preliminary evidence of positive effects on residents’ QOL and care providers’ mood and burden. PMID:27899433
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000-154,000 and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000-119,000, respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000-58,000, high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000-43,000, high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000-39,000, and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000-35,000. In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7 if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution. CONCLUSIONS
Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Orange, J B
Communication problems stemming from Alzheimer's disease (AD) often result in misunderstandings that can be linked with problem behaviours and increased caregiver stress. Moreover, these communication breakdowns also can result either from caregivers' use of ineffective communication strategies, which paradoxically are perceived as helpful, or can occur as a result of not using effective communication strategies that are perceived as unhelpful. The two primary aims were to determine the effectiveness of strategies used to resolve communication breakdowns and to examine whether caregivers' ratings of strategy effectiveness were consistent with evidence from video-recorded conversations and with effective communication strategies documented in the literature. Twenty-eight mealtime conversations were recorded using a sample of 15 dyads consisting of individuals with early, middle and late clinical-stage AD and their family caregivers. Conversations were analysed using the trouble-source repair paradigm to identify the communication strategies used by caregivers to resolve breakdowns. Family caregivers also rated the helpfulness of communication strategies used to resolve breakdowns. Analyses were conducted to assess the overlap or match between the use and appraisals of the helpfulness of communication strategies. Matched and mismatched appraisals of communication strategies varied across stages of AD. Matched appraisals by caregivers of persons with early-stage AD were observed for 68% of 22 communication strategies, whereas caregivers of persons with middle- and late-stage AD had matched appraisals for 45% and 55% of the strategies, respectively. Moreover, caregivers of persons with early-stage AD had matched appraisals over and above making matched appraisals by chance alone, compared with caregivers of persons in middle- and late-stage AD. Mismatches illustrate the need for communication education and training, particularly to establish empirically derived
Eertwegh, V. van den; Dalen, J. van; Dulmen, S. van; Vleuten, C. van der; Scherpbier, A.
Objective: Contextual factors are known to influence the acquisition and application of communication skills in clinical settings. Little is known about residents’ perceptions of these factors. This article aims to explore residents’ perceptions of contextual factors affecting the acquisition and
Gordon, Howard.S.; Street, Richard.L.
The purpose of this study was to compare several different measures of physician-patient communication. We compared data derived from different measures of three communication behaviors: patient participation; physician information-giving; and physician participatory decision making (PDM) style, from 83 outpatient visits to oncology or thoracic surgery clinics for pulmonary nodules or lung cancer. Communication was measured with rating scales completed by patients and physicians after the consultation and by two different groups of external observers who used rating scales or coded the frequency of communication behaviors, respectively, after listening to an audio-recording of the consultation. Measures were compared using Pearson correlations. Correlations of patients’ and physicians’ ratings of patient participation (r=0.04) and physician PDM style (r=0.03) were low and not significant (P>0.0083 Bonferroni-adjusted). Correlations of observers’ ratings with patients’ or physicians’ ratings for patient participation and physician PDM style were moderate or low (r=0.15, 0.27, 0.07, and 0.01, respectively), but were not statistically significant (P>0.0083 Bonferroni-adjusted). Correlations between observers’ ratings and frequency measures were 0.31, 0.52, and 0.63, and were statistically significant with p-values 0.005, communication to more labor intensive frequency measures. PMID:26755527
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of frequent feedback on residents' communication skills as measured by a standardized checklist. Five medical students were recruited in order to assess twelve emergency medicine residents' communication skills during a one-year period. Students employed a modified checklist based on Calgary-Cambridge observation guide. The checklist was designed by faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Science, used for assessment of students' communication skills. 24 items from 71 items of observational guide were selected, considering study setting and objects. Every two months an expert faculty, based on descriptive results of observation, gave structured feedback to each resident during a 15-minute private session. Total mean score for baseline observation standing at 20.58 was increased significantly to 28.75 after feedbacks. Results markedly improved on "gathering information" (T1=5.5, T6=8.33, P=0.001, "building relationship" (T1=1.5, T6=4.25, P<0.001 and "closing the session" (T1=0.75, T6=2.5, P=0.001 and it mildly dropped on "understanding patients view" (T1=3, T6=2.33, P=0.007 and "providing structure" (T1=4.17, T6=4.00, P=0.034. Changes in result of "initiating the session" and "explanation and planning" dimensions are not statically significant (P=0.159, P=0.415 respectively. Frequent feedback provided by faculty member can improve residents' communication skills. Feedback can affect communication skills educational programs, and it can be more effective if it is combined with other educational methods.
Labaf, Ali; Jamali, Kazem; Jalili, Mohammad; Baradaran, Hamid R; Eizadi, Parisa
To evaluate the effect of frequent feedback on residents' communication skills as measured by a standardized checklist. Five medical students were recruited in order to assess twelve emergency medicine residents' communication skills during a one-year period. Students employed a modified checklist based on Calgary-Cambridge observation guide. The checklist was designed by faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Science, used for assessment of students' communication skills. 24 items from 71 items of observational guide were selected, considering study setting and objects. Every two months an expert faculty, based on descriptive results of observation, gave structured feedback to each resident during a 15-minute private session. Total mean score for baseline observation standing at 20.58 was increased significantly to 28.75 after feedbacks. Results markedly improved on "gathering information" (T1=5.5, T6=8.33, P=0.001), "building relationship" (T1=1.5, T6=4.25, P<0.001) and "closing the session" (T1=0.75, T6=2.5, P=0.001) and it mildly dropped on "understanding patients view" (T1=3, T6=2.33, P=0.007) and "providing structure" (T1=4.17, T6=4.00, P=0.034). Changes in result of "initiating the session" and "explanation and planning" dimensions are not statically significant (P=0.159, P=0.415 respectively). Frequent feedback provided by faculty member can improve residents' communication skills. Feedback can affect communication skills educational programs, and it can be more effective if it is combined with other educational methods.
Berg, Scott A.
Approved for public rerlease; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains material for the course, Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3). The first part of the thesis describes selected principles and concepts of C3 related to communication management, interoperability, command structure and standardization. The Crisis Action System is described emphasizing the roles and functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. A discussion of...
Essers, Geurt; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Bolhuis, Sanneke
Medical students learn professional communication through formal training and in clinical practice. Physicians working in clinical practice have a powerful influence on student learning. However, they may demonstrate communication behaviours not aligning with recommendations in training programs. This study aims to identify more precisely what differences students perceive between role model communication behaviour during clerkships and formal training. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected about physicians' communication performance as perceived by students. Students filled out a questionnaire in four different clerkships in their fourth and fifth year. Just over half of the students reported communication similar to formal training. This was especially true for students in the later clerkships (paediatrics and primary care). Good examples were seen in providing information corresponding to patients' needs and in shared decision making, although students often noted that in fact the doctor made the decision. Bad examples were observed in exploring cognitions and emotions, and in providing information meeting patient's pace. Further study is needed on actual physician behaviour in clinical practice. From our results, we conclude that students need help in reflecting on and learning from the gap in communication patterns they observe in training versus clinical practice.
Hugman, Bruce; Edwards, I Ralph
Rational use of drugs and patient safety are seriously compromised by a lack of good information, education and effective communication at all stages of drug development and use. From animal trials through to dispensing, there are misconceptions and opportunities for error which current methods of drug information communication do not adequately address: they do not provide those responsible for prescribing and dispensing drugs with the data and information they need to pass on complex and often changing messages to patients and the public. The incidence of adverse reactions due to the way drugs are used; the variable impact of regulatory guidelines and warnings on prescribing behaviour; drug scares and crises suggest a great gap between the ideals of the safe use of medicines and the reality in homes, clinics and hospitals around the world. To address these challenges, the authors review the several levels at which safety information is generated and communicated, and examine how, at each stage, the content and its significance, and the method of communication can be improved.
Mulder, Bob C; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J
Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse-patient communication and to review potentially effective communication methods. Important communication barriers are lack of skills and self-efficacy, possibly because nurses work in a context where they have to perform biomedical examinations and then perform patient-centered counseling from a biopsychosocial approach. Training in patient-centered counseling does not seem helpful in overcoming this paradox. Rather, patient-centeredness should be regarded as a basic condition for counseling, whereby nurses and patients seek to cooperate and share responsibility based on trust. Nurses may be more successful when incorporating behavior change counseling based on psychological principles of self-regulation, for example, goal setting, incremental performance accomplishments, and action planning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Not only neurologists but also ENT-physicians and phoniatricians have to prescribe speech and language therapy for patients with communication disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity among patients. Many studies have investigated these procedures and positive effects on certain physical e. g., chronic pain and anxiety disorders could be validated. Unfortunately only few empirical investigations have targeted the use of CAM to treat neurogenic disorders of communication or cognition. In this review we provide an overview over general therapeutical principals of two widely used approaches, relaxation therapy and acupuncture. Then we survey the literature and summarize existent research literature regarding the effects of the treatment of neurogenic disorders including dementia.
This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication...... that social media contribute to extending surveillance: by being a temptation for intelligence services, by not resisting state authorities and via constructing threat perceptions among populations which in effect deliver security politicians ‘windows of opportunity’ in order to implement ever more....... However, via social media citizens also become targets of the ‘collect-it-all’ surveillance, which was revealed to the global public in 2013. I argue that due to such surveillance some citizens might start to censor themselves and that surveillance inflicts with a number of human rights. I further argue...
Yumaira Matilde Quero Romero
Full Text Available This research is correlational descriptive, is framed in positivist approach why a quantitative statistical analysis was used to process the data obtained from the subjects surveyed to measure the relationship of the variables: Effective Communication and Job Performance of Directors and their respective dimensions and indicators. The study design is not experimental, transeccioanal. A population census was performed by the population being comprised of 99 subjects, 9 of which belong to the management staff and 90 teachers of Basic Schools Altagracia parish, municipality Miranda, Zulia state. Type two survey instruments comprised of 39 itemes each designed to measure effective communication and job performance of managers of national primary schools of Altagracia parish, with alternatives of Likert responses which variables were always, sometimes, almost never, never the statistical analysis used to analyze the results in this research was descriptive, with frequency distribution per item. In conclusion a significant positive correlation at the level of 0.00 was detected.
Dedual, M.; Sague Pla, O.; Arlinghaus, R.
The management of recreational fisheries benefits from good collaboration between scientists, managers and recreational fishers. However, the level of collaboration largely depends on the levels of effective communication among the different stakeholders. This paper presents the views of scientists......, managers and fishers concerning the quality of communication in eleven case studies of recreational fisheries. Case studies were synthesised and common reasons why communication did not always flow as intended were identified. The prevalent barriers to good communication, and therefore collaboration...... included a lack of rigorous scientific information transfer from scientists to fishers and managers, a fear from fishers that management actions will limit fishing opportunities, pre‐existing antagonism between commercial and recreational fisheries, and fishers' suspicion of science. Overcoming...
Maina, Tirus Muya
The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among coworkers. Instant messaging is the multitasking tools of choice most people chatting over IM do other things at the same time.The use of IM in workplace is less intrusive than the use of phone, more immediate than email and has added advantage due to the ability to detect presence.In order for institution to maximize increased business productivity using instant messaging its impe...
Massey, J. L.
The degradation of the performance of digital communication systems because of ionospheric scintillation effects can be reduced either by diversity techniques or by coding. The effectiveness of traditional space-diversity, frequency-diversity and time-diversity techniques is reviewed and design considerations isolated. Time-diversity signaling is then treated as an extremely simple form of coding. More advanced coding methods, such as diffuse threshold decoding and burst-trapping decoding, which appear attractive in combatting scintillation effects are discussed and design considerations noted. Finally, adaptive coding techniques appropriate when the general state of the channel is known are discussed.
Conklin, Carl G.; Mayer, G. Roy
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training, using a multiple baseline design on the independent initiations of three adults with developmental disabilities and severe communication deficits. All participants increased their independent initiations, although at different…
Clements, Alana; Curtis, Kate; Horvat, Leanne; Shaban, Ramon Z
Effective assessment and resuscitation of trauma patients requires an organised, multidisciplinary team. Literature evaluating leadership roles of nurses in trauma resuscitation and their effect on team performance is scarce. To assess the effect of allocating the most senior nurse as team leader of trauma patient assessment and resuscitation on communication, documentation and perceptions of leadership within an Australian emergency department. The study design was a pre-post-test survey of emergency nursing staff (working at resuscitation room level) perceptions of leadership, communication, and documentation before and after the implementation of a nurse leader role. Patient records were audited focussing on initial resuscitation assessment, treatment, and nursing clinical entry. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Communication trended towards improvement. All (100%) respondents post-test stated they had a good to excellent understanding of their role, compared to 93.2% pre-study. A decrease (58.1-12.5%) in 'intimidating personality' as a negative aspect of communication. Nursing leadership had a 6.7% increase in the proportion of those who reported nursing leadership to be good to excellent. Accuracy of clinical documentation improved (P = 0.025). Trauma nurse team leaders improve some aspects of communication and leadership. Development of trauma nurse leaders should be encouraged within trauma team training programmes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teaching students to communicate effectively with patients has always been part of the radiography curriculum in the USA. However, developing these skills has become even more important in recent times due to several factors. Patients who have been well versed in what to expect from the examination being conducted are in a better position to co-operate with the radiographer. This increases the chances of producing optimal results from an examination at the first attempt, thus reducing radiation exposure, patient discomfort and the overall cost of conducting the procedure. Also, increased competition among health care providers has resulted in more emphasis being placed on patient, or customer, satisfaction. Radiographers are in the 'front line' of patient care. Patients often have more interaction with radiographers than with physicians or other medical specialists. Radiographers who practise effective communication techniques with their patients can alleviate anxiety and make an important contribution to the overall satisfaction of the patient with respect to the quality of service and care they receive. This article describes instructional methods being used in the USA to help develop effective patient communication techniques, and reports the findings of a study among radiography educators as to which of these methods are thought to be most successful.
Shi, J F; Zhong, X X; Chen, S
The key challenge in wireless sensor networks is maximizing network lifetime. It will significantly reduce energy consumption of communication and prolong networks lifetime to choose appropriate communication mode. In this paper, energy model and communication topology are proposed, and then from the viewpoint of effective result, expression for communication energy cost of single sensor node and overall system in different communication mode is derived, impact that sensor nodes amount, communication radius and propagation loss exponent pose on communication mode based on simulations is analyzed, and the justification for choosing communication mode is summarized
In this Par-II report of the Advanced Communications Benefits study, two critical metrics for comparing the benefits of utilizing X-band, Ka-band and Optical frequencies for supporting generic classes of Martian exploration missions have been evaluated.
Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S.; Singh, Tej B.
Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child t...
Ragan, Eric D [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL
Provenance tools can help capture and represent the history of analytic processes. In addition to supporting analytic performance, provenance tools can be used to support memory of the process and communication of the steps to others. Objective evaluation methods are needed to evaluate how well provenance tools support analyst s memory and communication of analytic processes. In this paper, we present several methods for the evaluation of process memory, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each. We discuss methods for determining a baseline process for comparison, and we describe various methods that can be used to elicit process recall, step ordering, and time estimations. Additionally, we discuss methods for conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses of process memory. By organizing possible memory evaluation methods and providing a meta-analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of different approaches, this paper can inform study design and encourage objective evaluation of process memory and communication.
van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Vliegenthart, R.
In communication research, it has been claimed that two important characteristics of online political communication, personalized and interactive two-way communication, can mobilize citizens to become more politically involved. In a survey-embedded experiment, we examine whether levels of
Brooks, Keith; And Others
Discusses the benefits of the International Communication Association Communication Audit as a methodology for evaluation of organizational communication processes and outcomes. An "after" survey of 16 audited organizations confirmed the audit as a valid diagnostic methodology and organization development intervention technique which…
Full Text Available A substantial increase in distributed renewable energy resources is changing the face of the energy environment, leading to strategic communication efforts by key stakeholders. The energy democracy movement supports this transformation from fossil fuels to distributed renewable energy and aims for equitable involvement of publics in energy decision making. These tenets challenge utility company earnings as they are directly related to energy sales and infrastructure returns on investment. Proposals by electric utility companies to restructure net-metering policies as a solution to financial issues have been criticized as prohibitive to the success of renewable energy advancement. To address these disagreements, the Edison Electric Institute and a communication firm, Maslansky & Partners, created The Future of Energy: A Working Communication Guide for Discussion. This handbook provides utility companies with strategic communication guidelines to portray themselves as supportive of renewables within a dynamic energy industry. We posit that aspects of the energy democracy movement have been employed by electric utility companies, as shown through the use of the handbook, as a strategy for communicating with customers in discussions around net metering. We examine two case studies in states with recent controversial net-metering policy changes by analyzing utility company websites and press releases for the use of the communication handbook terminology. We found that, in both cases, the suggested language was used to position their companies as pro-renewable energy and their utility-scale projects as more equitable for their customers. In addition, we found differences between each company’s use of key terms from the handbook. We posit that this is due to the temporal context of each net-metering debate at the time of the handbook release. Conclusions and future directions for research in the growing area of energy democracy are discussed.
Srikanth, K.; Puranam, P.
We investigate coordination strategies in integrating distributed work. In the context of Business Process Offshoring (BPO), we analyze survey data from 126 offshored processes to understand both the sources of difficulty in integrating distributed work as well as how organizations overcome...... on tacit coordination-and theoretically articulate and empirically show that tacit coordination mechanisms are distinct from the well-known duo of coordination strategies: building communication channels or modularizing processes to minimize the need for communication. We discuss implications for the study...
Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.
Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low
Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark
Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akande, Adebowale; And Others
Replicated a study of the relationship between children's self-esteem and communication skills. Fourth- and fifth-grade students completed instruments on self-esteem and communication skills then received a four-session treatment on techniques for effective communication. Results indicated moderately improved communication skills but only marginal…
Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin
This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...
Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu
Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed.
Lee, D H; Mehta, M D
Effective risk communication in transfusion medicine is important for health-care consumers, but understanding the numerical magnitude of risks can be difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a visual risk communication tool on the knowledge and perception of transfusion risk. Laypeople were randomly assigned to receive transfusion risk information with either a written or a visual presentation format for communicating and comparing the probabilities of transfusion risks relative to other hazards. Knowledge of transfusion risk was ascertained with a multiple-choice quiz and risk perception was ascertained by psychometric scaling and principal components analysis. Two-hundred subjects were recruited and randomly assigned. Risk communication with both written and visual presentation formats increased knowledge of transfusion risk and decreased the perceived dread and severity of transfusion risk. Neither format changed the perceived knowledge and control of transfusion risk, nor the perceived benefit of transfusion. No differences in knowledge or risk perception outcomes were detected between the groups randomly assigned to written or visual presentation formats. Risk communication that incorporates risk comparisons in either written or visual presentation formats can improve knowledge and reduce the perception of transfusion risk in laypeople.
The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.
The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries' mass media.
Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna
Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…
Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.
A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…
High-speed free-space optical communication systems have recently utilized components that have been developed for fiber-optic communication systems. The received laser beam in such a system must be coupled into a single-mode fiber at the input of a commercially available receiver module or a wavelength division demultiplexer. However, one effect of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is that the spatial coherence of a laser beam is degraded and the percentage of the available power that can be coupled into the single-mode fiber is limited. This dissertation presents a numerical evaluation of fiber coupling efficiency for laser light distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The results for weak fluctuation conditions provide the level of coupling efficiency that can be expected for a given turbulence strength. In addition, the results show that the link distance must be limited to 400 m under moderate turbulence conditions if the link budget requires a coupling efficiency of 0.1. We also investigate the use of a coherent fiber array as a receiver structure to improve the fiber coupling efficiency of a free-space optical communication system. Our numerical results show that a coherent fiber array that consists of seven subapertures would increase fiber coupling efficiency by a significant amount for representative turbulence conditions and link distances. The use of photo-emf detectors as elements of a wavefront sensor for an adaptive optics system is also considered as an alternative method of reducing the effects of turbulence on a free-space optical communication system. Dember and photo-emf currents are investigated in silicon photoconductive detectors both theoretically and experimentally. Our results show that Dember photocurrents dominate the response of high-purity silicon samples with top surface electrodes to a moving interference pattern. The use of surface electrodes leads to shadowed regions beneath the electrodes and Dember photocurrents appear
Kerr, Mônica de Souza; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Mineiro, Ana; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
To verify age and education effects on communication performance of healthy adults in the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery, Portuguese version (MAC-PT). The sample comprised 90 healthy adults from Portugal, European Portuguese speakers, divided into nine groups according to educational level (4-9, 10-13, and > 13 years of formal schooling) and age (19-40, 41-64, and 65-80 years). The influence of age and education was assessed by comparing mean scores between groups, using a two-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests (p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that participants' performance was influenced by age in pragmatic-inferential, discursive, and prosodic tasks. Education had the greatest influence on the performance in all processes evaluated by the MAC-PT. Age and education seem to influence the communicative performance and should be considered in the assessment of neurological patients.
Bosse, Hans Martin; Nickel, Martin; Huwendiek, Sören; Schultz, Jobst Hendrik; Nikendei, Christoph
The few studies directly comparing the methodological approach of peer role play (RP) and standardized patients (SP) for the delivery of communication skills all suggest that both methods are effective. In this study we calculated the costs of both methods (given comparable outcomes) and are the first to generate a differential cost-effectiveness analysis of both methods. Medical students in their prefinal year were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving communication training in Pediatrics either with RP (N = 34) or 19 individually trained SP (N = 35). In an OSCE with standardized patients using the Calgary-Cambridge Referenced Observation Guide both groups achieved comparable high scores (results published). In this study, corresponding costs were assessed as man-hours resulting from hours of work of SP and tutors. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Cost-effectiveness analysis revealed a major advantage for RP as compared to SP (112 vs. 172 man hours; cost effectiveness ratio .74 vs. .45) at comparable performance levels after training with both methods. While both peer role play and training with standardized patients have their value in medical curricula, RP has a major advantage in terms of cost-effectiveness. This could be taken into account in future decisions.
Egger, A. E.
Geology is a difficult subject to communicate effectively. Many people associate geology with memorizing rock and mineral names and not with dynamic earth processes. Even more challenging for the non-geologist is the concept of deep time, and why processes that happened millions of years ago are important to us today. Additionally, many people view science itself as inaccessible and difficult. And yet, geology is a naturally accessible subject, as it is all around us. In order to communicate effectively, geologists must convince others that their work is both accessible and relevant, even though it may not directly generate economic benefits or lend insight into solutions for our modern problems like climate change. As scientists, we know the connections are there, but convincing others requires creating face-to-face, positive interactions through the use of active techniques to help bring the audience to an understanding of the process of science in addition to the subject matter itself. My overarching motive for creating and participating in communication activities with a broad audience is thus to demonstrate that science is accessible to everyone, that a scientific way of thinking can be both fun and useful, and that a little knowledge about geology can give you a new perspective on the world. Using this motivation as a guiding principle regardless of the specific audience, two techniques are important to make the communication effective. First, whenever possible, I conduct activities in the field (broadly speaking), or at least bring the field into the talk, and model the scientific process by asking for participation. This allows the audience to fully understand how geologic work is done, including the mundane and the mistakes. Second, I take my audience seriously, including all questions and observations, in order to build confidence in everyone that they are able to contribute to and understand both geology and the scientific process in general. Despite the
Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana
Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.
Hakone, Anzu; Harrison, Lane; Ottley, Alvitta; Winters, Nathan; Gutheil, Caitlin; Han, Paul K J; Chang, Remco
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, and yet most cases represent localized cancer for which the optimal treatment is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that the available treatment options, including surgery and conservative treatment, result in a similar prognosis for most men with localized prostate cancer. However, approximately 90% of patients choose surgery over conservative treatment, despite the risk of severe side effects like erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Recent medical research suggests that a key reason is the lack of patient-centered tools that can effectively communicate personalized risk information and enable them to make better health decisions. In this paper, we report the iterative design process and results of developing the PROgnosis Assessment for Conservative Treatment (PROACT) tool, a personalized health risk communication tool for localized prostate cancer patients. PROACT utilizes two published clinical prediction models to communicate the patients' personalized risk estimates and compare treatment options. In collaboration with the Maine Medical Center, we conducted two rounds of evaluations with prostate cancer survivors and urologists to identify the design elements and narrative structure that effectively facilitate patient comprehension under emotional distress. Our results indicate that visualization can be an effective means to communicate complex risk information to patients with low numeracy and visual literacy. However, the visualizations need to be carefully chosen to balance readability with ease of comprehension. In addition, due to patients' charged emotional state, an intuitive narrative structure that considers the patients' information need is critical to aid the patients' comprehension of their risk information.
Fadel Abdul-Zahra Murad
Full Text Available In this paper wireless optical communication system (FSO is designed through the use of software (Optisystem . The paper also study the effect of atmospheric dust on the performance of communication system (FSO, the effect of dust concentration on the visibility by taking a different concentrations of dust (9, 20, 40, 60, 80 100, 120 gm / month / m2 . The effect of the visibility on the attenuation of dust concentration on each of these concentrations , and calculate attenuation of dust for the wavelengths (784 nm, 1550 nm. The Paper also deals with effect of the transmitted laser power on the transmitter range (propagation distance where five different values of transmitted laser power (10mw, 20mw, 30mw, 40mw, 50mw are taken and the study calculates the maximum transmitter range of each value of the transmitted power under the influence of attenuation atmospheric dust concentrations for each concentration of dust used and also for the two wavelengths (1550nm, 784nm.
Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L
Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a
Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L
Use of electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes' is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing young adults to older adults. In this qualitative study, the investigator conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of e-cigarette users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. e-cigarettes were most commonly used for smoking cessation among both age groups. Young adults described other motivations for use including doing smoke tricks, being able to consume a wide variety of flavors, and helping them study. Some interviewees (11%) believed e-cigarettes were a healthy alternative to conventional cigarettes, while many other users (30%) expressed concerns about the unknown risks of e-cigarettes. Findings were generally consistent across both age groups in their perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and in subjective effects such as perceived addictiveness. However, individuals under 30 described unique motivations for e-cigarette use. Health messaging targeted to young adults should emphasize the potential health risks of e-cigarette use and recognize their distinct motivational aspects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Laštovička, Jan; Bourdillon, A.
Roč. 47, 2/3 (2004), s. 1269-1277 ISSN 1593-5213. [Final Meeting COST271 Action. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth-space communications (EACOS). Abingdon, 26.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 271.10; GA AV ČR IBS3012007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionospheric reflection * telecommunications * gravity waves * planetary waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2004 http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/3299/3345
Digital data scrambling has been considered for communication systems using NRZ symbol formats. The purpose is to increase the number of transitions in the data to improve the performance of the symbol synchronizer. This is accomplished without expanding the bandwidth but at the expense of increasing the data bit error rate (BER). Models for the scramblers/descramblers of practical interest are presented together with the appropriate link model. The effects of scrambling on the performance of coded and uncoded links are studied. The results are illustrated by application to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) links. Conclusions regarding the usefulness of scrambling are also given.
Full Text Available Run Chang,1 Linlin Sun,1 Thomas J Webster1,21Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound extracted from the plant Curcuma longa L. In previous studies, curcumin has been shown to have anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cytotoxicity of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 µM of curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide was compared between MG-63 osteosarcoma and healthy human osteoblast cells. Consequently, the viability of osteosarcoma cells was less than 50% at a concentration of 10 µM compared to the control sample without curcumin, but healthy osteoblast cells had at least 80% viability throughout all the concentrations tested. The results demonstrated that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells were much more sensitive in terms of cytotoxicity to curcumin, while the healthy human osteoblasts exhibited a higher healthy viability after 24 hours of curcumin treatment. Therefore, this study showed that at the right concentrations (5 µM to 25 µM, curcumin, along with a proper nanoparticle drug delivery carrier, may selectively kill bone cancer cells over healthy bone cells.Keywords: curcumin, osteosarcoma, human osteoblast, viability, bone cancer
Hanada, Eisuke; Fujiki, Tadayoshi; Nakakuni, Hideaki; Sullivan, Corbet Vernon
In large hospitals, collaborative clinical practice is currently emphasized, with members of various departments expected to work as a team. The importance of accurate communication among the team members is of utmost importance. To improve such communication, the introduction of mobile voice communication systems has received much attention in Japan. Shimane University Hospital also introduced a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) for doctors. In the traditional setting, much time was wasted searching for doctors through multiple calls on fixed-line telephones. In order to measure the effectiveness of our system, the change in the number of calls made on fixed-line telephones before and after PHS installation was compared. The total number of calls was reduced by more than 35%, and the number of calls to the wards on weekdays was reduced by half. Mobile telecommunication systems with small output power, such as PHS, are known to cause little interference with medical devices which makes it possible to use mobile voice communication safely in hospitals. The improvement in communication by this systems resulted in an improvement in labor efficiency.
The Medical Service is taking part in the French, National Hearing Day You are invited on 15th May 2002 to come to the infirmary, build. 57 ground floor, between 9.00 and 16.00 to find out the possible harmful effects of noise, risk prevention and other auditory diseases and problems. A hard of Hearing Association member will be there to answer your questions. An on the spot hearing test will be available.
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...
F-value of 9.84 and 10.11 recorded for the two categories of farmers respectively, and being significant at 1 percent each, led to the rejection of the hypothesis of inputs having no significant effect on output. It is thus concluded that credit could bring about higher productivity and profit in agricultural production, hence, this ...
Vitri Dyah Herawati
Full Text Available Background: The SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation method assists nurses in communicating information in nursing shift handover. Inaccurate shift handover can have a serious impact on patients due to poor communication. Optimal resource development can be done by coaching as the best guidance method from manager for directional discussion and guidance activity to learn to solve problem or do better job and build nursing leadership culture in clinical service. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of coaching method using SBAR communication tool on nursing shift handovers. Methods: This was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. Fifty-four nurses were selected using consecutive sampling, which 27 assigned in the experiment and control group. An observation checklist was developed by the researchers based on the theory of Lardner to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of coaching using SBAR on nursing shift handover. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon test were used for data analyses. Results: There was an increase in coaching ability of head nurses in the implementation of SBAR in nursing handover after 2-weeks and 4-weeks of coaching. And there was also a significant improvement of the use of SBAR on nursing shift handover in the experiment group (p <0.05 compared to the control group. Conclusion: coaching using SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation communication tool was effective on nursing shift handovers. There was a significant increase of the capability of head nurse and nursing shift handover after coaching intervention.
Verneau, Fabio; La Barbera, Francesco; Kolle, Susanne; Amato, Mario; Del Giudice, Teresa; Grunert, Klaus
It has been widely noted that the introduction of insects in Westerns' diet might be a promising path towards a more sustainable food consumption. However, Westerns' are almost disgusted and sceptical about the eating of insects. In the current paper we report the results of an experiment conducted in two European countries-Denmark and Italy-different for food culture and familiarity with the topic of eating insects. We investigated the possibility to foster people's willingness to eat insect-based food through communication, also comparing messages based on individual vs. societal benefits of the eating of insects. Communication proved to be effective on intention and behaviour, and the societal message appeared to be more robust over time. The communication effect is significant across nation, gender, and previous knowledge about the topic. In addition, we investigated the impact of non-conscious negative associations with insects on the choice to eat vs. not eat insect-based food. Implicit attitudes proved to be a powerful factor in relation to behaviour, yet they did not impede the effectiveness of communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeh, Pei-Han; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lai, Chun-Liang; Tsai, Wei-Ta; Hsieh, Hui-Ling; Shih, Yi-Ting; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Lin, Yi-An; Lin, Po-Hao; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Dai-Wei; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Liu, Jia-Chi; Chung, En-Seu; Lin, Hon-Yi
Abstract Background: Frequent multidisciplinary communication is essential in conducting daily radiotherapy (RT) practice. However, traditional oral or paper-based communication has limitations. E-communication has been suggested, but its effects are still not well demarcated in the field of radiation oncology. Objects: In our web-based integrated information platform, we constructed a ping-pong-type e-communication function to transfer specific notations among multidisciplinary RT staffs. The purpose was to test whether applying this e-communication can increase effectiveness of multidisciplinary cooperation when compared with oral or paper-based practice. Staff satisfaction and clinical benefits were also demonstrated. Design and setting: A real-world quality-improving study was conducted in a large center of radiation oncology. Participants and dataset used: Before and after applying multidisciplinary e-communication (from 2014 to 2015), clinical RT staffs were surveyed for their user experience and satisfaction (n = 23). For measuring clinical effectiveness, a secondary database of irradiated head and neck cancer patients was re-analyzed for comparing RT toxicities (n = 402). Interventions: Applying ping-pong-type multidisciplinary reflective e-communication was the main intervention. Outcome measures: For measuring staff satisfaction, eight domains were surveyed, such as timeliness, convenience, and completeness. For measuring clinical effectiveness of multidisciplinary cooperation, event rates of severe (i.e., grade 3–4) RT mucositis and dermatitis were recorded. Results: Overall, when compared with oral communication only, e-communication demonstrated multiple benefits, particularly on notation-review convenience (2.00 ± 1.76 vs 9.19 ± 0.81; P communication showed statistically significant benefits on all eight domains, especially on notation-review convenience (5.05 ± 2.11 vs 9.19 ± 0.81; P communication (8.76 ± 0
This experimental study examined differences in doctor-patient relationships according to the health communication strategies during cases of medical malpractices occurred at primary medical institution. A total of 116 subjects aged in their 20s-50s was sampled. The first medical malpractice scenario chosen was the medical malpractice case most frequently registered at the Korean Medical Association Mutual Aid and the second scenario was associated with materials and devices as the cause of malpractice. Four types of crisis communication strategy messages were utilized, consisting of denial, denial + ingratiation, apology, and apology + ingratiation. Subjects were classified into four research groups by crisis communication strategy to measure levels of trust, control mutuality, commitment, and satisfaction, before and after the occurrence of medical malpractice and application of communication strategies. The findings of this study revealed that the apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, showed a smaller difference before and after the application of communication strategies in all variables of trust (F = 8.080, F = 5.768), control mutuality (F = 8.824, F = 9.081), commitment (F = 9.815, F = 8.301), and satisfaction (F = 8.723, F = 5.638). Further, a significant interaction effect was shown between variables. The apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, was effective in the improvement of doctor-patient relationships in both Scenarios I and II. For Scenario I, the apology strategy without ingratiation boosted commitment and satisfaction, but for Scenario II, utilizing the apology strategy with ingratiation boosted the effectiveness of trust and commitment. PMID:27365998
Song, Dae Jong; Choi, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Jiwon Monica
This experimental study examined differences in doctor-patient relationships according to the health communication strategies during cases of medical malpractices occurred at primary medical institution. A total of 116 subjects aged in their 20s-50s was sampled. The first medical malpractice scenario chosen was the medical malpractice case most frequently registered at the Korean Medical Association Mutual Aid and the second scenario was associated with materials and devices as the cause of malpractice. Four types of crisis communication strategy messages were utilized, consisting of denial, denial + ingratiation, apology, and apology + ingratiation. Subjects were classified into four research groups by crisis communication strategy to measure levels of trust, control mutuality, commitment, and satisfaction, before and after the occurrence of medical malpractice and application of communication strategies. The findings of this study revealed that the apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, showed a smaller difference before and after the application of communication strategies in all variables of trust (F = 8.080, F = 5.768), control mutuality (F = 8.824, F = 9.081), commitment (F = 9.815, F = 8.301), and satisfaction (F = 8.723, F = 5.638). Further, a significant interaction effect was shown between variables. The apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, was effective in the improvement of doctor-patient relationships in both Scenarios I and II. For Scenario I, the apology strategy without ingratiation boosted commitment and satisfaction, but for Scenario II, utilizing the apology strategy with ingratiation boosted the effectiveness of trust and commitment.
Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M
A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.
Dithole, K S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Akpor, Oluwaseyi A; Moleki, Mary M
Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often experience communication difficulties - usually associated with mechanical ventilation - resulting in psychological problems such as anxiety, fear, and depression. Good communication between nurses and patients is critical for success from personalised nursing care of each patient. The purpose of this study is to describe nurses' experience of a communication skills training intervention. A convenience sample of twenty intensive care nurses participated in the study. Data was collected by means of interviews with nurses. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Six themes emerged: (1) acceptance of knowledge and skills developed during workshops; (2) management support; (3) appreciation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices; (4) change in attitudes; and (5) the need to share knowledge with others and (6) inclusion of communication skills workshop training as an integral part of an orientation programme for all nurses. The findings of this study indicated that the application of augmentative and alternative communication devices and strategies can improve nurse-patient communication in intensive care units. Therefore, the implementation of communication skills training for intensive care nurses should constantly be encouraged and, indeed, introduced as a key element of ICU care training.
Hall, J. M.
The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.
Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia
commitment is at the basis of positive employee communicative actions, like advocacy and positive referrals, which finally protect the company’s reputation. After a theoretical exploration of these issues, this chapter presents first a case study showing how continuous internal communication efforts...... and factual communication based on managers’ and company’s actions are crucial in order to build quality relationships with employees. In turn, this leads to positive employee communicative actions when a crisis occurs. Second, it illustrates a survey of Italian companies which examined internal crisis...... reputation. The chapter concludes that employee communicative actions are fundamental in order to protect the company’s reputation in case of crises. In addition, during crises it is important to sustain the positive relationship capital developed during the pre-crisis phase by means of accommodative...
Paul, Arkoprovo; Sharda, Megha; Menon, Soumini; Arora, Iti; Kansal, Nayantara; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Nandini C
There is emerging evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of music-based interventions for improving social functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). While this evidence lends some support in favor of using song over spoken directives in facilitating engagement and receptive intervention in ASD, there has been little research that has investigated the efficacy of such stimuli on socio-communicative responsiveness measures. Here, we present preliminary results from a pilot study which tested whether sung instruction, as compared to spoken directives, could elicit greater number of socio-communicative behaviors in young children with ASD. Using an adapted single-subject design, three children between the ages of 3 and 4 years, participated in a programme consisting of 18 sessions, of which 9 were delivered with spoken directives and 9 with sung. Sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for three play activities-block matching, picture matching and clay play. All sessions were video-recorded for post-hoc observational coding of three behavioral metrics which included performance, frequency of social gesture and eye contact. Analysis of the videos by two independent raters indicated increased socio-communicative responsiveness in terms of frequency of social gesture as well as eye contact during sung compared to spoken conditions, across all participants. Our findings suggest that sung directives may play a useful role in engaging children with ASD and also serve as an effective interventional medium to enhance socio-communicative responsiveness.
Full Text Available There is emerging evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of music based interventions for improving social functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. While this evidence lends some support in favour of using song over spoken directives in facilitating engagement and receptive intervention in ASD, there has been little research that has investigated the efficacy of such stimuli on socio-communicative responsiveness measures. Here, we present preliminary results from a pilot study which tested whether sung instruction, as compared to spoken directives, could elicit greater number of socio-communicative behaviours in young children with ASD. Using an adapted single-subject design, three children between the ages of 3 and 4 years, participated in a programme consisting of 18 sessions, of which 9 were delivered with spoken directives and 9 with sung. Sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for three play activities - block matching, picture matching and clay play. All sessions were video-recorded for post-hoc observational coding of three behavioural metrics which included performance, frequency of social gesture and eye contact. Analysis of the videos by two independent raters indicated increased socio-communicative responsiveness in terms of frequency of social gesture as well as eye contact during sung compared to spoken conditions across all participants. Our findings suggest that sung directives may play a useful role in engaging children with ASD and also serve as an effective interventional medium to enhance socio-communicative responsiveness.
Noll, A. Michael
Describes the results of preliminary experiments to investigate the effects of communications medium (face-to-face and two-way closed circuit television) on the fundamental frequency of speakers in a dyadic communications situation. (JMF)
Hage, Eveline; Noseleit, Florian
The impact of online communication on offline communication has received considerable research attention. Yet predominantly single level studies yield conflicting research findings and lack theoretical foundation. This study deviates from previous studies by developing a peer effect model rooted in
Lyndon, Audrey; Zlatnik, Marya G; Wachter, Robert M
Effective communication is a hallmark of safe patient care. Challenges to effective interprofessional communication in maternity care include differing professional perspectives on clinical management, steep hierarchies, and lack of administrative support for change. We review principles of high reliability as they apply to communication in clinical care and discuss principles of effective communication and conflict management in maternity care. Effective clinical communication is respectful, clear, direct, and explicit. We use a clinical scenario to illustrate an historic style of nurse-physician communication and demonstrate how communication can be improved to promote trust and patient safety. Consistent execution of successful communication requires excellent listening skills, superb administrative support, and collective commitment to move past traditional hierarchy and professional stereotyping. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
DeVitis, D.S.; Hannon, L.
A quantitative investigation of the effects of boom sidewall clearance during first and gross oil loss speed tests was discussed. A second measure of sidewall was quantified in terms of flow characteristics at specific location in the boom apex. The test boom was rigged in 5 different configurations. First oil loss and gross oil loss tow speeds, and relative horizontal flow velocities within the boom apex were obtained for each configuration. Flow velocities of 0.5 to 1.5 knots in 0.25 knot increments were measured. Flow velocities illustrated similar flow characteristics within the apex regardless of side wall clearance. The results of the study illustrated that boom to basin sidewall clearance may be an independent test parameter without a significant bias. 5 tabs., 8 figs.,
Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Wen-Hui; Hsieh, Suh-Ing
Studies have shown that an underappreciation of the importance of person-centered communication and inappropriate communication training could result in unsatisfactory communication performance from nurses. There are a large number of studies about communication training for nurses, but not so many about communication training in early stages of nursing career. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of a traditional course versus scenario-based simulation training on nurses' communication competency, communication self-efficacy, and communication performance in discharge planning Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). A randomized controlled trial was used with a pretest and two posttests. The experimental group underwent the scenario-based simulation course, whereas the control group received the traditional course. A convenience sample of 116 nurses with qualifications ranging from N0 level (novice nurses) to N2 level (competent nurses) in Taiwan's clinical nursing ladder system was recruited from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Analysis of covariance was used to determine between-subjects effects on communication competency and self-efficacy, whereas independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine between-subjects effects on learner satisfaction and discharge planning communication performance. Paired t test was used to determine communication self-efficacy. In this study, the nurses and independent raters found scenario-based simulation training more effective than traditional communication course. However, standardized patients reported no significant difference in communication performance between the two groups of nurses. Despite that traditional classroom lectures and simulation-based communication training could both produce enhanced communication competency and self-efficacy among nurses, this study has established that the latter may be better than the former in terms of learner satisfaction and communication
Bijou Baby, Mr
This dissertation looks at the importance of internal Organizational communication to achieve Organizational Effectiveness. The dissertation seeks to determine if organizational communication in an organization is related to its effective performance. This research explains how a particular organization looks into the aspects of communication and the ways its employees communicate. The dissertation is a result of in-depth case study in a construction company, evaluating the critical aspects o...
Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Singh, Tej B
Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors.
Preacher, Kristopher J.; Kelley, Ken
The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those…
Rose, Miranda L.; Mok, Zaneta; Sekine, Kazuki
Background: Human communication occurs through both verbal and visual/motoric modalities. Simultaneous conversational speech and gesture occurs across all cultures and age groups. When verbal communication is compromised, more of the communicative load can be transferred to the gesture modality. Although people with aphasia produce meaning-laden…
Baker, William H.
Analyzes defensiveness in communication as caused by an unwillingness to acknowledge and tolerate differences in others, a fear of change in ourselves, and a desire to avoid mental imbalance. It causes a deteriorating cycle between communicators but can be reduced by empathy, treatment of fellow communicators as equals, and genuineness. (JMF)
Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.
Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…
Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen
We investigate the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information. Using two comparability proxies based on De Franco et al.  and a comparability proxy based on the degree of information transfer, our results suggest that the overall comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption is marginal. We hypothesize that firm-level heterogeneity in IFRS compliance explains the limited comparability effect. To test this conjecture, we first hand-colle...
Ginter Peter M
shaping public response to terrorism and other disasters. The findings from this formative research suggest that perspectives and organizational processes often limit effective communication between these groups; though practical solutions such as participation of journalists in drills, scenario exercises, sharing of informational resources, and raising awareness at professional trade meetings may enhance the timely dissemination of accurate and appropriate information.
Harmful effects of prolonged radiation exposures were recognized early on following the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. The type and severity of radiogenic effects are functions of a number of factors, radiation quality and quantity, chemical toxicity, and radiosensitivity of irradiated tissues being the most significant ones. Currently, there are several human registries for radiogenic cancers. Atomic bomb and nuclear test survivors, and populations exposed to medical irradiation constitute the largest study cohorts. Two general types of radiogenic effects have emerged from these registries: prompt and delayed. While the effects of acute exposures are very well documented, investigations of the effects of low-level exposures require the use of mathematical models. Communicating the risks of lower-level chronic radiation exposures to the general public remains a challenging task. The most effective approaches include clear interpretation and placing radiation risks in perspective: risks versus benefits, and comparisons with risks carried by common activities in which we all engage. (author)
Montazeri, A; McEwen, J
This paper presents part of a survey which investigated people's response to different approaches to health education campaigns. The main objective of the original study was to find out whether the respondents preferred a fear-inducing campaign or a positive image advertising. Two anti-smoking advertisement produced by the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS), one using a fear appeal and the other, using a positive image were examined. A sample of 394 subjects in three age groups took part in the study and they were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. A high proportion in each group, including smokers indicated that they preferred the fear-inducing campaign. To investigate why people prefer this type of image, respondents were asked to explain their reasons. It was found that effective communication requires: (1) reality, (2) clear cut message, (3) simplicity, and (4) thought provoking nature and impact of the message. In addition, with regard to the advertising appeals it was found that both positive image and negative image campaigns could be used to attract attention and consequently communicate with the target population. Finally, the findings of this study in the light of psychosocial theories are discussed, and the Preference Model is proposed as providing a better understanding of the process behind people's preferences.
Full Text Available The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.
Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G
The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.
Full Text Available Communication strategies with the consumers of tourism products and services have significantly transformed in recent years with the advent of social media and online information. According to numerous authors, social media represent a hybrid form of traditional integrated marketing communications with the increased effect of WOM (word of mouth communication, which enables the exchange of information between users/consumers. The transparency of social media provides the hoteliers with necessary feedback and opens up new communication channels. Modern consumers possess greater knowledge and higher expectations than before. The purpose of the research conducted on a sample of mountain hotels in Serbia using web metrics was to determine guest perception and satisfaction with the hotels at the most popular Serbian mountain destinations. The results show that social networks can be used successfully by service providers to improve the understanding of guests’ needs, as well as to enhance business performance and revenue. By maintaining long-term relationships with guests, hoteliers can build stronger and more enduring connections that will result in new purchases and more efficient WOM (word of mouth.
Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.
Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the
This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.
Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…
Puspita, Fitri; Nasution, Reza Ashari
PT Telkom facing a business issue where their new user and ARPU (average revenue per user) target for Flexi in 2011 was not achieved and despite having the biggest market share among CDMA operators, but in fact, Flexi's brand value was below its main competitor. There are several factors that cause this issue; one of them is marketing communication that became the focus of this final project. Researcher used the theory of integrated marketing communication (IMC), particularly regarding the ef...
Grover, Susan M
Effective communication is essential to practice and can result in improved interpersonal relationships at the workplace. Effective communication is shaped by basic techniques such as open-ended questions, listening, empathy, and assertiveness. However, the relationship between effective communication and successful interpersonal relationships is affected by intervening variables. The variables of gender, generation, context, collegiality, cooperation, self-disclosure, and reciprocity can impede or enhance the outcome of quality communication. It is essential for occupational health nurses to qualitatively assess the degree to which each of these concepts affects communication and, in turn, relationships at work.
Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia
Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
This study investigated the effects of negative feedback type (i.e., explicit correction vs. recasts), communication mode (i.e., face-to-face communication vs. synchronous computer-mediated communication), and target structure salience (i.e., salient vs. nonsalient) on the acquisition of two Turkish morphemes. Forty-eight native speakers of…
Small, Meg L.; Morgan, Nicole; Abar, Caitlin; Maggs, Jennifer L.
Objective: Recent studies suggest that parents maintain influence as their adolescents transition into college. Advances in communication technology make frequent communication between parents and college students easy and affordable. This study examines the protective effect of parent-college student communication on student drinking behaviors,…
M. Venus (Merlijn)
textabstractVision communication has been heralded as the most defining aspect of outstanding leadership, yet what makes for effective vision communication has eluded leadership scholars so far. Indeed, while vision communication is the only leader behavior that is specified in all influential
Roberts, Megan Y.; Hampton, Lauren H.
Infants and toddlers with hearing loss (HL) are at risk for developing communicative delays that can have a substantial lasting effect. Understanding child characteristics that may be targeted in early intervention is essential to maximizing communicative outcomes in children with HL. Among the most malleable predictors of communication skills…
This paper presents and discusses guidelines for communicating information about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibility, and ethically. It consists of four parts: guidelines for communicating risk information; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk-related numbers and statistics; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk comparisons; and problems frequently encountered in communicating risk information
Farace, Richard V.; And Others
Twenty-one criteria for assessing communication effectiveness in organizations provide the basis for discussion in this document. Grouped under the general heading of communication rules, the criteria are described according to five categories: structure, messages, media, communicator, and potpourri (factors that affect the decision making of…
Schwarz, Norbert; And Others
Characteristics of the situation in which a fear-arousing communication is received affect the effectiveness of the communication. The influence of situational factors affecting a recipient's interpretation of the arousal induced by communication were investigated with smokers (N=37) who were exposed to a fear-arousing anti-smoking movie. Prior to…
Stoner, Julia B.; Beck, Ann R.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Hickey, Katherine; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Thompson, James R.
"Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training was implemented with 5 nonspeaking adults with mental retardation who were not currently using any type of functional communication system. A modified ABAB, single-subject design was used to assess the effectiveness of PECS in enhancing the functional communication skills of these…
Walther, Joseph B.
Assesses the related effects of anticipated future interaction and different communication media (computer-mediated versus face-to-face communication) on the communication of relational intimacy and composure. Shows that the assignment of long-term versus short-term partnerships has a larger impact on anticipated future interaction reported by…
LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne
Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…
Saldert, Charlotta; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena
This study aims to explore the effects of an interactive workshop involving speech-language pathology students on medical students' knowledge about communication in relation to speech-language disorders. Fifty-nine medical students received a lecture about speech-language disorders. Twenty-six of them also participated in a workshop on communication with patients with speech-language disorders. All students completed a 12-item questionnaire exploring knowledge and attitudes towards communication before and after the lecture or the workshop. The results from the two groups' self-ratings of confidence in knowledge were compared with expert-ratings of their ability to choose suitable communicative strategies. Both the lecture and the workshop increased the students' confidence in knowledge about speech-language disorders and how to support communication. Only the workshop group also displayed a statistically significant increase in expert-rated ability and changed their attitude regarding responsibility for the communication in cases of speech-language disorders. There were no statistically significant correlations between the student's own confidence ratings and the experts' ratings of ability. Increased confidence in knowledge from learning is not always reflected in actual knowledge in how to communicate. However, an interactive workshop proved to increase medical students' expert-rated ability and attitudes related to communication in cases of speech-language disorders.
This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group ([Formula: see text]) received CS training based on a training program designed for the purpose of the present research, whereas the control group ([Formula: see text]) received only the normal communicative course using Click On 3, with no explicit focus on CSs. The communication strategies targeted in the training program included circumlocution (paraphrase), appeal for help, asking for repetition, clarification request, confirmation request, self-repair, and guessing. Pre- and post-test procedures were used to find out the effect of strategy training on language proficiency and CS use. The effect of the training was assessed by three types of data collection: the participants' pre- and post-IELTS speaking test scores, transcription data from the speaking IELTS test, and 'Click On' Exit Test scores. The findings revealed that participants in the strategy training group significantly outperformed the control group in their IELTS speaking test scores. The results of the post-test transcription data also confirmed that the participants in the strategy training group used more CSs, which could be attributed to the CS training program. The findings of the present research have implications for language teachers, and syllabus designers.
Žabkar, Vesna; Završnik, Bruno; Jerman, Damjana
The composition of communication mix and the integration of the different instruments vary with time and also depend on type of product market (consumer or business-to-business). This paper focuses on a development and testing of the model of marketing communication effectiveness in the business-to-business market. Building on past research from the marketing communications and business-to-business marketing literatures, the model (which incorporates concepts of the source of communication, c...
Jerman, Damjana; Završnik, Bruno
Much of the research into marketing communications has focused on the consumer market with little regard to date for the business-to-business market. This paper focuses on a development and testing of a model of marketing communication effectiveness in the business-to-business market. Building on past research from the marketing communications and business-to-business marketing literature, the model (which incorporates facets of the marketing communication objectives, bidirectional communicat...
Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A
Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P non-tactile LKM. It is possible to test the
Interpersonal communication tends to guide the way of management in companies worldwide. For multinational company, where expatriate is exist to blend with local partners or employee, the way they communicate to each other will determine the future of their company communication activities. The result of this research could be utilized by foreign managers and their Indonesian colleagues. Based on this research, which is supported by qualitative and literature methods, it can be found the effe...
Holmes, W. M., Jr.; Beck, G. A.
The multibeam communications package (MCP) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be STS-launched by NASA in 1988 for experimental demonstration of satellite-switched TDMA (at 220 Mbit/sec) and baseband-processor signal routing (at 110 or 27.5 Mbit/sec) is characterized. The developmental history of the ACTS, the program definition, and the spacecraft-bus and MCP parameters are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, and maps of the coverage plan. Advanced features of the MPC include 4.5-dB-noise-figure 30-GHz FET amplifiers and 20-GHz TWTA transmitters which provide either 40-W or 8-W RF output, depending on rain conditions. The technologies being tested in ACTS can give frequency-reuse factors as high as 20, thus greatly expanding the orbit/spectrum resources available for U.S. communications use.
Yoder, Paul; Stone, Wendy L.
Purpose: This randomized group experiment compared the efficacy of 2 communication interventions (Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching [RPMT] and the Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS]) on spoken communication in 36 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Each treatment was delivered to children for a…
Sergio Pignuoli Ocampo
Full Text Available In this paper we compare the programs of Niklas Luhmann's General Theory of Social Systems (GTSS and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT from a systematic perspective based on the comparison of functional equivalents related to what are considered the main problems addressed by sociology. We propose to compare three specific concepts from the theoretical foundations of their sociological programs, namely: the definition of sociology's unit of analysis and its connections to the unitary factor of social order and the sequential factor of social change. Our hypothesis suggests that, although they diverge in emphasis and nuances, both programs converge in the dyadic definition of the sociological unit of analysis.
Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam
Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an
Kumar, Ashok; Cariappa, M P; Marwaha, Vishal; Sharma, Mukti; Arora, Manu
Medical stores management in hospitals is a tedious and time consuming chore with limited resources tasked for the purpose and poor penetration of Information Technology. The process of automation is slow paced due to various inherent factors and is being challenged by the increasing inventory loads and escalating budgets for procurement of drugs. We carried out an indepth case study at the Medical Stores of a tertiary care health care facility. An iterative six step Quality Improvement (QI) process was implemented based on the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle. The QI process was modified as per requirement to fit the medical stores management model. The results were evaluated after six months. After the implementation of QI process, 55 drugs of the medical store inventory which had expired since 2009 onwards were replaced with fresh stock by the suppliers as a result of effective communication through upgraded database management. Various pending audit objections were dropped due to the streamlined documentation and processes. Inventory management improved drastically due to automation, with disposal orders being initiated four months prior to the expiry of drugs and correct demands being generated two months prior to depletion of stocks. The monthly expense summary of drugs was now being done within ten days of the closing month. Improving communication systems within the hospital with vendor database management and reaching out to clinicians is important. Automation of inventory management requires to be simple and user-friendly, utilizing existing hardware. Physical stores monitoring is indispensable, especially due to the scattered nature of stores. Staff training and standardized documentation protocols are the other keystones for optimal medical store management.
Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Record, Rachael A; Van Stee, Stephanie K
This study examines direct and indirect effects of interactive communication in an antismoking social media campaign. To that end, we pose a multitheoretical framework that integrates communication mediation models and the Theory of Planned Behavior. To test the theorized model, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. Participants (N = 201) were randomly assigned into two experimental conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and social interaction" as a treatment group, in which the participants contributed to the antismoking campaign by posting their own campaign ideas and information they found through mediated and interpersonal communication. The findings show that interactive communication catalyzes the participants' information searching behaviors through diverse communication channels. In turn, increased media use plays a crucial role in changing their attitudes and perceived social norms about smoking behaviors, and eventually reducing smoking intention. This study affirms that the theory of planned behavior is effective in predicting behavioral intention and demonstrates the usefulness of a multitheoretical approach in interactive campaign research on social media.
Brown, Gordon D; Bopp, Kenneth D; Boren, Suzanne Austin
Much evaluation of health communications in public health is considered from a program perspective of smoking cessation, weight reduction, education on sexually transmitted diseases, etc. These studies have advanced the knowledge base of communications theory and evaluation and have contributed to program effectiveness. In program-based evaluation the communications process is structured as part of the program itself. This article extends program-based communications evaluation to view communications from the perspective of the consumer and how effectively public health departments respond to consumer expectations. It develops a conceptual model for evaluating elements of communications such as its importance in defining mission and goals within the community, managing strategic constituencies, and enlisting individuals and groups as customers and co-producers of health. It gives a broader perspective on how communications in public heath organizations are managed and a basis for assessing whether they are being managed effectively.
MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Levett-Jones, Tracy
The objective is to identify and assess the effectiveness of tools and methods of teaching communication skills to health professional students in undergraduate and postgraduate programs, to facilitate communication in hospitals, nursing homes and mental health institutions.For this review, effective communication will be defined as that which enhances patient satisfaction, safety, symptom resolution, psychological status, or reduces the impact/burden of disease and/or improved communication skills within undergraduate or postgraduate studentsThe review question is: What is the best available evidence on strategies to effectively teach communication skills to undergraduate and postgraduate medical, nursing and allied health students (nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech pathology etc)? Communication is a two-way interaction where information, meanings and feelings are shared both verbally and non-verbally. Effective communication is when the message being conveyed is understood as intended. Effective communication between the health professional and patient is increasingly being recognised as a core clinical skill. Research has identified the far reaching benefits of effective communication skills including enhanced patient satisfaction, patient safety, symptom resolution and improvements in functional and psychological status. Poor communication can result in omitted or misinterpretation of information resulting in declining health of the patient. Despite the importance of effective communication in ensuring positive outcomes for both the patient and health professional, there is concern that contemporary teaching and learning approaches do not always facilitate the development of a requisite level of communication skills, both verbal and written and a difficulty for the current generation of communication skills teachers is that many have not had the experience of being taught communication skills themselves.Studies have shown that
Salter, Susan; Douglas, Tracy; Kember, David
Two mechanisms for engaging in critical reflective dialogue are discussed and compared: face-to-face meetings and asynchronous online discussion. The context is an umbrella action research project, with over 20 participants, which aimed to improve practices in online teaching and contribute to the development of graduate attributes. The article…
The following discussion presents comparative findings from hospice patients and hematology survivors on the topic of talking about dying to significant others within their network of family and friends. The insights have been gathered from an Australian research program that is exploring the notion of spirituality in relation to serious illness.…
Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Pil Bong
EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP OF NURSING UNIT MANAGERS ON TEAM EFFECTIVENESS: Mediating Effects of Organizational Communication Satisfaction. This study identifies the effects of the educational leadership of nursing unit managers on team effectiveness and the mediating effects of organizational communication satisfaction; it highlights the importance of educational leadership and organizational communication and provides the data needed to enhance the education capacity of managers. The participants were 216 nursing unit managers of staff nurses at a tertiary hospital located in C Region, South Korea, and nurses who had worked for more than six months at the same hospital. This study was conducted using questionnaires on educational leadership, team effectiveness, and organizational communication satisfaction. Data analysis was performed with a t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and simple and multiple regression analyses using SPSS version 23.0. Mediation analysis was tested using Baron and Kenny's regression analysis and a Sobel test. The mean score for the educational leadership of nursing unit managers was 3.74(±0.68); for organizational communication satisfaction, 3.14(±0.51); and for team effectiveness, 3.52(±0.49). Educational leadership was significantly positively correlated with team effectiveness and organizational communication satisfaction. Organizational communication satisfaction demonstrated a complete mediating effect on the relationship between educational leadership and team effectiveness (β=.61, pcommunication satisfaction among nurses; this supports the idea that educational leadership can contribute to team effectiveness. This suggests that the educational leadership and communication capacity of nursing unit managers must be improved to enhance the performance of nursing organizations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Objective: This study compares the effect of speech therapy and picture exchange communication system (PECS on communication development of 4-8 year old autistic children. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental and comparison study. In this study 10 subjects including PECS and speech therapy groups were selected using the available sampling method on the base of including and excluding criteria. Both groups were matched according to age and developmental indices of Niusha scale. Dependent variables were listening, receptive language, expressive language, cognition, speech and social communication. Intervention was applied for both groups similarly divided in 40 minute sessions 3 times a weak for 3 months. Our parameters were evaluated by Niusha development scale before and after interventions. The results were analyzed clinically and statistically by sum-ranks willkokson and rank- signed willkokson. Results: Post test comparison between the two groups revealed that the members of PECS group had a more progress in listening, receptive language, cognition and social communication skills rather than speech therapy group. But these differences were not significant statistically and T(sum ranks was between critical values. Conclusion: considering the results, it could be concluded that PECS is a effective strategy to train non-verbal autistic children. Moreover it could be used as a supplement teaching method beside other therapeutic method such as speech therapy.
McKenzie, Carly T; Tilashalski, Ken R; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; White, Marjorie Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate dental students' long-term retention of clinical communication skills learned in a second-year standardized patient simulation at one U.S. dental school. Retention was measured by students' performance with an actual patient during their fourth year. The high-fidelity simulation exercise focused on clinical communication skills took place during the spring term of the students' second year. The effect of the simulation was measured by comparing the fourth-year clinical performance of two groups: those who had participated in the simulation (intervention group; Class of 2016) and those who had not (no intervention/control group; Class of 2015). In the no intervention group, all 47 students participated; in the intervention group, 58 of 59 students participated. Both instructor assessments and students' self-assessments were used to evaluate the effectiveness of key patient interaction principles as well as comprehensive presentation of multiple treatment options. The results showed that students in the intervention group more frequently included cost during their treatment option presentation than did students in the no intervention group. The instructor ratings showed that the intervention group included all key treatment option components except duration more frequently than did the no intervention group. However, the simulation experience did not result in significantly more effective student-patient clinical communication on any of the items measured. This study presents limited evidence of the effectiveness of a standardized patient simulation to improve dental students' long-term clinical communication skills with respect to thorough presentation of treatment options to a patient.
Hirokawa, Kumi; Yagi, Akihiro; Miyata, Yo
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of communication skills on stress responses, such as physiological (blink and heart rate), emotional (state of anxiety and mood), and behavioral responses (smiling and expressing an opinion) in stressful communication situations, specifically answering questions and giving a speech in Japanese and English. Participants were 32 students (16 men and 16 women; Mage = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3) attending a Japanese university. A high communication skills group was selected from the upper tertile scores of the Social Skills Inventory, and a low communication skills group was selected from the lower tertile scores. Analysis indicated that individuals who had high communication skills performed without heart-rate increase and with more positive attitude during stressful communication tasks. Individuals who had low communication skills displayed higher anxiety prior to the experiment than those who had high communication skills.
This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…
Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Banner, Michele J.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.
Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2) changes in crew configuration. Three-person crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crews developed and employed discrete navigation system operations that served as functionally effective communication signals (i.e., “indexical” or “deictic” cues) in generating appropriate crewmember responses and maintaining performance effectiveness in the absence of normal communication channels. Additionally, changes in crew configuration impacted both performance effectiveness and psychosocial adaptation.
Full Text Available Construction industry is characterized in nature as complex, fragmented, dynamic and involves many parties therefore effective communication is essential to overcome these challenges. Many researchers found that the industry faces major challenge to ensure effective and successful communication throughout the lifecycle of the project which therefore resulted to project failure. Poor communication in construction industry had been addressed in previous research studies; however, this paper presents and examines the identification of causes and effects which lead to poor communication. Further investigations on previous literature were conducted to extract the causes and effects which contributed to poor communication in construction industry. Similarity technique was applied to avoid duplications in the identified causes and effect of poor communication. Using the frequency technique, from the 33 causes of poor communication it was found that the most dominant cause is lack of effective communication. Whereas, out of 21 effects from poor communication, it was found that highly repeated effect is time overrun. These findings will serve a good platform for further investigation on the relevancy of causes and effects to the local construction practitioners.
Beck, Mary S; Doscher, Mindy
The current study described RN and patient care technician (PCT) communication in centralized and hybrid decentralized workstation designs using hands-free communication technology and infrared locator badge technology to facilitate communication. New construction of an oncology unit provided the opportunity to compare staff communication in two different workstation designs. Observations and questionnaires compared nurse and PCT communication in the two-unit designs. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the differences. The hybrid decentralized unit had increased use of hands-free communication technology and hallway communication by nurses and PCTs, and increased patient room communication by nurses. Perceptions of communication between nurses and PCTs and congruency of priorities for care were similar for both units. The locator badge technology had limited adoption. Replacement of nurse workstations with new construction or remodeling impact staff communication patterns, necessitating that nurse leaders understand the impact of design and technology on communication. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 17-22.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Sinclair, P. W.
The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.
Dodson, Kelly Christine Lockhart
The purpose of this research was to determine if communication skills training had an impact on public schools administrators' knowledge and application of communication skills, and their attitude toward school public relations. School administrators from three Tennessee school systems participated in this pretest/posttest quasi-experimental…
Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.
Objective: Despite educational efforts expertise in communication as required by the CanMEDS competency framework is not achieved by medical students and residents. Several factors complicate the learning of professional communication. Methods: We adapted the reflective impulsive model of social
Davis, Joel J.
Explores how the framing of environmental communication influences attitudes and environmentally responsible behaviors. Finds that communication that discussed losses (rather than gains) to the current (rather than future) generation gave rise to the most positive responses and the highest levels of intent to participate in…
Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika
Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…
Information and communication technology is one of the fastest growing fields of human endeavours. ICTs sector is so robust and versatile that almost nothing can get done in this present time and age without integrating information and communication technology. It has been observed that ICTs have been successfully ...
Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Silber Ashley, Olivia; Khan, Munziba
Parent-child communication about sex is an important reproductive health outcome. Consistent, positive perceptions of communication by parents and children can promote behavioral outcomes such as delaying sexual debut and increasing contraceptive use. The authors investigated whether exposure to messages from the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC), a social marketing campaign to promote increased parent-child sexual communication, led to increased children's self-reports of communication. Also, the authors examined whether PSUNC message exposure increased agreement about communication between parents and their children. In a randomized experimental design, the authors surveyed children of parents exposed and not exposed to PSUNC messages. Parents and children completed online instruments asking matched questions about sexual attitudes, beliefs, and communication. The authors matched 394 parents and children for analysis. They used ordinal logistic regression modeling and kappa statistics. Children of parents exposed to PSUNC messages were more likely to (a) report sexual communication than were those not exposed and (b) agree with their parents about extent and content. Parent-child pairs of the same gender, younger pairs, and non-White pairs were more likely to agree. Overall, PSUNC message exposure appears to have promoted more extensive sexual communication. Future research should examine behavioral mechanisms and message receptivity among subgroups of parents and children.
Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Messerli-Rohrbach, V.; Bensing, J.
From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor–patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor–patient communication as well. This study examined (1)whether or not communication
Reynolds, Barbara; Quinn Crouse, Sandra
During a crisis, an open and empathetic style of communication that engenders the public's trust is the most effective when officials are attempting to galvanize the population to take a positive action or refrain from a harmful act. Although trust is imperative in a crisis, public suspicions of scientific experts and government are increasing for a variety of reasons, including access to more sources of conflicting information, a reduction in the use of scientific reasoning in decision making, and political infighting. Trust and credibility--which are demonstrated through empathy and caring, competence and expertise, honesty and openness, and dedication and commitment--are essential elements of persuasive communication.
Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, A.M. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of snoezelen, integrated in 24-hour care, on the communication of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) and demented nursing home residents during morning care. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was conducted, comparing sic
Montazeri, Ali; McEwen, James
Two antismoking advertisements produced in Scotland, one using a fear appeal, the other a positive image, were compared using an interview questionnaire. Subjects' (N=394) preferences and advertising effectiveness were studied. Findings are discussed in terms of psychosocial theories, and a "Preference Model" is proposed. (Author/EMK)
Henderson, Julie K
The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided.
Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H
This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680
Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H
This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.
Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.
Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…
Sevick, Laura K; Esmail, Rosmin; Tang, Karen; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Ronksley, Paul; James, Matthew; Santana, Maria; Ghali, William A; Clement, Fiona
The transition between acute care and community care can be a vulnerable period in a patients' treatment due to the potential for postdischarge adverse events. The vulnerability of this period has been attributed to factors related to the miscommunication between hospital-based and community-based physicians. Electronic discharge communication has been proposed as one solution to bridge this communication gap. Prior to widespread implementation of these tools, the costs and benefits should be considered. To establish the cost and cost-effectiveness of electronic discharge communications compared with traditional discharge systems for individuals who have completed care with one provider and are transitioning care to a new provider. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature, using best practices, to identify economic evaluations/cost analyses of electronic discharge communication tools. Inclusion criteria were: (1) economic analysis and (2) electronic discharge communication tool as the intervention. Quality of each article was assessed, and data were summarised using a component-based analysis. One thousand unique abstracts were identified, and 57 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Four studies met final inclusion criteria. These studies varied in their primary objectives, methodology, costs reported and outcomes. All of the studies were of low to good quality. Three of the studies reported a cost-effectiveness measure ranging from an incremental daily cost of decreasing average discharge note completion by 1 day of $0.331 (2003 Canadian), a cost per page per discharge letter of €9.51 and a dynamic net present value of €31.1 million for a 5-year implementation of the intervention. None of the identified studies considered clinically meaningful patient or quality outcomes. Economic analyses of electronic discharge communications are scarcely reported, and with inconsistent methodology and outcomes. Further studies are needed
Shore, Danielle M; Parkinson, Brian
A social partner's emotions communicate important information about their motives and intentions. However, people may discount emotional information that they believe their partner has regulated with the strategic intention of exerting social influence. Across two studies, we investigated interpersonal effects of communicated guilt and perceived strategic regulation in trust games. Results showed that communicated guilt (but not interest) mitigated negative effects of trust violations on interpersonal judgements and behaviour. Further, perceived strategic regulation reduced guilt's positive effects. These findings suggest that people take emotion-regulation motives into account when responding to emotion communication.
This study aims to test the effect of a) marketing communication on customer satisfaction; b) marketing communication on customer loyalty; c) customer satisfaction on customer loyalty; and d) to identify the role of customer satisfaction in mediating marketing communication effect on customer loyalty of the IM3 user community in Jember regency, East Java province. The study was designed in a form confirmatory research, with the whole IM3 community members in the regency as the ...
Segal, Leon D.
The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.
Full Text Available The objectives of the study were: (1 To know the dynamics of Small and middle Scale Industry (SMSI in Kabupaten Bandun; (2 Individual effectivity on SMSI in KabupatenBandung; (3 Marketing communication management effectivity on SMSI in Kabupaten Bandung; (4 The correlation between organization dynamics level and individual effectivity on SMSI organization in Kabupaten Bandung; (5 The correlation between organization dynamics level and effectivity of marketing communication management on SMSI in Kabupaten Bandung; and (6 The correlation between individual effectivity level and effectivity of marketing communication management on SMSI in Kabupaten Bandung. The methodology used in this study was Survey Methods, to conducted the manager and workers of Small Scale Industry in Kabupaten Bandung as population target. The sample size was 60 respondents selected randomly based on sampling Random sample, technique. The results of the study showed that: (1 The dynamics of SMSI organization concerning on anatomy, structure, and process organization was effective; (2 the individual on SMSI organization concerning on motivation, attitude, aptitude, temperament, and role perception was effective; (3 The effectivity of marketing communication management on SMSI in Kabupaten Bandung concerning on planning, actuating, controlling, and marketing communication mix was effective; (4 The correlation between the dynamics organization level and individual effectivity on organization SMSI was significan; (5 The correlation between the dynamics organization level and effectivity of marketing communication management on SMSI in Kabupaten Bandung, was significan; and (6 The correlaton between individual effectivity on organization and effectivity of marketing communication managementon SMSI in Kabupaten Bandung was significant.
Kim, Sunah; Park, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Hyun-Hwa
The purposes of this study were to: (a) develop a comprehensive communication course combined with a group program for improving communication skills; and (b) examine the effects of the comprehensive communication course on interpersonal communication, relationship change, self-esteem, and depression in nursing students. The experimental group consisted of 82 nursing students, and the control group, 108 nursing students. Both groups each took communication courses from March to June, 2002 and 2003. A group program for improving communication skills was conducted for each 8 subgroups of the experimental group for 90 minutes once a week during the 6 weeks, while the existing communication lecture was conducted for the control group. Both groups were post-tested after the intervention for verifying the difference of variables between the two groups, and the experimental group was also pre-tested for verifying the difference between before and after the treatment. Interpersonal communication score of the post-test in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group and the depression score of the post-test in the experimental group was significantly lower than in the control group. Interpersonal communication, relationship change and self-esteem scores were significantly increased and the depression score was significantly decreased in experimental group after the treatment. In conclusion, the comprehensive communication course that was developed in this study had positive effects on communication skills in nursing students.
Robinson, F Patrick; Gorman, Geraldine; Slimmer, Lynda W; Yudkowsky, Rachel
Nurse-physician communication affects patient safety. Such communication has been well studied using a variety of survey and observational methods; however, missing from the literature is an investigation of what constitutes effective and ineffective interprofessional communication from the perspective of the professionals involved. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse and physician perceptions of effective and ineffective communication between the two professions. Using focus group methodology, we asked nurses and physicians with at least 5 years' acute care hospital experience to reflect on effective and ineffective interprofessional communication and to provide examples. Three focus groups were held with 6 participants each (total sample 18). Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded into categories of effective and ineffective communication. The following themes were found. For effective communication: clarity and precision of message that relies on verification, collaborative problem solving, calm and supportive demeanor under stress, maintenance of mutual respect, and authentic understanding of the unique role. For ineffective communication: making someone less than, dependence on electronic systems, and linguistic and cultural barriers. These themes may be useful in designing learning activities to promote effective interprofessional communication.
Examines the use of typography to aid in the total communicative message of student publications; discusses the design possibilities of type, the use of headlines as a design element, and type classification. (GW)
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M
Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups
Full Text Available There is scarce empirical evidence in the academic literature of how top management involvement influences the degree of integrated marketing communications. At the same time, some authors believe that this relationship should be explored more extensively.In this paper we present one possible approach to investigating the relationship between top management involvement and the degree of integrated marketing communications. Our research established that a greater involvement of top management in marketing communications could be associated with a higher degree of IMC. Investigating the relationship between management and IMC is indeed at a very early stage. We suggest that this study has provided a basis for future research on the relationship between top management involvement in marketing communications and the degree of IMC.
This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Scott A
.... To gain the support of stakeholders the Army must adjust its strategic communication plan, policies and operations to become more proactive and open with the media and the citizenry of the United States...
... higher productivity. Key words: cartoons, communication, print media, caricature ... publish cartoons and comic strips on social, political and economic affairs of the country .... Pulitzer's The World. Outcault had drawn a child cartoon character.
Thompson, E. H.; Hampton, J. A.
Research into emotional communication to date has largely focused on facial and vocal expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, and Keltner (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touc...
Balakrishnan, B.; Woods, P. C.
Over the years, rapid development in computer technology has engendered simulation-based laboratory (lab) in addition to the traditional hands-on (physical) lab. Many higher education institutions adopt simulation lab, replacing some existing physical lab experiments. The creation of new systems for conducting engineering lab activities has raised concerns among educators on the merits and shortcomings of both physical and simulation labs; at the same time, many arguments have been raised on the differences of both labs. Investigating the effectiveness of both labs is complicated, as there are multiple factors that should be considered. In view of this challenge, a study on students' perspectives on their experience related to key aspects on engineering laboratory exercise was conducted. In this study, the Visual Auditory Read and Kinetic model was utilised to measure the students' cognitive styles. The investigation was done through a survey among participants from Multimedia University, Malaysia. The findings revealed that there are significant differences for most of the aspects in physical and simulation labs.
Ryve, Andreas; Nilsson, Per; Pettersson, Kerstin
Analyzing and designing productive group work and effective communication constitute ongoing research interests in mathematics education. In this article we contribute to this research by using and developing a newly introduced analytical approach for examining effective communication within group work in mathematics education. By using data from…
Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…
Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed
Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…
Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Kwan, Chi Wai; Chi, Iris
This study examined the relationship between depression and pain, and the moderating effect of communication difficulty on this relationship, among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. We used logistic regression to analyze secondary data regarding 12,402 Chinese older adults applying for long-term care service in Hong Kong in 2012. Approximately 30% of participants were depressed and 37% experienced communication difficulty. Depression was associated with increased pain. Communication difficulty was found to moderate the relationship between depression and pain. Pain scores increased more when individuals who experienced communication difficulty reported being depressed, compared to those who did not experience communication difficulty. The moderating effect of communication difficulty may be explained by the interaction between depression and communication difficulty. Participants who were depressed and concurrently experienced communication difficulty may be more likely to catastrophize their pain and may tend to report or experience more pain. Health care professionals need to be aware of the different effects of communication difficulty on the pain experiences of older adults. Psychosocial intervention may be provided to minimize older adults' communication barriers to pain management.
Kleij, R van der; Lijkwan, J.T.E..; Dreu, C.K.W. de
An experiment compared dyadic performance in a radio communication and a more sophisticated communication environment to face-to-face (FtF) meetings. Thirty-six dyads, working under low or high time-pressure conditions, needed to combine information and to produce a written plan. Teams working in
Veronica R GROSU
Full Text Available The economic and financial crisis that hit the world economy has shown that for retail companies, growth continued to record only for those who held full control over every point of sale. The objective of our work is focused on the analysis of the most important financial indicators that a retail company should focus on and include in communication with external stakeholders. We make the connection with problems of the real economy through a comparative study of Romania and Italy, in which we analyze retail companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE and a similar number of retail companies listed on the Milan Stock Exchange (MSE. The importance of the topic stems from the fact that it is essential for understanding how consumers relate the various retail companies and how the latter model their structure or behavior depending on the requirements and needs of the former.
Holyfield, Christine; Caron, Jessica Gosnell; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice
Visual scene displays (VSDs) and just-in-time programming supports are augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology features with theoretical benefits for beginning communicators of all ages. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a communication application (app) on mobile technology that supported the just-in-time programming of VSDs on the communication of preadolescents and adolescents who were beginning communicators. A single-subject multiple-baseline across participant design was employed to evaluate the effect of the AAC app with VSDs programmed just-in-time by the researcher on the communication turns expressed by five preadolescents and adolescents (9-18 years old) who were beginning communicators. All five participants demonstrated marked increases in the frequency of their communication turns after the onset intervention. Just-in-time programming support and VSDs are two features that may positively impact communication for beginning communicators in preadolescence and adolescence. Apps with these features allow partners to quickly and easily capture photos of meaningful and motivating events and provide them immediately as VSDs with relevant vocabulary to support communication in response to beginning communicators' interests.
Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zhang, Jun-Xiang
Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state. (paper)
Li, Fu; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Yao
Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state.
Holt, Cheryl L.; Lee, Crystal; Wright, Katrina
The purpose of this study was to compare the communication effectiveness of a spiritually-based approach to breast cancer early detection education with a secular approach, among African American women, by conducting a cognitive response analysis. A total of 108 women from six Alabama churches were randomly assigned by church to receive a spiritually-based or secular educational booklet discussing breast cancer early detection. Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981), after reading the booklets participants were asked to complete a thought-listing task writing down any thoughts they experienced and rating them as positive, negative, or neutral. Two independent coders then used five dimensions to code participants thoughts. Compared with the secular booklet, the spiritually-based booklet resulted in significantly more thoughts involving personal connection, self-assessment, and spiritually-based responses. These results suggest that a spiritually-based approach to breast cancer awareness may be more effective than the secular because it caused women to more actively process the message, stimulating central route processing. The incorporation of spiritually-based content into church-based breast cancer education could be a promising health communication approach for African American women. PMID:18443989
Lee, Young-Mee; Lee, Young Hee
Regardless of the growing importance of communication skills as a core clinical competence, few studies have determined the effects of communication skills courses in undergraduate medical curricula in Asian medical schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students. A communication skills course was provided to 111 second-year medical students in a medical college in Korea. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills was evaluated by a questionnaire survey. To examine the improvement in observed communication skills, the students' encounters with standardized patients (SPs) were assessed at the first session and at the final course assessment. A structured checklist, consisting of 25 communication skills items, was used for the assessment. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills increased significantly after completion of the course (pcommunication skills scores also improved significantly at the end of the course; the mean scores of the first SPs encounters was 49.6 (standard deviation [SD], 11.1), and those of cases A and B at the final assessment were 61.5 (SD, 8.4) and 69.6 (SD, 7.8), respectively (F61=269.54, pcommunication skills course was beneficial in developing and improving communication skills competency in preclinical medical students. Further studies should be followed to examine whether the acquisition of communication skills during preclinical studies can be sustained into clerkship and actual practice.
Garrett P. Sonnier; Leigh McAlister; Oliver J. Rutz
Interpersonal communications have long been recognized as an influential source of information for consumers. Internet-based media have facilitated information exchange among firms and consumers, as well as observability and measurement of such exchanges. However, much of the research addressing online communication focuses on ratings collected from online forums. In this paper, we look beyond ratings to a more comprehensive view of online communications. We consider the sales effect of the v...
This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons
Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D
Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members...
Matusitz, Jonathan; Spear, Jennifer
This article examines, in detail, the quality of doctor-patient interaction. Doctor-patient communication is such a powerful indicator of health care quality that it can determine patients' self-management behavior and health outcomes. The medical visit (i.e., the medical encounter) plays a pivotal role in the health care process. In fact, doctor-patient communication is one of the most essential dynamics in health care, affecting the course of patient care and patient compliance with recommendations for care. Unlike many other analyses (that often look at only one or two specific aspects of doctor-patient relationships), this analysis is more encompassing; it looks at doctor-patient communication from multiple perspectives.
Full Text Available Systematic creation and use of human potential enables building and development of strengths of organisations. If organisations can fully use the potential of their employees it will affect their ability to succeed in competitive environment. Our paper focuses on open and broad communication, as it has a significant impact on both formal and informal labour relations, which, along with information share and knowledge continuity, essentially affect team creation. The questionnaire survey focused on finding out whether and to what extent organisations operating in Slovakia focus on communication. The paper also provides a simple method of evaluating the level of communication and engagement of employees in problem solving in companies. This method is a simple instrument enabling the conduction of analysis in a short time interval, while analysing employees are able to identify a current level of their company on the grounds of results, as well as they are able to identify bottlenecks preventing them in innovation potential increase.
Kelly, Brian; Berger, Scott
Failure to successfully communicate maintenance activities, abnormal conditions, emergency response procedures, process hazards, and hundreds of other items of critical information can lead to disaster, regardless of the thoroughness of the process safety management system. Therefore, a well-functioning process safety program depends on maintaining successful communication interfaces between each involved employee or stakeholder and the many other employees or stakeholders that person must interact with. The authors discuss a process to identify the critical 'Interfaces' between the many participants in a process safety management system, and then to establish a protocol for each critical interface
Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.
This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.
Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Beach, Mary Catherine; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Bantug, Elissa T; Casale, Kristen E; Porter, Laura S; Bober, Sharon L; Tulsky, James A; Daly, Mary B; Lepore, Stephen J
Breast cancer patients commonly experience sexual concerns, yet rarely discuss them with clinicians. The study examined patient and provider experiences and preferences related to communication about breast cancer-related sexual concerns with the goal of informing intervention development. Patient data (n = 28) were derived from focus groups and interviews with partnered and unpartnered women treated for breast cancer reporting sexual concerns. Provider data (n = 11) came from interviews with breast cancer oncologists and nurse practitioners. Patient and provider data were analyzed separately using the framework method of qualitative analysis. Findings revealed individual and institutional barriers to effective communication about sexual concerns and highlighted key communication facilitators (e.g., a positive patient-provider relationship, patient communication as a driver of provider communication, and vice versa). Patients expressed preferences for open, collaborative communication; providers expressed preferences for focused intervention targets (identifying concerns, offering resources/referrals) and convenient format. A model of effective communication of sexual concerns was developed to inform communication interventions. Findings suggest that to improve patient-provider communication about sexual concerns, knowledge and skills-based interventions that activate patients and that equip providers for effective discussions about sexual concerns are needed, as are institutional changes that could incentivize such discussions.
Mistiaen, P; van Osch, M; van Vliet, L; Howick, J; Bishop, F L; Di Blasi, Z; Bensing, J; van Dulmen, S
Communication between patients and health care practitioners is expected to benefit health outcomes. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of experimentally varied communication on clinical patients' pain. We searched in July 2012, 11 databases supplemented with forward and backward searches for (quasi-) randomized controlled trials in which face-to-face communication was manipulated. We updated in June 2015 using the four most relevant databases (CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Psychinfo, PubMed). Fifty-one studies covering 5079 patients were included. The interventions were separated into three categories: cognitive care, emotional care, procedural preparation. In all but five studies the outcome concerned acute pain. We found that, in general, communication has a small effect on (acute) pain. The 19 cognitive care studies showed that a positive suggestion may reduce pain, whereas a negative suggestion may increase pain, but effects are small. The 14 emotional care studies showed no evidence of a direct effect on pain, although four studies showed a tendency for emotional care lowering patients' pain. Some of the 23 procedural preparation interventions showed a weak to moderate effect on lowering pain. Different types of communication have a significant but small effect on (acute) pain. Positive suggestions and informational preparation seem to lower patients' pain. Communication interventions show a large variety in quality, complexity and methodological rigour; they often used multiple components and it remains unclear what the effective elements of communication are. Future research is warranted to identify the effective components. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program (GEP) ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.
Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Zaval, Lisa; Cornwell, James F. M.
Communicators of climate science seek ways to better educate and motivate individuals to personally commit to sustainable, energy-saving activities. However, critical psychological and social barriers to conservation make this task challenging. Behavioural scientists are well aware of the difficulties that individuals and groups have in responding…
Domigan, Juliane; Glassman, Tavis J.; Miller, Jeff; Hug, Heather; Diehr, Aaron J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to assess a health communication campaign designed to reduce distracted driving among college students within the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing central interviewing techniques, participants were asked qualitative and quantitative items soliciting feedback concerning the efficacy of the messages.…
Allen, J.A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Landowski, N.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of communication that occurs just before workplace meetings (i.e. pre-meeting talk). The paper explores how four specific types of pre-meeting talk (small talk, work talk, meeting preparatory talk, and shop talk) impact
Pohl, Gayle M.
Three studies explored the impact of the controversial television docudrama "Death of a Princess" on viewers' attitudes, comprehension, and desire to continue viewing the film. Sixty students in undergraduate communication classes participated in Study I, which measured attitude change induced by the film, relative to the viewers' prior…
Richardson, Nick J.; Barnum, Christopher C.
This article introduces a theory describing the relationship between factors that increase social isolation and deviance. The theory is examined in the context of virtual visitation. We integrate social exchange, anomie, and strain theories to argue that as communication is impeded between two actors, the less satisfied either will be with the…
GSM introduction into Nigeria facilitated communication, shortened distance barrier, and provided instance response to matters of concern. Their stereotype beliefs and phobia became worrisome because of an assumed “Satanic” GSM in the South Western part of Nigeria. This “Satanic Telephone” generated vitriolic ...
This paper contains a discussion of how the concept of critical aspects and the principle of compositionality can provide a powerful tool to analyse and understand the communications that occur in the classroom. It is grounded in data collected in a longitudinal study. The content chosen is algebra. It is argued that the critical aspects and the…
Fujino, Yuriko; Kawamoto, Rieko
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of information and communication technology use and skills on nursing performance. Questionnaires were prepared relating to using the technology, practical skills in utilizing information, the Six-Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance, and demographics. In all, 556 nurses took part (response rate, 72.6%). A two-way analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of years of nursing experience on the relationship between nursing performance and information and communication technology use. The results showed that the group possessing high technological skills had greater nursing ability than the group with low skills; the level of nursing performance improved with years of experience in the former group, but not in the latter group. Regarding information and communication technology use, the results showed that nursing performance improved among participants who used computers for sending and receiving e-mails, but it decreased for those who used cell phones for e-mail. The results suggest that nursing performance may be negatively affected if information and communication technology are inappropriately used. Informatics education should therefore be provided for all nurses, and it should include information use relating to cell phones and computers.
Mulder, Bob C.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J
Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to
Mulder, B.C.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to
Harris, Thomas E.
Research indicates that skills in listening to and motivating people need to be emphasized more in undergraduate business communication courses. Three theories of motivation--Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McClelland's achievement motive, and Hersberg's motivation-hygiene theory--can introduce students to the systems perspective, an approach…
Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco
This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software…
Manning, R. M.
LeRC-SLAM provides static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of attenuation by rain on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Program designed for use in specification, design, and assessment of satellite link for any terminal location in continental United States. IBM PC version written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, and Macintosh version written in Microsoft Basic.
Wang, Yi; Tang, Yu; He, Yan; Zhu, Ya-qin
To evaluate the effect of doctor-patient communication education on dental clinical practice. The process of 61 dental interns' clinical practice was divided into two stages. The dental interns were taught with traditional teaching method in the first stage. Doctor-patient communication and communication skill training were added to the second stage. Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by themselves after two stages. The SEGUE frame work was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by teachers after two stages. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. The result of scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was analyzed using Fisher exact test or Chi-square test. The score of the SEGUE frame work was analyzed using Student's t test. The result of Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior showed only 37.71% of dental interns could establish good doctor-patient relationship in the first stage. After doctor-patient communication and communication skill training, the percentage became 75.4%. The result of the SEGUE frame work showed the score was raised from 16.066±3.308 to 21.867±2.456, and a significant difference was found between the two stages. Doctor-Patient communication education can improve dental interns' communication skills and help to establish a good doctor-patient relationship.
Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.
multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...
Weber, James R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Bilyard, Gordon R.
The purpose of this report is to help scientists communicate with stakeholders and the public (primarily nonscientists) about fundamental science research. The primary audience for this report is scientists involved in the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the information and insights in the report that are not program-specific should be helpful to scientists in other fundamental science research programs. The report first discusses why scientists should talk to stakeholders and the public, and the challenges associated with discussing the NABIR program. It is observed that communication initiatives can be characterized by three factors: relationships in the social environment, views of what constitutes communication, and accepted forms of communication practices and products. With a focus on informal science communication, recent efforts to gauge public understanding of science and the factors that affect public trust of science institutions are discussed. The social bases for scientist-nonscientist interactions are then examined, including possible sources of distrust and difficulties in transferring discussions of fundamental science from classrooms (where most of the public first learns about science) to public forums. Finally, the report contains specific suggestions for preparing, meeting, and following up on public interactions with stakeholders and the public, including themes common to public discussions of NABIR science and features of scientist-nonscientist interactions observed in interpersonal, small group, and large group interactions between NABIR scientists and stakeholders. A Quick Preparation Guide for Meeting NABIR Stakeholders is provided immediately following the Summary. It condenses some of the information and advice found in the text of the report.
Dean, Marleah; Oetzel, John G
The purpose of this study was to explore emergency department (ED) physicians' perspectives of guidelines for effective communication. More specifically, the ways in which physicians manage the tensions among effective communication dimensions framed by relational dialectics theory are examined. This study used in-depth interviews with 17 ED physicians and 70 hours of observations to identify five dimensions of effective communication: efficiency, clarity/accuracy, relevance, comprehension, and rapport. Two communication tensions resulted from these dimensions: efficiency versus rapport and efficiency versus comprehension. In almost all instances, physicians chose efficient communication at the expense of comprehension or rapport. In addition, there was a tension between patient and physician perspectives of clarity and relevance that physicians tended to resolve by emphasizing what was relevant and clear from their own perspective. Implications for managing tensions in terms of efficiency and a physician-centered approach are discussed.
This paper describes what constitute an Effective Communications System for a National Oil Spill Contingency Plan. It discusses the system available in Nigeria for the oil exploration and producing companies, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and the only oil spill response cooperative, the Clean Nigeria Associates (CNA). The Emergency Communications System which the companies had in place for some time, but is no longer functioning because of bureaucratic problems, is mentioned. The paper also mentioned the need to integrate the various separate systems already in use to provide effective communication for proper oil spill response. It recognizes the need for support from the Ministry of Communications and the two government agencies, NITEL and NET which provide telephone services in Nigeria. A proposed Effective Communications System for Nigeria is described
Powell, Heather L; Segrin, Chris
As family and peers are primary socializing agents in the lives of young adults, a social learning based model of communication about HIV/AIDS among dating partners was developed and tested, examining the role of interactions with family and peers in this type of communication. Specifically, the model describes relationships between general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with parents, peers, and dating partners. Participants were 153 young adult couples who completed measures of their communication practices, as well as their communication with family and peers. Communication practices in the family of origin appear to influence both general communication and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Communication practices with peers influenced general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Participants and their dating partners exhibited relative agreement about their general communication practices and their communication about HIV/AIDS, but showed less agreement in reports of their communication about sexuality. Implications for understanding the role of family and peer interactions in communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners are discussed.
Mandeville, David S.; Ho, Tiffanie K.; Valdez, Lindy A.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) on student oral communication competency gains. Methods: Eighty students from two consecutive undergraduate Kinesiology courses (Spring semesters, 2014-15) formed into 29 small groups and were studied. Oral communication competency was assessed using a…
Effects of asking children to communicate through their drawings have been investigated using animate rather than inanimate drawing topics. The present study investigated the impact of a communication context on children's drawings of topics with contrasting animism. Three hundred and twenty-two children, 156 boys and 166 girls aged 6-11 years…
Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.
This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…
Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne
The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness…
Yuksel, Dogan; Inan, Banu
This study examined the effects of communication mode ("i.e.", face to face versus computer mediated communication) on the instances of negotiation of meaning (NofM) and its level of noticing by learners. Sixty-four participants (32 dyads) completed two jigsaw tasks in two different mediums (one in each) and four days after the tasks…
Parrish-Sprowl, John; And Others
Explores the relationship among compliance-gaining strategy choice, communicator image, and sales person effectiveness. Finds no statistically significant relationship between the use of compliance-gaining strategies and sales success, but indicates a link between communicator image and sales success. (SR)
Currier, Alyssa R.
Children with communication disorders are often at risk of literacy difficulties, especially students that present with autism and/or speech sound disorders. This quasi-experimental study was designed to examine the effects of a 10-week "hybrid" intervention for preschool students with and without communication disorders in an integrated…
Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife
The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…
Hosack, Mary Browne
This paper describes a practicum program that was developed to increase the effectiveness of the administrative team at one high school. A lack of communication skills had prevented the target group from working together as a team. Strategies included role-play activities, workshops, and communication skill-development meetings. A series of…
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Science communication is a diverse and transdisciplinary field and is taught most effectively when the skills involved are tailored to specific educational contexts. Few academic resources exist to guide the teaching of communication with non-scientific audiences for an undergraduate science context. This mixed methods study aimed to explore what…
Truell, Allen D.; Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Whitesel, Joel A.
The Internet and its component parts, email and the World Wide Web (Web), have had a tremendous impact on how companies communicate with their various audiences. Thus, the twofold purpose of this study was (a) to determine the characteristics of "Fortune 500" company homepage components and (b) to determine the communication effectiveness of…
Hart, Claudia; Plemmons, Tony; Stulz, Karin; Vroman, Margo
A regional University in the United States implemented an AQIP (Academic Quality Improvement Program) Action Project with a goal of developing processes for effective leadership communication. An MBA (Masters of Business Administration) class conducted a university-wide communication audit to assist with the AQIP project. Quantitative and…
Hargie, Owen; Tourish, Dennis; Wilson, Noel
Considers how communication audits are typically presented as one-shot events, whose impact is not measured. Employs a follow-up audit to track the effects of an initial audit upon a major health care organization. Illustrates how the audit can play a useful role in an organization's communication strategy. (SG)
Chang, Yan-Shing; Coxon, Kirstie; Portela, Anayda Gerarda; Furuta, Marie; Bick, Debra
the objectives of this review were (1) to assess whether interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women in labour with a term pregnancy could improve birth outcomes and experiences of care; and (2) to synthesize information related to the feasibility of implementation and resources required. a mixed-methods systematic review. studies which reported on interventions aimed at improving communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during normal labour and birth, with no apparent medical or obstetric complications, and their family members were included. 'Maternity care staff' included medical doctors (e.g. obstetricians, anaesthetists, physicians, family doctors, paediatricians), midwives, nurses and other skilled birth attendants providing labour, birth and immediate postnatal care. Studies from all birth settings (any country, any facility including home birth, any resource level) were included. two papers met the inclusion criteria. One was a step wedge randomised controlled trial conducted in Syria, and the other a sub-analysis of a randomised controlled trial from the United Kingdom. Both studies aimed to assess effects of communication training for maternity care staff on women's experiences of labour care. The study from Syria reported that a communication skills training intervention for resident doctors was not associated with higher satisfaction reported by women. In the UK study, patient-actors' (experienced midwives) perceptions of safety and communication significantly improved for postpartum haemorrhage scenarios after training with patient-actors in local hospitals, compared with training using manikins in simulation centres, but no differences were identified for other scenarios. Both studies had methodological limitations. the review identified a lack of evidence on impact of interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during labour and
Smith, V.K.; Desvousges, W.H.; Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.
A panel of 2300 homeowners was divided into subgroups to test the effectiveness of six alternative ways of explaining the risk from naturally occurring radon gas. The research design focused on two dimensions: qualitative vs. quantitative and directive vs. evaluative. These characteristics led to 4 experimental booklets, which were compared with EPA's Citizen's Guide and a one-page fact sheet. The evaluation examined how much people learned about radon; whether they could form risk perceptions consistent with their home's measured radon level; and whether they felt they had enough information to make a decision about mitigation. The fact sheet did not perform well on any of these evaluation criteria. None of the five booklets clearly was best for all 3 evaluation criteria; the report discusses the implications for designing an effective radon-risk communication program
Phillips, Lorraine J.; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Pak, Youngju
Background Effective nonpharmacological interventions are needed to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms and improve quality of life for the 5.3 million Americans affected by dementia. Objective To test the effect of a storytelling program, TimeSlips, on communication, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in long-term care residents with dementia. Method A quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated measures design was used to compare persons with dementia who were assigned to the twice-weekly, 6-week TimeSlips intervention (n = 28) or usual care (n = 28) group at baseline and postintervention at Weeks 7 and 10. Outcome measures included the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, Functional Assessment of Communication Skills, Quality of Life–AD, and Observed Emotion Rating Scale (this last measure was collected also at Weeks 3 and 6 during TimeSlips for the treatment group and during mealtime for the control group). Results Compared to the control group, the treatment group exhibited significantly higher pleasure at Week 3 (p story-telling intervention, analyses revealed increased positive affect during and at 1-week post-intervention. In addition, perhaps associated with the intervention’s reliance on positive social interactions and verbal communication, participants evidenced improved communication skills. However, more frequent dosing and booster sessions of TimeSlips may be needed to show significant differences between treatment and control groups on long-term effects and other outcomes. PMID:21048483
Phillips, Lorraine J; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A; Pak, Youngju
Effective nonpharmacological interventions are needed to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms and to improve quality of life for the 5.3 million Americans affected by dementia. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a storytelling program, TimeSlips, on communication, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in long-term care residents with dementia. A quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated measures design was used to compare persons with dementia who were assigned to the twice-weekly, 6-week TimeSlips intervention group (n = 28) or usual care group (n = 28) at baseline and postintervention at Weeks 7 and 10. Outcome measures included the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, the Functional Assessment of Communication Skills, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease, and the Observed Emotion Rating Scale (this last measure was collected also at Weeks 3 and 6 during TimeSlips for the treatment group and during mealtime for the control group). Compared with the control group, the treatment group exhibited significantly higher pleasure at Week 3 (p storytelling intervention, analyses revealed increased positive affect during and at 1 week postintervention. In addition, perhaps associated with the intervention's reliance on positive social interactions and verbal communication, participants evidenced improved communication skills. However, more frequent dosing and booster sessions of TimeSlips may be needed to show significant differences between treatment and control groups on long-term effects and other outcomes.
Koenig, Robert J.
Higher education students can and do take courses delivered in a variety of ways. But, to date, little research has been done on the effectiveness of different delivery modes. This study sought to fill that void by comparing the effectiveness of three undergraduate course delivery modes: classroom, online, and video conference at a technical…
Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen
We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…
Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European Youth Olympic Festival (2011) ... The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. ... Sample group views on both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
This study examined the communication effects of smoking cessation by using message framing (positive messages/negative messages) and audience situation (smoker/nonsmoker and high/low self-efficacy). The study used 207 valid homogeneous subjects and a between-subject experiment method was employed for analyses. The results showed that the communication effects were influenced by the interactive effects of message framing and audience situation, and for smokers, positive messages have a more s...
Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.
This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.
A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson
This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.
Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.
This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums
McDonald, L.; Cramer, B.; Barrett, B.
This prospective study assesses whether there are differences in accuracy of interpretation of diagnostic images among users of a picture archive and communication system (PACS) diagnostic workstation, compared with a less costly Web-based imaging system on a personal computer (PC) with a high resolution monitor. One hundred consecutive pediatric chest or abdomen and skeletal X-rays were selected from hospital inpatient and outpatient studies over a 5-month interval. They were classified as normal (n = 32), obviously abnormal (n = 33), or having subtle abnormal findings (n = 35) by 2 senior radiologists who reached a consensus for each individual case. Subsequently, 5 raters with varying degrees of experience independently viewed and interpreted the cases as normal or abnormal. Raters viewed each image 1 month apart on a PACS and on the Web-based PC imaging system. There was no relation between accuracy of detection and the system used to evaluate X-ray images (P = 0.92). The total percentage of incorrect interpretations on the Web-based PC imaging system was 23.2%, compared with 23.6% on the PACS (P = 0.92). For all raters combined, the overall difference in proportion assessed incorrectly on the PACS, compared with the PC system, was not significant at 0.4% (95%CI, -3.5% to 4.3%). The high-resolution Web-based imaging system via PC is an adequate alternative to a PACS clinical workstation. Accordingly, the provision of a more extensive network of workstations throughout the hospital setting could have potentially significant cost savings. (author)
Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi
Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.
Boelhouwer, Eric; Davis, Jerry; Franco-Watkins, Ana; Dorris, Nathan; Lungu, Claudiu
The United Nations has proposed the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals to make hazard communication more uniform and to improve comprehension. Two experiments were conducted to test whether the addition of hazard and precautionary pictograms to safety data sheets and product labels would improve the transfer of information to users compared to safety data sheets and product labels containing text only. Additionally, naïve users, workers, and experts were tested to determine any potential differences among users. The effect of adding pictograms to safety data sheets and labels was statistically significant for some conditions, but was not significant across all conditions. One benefit of the addition of pictograms was that the time to respond to the survey questions decreased when the pictograms were present for both the SDS and the labels. GHS format SDS and labels do provide benefits to users, but the system will need further enhancements and modifications to continue to improve the effectiveness of hazard communication. The final rule to modify the HCS to include the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals announced by OSHA (2012b) will change the information content of every chemical SDS and label used in commerce. This study suggests that the inclusion of GHS hazard pictograms and precautionary pictograms to SDS and labels may benefit the user. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Medina-Castellano, Latesha D.
This dissertation describes an action research study that was designed to improve the communication channels among K-2 and specialized educators in a specific learning culture regarding the learning needs of students. The action research intervention plan included professional online workshops, telecommunication conferences, and recorded…
Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Wolfinger, F.; Lloyd, A.
Indicators are observations or calculations that are used to track social and environmental conditions over time. For a large coupled system such as the economy and environment, the choice of indicators requires a structured process that involves co-production among facilitators, subject-matter experts, decision-makers, and the general public. This co-production is needed in part because such indicators serve a duel role of scientifically tracking change and of communicating to non-scientists important changes and information that may be useful in decision contexts. Because the goal is to communicate and inform decisions it is critical that indicators be understood by non-scientific audiences, which may require different visualization techniques than for scientific audiences. Here we describe a process of rigorously evaluating visual communication efficacy by using a simplified taxonomy of visualization design problems and trade-offs to assess existing and redesigned indicator images. The experimental design is three-part. It involves testing non-scientific audiences' understandability of scientific images found in the literature along with similar information shaped by a partial co-production process that informed the U.S. Global Change Research Program prototype indicators system, released in Spring 2015. These recommendations for physical, natural, and societal indicators of changes and impacts involved input from over 200 subject-matter experts, organized into 13 technical teams. Using results from the first two parts, we then explore visualization design improvements that may increase understandability to non-scientific audiences. We anticipate that this work will highlight important trade-offs in visualization design when moving between audiences that will be of great use to scientists who wish to communicate their results broader audiences.
Collaboration between research groups in different fields is a common occurrence, but it can often be frustrating due to the absence of a common vocabulary. This lack of a shared context can make expressing important concepts and discussing results difficult. This problem may be further exacerbated when communicating to an audience of laypeople. Without a clear frame of reference, simple concepts are often rendered difficult-to-understand at best, and unintelligible at worst. An easy way to alleviate this confusion is with the use of clear, well-designed visualizations to illustrate an idea, process or conclusion. There exist a number of well-described machine-learning and statistical techniques which can be used to illuminate the information present within complex high-dimensional datasets. Once the information has been separated from the data, clear communication becomes a matter of selecting an appropriate visualization. Ideally, the visualization is information-rich but data-scarce. Anything from a simple bar chart, to a line chart with confidence intervals, to an animated set of 3D point-clouds can be used to render a complex idea as an easily understood image. Several case studies will be presented in this work. In the first study, we will examine how a complex statistical analysis was applied to a high-dimensional dataset, and how the results were succinctly communicated to an audience of microbiologists and chemical engineers. Next, we will examine a technique used to illustrate the concept of the singular value decomposition, as used in the field of computer vision, to a lay audience of undergraduate students from mixed majors. We will then examine a case where a simple animated line plot was used to communicate an approach to signal decomposition, and will finish with a discussion of the tools available to create these visualizations.
Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de
Kudoh, Eisuke; Ito, Haruki; Wang, Zhisen; Adachi, Fumiyuki
In mobile communication systems, high speed packet data services are demanded. In the high speed data transmission, throughput degrades severely due to severe inter-path interference (IPI). Recently, we proposed a random transmit power control (TPC) to increase the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications. In this paper, we apply IPI cancellation in addition to the random TPC. We derive the numerical expression of the received signal-to-interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) and introduce IPI cancellation factor. We also derive the numerical expression of system throughput when IPI is cancelled ideally to compare with the Monte Carlo numerically evaluated system throughput. Then we evaluate, by Monte-Carlo numerical computation method, the combined effect of random TPC and IPI cancellation on the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications.
Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin
Transactive communication means referring to and building on a learning partner's idea, by, for example, extending the partner's idea or interlinking the partner's idea with an idea of one's own. This transforms the partner's idea into a more elaborate one. Previous research found a positive relationship between students' transactive communication and their learning results when working in small groups. To increase the benefits of cooperation, we developed and tested a module for training students in transactive communication. We assumed that this training would enhance students' transactive communication and also increase their knowledge acquisition during cooperative learning. Further, we distinguished between an actor's transactive communication and a learning partner's transactive communication and expected both to be positively associated with an actor's knowledge acquisition. Participants were 80 university students. In an experiment with pre- and post-test measurements, transactive communication was measured by coding students' communication in a cooperative learning situation before training and in another cooperative learning situation after training. For the post-test cooperative learning situation, knowledge was pre-tested and post-tested. Trained students outperformed controls in transactive communication and in knowledge acquisition. Positive training effects on actors' knowledge acquisition were partially mediated by the improved actors' transactive communication. Moreover, actors' knowledge acquisition was positively influenced by learning partners' transactive communication. Results show a meaningful increase in the benefits of cooperation through the training in transactive communication. Furthermore, findings indicate that students benefit from both elaborating on their partner's ideas and having their own ideas elaborated on. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Quast, Anne-Floor B. E.; Tjong, Fleur V. Y.; Koop, Brendan E.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Burke, Martin C.
The development of communicating modular cardiac rhythm management systems relies on effective intrabody communication between a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) and a leadless pacemaker (LP), using conducted communication. Communication success is affected by the LP and
Kitaoka, Kenichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoku; Imai, Tomohiro; Satoh, Masaharu.
Eight cases with ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms, who developed mental signs of mild degree lasting more than two weeks following direct operation, were subjected to our study. The following results were obtained. 1) The mental signs of mild degree in 8 cases consisted of memory and emotional disturbances. The main findings of CT scan was low density area in the subcortical and cortical areas of the frontal lobe. There was no close correlation on CT findings between memory and emotional disturbances. 2) Abnormal density areas were detected on CT scan, but EEG showed no localized abnormalities of slow waves. Abnormal density areas were not clearly shown on CT, but EEG showed localized abnormalities. Background activities on EEG were favorable despite lesions detected on CT. Either local or diffuse abnormalities were observed in EEG background activities while no abnormal mental signs were recognized. 3) In cases with no apparent abnormal findings on CT and with favorable background activities on EEG, EEG showed marked build up during hyperventilation. 4) As indicated by the above data, comparative studies of CT and EEG findings revealed differences in sites of abnormalities and degree of abnormalities. This is considered caused by a possible increase in cerebral blood flow and metabolism at initiation of chronic stage following subarachnoid hemorrhage-resulting in the disappearance of abnormalities on EEG. (author)
Heilbrun, Kirk; Wolbransky, Melinda; Shah, Sanjay; Kelly, Rebecca
Risk communication is an important vehicle for the scientific understanding of the perception of and response to various kinds of threats. The present study provides apparently the first empirical attempt to compare perceptions, decision-making, and anticipated action in response to threats of three kinds: natural disaster, violent crime, and terrorism. A total of 258 college undergraduates were surveyed using a vignette-based, 2 × 2 × 3 between-subjects design that systematically manipulated threat imminence (high vs. low), risk level (high vs. low), and nature of the threat (natural disaster vs. crime vs. terrorism). There were substantial differences in participants' perceptions and reported actions in response to natural disaster, relative to the other domains of risk, under conditions of high risk. The risk of natural disaster was more likely to lead participants to report that they would change their daily activities and to relocate. It was also more likely than terrorism to lead to action securing the home. It appears that the mechanisms for perception, decision-making, and action in response to threats cannot be generalized in a straightforward way across these domains of threat. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Heller, John G.; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Riew, K. Daniel
Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical ...
Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian
Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.
Brookhart, M. Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian
Summary Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial. PMID:20354968
Full Text Available In recent years, it has been evident that one form of competitive advertising gained in its importance - comparative advertising. Although its extensive use has probably been inspired by the belief that the perception of relative superiority of a brand compared to competition could be encouraged in that way, research evidence suggested mixed conclusions about its effectiveness. The paper summarizes the results of previous studies in this area, and in particular those which point out the factors that can influence effectiveness of comparative advertising. Additionally,, the paper summarizes the opinions of some authors about the long-term influence of this form of advertising on brand, and gives the recommendations for its more effective use. .
Gelfman, Laura P; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Helen; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; O'Neill, Lynn; Smith, Cardinale B; Kelley, Amy S
Communication skills are critical in Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine because these patients confront complex clinical scenarios. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course by comparing pre- and post-course real-time assessment of the participants leading family meetings. We also evaluated the participants' sustained skills practice. We compare the participants' skill acquisition before and after Geritalk using a direct observation Family Meeting Communication Assessment Tool and assess their deliberate practice at follow-up. First-year Geriatrics or Palliative Medicine fellows at Mount Sinai Medical Center and the James J. Peters Bronx VA Medical Center participated in Geritalk. Pre- and post-course family meeting assessments were compared. An average net gain of 6.8 skills represented a greater than 20% improvement in use of applicable skills. At two month follow-up, most participants reported deliberate practice of fundamental and advanced skills. This intensive training and family meeting assessment offers evidence-based communication skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.
Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated
Bálint, Katalin; Bilandzic, Helena
Understanding of the mechanics underlying the effects of health narratives. Addressing this gap, this Special Section provides a synthesis of knowledge and direction in the field of narrative health communication, bringing together 10 original research articles. The reported studies investigate