WorldWideScience

Sample records for common-envelope ejection implications

  1. Episodic mass ejections from common-envelope objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Matthew; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Ivanova, Natasha; Justham, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    After the initial fast spiral-in phase experienced by a common-envelope binary, the system may enter a slow, self-regulated phase, possibly lasting hundreds of years, in which all the energy released by orbital decay can be efficiently transported to the surface, where it is radiated away. If the remaining envelope is to be removed during this phase, this removal must occur through some as-yet-undetermined mechanism. We carried out 1D hydrodynamic simulations of a low-mass red giant undergoing a synthetic common-envelope event in such a slow spiral-in phase, using the stellar evolutionary code mesa. We simulated the heating of the envelope due to frictional dissipation from a binary companion's orbit in multiple configurations and investigated the response of the giant's envelope. We find that our model envelopes become dynamically unstable and develop large-amplitude pulsations, with periods in the range 3-20 yr and very short growth time-scales of similar order. The shocks and associated rebounds that emerge as these pulsations grow are in some cases strong enough to dynamically eject shells of matter of up to 0.1 M⊙, ˜10 per cent of the mass of the envelope, from the stellar surface at above escape velocity. These ejections are seen to repeat within a few decades, leading to a time-averaged mass-loss rate of the order of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1, which is sufficiently high to represent a candidate mechanism for removing the entire envelope over the duration of the slow spiral-in phase.

  2. The luminous red nova M101-OT2015-1: a candidate for common envelope ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kotak, Rubina

    2017-01-01

    Binary interaction is an important phase in the study of stellar evolution. Approximately 50% of O star population live in close binary systems as to allow interaction with the companion. Although massive binary progenitors have been associated with thermonuclear supernovae, stripped core collapse supernovae, cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, or the mind blowing massive binary black holes recently detected by LIGO, the exact evolutionary path followed by the system is still under debate. One of the critical phases is the common envelope (CE) phase, required to bring a long period binary into a much shorter orbit. Currently, this phase also represents a challenge for the current stellar evolution models. Given the uncertainty, observational constraints are valuable input to advance in this field. One particular class of transient objects, called Luminous Red Novae (LRNe), has been associated with the termination of the CE phase, when a total or partial ejection of the least bound layers of the primary star are expelled at the expense of decreasing the orbital energy of the system. In my talk I will discuss the results of 16 years of observations of M101-OT2015-1, a LRN in M101 galaxy. I will describe the progenitor star (system) and the main characteristics of the outburst. Finally, I will present the results of the evolution of its remnant in infrared wavelengths. Given the long time span of our observations, this event represents one of the best studied CE ejection candidate at extragalactic distances.

  3. Post-common envelope binaries from SDSS - XVI. Long orbital period systems and the energy budget of common envelope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Zorotovic, M.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Southworth, J.; Nebot Gómez-Morán, A.; Tappert, C.; Koester, D.; Pyrzas, S.; Papadaki, C.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Schwope, A.; Toloza, O.

    2012-06-01

    Virtually all close compact binary stars are formed through common envelope (CE) evolution. It is generally accepted that during this crucial evolutionary phase a fraction of the orbital energy is used to expel the envelope. However, it is unclear whether additional sources of energy, such as the recombination energy of the envelope, play an important role. Here we report the discovery of the second and third longest orbital period post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs) containing white dwarf (WD) primaries, i.e. SDSS J121130.94-024954.4 (? d) and SDSS J222108.45+002927.7 (? d), reconstruct their evolutionary history and discuss the implications for the energy budget of CE evolution. We find that, despite their long orbital periods, the evolution of both systems can still be understood without incorporating recombination energy, although at least small contributions of this additional energy seem to be likely. If recombination energy significantly contributes to the ejection of the envelope, more PCEBs with relatively long orbital periods (? d) harbouring massive WDs (?) should exist.

  4. Do all Planetary Nebulae result from Common Envelopes?

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    De Marco, O.; Moe, M.; Herwig, F.; Politano, M.

    2005-12-01

    The common envelope interaction is responsible for evolved close binaries. Some of these binaries reside in the middle of planetary nebulae (PN). Conventional wisdom has it that only about 10% of all PN contain close binary central stars. Recent observational results, however, strongly suggest that most or even all PN are in close binary systems. Interestingly, our population synthesis calculations predict that the number of post-common envelope PN is in agreement with the total number of PN in the Galaxy. On the other hand, if all stars (single and in binaries) with mass between ˜1-8 M⊙ eject a PN, there would be 10-20 times many more PN in the galaxy than observed. This theoretical result is in agreement with the observations in suggesting that binary interactions play a functional rather than marginal role in the creation of PN. FH acknowledges funds from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36 to Los Alamos National Laboratory. MP gratefully acknowledges NSF grant AST-0328484 to Marquette University.

  5. Dynamics of jets during the common-envelope phase

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    Moreno Méndez, Enrique; López-Cámara, Diego; De Colle, Fabio

    2017-09-01

    Common envelope (CE) is an important phase in the evolution of many binary systems. Giant star/compact object interaction in binaries plays an important role in high-energy phenomena as well as in the evolution of their environment. Material accreted on to the compact object may form a disc and power a jet. We study analytically and through numerical simulations the interaction between the jet and the CE. We determine the conditions under which accreting material quenches the jet or allows it to propagate successfully, in which case even the envelope may be ejected. Close to the stellar core of the companion, the compact object accretes at a larger rate. A jet launched from this region needs a larger accretion-to-ejection efficiency to successfully propagate through the CE compared to a jet launched far from the stellar core, and is strongly deflected by the orbital motion. The energy deposited by the jet may be larger than the binding energy of the envelope. The jet can, thus, play a fundamental role in the CE evolution. We find that the energy dissipation of the jet into the CE may stop accretion on to the disc. We expect the jet to be intermittent, unless the energy deposited is large enough to lead to the unbinding of the outer layers of the CE. Given that the energy and duration of the jet are similar to those of ultralong gamma-ray bursts, we suggest this as a new channel to produce these events.

  6. Energizing the last phase of common-envelope removal

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    Soker, Noam

    2017-11-01

    We propose a scenario where a companion that is about to exit a common-envelope evolution (CEE) with a giant star accretes mass from the remaining envelope outside its deep orbit and launches jets that facilitate the removal of the remaining envelope. The jets that the accretion disc launches collide with the envelope and form hot bubbles that energize the envelope. Due to gravitational interaction with the envelope, which might reside in a circumbinary disc, the companion migrates farther in, but the inner boundary of the circumbinary disc continues to feed the accretion disc. While near the equatorial plane mass leaves the system at a very low velocity, along the polar directions velocities are very high. When the primary is an asymptotic giant branch star, this type of flow forms a bipolar nebula with very narrow waists. We compare this envelope-removal process with four other last-phase common-envelope-removal processes. We also note that the accreted gas from the envelope outside the orbit in the last phase of the CEE might carry with it angular momentum that is anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum. We discuss the implications to the possibly anti-aligned spins of the merging black hole event GW170104.

  7. ASYMMETRIC ACCRETION FLOWS WITHIN A COMMON ENVELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    This paper examines flows in the immediate vicinity of stars and compact objects dynamically inspiralling within a common envelope (CE). Flow in the vicinity of the embedded object is gravitationally focused, leading to drag and potentially to gas accretion. This process has been studied numerically and analytically in the context of Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion (HLA). Yet, within a CE, accretion structures may span a large fraction of the envelope radius, and in so doing sweep across a substantial radial gradient of density. We quantify these gradients using detailed stellar evolution models for a range of CE encounters. We provide estimates of typical scales in CE encounters that involve main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes with giant-branch companions of a wide range of masses. We apply these typical scales to hydrodynamic simulations of three-dimensional HLA with an upstream density gradient. This density gradient breaks the symmetry that defines HLA flow, and imposes an angular momentum barrier to accretion. Material that is focused into the vicinity of the embedded object thus may not be able to accrete. As a result, accretion rates drop dramatically, by one to two orders of magnitude, while drag rates are only mildly affected. We provide fitting formulae to the numerically derived rates of drag and accretion as a function of the density gradient. The reduced ratio of accretion to drag suggests that objects that can efficiently gain mass during CE evolution, such as black holes and neutron stars, may grow less than implied by the HLA formalism.

  8. Energy transport by convection in the common envelope evolution

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    Sabach, Efrat; Hillel, Shlomi; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2017-12-01

    We argue that outward transport of energy by convection and photon diffusion in a common envelope evolution (CEE) of giant stars substantially reduces the fraction of the recombination energy of hydrogen and helium that is available for envelope removal. We base our estimate on the properties of an unperturbed asymptotic giant branch spherical model, and on some simple arguments. Since during the CEE the envelope expands and energy removal by photon diffusion becomes more efficient, our arguments underestimate the escape of recombination energy. We hence strengthen earlier claims that recombination energy does not contribute much to common envelope removal. A large fraction of the energy that jets deposit to the envelope, on the other hand, might be in the form of kinetic energy of the expanding and buoyantly rising hot bubbles. These rapidly rising bubbles remove mass from the envelope. We demonstrate this process by conducting a three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation where we deposit hot gas in the location of a secondary star that orbits inside the envelope of a giant star. Despite the fact that we do not include the large amount of gravitational energy that is released by the in-spiralling secondary star, the hot bubbles alone remove mass at a rate of about 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1, which is much above the regular mass-loss rate.

  9. Common Envelope Light Curves. I. Grid-code Module Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaviz, Pablo; Marco, Orsola De; Staff, Jan E.; Iaconi, Roberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Passy, Jean-Claude, E-mail: Pablo.Galaviz@me.com [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    The common envelope (CE) binary interaction occurs when a star transfers mass onto a companion that cannot fully accrete it. The interaction can lead to a merger of the two objects or to a close binary. The CE interaction is the gateway of all evolved compact binaries, all stellar mergers, and likely many of the stellar transients witnessed to date. CE simulations are needed to understand this interaction and to interpret stars and binaries thought to be the byproduct of this stage. At this time, simulations are unable to reproduce the few observational data available and several ideas have been put forward to address their shortcomings. The need for more definitive simulation validation is pressing and is already being fulfilled by observations from time-domain surveys. In this article, we present an initial method and its implementation for post-processing grid-based CE simulations to produce the light curve so as to compare simulations with upcoming observations. Here we implemented a zeroth order method to calculate the light emitted from CE hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the 3D hydrodynamic code Enzo used in unigrid mode. The code implements an approach for the computation of luminosity in both optically thick and optically thin regimes and is tested using the first 135 days of the CE simulation of Passy et al., where a 0.8  M {sub ⊙} red giant branch star interacts with a 0.6  M {sub ⊙} companion. This code is used to highlight two large obstacles that need to be overcome before realistic light curves can be calculated. We explain the nature of these problems and the attempted solutions and approximations in full detail to enable the next step to be identified and implemented. We also discuss our simulation in relation to recent data of transients identified as CE interactions.

  10. SIMULATING THE COMMON ENVELOPE PHASE OF A RED GIANT USING SMOOTHED-PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS AND UNIFORM-GRID CODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passy, Jean-Claude; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Fryer, Chris L.; Diehl, Steven; Rockefeller, Gabriel [Computational Computer Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Herwig, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Oishi, Jeffrey S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to study the rapid infall phase of the common envelope (CE) interaction of a red giant branch star of mass equal to 0.88 M{sub Sun} and a companion star of mass ranging from 0.9 down to 0.1 M{sub Sun }. We first compare the results obtained using two different numerical techniques with different resolutions, and find very good agreement overall. We then compare the outcomes of those simulations with observed systems thought to have gone through a CE. The simulations fail to reproduce those systems in the sense that most of the envelope of the donor remains bound at the end of the simulations and the final orbital separations between the donor's remnant and the companion, ranging from 26.8 down to 5.9 R{sub Sun }, are larger than the ones observed. We suggest that this discrepancy vouches for recombination playing an essential role in the ejection of the envelope and/or significant shrinkage of the orbit happening in the subsequent phase.

  11. The planetary nebula IC 4776 and its post-common-envelope binary central star

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    Sowicka, Paulina; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Wesson, Roger; García-Rojas, Jorge; Santander-García, Miguel; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of IC 4776, a planetary nebula displaying a morphology believed to be typical of central star binarity. The nebula is shown to comprise a compact hourglass-shaped central region and a pair of precessing jet-like structures. Time-resolved spectroscopy of its central star reveals a periodic radial velocity variability consistent with a binary system. Whilst the data are insufficient to accurately determine the parameters of the binary, the most likely solutions indicate that the secondary is probably a low-mass main-sequence star. An empirical analysis of the chemical abundances in IC 4776 indicates that the common-envelope phase may have cut short the asymptotic giant branch evolution of the progenitor. Abundances calculated from recombination lines are found to be discrepant by a factor of approximately 2 relative to those calculated using collisionally excited lines, suggesting a possible correlation between low-abundance discrepancy factors and intermediate-period post-common-envelope central stars and/or Wolf-Rayet central stars. The detection of a radial velocity variability associated with the binarity of the central star of IC 4776 may be indicative of a significant population of (intermediate-period) post-common-envelope binary central stars that would be undetected by classic photometric monitoring techniques.

  12. Post common envelope binaries from SDSS. XII. The orbital period distribution

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    Nebot Gómez-Morán, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Schreiber, M. R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Southworth, J.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Bothe, M.; Davis, P. J.; Kolb, U.; Müller, M.; Papadaki, C.; Pyrzas, S.; Rabitz, A.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Schwarz, R.; Tappert, C.; Toloza, O.; Vogel, J.; Zorotovic, M.

    2011-12-01

    Context. The complexity of the common-envelope phase and of magnetic stellar wind braking currently limits our understanding of close binary evolution. Because of their intrinsically simple structure, observational population studies of white dwarf plus main sequence (WDMS) binaries can potentially test theoretical models and constrain their parameters. Aims: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has provided a large and homogeneously selected sample of WDMS binaries, which we characterise in terms of orbital and stellar parameters. Methods: We have obtained radial velocity information for 385 WDMS binaries from follow-up spectroscopy and for an additional 861 systems from the SDSS subspectra. Radial velocity variations identify 191 of these WDMS binaries as post common-envelope binaries (PCEBs). Orbital periods of 58 PCEBs were subsequently measured, predominantly from time-resolved spectroscopy, bringing the total number of SDSS PCEBs with orbital parameters to 79. Observational biases inherent to this PCEB sample were evaluated through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We find that 21-24% of all SDSS WDMS binaries have undergone common-envelope evolution, which is in good agreement with published binary population models and high-resolution HST imaging of WDMS binaries unresolved from the ground. The bias-corrected orbital period distribution of PCEBs ranges from 1.9 h to 4.3 d and approximately follows a normal distribution in log (Porb), peaking at ~10.3 h. There is no observational evidence for a significant population of PCEBs with periods in the range of days to weeks. Conclusions: The large and homogeneous sample of SDSS WDMS binaries provides the means to test fundamental predictions of binary population models, hence to observationally constrain the evolution of all close compact binaries. Figures 3-6, Tables 1, 5 and Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 3, 4, and 6 are only available at the CDS via

  13. Tatooines Future: The Eccentric Response of Keplers Circumbinary Planets to Common-Envelope Evolution of their Host Stars

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    Kostov, Veselin B.; Moore, Keavin; Tamayo, Daniel; Jayawardhana, Ray; Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent Kepler discoveries of circumbinary planets orbiting nine close binary stars, we explore the fate of the former as the latter evolve off the main sequence. We combine binary star evolution models with dynamical simulations to study the orbital evolution of these planets as their hosts undergo common-envelope stages, losing in the process a tremendous amount of mass on dynamical timescales. Five of the systems experience at least one Roche-lobe overflow and common-envelope stages (Kepler-1647 experiences three), and the binary stars either shrink to very short orbits or coalesce; two systems trigger a double-degenerate supernova explosion. Kepler's circumbinary planets predominantly remain gravitationally bound at the end of the common-envelope phase, migrate to larger orbits, and may gain significant eccentricity; their orbital expansion can be more than an order of magnitude and can occur over the course of a single planetary orbit. The orbits these planets can reach are qualitatively consistent with those of the currently known post-common-envelope, eclipse-time variations circumbinary candidates. Our results also show that circumbinary planets can experience both modes of orbital expansion (adiabatic and non-adiabatic) if their host binaries undergo more than one common-envelope stage; multiplanet circumbinary systems like Kepler-47 can experience both modes during the same common-envelope stage. Additionally, unlike Mercury orbiting the Sun, a circumbinary planet with the same semi-major axis can survive the common envelope evolution of a close binary star with a total mass of 1 Solar Mass.

  14. Post Common Envelope Binaries as probes of M dwarf stellar wind and habitable zone radiation environments

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    Wilson, David

    2017-08-01

    M dwarf stars are promising targets in the search for extrasolar habitable planets, as their small size and close-in habitable zones make the detection of Earth-analog planets easier than at Solar-type stars. However, the effects of the high stellar activity of M dwarf hosts has uncertain effects on such planets, and may render them uninhabitable. Studying stellar activity at M dwarfs is hindered by a lack of measurements of high-energy radiation, flare activity and, in particular, stellar wind rates. We propose to rectify this by observing a sample of Post Common Envelope Binaries (PCEBs) with HST and XMM-Newton. PCEBs consist of an M dwarf with a white dwarf companion, which experiences the same stellar wind and radiation environment as a close-in planet. The stellar wind of the M dwarf accretes onto the otherwise pure hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf, producing metal lines detectable with ultraviolet spectroscopy. The metal lines can be used to measure accretion rates onto the white dwarf, from with we can accurately infer the stellar wind mass loss rate of the M dwarf, along with abundances of key elements. Simultaneous observations with XMM-Newton will probe X-ray flare occurrence rate and strength, in addition to coronal temperatures. Performing these measurements over twelve PCEBs will provide a sample of M dwarf stellar wind strengths, flare occurrence and X-ray/UV activity that will finally shed light on the true habitability of planets around small stars.

  15. A common-envelope wind model for Type Ia supernovae - I. Binary evolution and birth rate

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    Meng, X.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.

    2017-08-01

    The single-degenerate (SD) model is one of the principal models for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), but some of the predictions in the most widely studied version of the SD model, I.e. the optically thick wind (OTW) model, have not been confirmed by observations. Here, we propose a new version of the SD model in which a common envelope (CE) is assumed to form when the mass-transfer rate between a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) and its companion exceeds a critical accretion rate. The WD may gradually increase its mass at the base of the CE. Due to the large nuclear luminosity for stable hydrogen burning, the CE may expand to giant dimensions and will lose mass from the surface of the CE by a CE wind (CEW). Because of the low CE density, the binary system will avoid a fast spiral-in phase and finally re-emerge from the CE phase. Our model may share the virtues of the OTW model but avoid some of its shortcomings. We performed binary stellar evolution calculations for more than 1100 close WD + MS binaries. Compared with the OTW model, the parameter space for SNe Ia from our CEW model extends to more massive companions and less massive WDs. Correspondingly, the Galactic birth rate from the CEW model is higher than that from the OTW model by ˜30 per cent. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties of the CEW model and the differences between our CEW model and the OTW model.

  16. Post common envelope binaries from SDSS. VIII. Evidence for disrupted magnetic braking

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    Schreiber, M. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Southworth, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Müller, M.; Papadaki, C.; Pyrzas, S.; Rabitz, A.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Schwarz, R.; Tappert, C.; Toloza, O.; Vogel, J.; Zorotovic, M.

    2010-04-01

    Context. The standard prescription of angular momentum loss in compact binaries assumes magnetic braking to be very efficient as long as the secondary star has a radiative core, but to be negligible if the secondary star is fully convective. This prescription has been developed to explain the orbital period gap observed in the orbital period distribution of cataclysmic variables but has so far not been independently tested. Because the evolutionary time-scale of post common envelope binaries (PCEBs) crucially depends on the rate of angular momentum loss, a fundamental prediction of the disrupted magnetic braking theory is that the relative number of PCEBs should dramatically decrease for companion-star masses exceeding the mass that corresponds to the fully-convective boundary. Aims: We present the results of a large survey of PCEBs among white dwarf/main sequence (WDMS) binaries that allows us to determine the fraction of PCEBs as a function of secondary star mass and therewith to ultimately test the disrupted magnetic braking hypothesis. Methods: We obtained multiple spectroscopic observations spread over at least two nights for 670 WDMS binaries. Systems showing at least 3σ radial velocity variations are considered to be strong PCEB candidates. Taking into account observational selection effects we compare our results with the predictions of binary population simulations. Results: Among the 670 WDMS binaries we find 205 strong PCEB candidates. The fraction of PCEBs among WDMS binaries peaks around Msec ~ 0.25 M⊙ and steeply drops towards higher mass secondary stars in the range of Msec = 0.25-0.4 M⊙. Conclusions: The decrease of the number of PCEBs at the fully convective boundary strongly suggests that the evolutionary time scales of PCEBs containing fully convective secondaries are significantly longer than those of PCEBs with secondaries containing a radiative core. This is consistent with significantly reduced magnetic wind braking of fully convective

  17. A porcine model of hypertensive cardiomyopathy: implications for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

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    Schwarzl, Michael; Hamdani, Nazha; Seiler, Sebastian; Alogna, Alessio; Manninger, Martin; Reilly, Svetlana; Zirngast, Birgit; Kirsch, Alexander; Steendijk, Paul; Verderber, Jochen; Zweiker, David; Eller, Philipp; Höfler, Gerald; Schauer, Silvia; Eller, Kathrin; Maechler, Heinrich; Pieske, Burkert M; Linke, Wolfgang A; Casadei, Barbara; Post, Heiner

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) evolves with the accumulation of risk factors. Relevant animal models to identify potential therapeutic targets and to test novel therapies for HFPEF are missing. We induced hypertension and hyperlipidemia in landrace pigs (n = 8) by deoxycorticosteroneacetate (DOCA, 100 mg/kg, 90-day-release subcutaneous depot) and a Western diet (WD) containing high amounts of salt, fat, cholesterol, and sugar for 12 wk. Compared with weight-matched controls (n = 8), DOCA/WD-treated pigs showed left ventricular (LV) concentric hypertrophy and left atrial dilatation in the absence of significant changes in LV ejection fraction or symptoms of heart failure at rest. The LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship was markedly shifted leftward. During simultaneous right atrial pacing and dobutamine infusion, cardiac output reserve and LV peak inflow velocities were lower in DOCA/WD-treated pigs at higher LV end-diastolic pressures. In LV biopsies, we observed myocyte hypertrophy, a shift toward the stiffer titin isoform N2B, and reduced total titin phosphorylation. LV superoxide production was increased, in part attributable to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling, whereas AKT and NOS isoform expression and phosphorylation were unchanged. In conclusion, we developed a large-animal model in which loss of LV capacitance was associated with a titin isoform shift and dysfunctional NOS, in the presence of preserved LV ejection fraction. Our findings identify potential targets for the treatment of HFPEF in a relevant large-animal model. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The quest for companions to post-common envelope binaries. I. Searching a sample of stars from the CSS and SDSS

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    Backhaus, U.; Bauer, S.; Beuermann, K.; Diese, J.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F. V.; Husser, T.-O.; Klapdohr, K.-H.; Möllmanns, J.; Schünecke, R.; Dette, J.; Dubbert, J.; Miosga, T.; Rochus Vogel, A. L.; Simons, S.; Biriuk, S.; Debrah, M.; Griemens, M.; Hahn, A.; Möller, T.; Pawlowski, M.; Schweizer, M.; Speck, A.-L.; Zapros, C.; Bollmann, T.; Habermann, F. N.; Haustovich, N.; Lauser, M.; Liebing, F.; Niederstadt, F.; Hoppen, K.; Kindermann, D.; Küppers, F.; Rauch, B.; Althoff, F.; Horstmann, M.; Kellerman, J. N.; Kietz, R.; Nienaber, T.; Sauer, M.; Secci, A.; Wüllner, L.

    2012-02-01

    As part of an ongoing collaboration between student groups at high schools and professional astronomers, we have searched for the presence of circum-binary planets in a bona-fide unbiased sample of twelve post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs) from the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Although the present ephemerides are significantly more accurate than previous ones, we find no clear evidence for orbital period variations between 2005 and 2011 or during the 2011 observing season. The sparse long-term coverage still permits O-C variations with a period of years and an amplitude of tens of seconds, as found in other systems. Our observations provide the basis for future inferences about the frequency with which planet-sized or brown-dwarf companions have either formed in these evolved systems or survived the common envelope (CE) phase.

  19. Experimental studies of ice grain ejection by massive gas flow from ice and implications to Comets, Triton and Mars

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    Laufer, Diana; Bar-Nun, Akiva; Pat-El, Igal; Jacovi, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    This is an experimental study of ice grain ejection when trapped gases are released from water ice. When ice is formed by adherence of water molecules at low temperatures, it forms an amorphous structure with many pores, where gas molecules can reside. When further ice layers are formed, the gases are trapped in the ice. Upon its warming-up, the ice structure changes, releasing fractions of the trapped gas. If they do not encounter obstacles, they are released quiescently by dynamic percolation. In a non-dense ice a huge flux of ice grains emanates from the ice, propelled by gas jets and covering its entire surface. When the overlying ice is denser, due to back-migration of water vapor during its sublimation, gas trying to escape from below cannot penetrate the dense ice and breaks it, producing non-circular craters and a chaotic terrain, as observed experimentally and in close encounters with Comets Wild 2, Tempel 1 and Hartley 2. These experimental findings explain several observations of Solar System bodies: ice grain ejection from Comets Temple 1 and Hartley 2. Also explained are the dark jets observed on Triton, where their ejection speed suggests a deep source. On Mars, dark streaks are observed in the southern pole in spring, most likely by plumes carrying dark dust, carried by winds and falling on the surface. As found by us experimentally, only frozen CO2 covered by water ice or mixed with it will work to form jets, whereas pure frozen CO2 will sublimate quiescently.

  20. Prognostic Implications of Mid-Range Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction on Patients Presenting With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gilad; Khoury, Shafik; Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Letourneau-Shesaf, Sevan; Flint, Nir; Keren, Gad; Shacham, Yacov

    2017-07-15

    The new European Society of Cardiology guidelines reclassified heart failure according to left ventricular ejection fraction, recognizing patients with mid-range EF (mrEF; 40% to 49%) as a distinct group. We sought to investigate the clinical profile, in-hospital outcomes, and long-term mortality of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention who had mrEF. We conducted a retrospective study of 2,086 consecutive patients with STEMI between December 2007 and June 2016 who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and had a comprehensive echocardiographic examination performed within 72 hours of hospital admission. Patients were stratified according to their left ventricular ejection fraction-mrEF (40% to 49%), reduced EF (rEF; <40%), and preserved EF (pEF; ≥50%) groups and evaluated for baseline characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, as well as for long-term mortality. A total of 858 of 2,086 patients (41%) had mrEF, 215 of 2086 (10%) had rEF, and 1,013 of 2,086 (48%) had pEF. Patients with mrEF had nearly similar baseline co-morbidities and similar 30-day mortality compared with patients with pEF (2% vs 1%, p = 0.17). In a univariate analysis, long-term mortality was higher compared with those with pEF (9.8% vs 7.2%, p <0.01). In a multivariate Cox regression model, mrEF was independently associated with increased long-term mortality risk compared with pEF (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.93, p = 0.04). In conclusion, among STEMI patients, those with mrEF at presentation constitute a distinct group in terms of baseline characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and long-term mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ejection Tower Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ejection Tower Facility's mission is to test and evaluate new ejection seat technology being researched and developed for future defense forces. The captive and...

  2. THE WIRED SURVEY. III. AN INFRARED EXCESS AROUND THE ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE BINARY SDSS J030308.35+005443.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hoard, D. W. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Farihi, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Wachter, Stefanie [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Leisawitz, David T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cohen, Martin [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We present the discovery with WISE of a significant infrared excess associated with the eclipsing post-common envelope binary SDSS J030308.35+005443.7, the first excess discovered around a non-interacting white dwarf+main-sequence M dwarf binary. The spectral energy distribution of the white dwarf+M dwarf companion shows significant excess longward of 3 {mu}m. A T {sub eff} of 8940 K for the white dwarf is consistent with a cooling age >2 Gyr, implying that the excess may be due to a recently formed circumbinary dust disk of material that extends from the tidal truncation radius of the binary at 1.96 R {sub Sun} out to <0.8 AU, with a total mass of {approx}10{sup 20} g. We also construct WISE and follow-up ground-based near-infrared light curves of the system and find variability in the K band that appears to be in phase with ellipsoidal variations observed in the visible. The presence of dust might be due to (1) material being generated by the destruction of small rocky bodies that are being perturbed by an unseen planetary system or (2) dust condensing from the companion's wind. The high inclination of this system and the presence of dust make it an attractive target for M dwarf transit surveys and long-term photometric monitoring.

  3. Prescription of beta-blockers in patients with advanced heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Clinical implications and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; DeJongste, Mike J. L.; Lucas, Carolien; Cleuren, Ger; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    Background: The effects of beta-blockers in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are not well established. Aims: To assess the association between beta-blocker prescription at discharge and mortality in a cohort of patients with advanced HF and

  4. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) less than 10 electronvolts, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q (sub Fe) is greater than 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70 percent over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  5. Search with UVES and X-Shooter for signatures of the low-mass secondary in the post common-envelope binary AA Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, D.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-06-01

    Context. AA Dor is a close, totally eclipsing, post common-envelope binary with an sdOB-type primary star and an extremely low-mass secondary star, located close to the mass limit of stable central hydrogen burning. Within error limits, it may either be a brown dwarf or a late M-type dwarf. Aims: We aim to extract the secondary's contribution to the phase-dependent composite spectra. The spectrum and identified lines of the secondary decide on its nature. Methods: In January 2014, we measured the phase-dependent spectrum of AA Dor with X-Shooter over one complete orbital period. Since the secondary's rotation is presumable synchronized with the orbital period, its surface strictly divides into a day and night side. Therefore, we may obtain the spectrum of its cool side during its transit and of its hot, irradiated side close to its occultation. We developed the Virtual Observatory (VO) tool TLISA to search for weak lines of a faint companion in a binary system. We successfully applied it to the observations of AA Dor. Results: We identified 53 spectral lines of the secondary in the ultraviolet-blue, visual, and near-infrared X-Shooter spectra that are strongest close to its occultation. We identified 57 (20 additional) lines in available Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra from 2001. The lines are mostly from C ii-iii and O ii, typical for a low-mass star that is irradiated and heated by the primary. We verified the orbital period of P = 22 597.033201 ± 0.00007 s and determined the orbital velocity K_sec = 232.9+16.6-6.5 km s-1 of the secondary. The mass of the secondary is M_sec = 0.081+0.018-0.010 M_⊙ and, hence, it is not possible to reliably determine a brown dwarf or an M-type dwarf nature. Conclusions: Although we identified many emission lines of the secondary's irradiated surface, the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of our UVES and X-Shooter spectra are not good enough to extract a good spectrum of the secondary

  6. A Linear Relationship between Crystal Size and Fragment Binding Time Observed Crystallographically: Implications for Fragment Library Screening Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G.; Mulé, Elizabeth A.; Benson-Xu, Emma J.; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Le, Benjamin A.; Tieman, Alanna M.; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handl...

  7. Indoor Ground Ejection Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This climate controlled facility is used to evaluate air stores and equipment to determine ejection velocities, store pitch rates, and arming wire and device system...

  8. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  9. Geoeffectiveness (D (sub st) and K (sub p)) of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During 1995-2009 and Implications for Storm Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the geoeffectiveness (based on the Dst and Kp indices) of the more than 300 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that passed the Earth during 1996-2009, encompassing solar cycle 23. We subsequently estimate the probability that an ICME will generate geomagnetic activity that exceeds certain thresholds of Dst or Kp, including the NOAA "G" storm scale, based on maximum values of the southward magnetic field component (Bs), the solar wind speed (V), and the y component (Ey) of the solar wind convective electric field E = -V x B, in the ICME or sheath ahead of the ICME. Consistent with previous studies, the geoeffectiveness of an ICME is correlated with Bs or Ey approx.= VBs in the ICME or sheath, indicating that observations from a solar wind monitor upstream of the Earth are likely to provide the most reliable forecasts of the activity associated with an approaching ICME. There is also a general increase in geoeffectiveness with ICME speed, though the overall event-to-event correlation is weaker than for Bs and Ey. Nevertheless, using these results, we suggest that the speed of an ICME approaching the Earth inferred, for example, from routine remote sensing by coronagraphs on spacecraft well separated from the Earth or by all-sky imagers, could be used to estimate the likely geoeffectiveness of the ICME (our "comprehensive" ICME database provides a proxy for ICMEs identified in this way) with a longer lead time than may be possible using an upstream monitor

  10. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Cole

    Full Text Available High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above, the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above, the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  11. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G; Mulé, Elizabeth A; Benson-Xu, Emma J; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Le, Benjamin A; Tieman, Alanna M; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  12. Acoustic correlates of Georgian ejectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Tamra M.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we present results from acoustic analysis of Georgian ejectives. Georgian, a language of the Kartvelian (South Caucasian) family, has a three-way opposition for voiced, voiceless aspirated and ejective stops. There have not been many acoustic studies of ejectives; those studies that discuss ejectives, such as by Lindau [J. Phonetics 12, 147-155 (1984)], report cross-linguistic variation in timing between oral and glottal releases and the onset of a following vowel. In this paper we investigate acoustic correlates of Georgian ejectives and examine how these correlates are realized in two-member ejective clusters. Additionally, correlates of Georgian ejectives are compared to findings from previous studies and discussed in relation to cross-linguistic tendencies and variation. Data consist of field recordings of three native Georgian speakers producing single ejectives and ejective clusters in word-initial and word-medial (intervocalic) positions at a normal rate of speech. Acoustic analysis was completed using spectrograms and waveforms. Results indicate that, while there is variation within and among speakers, characteristics correlated with singleton Georgian ejectives include relative burst amplitude, noise quality following oral release, long, positive voice onset time, and a short period of creaky voice at the onset of a following vowel. Some of these characteristics differ from those of ejective clusters.

  13. Digital Recovery Sequencer - Advanced Concept Ejection Seats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, David A; Cotter, Lee; Culhane, David; Press, Matthew J

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES) currently uses the Analog Sequencer, designed in the 1960's and 1970's with analog technology, to control ejection event timing and ejection mode selection...

  14. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  15. A multipurpose satellite ejection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    A design is presented for a pneumatic ejection system capable of ejecting a spin stabilized satellite from the cargo bay of space vehicles. This system was orginally designed for use on the Spacelab 6 shuttle mission, but is now being considered for use with expendable rockets for launching satellites. The ejection system was designed to launch a 150 lb satellite at an initial ejection velocity of 32 ft/sec with a spin rate of 30 rev/min. The ejection system consists of a pneumatic cylinder, satellite retaining mechanism, and bearing assembly to allow the satellite to rotate during the spin up phase. As the cylinder is pressurized rapidly causing movement of the actuation piston, the mechanism automatically releases the spinning satellite by retracting a pneumatic locking pin and three spring loaded holddown pins. When the piston reaches the end of its stroke, it encounters a crushable aluminum honeycomb shock absorber which decelerates the piston and retaining mechanism. The assembly is designed for multiple uses except for the crushable shock absorber and pyrotechnic valves. The advantage of the design is discussed and patent no. and date given.

  16. Coronal Mass Ejections An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In times of growing technological sophistication and of our dependence on electronic technology, we are all affected by space weather. In its most extreme form, space weather can disrupt communications, damage and destroy spacecraft and power stations, and increase radiation exposure to astronauts and airline passengers. Major space weather events, called geomagnetic storms, are large disruptions in the Earth’s magnetic field brought about by the arrival of enormous magnetized plasma clouds from the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) contain billions of tons of plasma and hurtle through space at speeds of several million miles per hour. Understanding coronal mass ejections and their impact on the Earth is of great interest to both the scientific and technological communities. This book provides an introduction to coronal mass ejections, including a history of their observation and scientific revelations, instruments and theory behind their detection and measurement, and the status quo of theories describing...

  17. Coronal Mass Ejections travel time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Carlos Roberto; Souza de Mendonça, Rafael Rodrigues; Dal Lago, Alisson; Echer, Ezequiel

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main source of intense geomagnetic storms when they are earthward directed. Studying their travel time is a key-point to understand when the disturbance will be observed at Earth. In this work, we study the CME that originated the interplanetary disturbance observed on 2013/10/02. According to the observations, the CME that caused the interplanetary disturbance was ejected on 2013/09/29. We obtained the CME speed and estimate of the time of arrival at the Lagrangian Point L1 using the concept of expansion speed. We found that observed and estimated times of arrival of the shock differ between 2 and 23 hours depending on method used to estimate the radial speed.

  18. Aerodynamic Forces Experienced during Ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Ligaments- medial collateral tear-dislocation Menisci-medlal meniscus tear e Frequency: 44% e Mechanism: The function of the ligament Is to prevent abnormal...side if neceseesary and Identify by block number) Ejection F -4 Aircraft Acceleration (abrupt Windblast Injury Biomechanical data Long bones 20...distal end of the tibia and the medial malleolus on one side, and the distal end of the fllbua and the medial mallelous on the other. The malleoli are of

  19. Relation of Renal Function with Left Ventricular Systolic Function and NT-proBNP Level and Its Prognostic Implication in Heart Failure with Preserved versus Reduced Ejection Fraction: an analysis from the Korean Heart Failure (KorHF) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Soon; Park, Jin Joo; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Park, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Seok-Min; Yoo, Byung-Su; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Kim, Jae-Joong; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Chae, Shung Chull; Ryu, Kyu-Hyung; Oh, Byung-Hee

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between ejection fraction (EF), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and renal function is unknown as stratified by heart failure (HF) type. We investigated their relation and the prognostic value of renal function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) vs. reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). NT-proBNP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and EF were obtained in 1,932 acute heart failure (AHF) patients. HFrEF was defined as EFrenal dysfunction as GFRrenal dysfunction: 30≤GFRrenal dysfunction: GFRrenal dysfunction did not differ between HFpEF and HFrEF (49% vs. 52%, p=0.210). Patients with renal dysfunction had higher 12-month mortality in both HFpEF (7.9% vs. 15.2%, log-rank p=0.008) and HFrEF (8.6% vs. 16.8%, log-rank prenal dysfunction was an independent predictor of 12-month mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-3.11). When stratified according to EF: the prognostic value of severe renal dysfunction was attenuated in HFpEF patients (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 0.66-3.21) contrary to HFrEF patients (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.52-3.89). In AHF patients, the prevalence of renal dysfunction did not differ between HFpEF and HFrEF patients. However, the prognostic value of renal dysfunction was attenuated in HFpEF patients.

  20. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.

  1. Flux Accretion and Coronal Mass Ejection Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the primary drivers of severe space weather disturbances in the heliosphere. The equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) have been used to model the onset and, in some cases, the subsequent acceleration of ejections. Both observations and numerical modeling, however, suggest that magnetic reconnection likely plays a major role in most, if not all, fast CMEs. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamical effects of accretion of magnetic flux onto a rising ejection by reconnection involving the ejection's background field. This reconnection alters the magnetic structure of the ejection and its environment, thereby modifying forces acting during the eruption, generically leading to faster acceleration of the CME. Our ultimate aim is to characterize changes in CME acceleration in terms of observable properties of magnetic reconnection, such as the amount of reconnected flux, deduced from observations of flare ribbons and photospheric magnetic fields.

  2. Dynamics of polymer ejection from capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, R. P.; Moisio, J. E.; Suhonen, P. M.; Kaski, K.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer ejection from a capsid through a nanoscale pore is an important biological process with relevance to modern biotechnology. Here, we study generic capsid ejection using Langevin dynamics. We show that even when the ejection takes place within the drift-dominated region there is a very high probability for the ejection process not to be completed. Introducing a small aligning force at the pore entrance enhances ejection dramatically. Such a pore asymmetry is a candidate for a mechanism by which viral ejection is completed. By detailed high-resolution simulations we show that such capsid ejection is an out-of-equilibrium process that shares many common features with the much studied driven polymer translocation through a pore in a wall or a membrane. We find that the ejection times scale with polymer length, τ ˜Nα. We show that for the pore without the asymmetry the previous predictions corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations do not hold. For the pore with the asymmetry the scaling exponent varies with the initial monomer density (monomers per capsid volume) ρ inside the capsid. For very low densities ρ ≤0.002 the polymer is only weakly confined by the capsid, and we measure α =1.33, which is close to α =1.4 obtained for polymer translocation. At intermediate densities the scaling exponents α =1.25 and 1.21 for ρ =0.01 and 0.02, respectively. These scalings are in accord with a crude derivation for the lower limit α =1.2. For the asymmetrical pore precise scaling breaks down, when the density exceeds the value for complete confinement by the capsid, ρ ⪆0.25. The high-resolution data show that the capsid ejection for both pores, analogously to polymer translocation, can be characterized as a multiplicative stochastic process that is dominated by small-scale transitions.

  3. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  4. Modelling the ejection friction in injection moulding =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Mario Simoes

    The quality of parts produced by injection moulding may be affected during the ejection stage of the moulding cycle. At this stage the parts are mechanically forced to separate from the moulding surfaces. The ejection force depends on the shrinkage of the polymer onto the core and on the friction properties of the contacting surfaces at the moment of extraction. As during moulding there is a replication of the part on the mould surface the ejection process is also dependent on the plastic deformation of the moulded material. Ejection takes place in a very short time, hence the static coefficient of friction must be considered for modelling the ejection process. To understand the contribution of the mechanisms involved in friction during the ejection stage, a mixed approach was developed: analytical simulation for the ploughing component, numerical simulation for the deformation mechanism, and an experimental inference for the adhesion. The study was based on the observation of three materials that are commonly used in injection mouldings: polypropylene, polycarbonate and a blend of polycarbonate/acrylonitrile- butadiene. The friction behaviour was studied with two testing methods: a prototype tester that is fitted to a universal testing machine, and an instrumented mould for the characterization of the friction force. The relevance of roughness, temperature and contact pressure on friction was evidenced, on the actual value of the static coefficient of friction that applies in the demoulding of thermoplastic mouldings.

  5. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  6. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  7. Fluid Friction and Fungal Spore Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Joerg; Seminara, Agnese; Roper, Marcus; Pringle, Anne; Brenner, Michael

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of fungal species in the phylum Ascomycota uses the forcible ejection of microscopic spores to disperse and to cover new territory, triggered by the breakdown of osmolytes in the sack containing the spores (the ascus). The spores experience very high aerodynamic drag due to their small size and need to attain high velocities to leave the boundary layer of still air around the fruiting body. Here we address the efficiency of conversion of osmotic pressure to the kinetic energy of the spore, and in particular its dependence on the design of the ascus and the hole (the so-called apical ring) from where the spores leave the ascus. We present a fluid mechanical model of the ejection process, which predicts that the hole the apical ring should have specific properties, in order to minimize frictional and pressure losses and maximize the ejection velocity. We compare these predictions to measurements of apical ring properties across the phylum.

  8. Real-time observations of single bacteriophage lambda DNA ejections in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Paul; Han, Lin; Winther, Tabita; Phillips, Rob

    2007-09-11

    The physical, chemical, and structural features of bacteriophage genome release have been the subject of much recent attention. Many theoretical and experimental studies have centered on the internal forces driving the ejection process. Recently, Mangenot et al. [Mangenot S, Hochrein M, Rädler J, Letellier L (2005) Curr Biol 15:430-435.] reported fluorescence microscopy of phage T5 ejections, which proceeded stepwise between DNA nicks, reaching a translocation speed of 75 kbp/s or higher. It is still unknown how high the speed actually is. This paper reports real-time measurements of ejection from phage lambda, revealing how the speed depends on key physical parameters such as genome length and ionic state of the buffer. Except for a pause before DNA is finally released, the entire 48.5-kbp genome is translocated in approximately 1.5 s without interruption, reaching a speed of 60 kbp/s. The process gives insights particularly into the effects of two parameters: a shorter genome length results in lower speed but a shorter total time, and the presence of divalent magnesium ions (replacing sodium) reduces the pressure, increasing ejection time to 8-11 s. Pressure caused by DNA-DNA interactions within the head affects the initiation of ejection, but the close packing is also the dominant source of friction: more tightly packed phages initiate ejection earlier, but with a lower initial speed. The details of ejection revealed in this study are probably generic features of DNA translocation in bacteriophages and have implications for the dynamics of DNA in other biological systems.

  9. Ejection of stars with relativistic velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryomova, G.; Dryomov, V.; Tutukov, A.

    We present the results of numerical simulations performed in terms of modified Hills' scenario involving two supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In contrast to the classic Hills scenario (Hills 1988), here one component of the ordinary stellar binary system is replaced with a SMBH that provides a kinetic resource for ejecting a star (the secondary component of the binary) with relativistic velocity (RVS). We examine the conditions that favor relativistic ejections of stars, depending on the pericentric approach, the mass ratio of two SMBHs, and the orbital configuration of the binary system. Applying the simple criteria helped us to sort out the results of numerical simulations by the outcome: conservation of the orbital configuration of the binary system, dynamic recapture of the star by the central SMBH, emission of hypervelocity stars (HVSs), and RVS ejection. In the framework of N-body simulations we estimate the probability for a star to survive in the cross-field of two SMBHs during the ejection with relativistic velocity, and discuss the probability of the detection of RVSs in our Galaxy in the cases where such stars are generated in distant interacting galaxies undergoing a merger of their central parts occupied by SMBHs.

  10. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemay, S.G.; Panja, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370992105; Molineux, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly in vitro, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been

  11. Ejection-collision orbits in the RTBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé, Mercè; Rodríguez, Òscar; Soler, Jaume

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the ejection-collision (EC) orbits of the planar restricted three body problem. Being μ ∈ (0, 0.5] the mass parameter, and taking the big (small) primary with mass 1 - μ (μ), an EC orbit will be an orbit that ejects from the big primary, does an excursion and collides with it. As it is well known, for any value of the mass parameter μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and sufficiently restricted Hill regions (that is, for big enough values of the Jacobi constant C), there are exactly four EC orbits. We check their existence and extend numerically these four orbits for μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and for smaller values of the Jacobi constant. We introduce the concept of n-ejection-collision orbits (n-EC orbits) and we explore them numerically for μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and values of the Jacobi constant such that the Hill bounded possible region of motion contains the big primary and does not contain the small one. We study the cases 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 and we analyse the continuation of families of such n-EC orbits, varying the energy, as well as the bifurcations that appear.

  12. Effect of substrate thickness on ejection of phenylalanine molecules adsorbed on free-standing graphene bombarded by 10 keV C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golunski, M.; Verkhoturov, S. V.; Verkhoturov, D. S.; Schweikert, E. A.; Postawa, Z.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been employed to investigate the effect of substrate thickness on the ejection mechanism of phenylalanine molecules deposited on free-standing graphene. The system is bombarded from the graphene side by 10 keV C60 projectiles at normal incidence and the ejected particles are collected both in transmission and reflection directions. It has been found that the ejection mechanism depends on the substrate thickness. At thin substrates mostly organic fragments are ejected by direct collisions between projectile atoms and adsorbed molecules. At thicker substrates interaction between deforming topmost graphene sheet and adsorbed molecules becomes more important. As this process is gentle and directionally correlated, it leads predominantly to ejection of intact molecules. The implications of the results to a novel analytical approach in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry based on ultrathin free-standing graphene substrates and a transmission geometry are discussed.

  13. Effect of substrate thickness on ejection of phenylalanine molecules adsorbed on free-standing graphene bombarded by 10 keV C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golunski, M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Krakow (Poland); Verkhoturov, S.V.; Verkhoturov, D.S.; Schweikert, E.A. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Postawa, Z., E-mail: zbigniew.postawa@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Krakow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Substrate thickness has a prominent effect on the molecular ejection mechanism. • Collisions with projectile atoms leads to molecular ejection at thin substrates. • Interactions with deforming graphene sheet ejects molecules from thicker substrates. • Probability of fragmentation process decreases with the graphene substrate thickness. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been employed to investigate the effect of substrate thickness on the ejection mechanism of phenylalanine molecules deposited on free-standing graphene. The system is bombarded from the graphene side by 10 keV C{sub 60} projectiles at normal incidence and the ejected particles are collected both in transmission and reflection directions. It has been found that the ejection mechanism depends on the substrate thickness. At thin substrates mostly organic fragments are ejected by direct collisions between projectile atoms and adsorbed molecules. At thicker substrates interaction between deforming topmost graphene sheet and adsorbed molecules becomes more important. As this process is gentle and directionally correlated, it leads predominantly to ejection of intact molecules. The implications of the results to a novel analytical approach in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry based on ultrathin free-standing graphene substrates and a transmission geometry are discussed.

  14. Ejection experience in Serbian air force, 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Miroslav; Pejović Janko; Mladenović Jovan; Čekanac Radovan; Jovanović Dalibor; Karkalić Radovan; Ranđelović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. This study was an effort to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF) in the last two decades. Methods. All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots ´ age and experience, causes...

  15. Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

  16. The bipolar ejection in MWC560

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, O. E.; Tomov, T.; Munari, U.; Brandi, E.; Garcia, L.; Georgiev, L.; Barba, R.

    1998-11-01

    The symbiotic binary MWC560 is a very peculiar system. Consisting of a M giant and a magnetic white dwarf companion, its behaviour resembles only that of CH Cyg. The massive and fast outflows and jets, the rapid variations in brightness with a time scale of the order of twenty minutes, and the alternance between low and high activity phases, are phenomena which only could be caused by the presence of the magnetic white dwarf secondary (Mikolajewski et al. 1997). The spectrum is clearly dominated by narrow emission lines of singly ionized metals and by the Balmer lines, which show variable profiles, consisting of a strong emission component and complex absorption profiles displaying two kinds of components: a broad component with velocities of the order of -300 Km/s, always present, and violet shifted components, with velocities between -300 Km/s and -7000 Km/s, produced by the discrete ejection of material along the line of sight (Tomov et al. 1990, 1992). The radial velocities of the narrow emission lines do not show any change, and so do the velocities of the absorption lines of the M giant, supporting then the idea of face-on location for the orbital plane of the system (Tomov & Kolev 1997). The emission of the Balmer lines could be formed in an accretion disk and/or envelope around the hot companion, and the violet-shifted absorption components would be caused by the bipolar ejection of highly collimated jets by the magnetized white dwarf (Tomov & Kolev 1997). Probable spectral signatures of this bipolar ejection were previously presented (Tomov et al 1997). We are presenting here a clear evidence of the presence of the corresponding red-shifted jets, signatures of which are seen in the behaviour of the red wing of the H alpha emission profiles, mirroring the strongly violet-shifted absorption components when present. We show high resolution H alpha profiles secured between 1993 and 1998 with the Rozhen (Bulgaria) 2-m, the Asiago (Italy) 1.82-m, the San Pedro

  17. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  18. Fighter Pilot Ejection Study as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we apply the well-known equations of projectile motion to the case of a fighter pilot ejecting from an aircraft, the aim being to establish under what conditions there is danger of impact with the rear vertical stabilizer. The drag force on the pilot after ejection is assumed to vary as the velocity squared and the aircraft motion…

  19. Fast ejection chain algorithms for vehicle routing with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontrop, Herman; Blesa, M.J.; Blum, C.; van der Horn, Pieter; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Roli, A.; Sampels, M.

    This paper introduces a new algorithm, based on the concept of ejection chains, to effectively target vehicle routing problems with time window constraints (VRPTW). Ejection chains create powerful compound moves within Local Search algorithms. Their potential to yield state of the art algorithms has

  20. Ejection experience in Serbian air force, 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. This study was an effort to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF in the last two decades. Methods. All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots ´ age and experience, causes of ejection, aeronautical parameters, the condition of aircraft control and types of injuries. For ease of comparison the U.S. Air Force Safety Regulation was used to define of major injuries: hospitalization for 5 days or more, loss of consciousness for over 5 min, bone fracture, joint dislocation, injury to any internal organ, any third-degree burn, or second-degree burn over 5% of the body surface area. Results. There were 52 ejections (51 pilots and 1 mechanic on 44 airplanes. The ejected persons were from 22 to 46 years, average 32 years. Major injuries were present in 25.49% cases. Of all the ejected pilots 9.61% had fractures of thoracic spine, 11.53% fractures of legs, 3.48% fractures of arms. Of all major injuries, fractures of thoracic spine were 38.46%. None of the pilots had experienced ejection previously. Conclusion. Our results suggest to obligatory take preventive measures: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan must be included in the standard pilot selection procedure and procedure after ejection. Physical conditioning of pilots has to be improved. Training on ejection trainer has to be accomplished, too.

  1. Ejection experience in Serbian Air Force, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Miroslav; Pejović, Janko; Mladenović, Jovan; Cekanac, Radovan; Jovanović, Dalibor; Karkalić, Radovan; Randjelović, Danijela; Djurdjević, Slavisa

    2014-06-01

    Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. The aim of this study was to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF) in the last two decades. All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots" age and experience, causes of ejection, aeronautical parameters, the condition of aircraft control and types of injuries. For ease of comparison the US Air Force Safety Regulations were used to define major injuries: hospitalization for 5 days or more, loss of consciousness for over 5 min, bone fracture, joint dislocation, injury to any internal organ, any third-degree burn, or second-degree burn over 5% of the body surface area. There were 52 ejections (51 pilots and 1 mechanic) on 44 airplanes. The ejected persons were from 22 to 46 years, average 32 years. Major injuries were present in 25.49% cases. Of all the ejected pilots 9.61% had fractures of the thoracic spine, 11.53% fractures of the legs, 3.48% fractures of the arms. Of all major injuries, fractures of the thoracic spine were 38.46%. None of the pilots had experienced ejection previously. Our results suggest that taking preventive measures is obligatory. Namely, magnetic resonance imaging (MRL) scan must be included in the standard pilot selection procedure and procedure after ejection, physical conditioning of pilots has to be improved, training on ejection trainer has to be accomplished, too.

  2. Hunting for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Vida, Krisztián; Leitzinger, Martin; Odert, Petra; Kovács, Orsolya Eszter

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.

  3. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michelle W; Greenberg, Barry; Jaarsma, Tiny; Januzzi, James L; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Butler, Javed

    2017-08-24

    Heart failure is a global public health problem that affects more than 26 million people worldwide. The global burden of heart failure is growing and is expected to increase substantially with the ageing of the population. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of heart failure in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Several diseases, such as myocardial infarction, certain infectious diseases and endocrine disorders, can initiate a primary pathophysiological process that can lead to reduced ventricular function and to heart failure. Initially, ventricular impairment is compensated for by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but chronic activation of these pathways leads to worsening cardiac function. The symptoms of heart failure can be associated with other conditions and include dyspnoea, fatigue, limitations in exercise tolerance and fluid accumulation, which can make diagnosis difficult. Management strategies include the use of pharmacological therapies and implantable devices to regulate cardiac function. Despite these available treatments, heart failure remains incurable, and patients have a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Consequently, the development of new therapies is imperative and requires further research.

  4. Do slow shocks precede some coronal mass ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Holzer, T.E.; Low, B.C.

    1987-10-01

    The observed speeds of coronal mass ejections are often below the estimated Alfven speed but above the sound speed for the background solar corona. This suggets that slow magnetohydrodynamic shocks may form as mass ejections sweep through the corona. We argue on the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the propagation of small-amplitude slow mode waves that the shape of a slow shock front would be flattened (with respect to a sun-centered sphere) or perhaps even concave outward (from the sun) and thus present a very different appearance from the fast coronal shock waves that have been commonly modeled as wrapping around a mass ejection. The region behind a slow shock front standing just off the top of a coronal mass ejection would extend well out beyond the visible flanks of the ejection. The deflections of coronal structures that are commonly observed well outside of these flanks (and which are inconsistent with a fast shock wrapped around the mass ejection) are consistent with the presence of the slow shock, whether they lie in the enlarged postshock region or in a region still further beyond. Although the flattering of the tops of some mass ejections suggests our proposed slow shock configuration, a true test of its existence awaits formulation of quantitative models and detailed comparison with observations. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  5. Rigidity-induced scale invariance in polymer ejection from capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, R. P.; Suhonen, P. M.; Piili, J.

    2017-11-01

    While the dynamics of a fully flexible polymer ejecting a capsid through a nanopore has been extensively studied, the ejection dynamics of semiflexible polymers has not been properly characterized. Here we report results from simulations of ejection dynamics of semiflexible polymers ejecting from spherical capsids. Ejections start from strongly confined polymer conformations of constant initial monomer density. We find that, unlike for fully flexible polymers, for semiflexible polymers the force measured at the pore does not show a direct relation to the instantaneous ejection velocity. The cumulative waiting time t (s ) , that is, the time at which a monomer s exits the capsid the last time, shows a clear change when increasing the polymer rigidity κ . The major part of an ejecting polymer is driven out of the capsid by internal pressure. At the final stage the polymer escapes the capsid by diffusion. For the driven part there is a crossover from essentially exponential growth of t with s of the fully flexible polymers to a scale-invariant form. In addition, a clear dependence of t on polymer length N0 was found. These findings combined give the dependence t (s ) ∝N00.55s1.33 for the strongly rigid polymers. This crossover in dynamics where κ acts as a control parameter is reminiscent of a phase transition. This analogy is further enhanced by our finding a perfect data collapse of t for polymers of different N0 and any constant κ .

  6. Ejection of small droplet from microplate using focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2017-08-01

    We discussed an ultrasonic system for single-droplet ejection from a microplate, which is one of the basic and important procedures in the noncontact handling of droplets in air. In this system, a 1.5 MHz concave transducer located below the microplate is used for chasing the liquid surface through a pulse echo method, and also for the ejection of a 1 µL single droplet by the burst of focused ultrasound. We investigated the relationship between the droplet ejection characteristics, the distance from the transducer to the surface of liquid, the material property, and the excitation condition of the focused ultrasonic transducer. It was verified that the optimal position of the transducer was off the focal point of sound pressure by ±1 mm, because the sound intensity had to be controlled to eject a single droplet. Subsequently, we confirmed experimentally that the ejected droplet volume linearly depended on the surface tension of the liquid, and that the droplet volume and ejection velocity were determined by the Webber number, Reynolds number, and Ohnesolge number. In addition, by optimizing the duration of the burst ultrasound, the droplet volume and ejection velocity were controlled.

  7. Left ventricular ejection time, not heart rate, is an independent correlate of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Paolo; Palombo, Carlo; Salvi, Giovanni Matteo; Labat, Carlos; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase

    2013-12-01

    Several studies showed a positive association between heart rate and pulse wave velocity, a sensitive marker of arterial stiffness. However, no study involving a large population has specifically addressed the dependence of pulse wave velocity on different components of the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to explore in subjects of different age the link between pulse wave velocity with heart period (the reciprocal of heart rate) and the temporal components of the cardiac cycle such as left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was assessed in 3,020 untreated subjects (1,107 men). Heart period, left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, and early-systolic dP/dt were determined by carotid pulse wave analysis with high-fidelity applanation tonometry. An inverse association was found between pulse wave velocity and left ventricular ejection time at all ages (heart period was also found, with the exception of the youngest subjects (P = 0.20). A significant positive correlation was also found between pulse wave velocity and dP/dt (P heart period no longer became significant. Our data demonstrate that pulse wave velocity is more closely related to left ventricular systolic function than to heart period. This may have methodological and pathophysiological implications.

  8. Magazine Influence on Cartridge Case Ejection Patterns with Glock Pistols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Wim; Alberink, Ivo; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the cartridge case ejection patterns of six different Glock model pistols (one specimen per model) were compared under three conditions: firing with a loaded magazine, an empty magazine, and without magazine. The distances, covered by the ejected cartridge cases given these three conditions, were compared for each of the six models. A significant difference was found between the groups of data for each of the tested specimens. This indicates that it is important that, to reconstruct a shooting scene incident based on the ejection patterns of a pistol, test shots are fired with the same pistol type and under the correct magazine condition. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Improved Measurement of Ejection Velocities From Craters Formed in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Byers, Terry; Cardenas, Francisco; Montes, Roland; Potter, Elliot E.

    2014-01-01

    A typical impact crater is formed by two major processes: compression of the target (essentially equivalent to a footprint in soil) and ejection of material. The Ejection-Velocity Measurement System (EVMS) in the Experimental Impact Laboratory has been used to study ejection velocities from impact craters formed in sand since the late 1990s. The original system used an early-generation Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera; custom-written software; and a complex, multicomponent optical system to direct laser light for illumination. Unfortunately, the electronic equipment was overtaken by age, and the software became obsolete in light of improved computer hardware.

  10. Experimental Ejection Forces of Thermoplastic Parts From Rapid Tooled Injection Mold Inserts (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinsella, Mary E; Lilly, Blaine

    2007-01-01

    .... Ejection forces for cylindrical parts molded with high density polyethylene and high impact polystyrene were measured directly and compared with values calculated from an ejection force differently...

  11. Nanodust dynamics during a coronal mass ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czechowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of nanometer-sized grains (nanodust is strongly affected by electromagnetic forces. High-velocity nanodust was proposed as an explanation for the voltage bursts observed by STEREO. A study of nanodust dynamics based on a simple time-stationary model has shown that in the vicinity of the Sun the nanodust is trapped or, outside the trapped region, accelerated to high velocities. We investigate the nanodust dynamics for a time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field configuration in order to find out what happens to nanodust during a coronal mass ejection (CME. The plasma flow and the magnetic field during a CME are obtained by numerical simulations using a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD code. The equations of motion for the nanodust particles are solved numerically, assuming that the particles are produced from larger bodies moving in near-circular Keplerian orbits within the circumsolar dust cloud. The charge-to-mass ratios for the nanodust particles are taken to be constant in time. The simulation is restricted to the region within 0.14 AU from the Sun. We find that about 35 % of nanodust particles escape from the computational domain during the CME, reaching very high speeds (up to 1000 km s−1. After the end of the CME the escape continues, but the particle velocities do not exceed 300 km s−1. About 30 % of all particles are trapped in bound non-Keplerian orbits with time-dependent perihelium and aphelium distances. Trapped particles are affected by plasma ion drag, which causes contraction of their orbits.

  12. Nanodust dynamics during a coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Andrzej; Kleimann, Jens

    2017-09-01

    The dynamics of nanometer-sized grains (nanodust) is strongly affected by electromagnetic forces. High-velocity nanodust was proposed as an explanation for the voltage bursts observed by STEREO. A study of nanodust dynamics based on a simple time-stationary model has shown that in the vicinity of the Sun the nanodust is trapped or, outside the trapped region, accelerated to high velocities. We investigate the nanodust dynamics for a time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field configuration in order to find out what happens to nanodust during a coronal mass ejection (CME). The plasma flow and the magnetic field during a CME are obtained by numerical simulations using a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. The equations of motion for the nanodust particles are solved numerically, assuming that the particles are produced from larger bodies moving in near-circular Keplerian orbits within the circumsolar dust cloud. The charge-to-mass ratios for the nanodust particles are taken to be constant in time. The simulation is restricted to the region within 0.14 AU from the Sun. We find that about 35 % of nanodust particles escape from the computational domain during the CME, reaching very high speeds (up to 1000 km s-1). After the end of the CME the escape continues, but the particle velocities do not exceed 300 km s-1. About 30 % of all particles are trapped in bound non-Keplerian orbits with time-dependent perihelium and aphelium distances. Trapped particles are affected by plasma ion drag, which causes contraction of their orbits.

  13. Forecasting Coronal Mass Ejections from Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a 17 vector magnetogram study of 12 bipolar active regions (Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2002, ApJ in press), we correlated four quantitative global magnetic measures with the Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) productivity of the active region. The global measures included a measure of active region size, the total magnetic flux phi and three measures of an active region global nonpotentiality 1) the net current (I (sub N)), 2) the length of the strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line (L(sub SS)) and 3) and the normalized twist (alpha = muIN/PHI). The CME productivity was determined from YOHKOH/SXT observations, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and when possible Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (SOHO/LASCO) observations within 12 days of the day of the magnetogram. We found that the three measures of global nonpotentiality (I(sub N), L(sub SS), alpha) were all well correlated (greater than 99% confidence level) with an active region's CME productivity. The sample size was to small to confirm if there was a statistical significant correlation of the globally nonscientist measures with future CME activity (i.e. from the date of the magnetogram forward). We are doubling our sample, and will report on the statistical significance of global nonpotentiality as a predictor of future CME productivity. The new active regions are all from the first year of the upgraded MSFC vector magnetograms. This work, is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program, by NASA through the Living with the Star, Targeted Research and Technology, and by NASA Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program. The upgrade to the MSFC vector magnetograph was supported by the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission.

  14. Videodensitometric ejection fraction from intravenous digital subtraction right ventriculograms: correlation with first pass radionuclide ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrano, R.; MacIntyre, W.; Salcedo, E.E.; O' Donnell, J.; Underwood, D.A.; Simpfendorfer, C.; Go, R.T.; Butters, K.; Withrow, S.

    1985-06-01

    Thirty-one consecutive patients undergoing intravenous blurred mask digital subtraction right ventriculography were submitted to first pass radionuclide angiography. Second order mask resubtraction of end-diastolic and end-systolic right ventricular digital image frames was executed using preinjection end-diastolic and end-systolic frames to rid the digital subtraction images of mis-registration artifact. End-diastolic and end-systolic perimeters were drawn manually by two independent observers with a light pen. Ejection fractions calculated from the integrated videodensitometric counts within these perimeters correlated well with those derived from the first pass radionuclide right ventriculogram (r = 0.84) and the interobserver correlation was acceptable (r = 0.91). Interobserver differences occurred more frequently in patients with atrial fibrillation and in those whose tricuspid valve planes were difficult to discern on the digital subtraction right ventriculograms. These results suggest that videodensitometric analysis of digital subtraction right ventriculograms is an accurate method of determining right ventricular ejection fraction and may find wide clinical applicability.

  15. Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton dons ejection escape suit (EES) (high altitude pressure garment) life preserver unit (LPU) on forward port side of middeck above potable water tank. Fullerton also adjusts lapbelt fitting and helmet holddown strap.

  16. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, 2100 Denmark (Denmark); Joyce, Michael, E-mail: carucci@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: hansen@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: joyce@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS IN2P3 UMR 7585, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris Cedex 05, 75752 France (France)

    2014-06-01

    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  17. Experimental system of ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-09-01

    The experiment of analyzing energy spectrum of electrons ejected from multiple electron capture process on ion-atom collision is carried out using ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. An old collision system using gas atoms as target and a new system using vapour atoms are developed. In this report, the developments and exploitations of the experimental systems for the ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR Ion source are presented. (author).

  18. Jet behaviors and ejection mode recognition of electrohydrodynamic direct-write

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyi Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing image recognition and micro-current testing, jet behavior research was conducted, in which the real-time recognition of ejection mode was realized. To study the factors influencing ejection modes and the current variation trends under different modes, an Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Write (EDW system with functions of current detection and ejection mode recognition was firstly built. Then a program was developed to recognize the jet modes. As the voltage applied to the metal tip increased, four jet ejection modes in EDW occurred: droplet ejection mode, Taylor cone ejection mode, retractive ejection mode and forked ejection mode. In this work, the corresponding relationship between the ejection modes and the effect on fiber deposition as well as current was studied. The real-time identification of ejection mode and detection of electrospinning current was realized. The results in this paper are contributed to enhancing the ejection stability, providing a good technical basis to produce continuous uniform nanofibers controllably.

  19. Kinematic response of the spine during simulated aircraft ejections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Andrew M; Lessley, David J; Salzar, Robert S; Bass, Cameron R; Shen, Francis H; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S

    2010-05-01

    Military aviators are susceptible to spinal injuries during high-speed ejection scenarios. These injuries commonly arise as a result of strains induced by extreme flexion or compression of the spinal column. This study characterizes the vertebral motion of two postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) during a simulated catapult phase of ejection on a horizontal decelerator sled. During testing, the PMHS were restrained supinely to a mock ejection seat and subjected to a horizontal deceleration profile directed along the local z-axis. Two midsized males (175.3 cm, 77.1 kg; 185.4 cm, 72.6 kg) were tested. High-rate motion capture equipment was used to measure the three-dimensional displacement of the head, vertebrae, and pelvis during the ejection event. The two PMHS showed generally similar kinematic motion. Head injury criterion (HIC) results were well below injury threshold levels for both specimens. The specimens both showed compression of the spine, with a reduction in length of 23.9 mm and 45.7 mm. Post-test autopsies revealed fractures in the C5, T1, and L1 vertebrae. This paper provides an analysis of spinal motion during an aircraft ejection.The injuries observed in the test subjects were consistent with those seen in epidemiological studies. Future studies should examine the effects of gender, muscle tensing, out-of-position (of head from neutral position) occupants, and external forces (e.g., windblast) on spinal kinematics during aircraft ejection.

  20. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline Rose

    2017-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. This thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs. Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), detecting coherent radio bursts in 13 out of 23 epochs, over a total of 58 hours. This survey's ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light. To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the VLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission. These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially

  1. Establishment of the model of motorcyclist ejection injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-bin; Hang, Jian-jin; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Da-wei; Yang, Guang-yu; Wang, Zheng-guo

    2010-04-01

    To establish the device and model of motorcyclist ejection injury. Based on our laboratory devices, a motorcyclist ejection injury simulation system was developed. A total of 18 pigs were approved by the local animal experimentation and ethics committee to serve as the motorcyclist substitutes. In this ejection motion, the animal rode freely at the motor driver seat and was straightly accelerated by means of our custom motorcyclist ejection injury simulation system. When it was speeded up to the preset velocity (v equal to 30, 40 or 50 km/h) at the preset position, the animal was ejected forward. Pathological and dynamic analyses were conducted, accompanied with the high-speed photograph, acceleration/velocity signal test, gross observation and light microscope examination as well as the abbreviated injury score-injury severity score (AIS-ISS) scale. The high-speed photograph indicated that during the ejection procedure the motorcycle was first arrested and decelerated suddenly, and then the motorcycle driver was ejected forward, accompanied with the rotation motion in the air. Finally, the head, shoulder and thorax of the ejected animal impacted directly on the hard ground. Varying degrees of injury focusing on the liver, heart, lung and spleen were found. There existed a significant positive correlation between ISS and the ejection velocity of the motorcycle drivers (ISS equal to 16.7+/-2.9 for 30 km/h, 25.0+/-0.0 for 40 km/h and 37.3+/-1.0 for 50 km/h). The detailed injury characteristics were as follows: for the mildly injured animals, there were interlobar gaps or leaf gaps and lobar surface blood coagulation blocks in the liver, and mild lung hemorrhage; for the severely injured animals, there were liver comminuted laceration, moderate lung hemorrhage and heart injury. Animals suffering from the most severe injuries died half an hour later. The new injury model stated in this paper has a high stability and good repeatability, and is likely to be helpful to

  2. Proposal for improving ejection seats with respect to sitting comfort and ejection posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A

    1975-05-01

    It is generally accepted that in the case of ejection, the flexion posture is often the reason for vertebral body fracture, but to maintain the right egress posture (this means an erect or even hyperextended position) throughtout the entire duration of flight would increase pilot complaints about validly criticized misalignment of the seat profile. X-ray controlled seat studies led to the conclusion that an acceptable egress position does not allow relaxed sitting posture during normal cockpit activities over long periods. Therefore, an attempt at solution is being made by a seat device whose comfort is guaranteed by a back-rest construction variable at will. For emergency case, the posture will be optimized automatically and synchronically with the action of the power retraction unit. A schematic design outlines the construction.

  3. Failure and Ejection Behavior of Concrete Materials under Internal Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the failure and ejection behavior of concrete materials under internal blast, the default Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma (RHT concrete model in AUTODYN and a meshfree processor called SPH are employed in this numerical simulation. It is shown that the failure mechanisms are significantly different in these damaged zones. Crushed zone is caused by shear failure while fractured zone is induced by tensile failure, and spalled zone is formed by a combination of shear and tensile failure. In addition, the ejection velocity distribution of the fragmented concrete mass on free surface is examined. The results indicate that the ejection velocity declines monotonously with the increase of the distance to symmetry axis of computational model. On the wall of the prefabricated borehole, two types of fragmented concrete mass are analyzed, and bottom initiation is recommended to eject the fragmented concrete mass effectively. Moreover, an algorithm of average ejection speed is developed to effectively estimate the drill capacity of high velocity, energetic (HE projectiles. At last, the validity of numerical simulation is verified by physical experiments.

  4. Cardiorenal Syndrome Caused by Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lazzeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since cardiorenal dysfunction is usually secondary to multiple factors acting in concert (and not only reduced cardiac output in the present paper we are going to focus on the interrelationship between heart failure with normal ejection fraction and the development of cardiorenal syndrome. The coexistence of renal impairment in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (CRS type 2 and 4 is common especially in older females with hypertension and/or diabetes. It can be hypothesized that the incidence of this disease association is growing, while clinical trials enrolling these patients are still lacking. The main mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition are represented by the increase of intra-abdominal and central venous pressure and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Differently from CRS in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the involvement of the kidney may be under-diagnosed in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction and the optimal therapeutic strategy in this condition, though challenging, is far to be completely elucidated. Further studies are needed to assess the best therapeutic regimen in patients with renal dysfunction (and worsening and heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

  5. Cardiorenal Syndrome Caused by Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Valente, Serafina; Tarquini, Roberto; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2011-01-01

    Since cardiorenal dysfunction is usually secondary to multiple factors acting in concert (and not only reduced cardiac output) in the present paper we are going to focus on the interrelationship between heart failure with normal ejection fraction and the development of cardiorenal syndrome. The coexistence of renal impairment in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (CRS type 2 and 4) is common especially in older females with hypertension and/or diabetes. It can be hypothesized that the incidence of this disease association is growing, while clinical trials enrolling these patients are still lacking. The main mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition are represented by the increase of intra-abdominal and central venous pressure and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Differently from CRS in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the involvement of the kidney may be under-diagnosed in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction and the optimal therapeutic strategy in this condition, though challenging, is far to be completely elucidated. Further studies are needed to assess the best therapeutic regimen in patients with renal dysfunction (and worsening) and heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. PMID:21331316

  6. Inhibition of DNA ejection from bacteriophage by Mg+2 counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sell; Tran, C. V.; Nguyen, T. T.

    2011-03-01

    The problem of inhibiting viral DNA ejection from bacteriophages by multivalent counterions, specifically Mg+2 counterions, is studied. Experimentally, it is known that MgSO4 salt has a strong and nonmonotonic effect on the amount of DNA ejected. There exists an optimal concentration at which the minimum amount of DNA is ejected from the virus. At lower or higher concentrations, more DNA is ejected from the capsid. We propose that this phenomenon is the result of DNA overcharging by Mg+2 multivalent counterions. As Mg+2 concentration increases from zero, the net charge of DNA changes from negative to positive. The optimal inhibition corresponds to the Mg+2 concentration where DNA is neutral. At lower/higher concentrations, DNA genome is charged. It prefers to be in solution to lower its electrostatic self-energy, which consequently leads to an increase in DNA ejection. By fitting our theory to available experimental data, the strength of DNA-DNA short range attraction energies, mediated by Mg+2, is found to be -0.004 kBT per nucleotide base. This and other fitted parameters agree well with known values from other experiments and computer simulations. The parameters are also in agreement qualitatively with values for tri- and tetravalent counterions.

  7. Capstan friction model for DNA ejection from bacteriophages

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosal, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages infect cells by attaching to the outer membrane and injecting their DNA into the cell.The phage DNA is then transcribed by the cell's transcription machinery.A number of physical mechanisms by which DNA can be translocated from the phage capsid into the cell have been identified. A fast ejection driven by the elastic and electrostatic potential energy of the compacted DNA within the viral capsid appears to be used by most phages, at least to initiate infection.In recent in vitro experiments, the speed of DNA translocation from a lambda phage capsid has been measured as a function of ejected length over the entire duration of the event.Here a mechanical model is proposed that is able to explain the observed dependence of exit velocity on ejected length, and that is also consistent with the accepted picture of the geometric arrangement of DNA within the viral capsid.

  8. Lil HAL: digital kneeboard for ejection seat aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Vince

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, airlines, commercial air carriers and the military have begun to introduce electronic tools into the cockpit to replace paper versions of flight publications, flight plans, departure and approach plates, maps, etc. These devices have varied from the common laptop to the smaller pen-tablet type computers. In some instances these devices have been connected to aircraft data buses to collect maintenance data, fault codes and other useful information. None of these devices, however, have been found satisfactory in ejection seat aircraft due to their size, weight, and dynamic characteristics when subjected to the inertial and aerodynamic forces that occur during an ejection. This paper describes an electronic digital kneeboard suitable for use in an ejection seat aircraft. The kneeboard consists of a look at helmet-mounted display, a small streamlined kneeboard input device, a carry-on/carry-off computer and its associated support interfaces.

  9. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Numerical Simulation of Flow around Ejection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dalin; Wei, Tao

    Aerodynamic characteristics of an Ejection Seat System at different angles of attack are studied by the numerical method and the flow mechanisms for such flows are carefully analyzed. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations which are solved by the unstructured finite volume method. Upwind Osher scheme is used for spatial discretization and five-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is applied for temporal discretization. The DES model based on S-A one equation turbulence model is adopted. Parallel computation is based on the domain decomposition method and multi-block is achieved by using METIS system. The experimental data is used to validate this method. This research is helpful to understand the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of Ejection Seat System at different angles of attack and Mach numbers, and can provide reasonable reference for Ejection Seat System design.

  11. Current characteristics of various ejection modes in electrohydrodynamic printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The real-time observation of electrohydrodynamic printing (EHDP process is of importance in practical applications. The electric current is a reflection of charge transfer and might provide a potential method to detect the liquid behavior. In this paper, current during EHDP process is measured and studied to investigate the relationship with liquid behaviors. Experimental results show that the liquid ejection can be accurately reflected by the current signal. Current of various ejection modes in EHDP are then examined, and various characteristic numbers are summarized to identify the present liquid ejection mode. This work proposes a simple and efficient method by combining current detection and visual observation to achieve better real-time monitoring and controlling of EHDP process.

  12. 3-D rod ejection analysis using a conservative methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Guen Tae; Um, Kil Sup; Ryu, Seok Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Tong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The point kinetics model which simplifies the core phenomena and physical specifications is used for the conventional rod ejection accident analysis. The point kinetics model is convenient to assume conservative core parameters but this simplification loses large amount of safety margin. The CHASER system couples the three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, the sub-channel analysis code THALES and the fuel performance analysis code FROST. The validation study for the CHASER system is addressed using the NEACRP three-dimensional PWR core transient benchmark problem. A series of conservative rod ejection analyses for the APR1400 type plant is performed for both hot full power (HFP) and hot zero power (HZP) conditions to determine the most limiting cases. The conservative rod ejection analysis methodology is designed to properly consider important phenomena and physical parameters.

  13. Ejection of cool plasma into the hot corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, P.; Peter, H.; Bingert, S.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The corona is highly dynamic and shows transient events on various scales in space and time. Most of these features are related to changes in the magnetic field structure or impulsive heating caused by the conversion of magnetic to thermal energy. Aims: We investigate the processes that lead to the formation, ejection and fall of a confined plasma ejection that was observed in a numerical experiment of the solar corona. By quantifying physical parameters such as mass, velocity, and orientation of the plasma ejection relative to the magnetic field, we provide a description of the nature of this particular plasma ejection. Methods: The time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) equations are solved in a box extending from the chromosphere, which serves as a reservoir for mass and energy, to the lower corona. The plasma is heated by currents that are induced through field line braiding as a consequence of photospheric motions included in the model. Spectra of optically thin emission lines in the extreme ultraviolet range are synthesized, and magnetic field lines are traced over time. We determine the trajectory of the plasma ejection and identify anomalies in the profiles of the plasma parameters. Results: Following strong heating just above the chromosphere, the pressure rapidly increases, leading to a hydrodynamic explosion above the upper chromosphere in the low transition region. The explosion drives the plasma, which needs to follow the magnetic field lines. The ejection is then moving more or less ballistically along the loop-like field lines and eventually drops down onto the surface of the Sun. The speed of the ejection is in the range of the sound speed, well below the Alfvén velocity. Conclusions: The plasma ejection observed in a numerical experiment of the solar corona is basically a hydrodynamic phenomenon, whereas the rise of the heating rate is of magnetic nature. The granular motions in the photosphere lead (by chance) to a

  14. Computer modelling of ballistic particle ejection from NaCl

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasawmy, D; Smith, R

    2003-01-01

    The impact of positively charged sodium ions incident normally on the (1 0 0) surface of NaCl is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in the energy regime where nuclear collisions dominate (1 keV). It is found that there is a large amount of channelling and a relatively low sputtering yield of 0.36. In contrast to metals the angular distribution of the ejected particles contains less structural information about the underlying lattice, with less well-defined angular distribution patterns and a larger number of dimers emitted. The energy distribution of ejected particles peaks at below 1 eV. Mechanisms are investigated which explain these phenomena.

  15. Survival outcomes in low-level ejections from high performance aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David G

    2013-10-01

    The modern ejection seat has evolved to a high standard of sophistication, significantly expanding the safe ejection envelope. Low-level ejections are at the margins of this envelope and the outcome depends on numerous factors, including aircraft attitude, airspeed, and vertical rate of descent. The purpose of this study was to analyze all published ejection injury studies, with particular emphasis on altitude at the time of ejection, to determine if low-level ejections have an overall higher fatality rate. The aeromedical literature was reviewed for all studies relating to ejection outcomes in which the ejection altitude was recorded. Used in this analysis were 10 studies covering the period 1952-1997. Low-level ejections were defined as ejection below 500 ft (152 m) above ground level. There were 562 low-level ejections identified. Out of this number, there were 274 fatalities, giving a low-level ejection survival rate of 51.2%. There were 2607 ejections that occurred above 500 ft (152 m), with a survival rate of 91.4%. There was a significant difference between ejection survival rates below and above 500 ft (152 m). Low-level ejections have a significantly increased risk of a fatal outcome (Odds Ratio 10.07). Ejecting from an aircraft below 500 ft (152 m) has a lower survival rate compared with the survival rate for all ejections. This is due to many factors, including the nature of the emergency, aircraft operating parameters at the time, and the inherent dangers of low-level operations. Low-level emergencies are time-critical events in which an early decision to eject can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

  16. Left atrial function in heart failure with impaired and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2014-09-01

    Left atrial structural and functional changes in heart failure are relatively ignored parts of cardiac assessment. This review illustrates the pathophysiological and functional changes in left atrium in heart failure as well as their prognostic value. Heart failure can be divided into those with systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Left atrial enlargement and dysfunction commonly occur in systolic heart failure, in particular, in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Atrial enlargement and dysfunction also carry important prognostic value in systolic heart failure, independently of known parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction. In HFPEF, there is evidence of left atrial enlargement, impaired atrial compliance, and reduction of atrial pump function. This occurs not only at rest but also during exercise, indicating significant impairment of atrial contractile reserve. Furthermore, atrial dyssynchrony is common in HFPEF. These factors further contribute to the development of new onset or progression of atrial arrhythmias, in particular, atrial fibrillation. Left atrial function is an integral part of cardiac function and its structural and functional changes in heart failure are common. As changes of left atrial structure and function have different clinical implications in systolic heart failure and HFPEF, routine assessment is warranted.

  17. Electronic circuit detects left ventricular ejection events in cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic circuit processes arterial blood pressure waveform to produce discrete signals that coincide with beginning and end of left ventricular ejection. Output signals provide timing signals for computers that monitor cardiovascular systems. Circuit operates reliably for heart rates between 50 and 200 beats per minute.

  18. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, G.D.; Melosh, H.J.; Strom, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III

  19. Epidemiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a common condition, and the prevalence is projected to increase further. Studies differ in the reported incidence and mortality associated with this condition, although there is agreement that between a third and one-half of all patients w...

  20. Solar Cycle Variation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-25

    Aug 25, 2010 ... Spörer's sunspot law at low latitudes (thus, no 'butterfly diagram'); how- ever, at high latitudes, there may be a poleward motion and an equator- ward motion from the rise to the maximum to the declining phases. Key words. Sun: activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs). 1. Introduction. Interplanetary coronal ...

  1. Experimental investigation on ejecting low-temperature cooling superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: 6266798@qq.com; Tong, Ming-wei; Hu, Peng; Wu, Shuang-ying; Cai, Qin; Qin, Zeng-hu

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The cooling temperature of the superconducting materials can be adjusted by the ejecting refrigeration. • The result shows that the temperature of liquid nitrogen can be reduced to 70 K by controlling the inlet water pressure of the ejector. • The refrigeration performance of ejector is affected by the different structure and system pressure. -- Abstract: With the development of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials and refrigeration technologies, using ejecting refrigeration to cool the superconducting materials becomes the direction of HTS applications. In this paper, an experimental study has been carried out on the basis of the theory of analyzing the ejecting low-temperature cooling superconducting magnet. The relationship between area ratios and refrigeration performance at different system pressures was derived. In addition, the working fluid flow and suction chamber pressure of the ejector with different area ratios at various inlet pressures have been examined to obtain the performance of ejectors under different working conditions. The result shows that the temperature of liquid nitrogen can be reduced to 70 K by controlling the inlet water pressure when the pressurized water at 20 °C is used to eject the saturated liquid nitrogen, which can provide the stable operational conditions for the HTS magnets cooling.

  2. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: A clinical crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Prithwish

    2016-02-01

    A previously less known form of heart failure (Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction, HFPEF) is on the rise. This article discusses the threat this poses and what could be done including a call for dedicated HFPEF clinics run jointly by cardiologists and geriatricians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Galectin-3 in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Edelmann, Frank; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Mamas, Mamas A.; Maisel, Alan; Pieske, Burkert

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades it has been appreciated that many patients with heart failure (HF) suffer from HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The diagnosis and treatment of HFpEF is difficult, as we lack specific markers of the disease and no specific treatments have been identified. Galectin-3

  4. Invasive hemodynamic characterization of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    Recent hemodynamic studies have advanced our understanding of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite improved pathophysiologic insight, clinical trials have failed to identify an effective treatment for HFpEF. Invasive hemodynamic assessment can diagnose or exclude HFp...

  5. The step response of left ventricular pressure to ejection flow: A system oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.B.K.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    1992-01-01

    Left ventricular pressure is dependent on both ventricular volume and ventricular ejection flow. These dependencies are usually expressed byventricular elastance, andresistance, respectively. Resistance is a one-valued effect only, when ejection flow either is constant or increases. Decreasing

  6. The influence of occupant anthropometry and seat position on ejection risk in a rollover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Theresa; Fras, Andrew; Telehowski, Paul

    2010-08-01

    During rollover crashes, ejection increases an occupant's risk of severe to fatal injury as compared to risks for those retained in the vehicle. The current study examined whether occupant anthropometry might influence ejection risk. Factors such as restraint use/disuse, seating position, vehicle type, and roll direction were also considered in the analysis. The current study examined occupant ejections in 10 years of National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) single-event rollovers of passenger vehicles and light trucks. Statistical analysis of unweighted and weighted ejection data was carried out. No statistically significant differences in ejection rates were found based on occupant height, age, or body mass index. Drivers were ejected significantly more frequently than other occupants: 62 percent of unrestrained drivers were ejected vs. 51 percent unrestrained right front occupants. Second row unrestrained occupants were ejected at rates similar to right front-seated occupants. There were no significant differences in ejection rates for near- vs. far-side occupants. These data suggest that assessment of ejection prevention systems using either a 50th or 5th percentile adult anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) might provide a reasonable measure of system function for a broad range of occupants. They also support the development of ejection mitigation technologies that extend beyond the first row to protect occupants in rear seat positions. Future studies should consider potential interaction effects (i.e., occupant size and vehicle dimensions) and the influence of occupant size on ejection risk in non-single-event rollovers.

  7. Deactivation in the rabbit left ventricle induced by constant ejection flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, Hessel; Boom, H.B.K.

    1989-01-01

    A study of pressure generated by the left ventricle after ejection with constant flow for different values of the ejection flow, flow duration, time of flow arrest, and ventricular volume is discussed. It was found that pressure after ejection, normalized with respect to isovolumic pressure, is

  8. Noncardiac Comorbidities in Heart Failure With Reduced Versus Preserved Ejection Fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentz, Robert J.; Kelly, Jacob P.; von Lueder, Thomas G.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Cowie, Martin R.; Kjeldsen, Keld; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Atar, Dan; Butler, Javed; Fiuzat, Mona; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure patients are classified by ejection fraction (EF) into distinct groups: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Although patients with heart failure commonly have multiple comorbidities that complicate management

  9. Quality of life is impaired similarly in heart failure patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Tialda; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Sanderman, Robbert; Jaarsma, Tiny

    Aims To compare quality of life (QoL) in heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) and HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) in a well-defined HF population. Methods and results Patients with HF-PEF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >= 40%] were

  10. Analysis of Transportation Alternatives for Ejection Seat Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gambel, Ray; Lundy, David; Murphy, William; Southmost Consulting

    2011-01-01

    EMBA Project Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Student Military Aviators who complete primary flight training at Training Wing FOUR and select jets for their advanced training track will require Naval Aviation Survival Training Program (NASTP) Class 1 training until the T-6B replaces the T-34C as the primary flight training aircraft. This Class 1 training instructs students in ejection seat equipment and procedures for emergency egress of their new aircraft. Of the eight available Aviation Survi...

  11. Survivability rate among pilots in case of ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a statistical analysis of a recent research made by the author [1], showing the factors causing the accidents that happened in Romanian Air Force from 1952 to 2014. Also the decision of ejection is analyzed. The study contains 225 events: 110 catastrophes and 115 accidents. 280 fighter pilots and 235 aircraft were involved in this analysis. The below information is a personal one and does not reflect an official position of the Ministry of National Defence.

  12. Multinucleon Ejection Model for Two Body Current Neutrino Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobczyk, Jan T.; /Fermilab

    2012-06-01

    A model is proposed to describe nucleons ejected from a nucleus as a result of two-body-current neutrino interactions. The model can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators. Various possibilities to measure the two-body-current contribution are discussed. The model can help identify genuine charge current quasielastic events and allow for a better determination of the systematic error on neutrino energy reconstruction in neutrino oscillation experiments.

  13. Management of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shane; Kaye, David M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the clinical management of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). For this critical review, electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant basic research studies and randomized clinical trials recently published or presented at major meetings. Details of in-progress or planned studies were obtained from the ClinicalTrials.gov website. The range of publication dates was the year 2000 to 2015. Search terms included HFPEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFPSF, heart failure with preserved systolic function, diastolic heart failure, diastolic dysfunction, HFNEF, heart failure with normal ejection fraction, treatment, management, therapy. Patients with HFPEF account for up to half of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of HF. Key contributing factors include hypertension, obesity, and atrial fibrillation, and other chronic diseases, including diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and anemia, frequently coexist. To date, large-scale clinical trials, particularly those focused on antagonism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, have provided limited evidence of clinical benefit. The aggressive management of contributing factors, including hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial ischemia, is key in the management of HFPEF. New insights into the mechanisms and thus the identification of potential therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacotherapy of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaraba, Jade E; Barry, Arden R

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes ~50% of all heart failure diagnoses and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The treatment of HFpEF can be challenging due to a lack of evidence supporting the benefit of various drug therapies. In practice, treatment can be divided into acute and chronic management. Acute therapy for decompensated heart failure is similar for both HFpEF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The mainstay of treatment is diuretics to reduce volume overload and improve dyspnea. Patients with an acute exacerbation of HFpEF and rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) should be rate controlled with negative chronotropic agents. For chronic therapy, patients with HFpEF should not be treated like patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Chronic management of HFpEF can be simplified by using three strategies based on applicability: treat precipitating conditions (e.g., hypertension, AF), control symptoms by maintaining euvolemia with diuretics, and avoid therapies that have been shown not to be beneficial unless another compelling indication exists. Nondrug interventions for HFpEF include salt and fluid restriction, regular physical activity, and referral to a heart function clinic, if appropriate. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Droplet ejection and sliding on a flapping film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Doughramaji, Nicole; Betz, Amy Rachel; Derby, Melanie M.

    2017-03-01

    Water recovery and subsequent reuse are required for human consumption as well as industrial, and agriculture applications. Moist air streams, such as cooling tower plumes and fog, represent opportunities for water harvesting. In this work, we investigate a flapping mechanism to increase droplet shedding on thin, hydrophobic films for two vibrational cases (e.g., ± 9 mm and 11 Hz; ± 2 mm and 100 Hz). Two main mechanisms removed water droplets from the flapping film: vibrational-induced coalescence/sliding and droplet ejection from the surface. Vibrations mobilized droplets on the flapping film, increasing the probability of coalescence with neighboring droplets leading to faster droplet growth. Droplet departure sizes of 1-2 mm were observed for flapping films, compared to 3-4 mm on stationary films, which solely relied on gravity for droplet removal. Additionally, flapping films exhibited lower percentage area coverage by water after a few seconds. The second removal mechanism, droplet ejection was analyzed with respect to surface wave formation and inertia. Smaller droplets (e.g., 1-mm diameter) were ejected at a higher frequency which is associated with a higher acceleration. Kinetic energy of the water was the largest contributor to energy required to flap the film, and low energy inputs (i.e., 3.3 W/m2) were possible. Additionally, self-flapping films could enable novel water collection and condensation with minimal energy input.

  16. Droplet ejection and sliding on a flapping film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water recovery and subsequent reuse are required for human consumption as well as industrial, and agriculture applications. Moist air streams, such as cooling tower plumes and fog, represent opportunities for water harvesting. In this work, we investigate a flapping mechanism to increase droplet shedding on thin, hydrophobic films for two vibrational cases (e.g., ± 9 mm and 11 Hz; ± 2 mm and 100 Hz. Two main mechanisms removed water droplets from the flapping film: vibrational-induced coalescence/sliding and droplet ejection from the surface. Vibrations mobilized droplets on the flapping film, increasing the probability of coalescence with neighboring droplets leading to faster droplet growth. Droplet departure sizes of 1–2 mm were observed for flapping films, compared to 3–4 mm on stationary films, which solely relied on gravity for droplet removal. Additionally, flapping films exhibited lower percentage area coverage by water after a few seconds. The second removal mechanism, droplet ejection was analyzed with respect to surface wave formation and inertia. Smaller droplets (e.g., 1-mm diameter were ejected at a higher frequency which is associated with a higher acceleration. Kinetic energy of the water was the largest contributor to energy required to flap the film, and low energy inputs (i.e., 3.3 W/m2 were possible. Additionally, self-flapping films could enable novel water collection and condensation with minimal energy input.

  17. Photospheric magnetic field of an eroded-by-solar-wind coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J.; Cid, C.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the case of a coronal mass ejection that was eroded by the fast wind of a coronal hole in the interplanetary medium. When a solar ejection takes place close to a coronal hole, the flux rope magnetic topology of the coronal mass ejection (CME) may become misshapen at 1 AU as a result of the interaction. Detailed analysis of this event reveals erosion of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) magnetic field. In this communication, we study the photospheric magnetic roots of the coronal hole and the coronal mass ejection area with HMI/SDO magnetograms to define their magnetic characteristics.

  18. Report of ejections in the Spanish Air Force, 1979-1995: an epidemiological and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Vázquez, J M; Durán Tejeda, M R; García Alcón, J L

    1999-07-01

    Ejection seats have saved many lives with more than 80% of pilots having survived an ejection. Nevertheless, ejection injuries are seen in all modern air forces. An epidemiological study has been carried out on the 48 ejections made by the Spanish Air Force (SpAF) from 1979-1995. From data facilitated by the Flight Safety Section of the SpAF Staff, by the Flight Safety Section of Squadrons, and from personal reports of pilots who survived ejections a form was created. Relationships between data concerning aeronautical parameters, pilot data and injuries have been found, and a comparative study was made between these results and data shown by air forces of other countries. Of 48 pilots who ejected, 7 died, 25 had severe injuries, 11 had minor injuries and 5 had no injuries. The reason for the ejections included 35 cases of technical failure, and 13 cases of human error. Of 43 surviving pilots, 23 were injured only at the egress phase, 1 1 only at landing, and 9 cases at both moments. None of the five pilots who ejected outside the ejection envelope were able to adopt the correct position. However, of 43 pilots who ejected within the envelope, 19 were seated in good position. Of 13 pilots who maintained control of the airplane, 9 were able to adopt a correct position. Of 35 pilots who effected the ejection without control of the aircraft, 25 were not able to achieve a correct seated position. The pilot position in the ejection seat, plane control, ejection inside the envelope, the pilot's training in how to assume the necessary body position at both egress and landing phases are determining factors for successful ejections.

  19. Survivability and injuries from use of rocket-assisted ejection seats: analysis of 232 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew E

    2006-09-01

    Ejection injury has been documented with respect to non-rocket-assisted seats, but there is little information on injuries associated with rocket-assisted seats. This study analyses the survivability of military accidents and the injuries associated with rocket-assisted ejection. A total of 232 Royal Air Force accident reports were accessed and aircrews' injuries were related to the aircraft parameters of ejection, aircrew anthropometry, and the ejection seat and parachute dynamics. Ejection sequences were simulated using a computerized modeling tool to provide information relating to the dynamic response index, acceleration of the ejection seats, and performance of the parachutes. Ejection survival was 89.2% overall, 95.7% for within envelope ejections and 23.8% for out of envelope ejections. There were 29.4% of aircrew who sustained spinal fractures. Another 14.2% of aircrew sustained a head injury and the incidence of head injury in Tornado ejectees was higher than the other aircraft types. Compared with 5.8% of ejectees from aircraft with an arm restraint system, 11.2% of aircrew sustained upper limb flail injuries from ejecting from aircraft without an arm restraint system. Arm flail injuries occurred at a higher aircraft speed at ejection compared with ejections where no arm flail injuries were sustained. There was also 18% of aircrew who sustained lower limb parachute landing injuries. Information from this study has lead to a redesign of the Tornado ejection seat headbox, an improvement in the Tornado ejection catapult dynamics, an upgrade of escape system parachutes, and provided evidence that future aircraft should be fitted with an arm restraint system.

  20. EPISODIC EJECTION FROM ACTIVE ASTEROID 311P/PANSTARRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We examine the development of the active asteroid 311P/PANSTARRS (formerly, 2013 P5) in the period from 2013 September to 2014 February using high resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope. This multi-tailed object is characterized by a single, reddish nucleus of absolute magnitude H ≥ 18.98 ± 0.10, corresponding to an equal-area sphere of radius ≤200 ± 20 m (for assumed geometric albedo 0.29 ± 0.09). We set an upper limit to the radii of possible companion nuclei at ∼10 m. The nucleus ejected debris in nine discrete episodes, spread irregularly over a nine month interval, each time forming a distinct tail. Particles in the tails range from about 10 μm to at least 80 mm in radius, and were ejected at speeds <1 m s{sup –1}. The ratio of the total ejected dust mass to the nucleus mass is ∼3×10{sup –5}, corresponding to a global surface layer ∼2 mm thick, or to a deeper layer covering a smaller fraction of the surface. The observations are incompatible with an origin of the activity by impact or by the sublimation of entrapped ice. This object appears to be shedding its regolith by rotational (presumably YORP-driven) instability. Long-term fading of the photometry (months) is attributed to gradual dissipation of near-nucleus dust. Photometric variations on short timescales (<0.7 hr) are probably caused by fast rotation of the nucleus. However, because of limited time coverage and dilution of the nucleus signal by near-nucleus dust, we have not been able to determine the rotation period.

  1. VLA Measurements of Faraday Rotation through Coronal Mass Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of plasma from the Sun that play an important role in space weather. Faraday rotation (FR) is the rotation of the plane of polarization that results when a linearly polarized signal passes through a magnetized plasma such as a CME. FR observations of a source near the Sun can provide information on the plasma structure of a CME shortly after launch. We report on simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of three CMEs in August...

  2. Treatment of hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Hare, David L; Wong, Chiew; Hayat, Umair; Barlis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection (HFPEF) has been rising steadily in the recent past. Studies have shown that at least half of patients presenting with symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, i.e. HFPEF, and that this portion of the HF population consists predominantly of women, older age group, and people with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. The morbidity and mortality associated with HFPEF are much higher than the normal population. Chronic hypertension is the most common cause in addition to age, with suggestion of up to 60% of patients with HFPEF being hypertensive. Addressing the specific aetiology and aggressive risk factor modification remain the mainstay in the treatment of HFPEF. Current guidelines recommend the management should involve treatment of hypertension, control of heart rate, venous pressure reduction, and prevention of myocardial ischemia. This review aims to discuss the role of hypertension in the pathophysiology, risk stratification and prognosis of HFPEF, as well as the current available data on various antihypertensive options in this population.

  3. Right heart dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Lin, Grace; Redfield, Margaret M.; Borlaug, Barry A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Right heart function is not well characterized in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The goal of this study was to examine the haemodynamic, clinical, and prognostic correlates of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in HFpEF. Methods and results Heart failure and preserved ejection fraction patients (n = 96) and controls (n = 46) underwent right heart catheterization, echocardiographic assessment, and follow-up. Right and left heart filling pressures, pulmonary artery (PA) pressures, and right-sided chamber dimensions were higher in HFpEF compared with controls, while left ventricular size and EF were similar. Right ventricular dysfunction (defined by RV fractional area change, FAC Right ventricular function was impaired in HFpEF compared with controls using both load-dependent (FAC: 40 ± 10 vs. 53 ± 7%, P Right heart dysfunction is common in HFpEF and is caused by both RV contractile impairment and afterload mismatch from pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular dysfunction in HFpEF develops with increasing PA pressures, atrial fibrillation, male sex, and left ventricular dysfunction, and may represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:24875795

  4. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-08

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evaluation of ejection safety for the joint helmet-mounted cueing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, James M.; Kirk, William K.

    1999-07-01

    Aircrew safety is paramount in the design of a helmet-mounted display (HMD). For the tactical aircrew, ensuring a successful ejection presents significant design challenges. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) Integrated Product Team (IPT) has been evaluating Vision Systems International's HMD design for aircrew protection in this environment. The JHMCS IPT has developed a set of test objectives in concert with acquisition reform to demonstrate ejection compatibility of the JHMCS. This testing series will be discussed, and will include windblast, ejection tower, and sled and in-flight ejection testing, findings and design impacts. JHMCS performance parameters evaluated include structural integrity, facial and head protection, neck tensile loads, ejection seat and crew equipment compatibility, and mechanical functionality. The design environment for the JHMCS currently is both small and large, male and female aircrew withstanding a successful 450-knot ejection in any of four current USAF & USN tactical aircraft platforms.

  6. Double core evolution. 7: The infall of a neutron star through the envelope of its massive star companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Binary systems with properties similar to those of high-mass X-ray binaries are evolved through the common envelope phase. Three-dimensional simulations show that the timescale of the infall phase of the neutron star depends upon the evolutionary state of its massive companion. We find that tidal torques more effectively accelerate common envelope evolution for companions in their late core helium-burning stage and that the infall phase is rapid (approximately several initial orbital periods). For less evolved companions the decay of the orbit is longer; however, once the neutron star is deeply embedded within the companion's envelope the timescale for orbital decay decreases rapidly. As the neutron star encounters the high-density region surrounding the helium core of its massive companion, the rate of energy loss from the orbit increases dramatically leading to either partial or nearly total envelope ejection. The outcome of the common envelope phase depends upon the structure of the evolved companion. In particular, it is found that the entire common envelope can be ejected by the interaction of the neutron star with a red supergiant companion in binaries with orbital periods similar to those of long-period Be X-ray binaries. For orbital periods greater than or approximately equal to 0.8-2 yr (for companions of mass 12-24 solar mass) it is likely that a binary will survive the common envelope phase. For these systems, the structure of the progenitor star is characterized by a steep density gradient above the helium core, and the common envelope phase ends with a spin up of the envelope to within 50%-60% of corotation and with a slow mass outflow. The efficiency of mass ejection is found to be approximately 30%-40%. For less evolved companions, there is insufficient energy in the orbit to unbind the common envelope and only a fraction of it is ejected. Since the timescale for orbital decay is always shorter than the mass-loss timescale from the common envelope

  7. Magnetic Evolution of Mini-Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, L.; Alipour, N.; Safari, H.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mini-coronal mass ejections (mini-CMEs) and the evolution of their magnetic fluxes. An automatic detection algorithm was used to detect mini-dimmings in 171 Å images taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Using the difference images for the dimmings, 131 events that satisfied mini-CME signatures were selected. Changes in their magnetic structure using photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms taken with the Heliospheric and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO were investigated. It was found that 27 % of the events had slight changes and 73 % showed considerable changes in magnetic flux. About 18 % of the magnetic structures evolved by cancellation and 38 % by complex flux changes.

  8. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express

    CERN Document Server

    Good, S W

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER (MES) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the magnetic field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced magnetic field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MES data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed VEX data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MES, VEX, STEREO-A, STEREO-B ...

  9. Geoeffectiveness of Coronal Mass Ejections in the SOHO Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumbovic, M.; Devos, A.; Vrsnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to determine the probability distributions of the geomagnetic Dst index as a function of the coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare parameters for the purpose of establishing a probabilistic forecast tool for the geomagnetic storm intensity. Several CME...... and flare parameters as well as the effect of successive-CME occurrence in changing the probability for a certain range of Dst index values, were examined. The results confirm some of already known relationships between remotely-observed properties of solar eruptive events and geomagnetic storms, namely...... the importance of initial CME speed, apparent width, source position, and the associated solar flare class. In this paper we quantify these relationships in a form to be used for space weather forecasting in future. The results of the statistical study are employed to construct an empirical statistical model...

  10. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  11. Pharmacologic management of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dana; Cheng, Judy W M

    2010-12-01

    To provide an overview of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), as well as its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical evidence regarding its pharmacologic management. Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Current Contents (all 1966-August 2010) using the search terms heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, diastolic heart failure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), digoxin, β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and vasodilators. Citations from available articles were also reviewed for additional references. Fourteen published manuscripts relating to pharmacologic management of HFPEF were identified. The prevalence of HFPEF has continued to increase. Compared to heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, HFPEF has been largely understudied. Unlike in the management of heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, β-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists did not demonstrate mortality benefit in HFPEF, with the exception of one small study evaluating the use of propranolol. However, this study enrolled a small number of patients with recent history of myocardial infarction, which limited the generalizability of the results. Most of the current evidence centers on morbidity benefits and symptom reduction. One study showed that treatment with candesartan reduced hospital admissions in this population of patients. Management of HFPEF still focuses on optimally managing underlying diseases (eg, hypertension). Much remains to be learned about the appropriate pharmacologic management of patients with HFPEF. Hypertension is in most cases the predominant contributor to its development and progression. For this reason, antihypertensive treatment, including ACE inhibitors, ARBs, β-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers, has been evaluated and is recommended to control

  12. Metabolomic fingerprint of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beshay N Zordoky

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is increasingly recognized as an important clinical entity. Preclinical studies have shown differences in the pathophysiology between HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF. Therefore, we hypothesized that a systematic metabolomic analysis would reveal a novel metabolomic fingerprint of HFpEF that will help understand its pathophysiology and assist in establishing new biomarkers for its diagnosis.Ambulatory patients with clinical diagnosis of HFpEF (n = 24, HFrEF (n = 20, and age-matched non-HF controls (n = 38 were selected for metabolomic analysis as part of the Alberta HEART (Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team project. 181 serum metabolites were quantified by LC-MS/MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to non-HF control, HFpEF patients demonstrated higher serum concentrations of acylcarnitines, carnitine, creatinine, betaine, and amino acids; and lower levels of phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins. Medium and long-chain acylcarnitines and ketone bodies were higher in HFpEF than HFrEF patients. Using logistic regression, two panels of metabolites were identified that can separate HFpEF patients from both non-HF controls and HFrEF patients with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of 0.942 and 0.981, respectively.The metabolomics approach employed in this study identified a unique metabolomic fingerprint of HFpEF that is distinct from that of HFrEF. This metabolomic fingerprint has been utilized to identify two novel panels of metabolites that can separate HFpEF patients from both non-HF controls and HFrEF patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02052804.

  13. Multi-viewpoint Coronal Mass Ejection Catalog Based on STEREO COR2 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlidas, Angelos; Balmaceda, Laura A.; Stenborg, Guillermo; Dal Lago, Alisson

    2017-04-01

    We present the first multi-viewpoint coronal mass ejection (CME) catalog. The events are identified visually in simultaneous total brightness observations from the twin SECCHI/COR2 coronagraphs on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory mission. The Multi-View CME Catalog differs from past catalogs in three key aspects: (1) all events between the two viewpoints are cross-linked, (2) each event is assigned a physics-motivated morphological classification (e.g., jet, wave, and flux rope), and (3) kinematic and geometric information is extracted semi-automatically via a supervised image segmentation algorithm. The database extends from the beginning of the COR2 synoptic program (2007 March) to the end of dual-viewpoint observations (2014 September). It contains 4473 unique events with 3358 events identified in both COR2s. Kinematic properties exist currently for 1747 events (26% of COR2-A events and 17% of COR2-B events). We examine several issues, made possible by this cross-linked CME database, including the role of projection on the perceived morphology of events, the missing CME rate, the existence of cool material in CMEs, the solar cycle dependence on CME rate, speeds and width, and the existence of flux rope within CMEs. We discuss the implications for past single-viewpoint studies and for Space Weather research. The database is publicly available on the web including all available measurements. We hope that it will become a useful resource for the community.

  14. Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection P. Pagano1,∗, D. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenom- ena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain. CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic ...

  15. Ejection in hostile environments: medico-psychological aspects for the fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, Marianne; Renard, Magali-Diane; Louzon, Virginie; Chollet, Sabine; Colas, Marie-Dominique

    2013-08-01

    In the French Air Force, commitment of fighter squadrons in Afghanistan revives the fear among pilots of being ejected in a hostile environment, along with the prospect of being captured. Although ejection in a hostile environment is an exceptional event, it is what flight crews fear most strongly over enemy territory. Since the widespread use of ejection seats in fighter aircraft in the 1950s, ejection has become a means of protecting the crews' lives. Ejection is a breaking point when the pilot suddenly passes from an intense activity to a passive position in which he (or she) is often helpless and sometimes exposed to the hostility of the environment where he lands. It is always important to analyze the circumstances surrounding an ejection. Some clinical observations allow us to understand the psycho-traumatic potential of this brutal experience. In a hostile environment, ejection quite rapidly becomes a question of survival. The pilot is technically and physically prepared during training. He (or she) regularly trains for the use of the ejection seat and the equipment to protect himself, to report, and ensure his survival until his recovery. Because it is always a singular event, on a case-by-case basis, no psychological reaction to such a situation can be modeled with a view to predicting psycho-traumatic disorders. Since 2007, there has been a medico-psychological supporting device, organized by the French Air Force, to be used after this type of event.

  16. Exercise hemodynamics in patients with and without diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads J; Ersbøll, Mads; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common after myocardial infarction (MI) despite preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, yet it remains unclear how or whether DD affects cardiac hemodynamics with stress.......Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common after myocardial infarction (MI) despite preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, yet it remains unclear how or whether DD affects cardiac hemodynamics with stress....

  17. Biomarker Profiles of Acute Heart Failure Patients With a Mid-Range Ejection Fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Jasper; Khan, Mohsin A. F.; Mentz, Robert J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Metra, Marco; Dittrich, Howard C.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G. F.; Givertz, Michael M.; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van der Meer, Peter

    OBJECTIVES In this study, the authors used biomarker profiles to characterize differences between patients with acute heart failure with a midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and compare them with patients with a reduced (heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]) and preserved (heart

  18. Ejection Regimes in Picosecond Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials, including pure metals. To understand the ejection mechanism and thereby improve deposition, here we present visualizations of ejection events at high-spatial (submicrometer) and

  19. Mechanisms of Effort Intolerance in Patients With Heart Failure and Borderline Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topilsky, Yan; Rozenbaum, Zach; Khoury, Shafik; Pressman, Gregg S; Gura, Yaniv; Sherez, Jack; Man, Avi; Shimiaie, Jason; Edwards, Sanford; Berookhim, Joshua; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Halkin, Amir; Biner, Simon; Keren, Gad; Aviram, Galit

    2017-02-01

    Combining echocardiography and cardiopulmonary stress testing allows noninvasive assessment of hemodynamics, and oxygen extraction (A-VO2 difference). We evaluated mechanisms of effort intolerance in patients with heart failure with borderline (40% to 49%) left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (HF and Borderline Ejection fraction). We included 89 consecutive patients with HF and Borderline Ejection fraction (n = 25; 63.6 ± 14 years, 64% men), control subjects (n = 22), patients with HF with preserved EF (n = 26; EF ≥50%), and patients with HF with reduced EF (n = 16; Borderline Ejection fraction than in all the other types of HF. In multivariable analysis heart rate response (p Borderline Ejection fraction but peak EF was not. In HF and Borderline Ejection fraction exercise intolerance is predominantly due to chronotropic incompetence, peripheral factors, and limited stroke volume reserve, which are related to right ventricle dysfunction and functional MR but not to left ventricular ejection fraction. Combined testing can be helpful in determining mechanisms of exercise intolerance in HF and Borderline Ejection fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The step response of left ventricular pressure to ejection flow: a system oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H. B.; Wijkstra, H.

    1992-01-01

    Left ventricular pressure is dependent on both ventricular volume and ventricular ejection flow. These dependencies are usually expressed by ventricular elastance, and resistance, respectively. Resistance is a one-valued effect only, when ejection flow either is constant or increases. Decreasing

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Post common envelope binaries from SDSS. VIII (Schreiber+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Southworth, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Mueller, M.; Papadaki, C.; Pyrzas, S.; Rabitz, A.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Schwarz, R.; Tappert, C.; Toloza, O.; Vogel, J.; Zorotovic, M.

    2010-03-01

    The file rv.dat contains the name of the WDMS binary, the time of the spectroscopic observation and the corresponding radial velocity. Using a spectral decomposition method we derived estimates of the stellar parameters and the distance to the system listed in sy.dat. This file also contains the statistical significance of the measured radial velocity variations derived from the velocities given in rv.dat. The stellar parameters have been taken from Rebassa-Mansergas et al. (2010, Cat. ) and Nebot-Gomez Moran (2010, A&A in prep.). The spectral decomposition method is described in Rebassa-Mansergas et al. (2007, Cat. ). Some radial velocities have been published earlier in Schreiber et al. (2008A&A...484..441S) (2 data files).

  2. Femtosecond pulse-width dependent trapping and directional ejection dynamics of dielectric nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi

    2013-09-19

    We demonstrate that laser pulse duration, which determines its impulsive peak power, is an effective parameter to control the number of optically trapped dielectric nanoparticles, their ejections along the directions perpendicular to polarization vector, and their migration distances from the trapping site. This ability to controllably confine and eject the nanoparticle is explained by pulse width-dependent optical forces exerted on nanoparticles in the trapping site and ratio between the repulsive and attractive forces. We also show that the directional ejections occur only when the number of nanoparticles confined in the trapping site exceeds a definite threshold. We interpret our data by considering the formation of transient assembly of the optically confined nanoparticles, partial ejection of the assembly, and subsequent filling of the trapping site. The understanding of optical trapping and directional ejections by ultrashort laser pulses paves the way to optically controlled manipulation and sorting of nanoparticles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Water-Droplet Formation and Ejection Process Using Hollow Microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihisa; Oka, Ryotaro; Sakai, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nagai, Moeto; Mineta, Takashi; Makino, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of liquid delivery using fabricated hollow silicon dioxide microneedles of approximately 2 µm in diameter. As a fundamental study, the water-droplet formation and ejection process was examined via dynamic observations during water ejection tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The experimental results indicated that fluid flow in a microneedle follows the Hagen-Poiseuille law, i.e., the flow rate is approximately directly proportional to the fourth power of the inner diameter. Moreover, the ejection pressure and maximum droplet curvature obtained using the proposed microfluid ejection model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting ejection pressure is equal to the theoretical pressure difference of a spherical droplet, which is determined using the Young-Laplace equation. The maximum curvature of a droplet formed at the tip of a microneedle can be estimated on the basis of the contact angle theory expressed by the Young equation.

  4. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  5. Factors Associated with Delayed Ejection in Mishaps Between 1993 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, John E

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify factors associated with Air Force aviators delaying ejection during in-flight emergencies. The investigator reviewed all reports within the Air Force Safety Automated System describing mishaps that resulted in the destruction of Air Force ejection-seat equipped aircraft between 1993 and 2013. Crewmembers were classified as either timely or delayed ejectors based on altitude at onset of emergency, altitude at ejection, and a determination regarding whether or not the aircraft was controlled during the mishap sequence. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between delayed ejection and multiple potential risk factors. In total, 366 crewmembers were involved in in-flight emergencies in ejection-seat-equipped aircraft that resulted in the loss of the aircraft; 201 (54.9%) of these crewmembers delayed ejection until their aircraft had descended below recommended minimum ejection altitudes. Multivariate analysis indicated that independent risk factors for delayed ejection included increased crewmember flight hours and a mechanical or human-factors related cause of the emergency versus bird strike or midair collision. This investigation provided quantitative assessments of factors associated with aviators delaying ejection during in-flight emergencies. Increased odds of delay among crewmembers with greater than 1500 total flight hours suggests that complacency and overconfidence may adversely influence the ejection decision to at least as great a degree as inexperience. Increased odds of delay during mechanical and human factors mishaps confirms previously reported hypotheses and reaffirms the importance of targeting these areas to reduce aviator injuries and fatalities.

  6. Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Effect on the Venusian Nightglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C. L.; Chanover, N.; Slanger, T. G.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, Venus, and Mars all formed close to the Sun under similar conditions and with similar materials. While having common origins of formation, they have very different atmospheres. These difference are due to various evolutionary paths taken by each planet, resulting in two CO2 dominated atmospheres and a one N2/O2 dominated atmosphere. In order to understand the processes that led to the evolution of these atmospheres we need to understand the present chemistry. Knowing the chemical reactions occurring in the mesosphere and ionosphere of these two types of atmospheres leads to a greater understanding of physical processes, such as winds and transport mechanisms. These chemical reactions can be determined by observing nightglow. Nightglow is caused by recombination of atoms into molecules, or electrons with ions, producing excited molecules and atoms, respectively. Venus has several strong nightglow features, one of which is the O(1S-1D) transition at 5577.3 Å (oxygen green line). This feature is known to be highly temporally variable. When it was first seen in 1999, it had an intensity greater than the terrestrial nightglow, but it was too weak to be detected after 2004. The reason for this variability, and the chemistry producing the emission, have both been poorly understood. Literature review of past observations show that a week prior to every detection, at least one high energy solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) occurred directed at Venus. Solar flares produce large amounts of extreme ultra violet light and charged particles. CMEs are large plasma ejections usually connected with solar flares. We propose that the oxygen green line emission is due to CME impacts from the Sun. The charged particles of the plasma can interact with the atmosphere of Venus to produce nightglow/aurora, where dissociative recombination of O2+ is the mostly likely source of O(1S). To test our hypothesis, we observed Venus as a Target of Opportunity with the ARCES high

  7. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Incremental to Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction for the Prediction of Future Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Systolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Yoko; Jolly, Umjeet; Heydari, Bobak; Peng, Mingkai; Almehmadi, Fahad; Zahrani, Mohammed; Bokhari, Mahmoud; Stirrat, John; Lydell, Carmen P; Howarth, Andrew G; Yee, Raymond; White, James A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction remains the primary risk stratification tool used in the selection of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. However, this solitary marker fails to identify a substantial portion of patients experiencing sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we examined the incremental value of considering right ventricular ejection fraction for the prediction of future arrhythmic events in patients with systolic dysfunction using the gold standard of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Three hundred fourteen consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance were followed for the primary outcome of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Blinded quantification of left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) volumes was performed from standard cine imaging. Quantification of fibrosis from late gadolinium enhancement imaging was incrementally performed. RV dysfunction was defined as right ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%. Among all patients (164 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 150 nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy), the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 32±12% (range, 6-54%) with mean right ventricular ejection fraction of 48±15% (range, 7-78%). At a median of 773 days, 49 patients (15.6%) experienced the primary outcome (9 sudden cardiac arrest, 40 appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies). RV dysfunction was independently predictive of the primary outcome (hazard ratio=2.98; P=0.002). Among those with a left ventricular ejection fraction >35% (N=121; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 45±6%), RV dysfunction provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.2 (P=0.02). RV dysfunction is a strong, independent predictor of arrhythmic events. Among patients with mild to moderate LV dysfunction, a cohort greatly contributing to global sudden cardiac arrest burden, this marker

  8. Hypertension in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Santolamazza, Caterina; Tocci, Giuliano

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a well-known health problem associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and it is an important risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). These findings support the need for optimizing the antihypertensive strategies to prevent the progression to HF. Interestingly, the progression from HTN to HF, among other things, may be a consequence of inappropriate over-activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the natriuretic peptide system (NPS). In the present review, we will discuss the pathophysiological aspects of the progression from HTN to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and we will focus on the evolution of different pharmacological therapies which are reported to be effective in reducing BP and improving HF outcomes, paying particular attention to the recent trials that have demonstrated the efficacy of the combined therapy of RAAS blockade and Neprilysin (NEP) inhibitor in lowering BP and mediating several beneficial actions within cardiovascular tissues, such as avoiding the worsening of HF.

  9. Coronal Mass Ejections: Models and Their Observational Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are the largest-scale eruptive phenomenon in the solar system, expanding from active region-sized nonpotential magnetic structure to a much larger size. The bulk of plasma with a mass of ∼10^11 – 10^13 kg is hauled up all the way out to the interplanetary space with a typical velocity of several hundred or even more than 1000 km s^-1, with a chance to impact our Earth, resulting in hazardous space weather conditions. They involve many other much smaller-sized solar eruptive phenomena, such as X-ray sigmoids, filament/prominence eruptions, solar flares, plasma heating and radiation, particle acceleration, EIT waves, EUV dimmings, Moreton waves, solar radio bursts, and so on. It is believed that, by shedding the accumulating magnetic energy and helicity, they complete the last link in the chain of the cycling of the solar magnetic field. In this review, I try to explicate our understanding on each stage of the fantastic phenomenon, including their pre-eruption structure, their triggering mechanisms and the precursors indicating the initiation process, their acceleration and propagation. Particular attention is paid to clarify some hot debates, e.g., whether magnetic reconnection is necessary for the eruption, whether there are two types of CMEs, how the CME frontal loop is formed, and whether halo CMEs are special.

  10. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  11. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607–8471 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  12. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-03-01

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  13. Regarding the detectability and measurement of coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review I discuss the problems associated with the detection and measurement of coronal mass ejections (CMEs. CMEs are important phenomena both scientifically, as they play a crucial role in the evolution of the solar corona, and technologically, as their impact with the Earth leads to severe space weather activity in the form of magnetic storms. I focus on the observation of CMEs using visible white light imagers (coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers, as they may be regarded as the binding agents between different datasets and different models that are used to reconstruct them. Our ability to accurately measure CMEs observed by these imagers is hampered by many factors, from instrumental to geometrical to physical. Following a brief review of the history of CME observation and measurement, I explore the impediments to our ability to measure them and describe possible means for which we may be able to mitigate those impediments. I conclude with a discussion of the claim that we have reached the limit of the information that we can extract from the current generation of white light imagers, and discuss possible ways forward regarding future instrument capabilities.

  14. Treatment of heart failure with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2006-01-01

    Class I recommendations for treating patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) include using diuretics and salt restriction in individuals with fluid retention. Use angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers if intolerant to ACE inhibitors because of cough or angioneurotic edema. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, most antiarrhythmic drugs, and calcium channel blockers should be avoided or withdrawn. Exercise training is recommended. Implant cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is recommended in individuals with a history of cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation, or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia. ICD is indicated in patients with ischemic heart disease for at least 40 d post-myocardial infarction or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, an LVEF of 30% or less, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III symptoms on optimal medical therapy, and an expectation of survival of at least 1 yr. Cardiac resynchronization therapy should be used in individuals with an LVEF of 35% or below, NYHA class III or IV symptoms despite optimal therapy, and a QRS duration greater than 120 ms. An aldosterone antagonist can be added in selected patients with moderately severe to severe symptoms of heart failure who can be carefully monitored for renal function and potassium concentration (serum creatinine should be

  15. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  16. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-11-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  17. Automatic Determination of the Conic Coronal Mass Ejection Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Oates, T.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of the three-dimensional structure of solar transients using incomplete plane of sky data is a difficult problem whose solutions have potential for societal benefit in terms of space weather applications. In this paper transients are characterized in three dimensions by means of conic coronal mass ejection (CME) approximation. A novel method for the automatic determination of cone model parameters from observed halo CMEs is introduced. The method uses both standard image processing techniques to extract the CME mass from white-light coronagraph images and a novel inversion routine providing the final cone parameters. A bootstrap technique is used to provide model parameter distributions. When combined with heliospheric modeling, the cone model parameter distributions will provide direct means for ensemble predictions of transient propagation in the heliosphere. An initial validation of the automatic method is carried by comparison to manually determined cone model parameters. It is shown using 14 halo CME events that there is reasonable agreement, especially between the heliocentric locations of the cones derived with the two methods. It is argued that both the heliocentric locations and the opening half-angles of the automatically determined cones may be more realistic than those obtained from the manual analysis

  18. Spironolactone in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, C; Mendoza-Ruiz de Zuazu, H F; Formiga, F; Manzano, L; Ceresuela, L M; Carrera-Izquierdo, M; González Franco, Á; Epelde-Gonzalo, F; Cerqueiro-González, J M; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone inhibitors have been shown to be beneficial for patients with systolic heart failure. However, the evidence from patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is limited. We evaluated the role of spironolactone in the prognosis of a cohort of patients with HFPEF. We analyzed the outcomes of patients hospitalized for HFPEF in 52 departments of internal medicine of the Spanish RICA registry according to those who did and did not take spironolactone. We recorded the posthospital mortality rate and readmissions at 1 year and performed a multivariate survival analysis. We included 1212 patients with HFPEF, with a mean age of 79 years (standard deviation, 7.9), (64.1% women), the majority of whom had hypertensive heart disease (50.7%). The patients treated with spironolactone, compared with those who were not treated with this diuretic, had a more advanced functional class, a higher number of readmissions (44.3 vs. 29.1%; p<0.001) and a higher rate in the combined variable of readmissions/mortality (39.0 vs. 29.0%; p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the administration of spironolactone was associated with an increase in readmissions (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.16-1.78; p=0.001). For patients with HFPEF, the administration of spironolactone was associated with an increase in all-cause readmission, perhaps due to the higher rate of hyperpotassemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Spine injuries related to high-performance aircraft ejections: a 9-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manen, Olivier; Clément, Julian; Bisconte, Sébastien; Perrier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    During an aircraft ejection, the pilot is exposed to accelerations to the point of human tolerance, which may cause spinal injuries. Many nations have reported a spinal trauma rate of about 20-30%, with plain radiography as the first-line exam. Insofar as ejection seats and diagnostic imaging have improved, the objectives of this study are to describe the spine injuries among recently ejected French aircrew, to analyze the spinal imaging used, and, if necessary, to propose a better standardized radiological procedure. A retrospective cohort study included all aircrews of the French forces who ejected from 2000 to 2008, with an authorized access to the technical reports of the investigations. There were 36 ejections collected, 75% with an MK-10 seat and an arrival on dry land. All pilots were alive, but 42% of them sustained 24 spinal fractures, most of the time with a simple compression of the thoracic segment, but also 4 ligamentous or discal lesions. Computed tomography or RMI was used in 64% of cases and four fractures were missed or underestimated on X-ray. One complex fracture required surgical treatment. A return to flying duties was frequently possible within a period of 6 mo. New generation ejection seats remain highly traumatic for the spine. It is recommended that all ejected aircrews be assessed with computed tomography to improve the sensitivity of the screening for fractures. The risk of asymptomatic lesions makes necessary the systematic use of a stretcher for initial evacuation when possible.

  20. Left atrial ejection force predicts the outcome after catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Hideyuki; Mine, Takanao; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ashida, Kenki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2018-02-01

    Left atrium (LA) systolic dysfunction is observed in the early stages of atrial fibrillation (AF) prior to LA anatomical change. We investigated whether LA systolic dysfunction predicts recurrent AF after catheter ablation (CA) in patients with paroxysmal AF. We studied 106 patients who underwent CA for paroxysmal AF. LA systolic function was assessed with the LA emptying volume = Maximum LA volume (LAV max ) - Minimum LA volume (LAV min ), LA emptying fraction = [(LAV max - LAV min )/LAV max ] × 100, and LA ejection force calculated with Manning's method [LA ejection force = (0.5 × ρ × mitral valve area × A 2 )], where ρ is the blood density and A is the late-diastolic mitral inflow velocity. Recurrent AF was detected in 35/106 (33%) during 14.6 ± 9.1 months. Univariate analysis revealed reduced LA ejection force, decreased LA emptying fraction, larger LA diameter, and elevated brain natriuretic peptide as significant variables. On multivariate analysis, reduced LA ejection force and larger LA diameter were independently associated with recurrent AF. Moreover, patients with reduced LA ejection force and larger LA diameter had a higher risk of recurrent AF than preserved LA ejection force (log-rank P = 0.0004). Reduced LA ejection force and larger LA diameter were associated with poor outcome after CA for paroxysmal AF, and could be a new index to predict recurrent AF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An Intracardiac Soft Robotic Device for Augmentation of Blood Ejection from the Failing Right Ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Markus A; Wamala, Isaac; Rytkin, Eric; Doyle, Elizabeth; Payne, Christopher J; Thalhofer, Thomas; Berra, Ignacio; Solovyeva, Anna; Saeed, Mossab; Hendren, Sara; Roche, Ellen T; Del Nido, Pedro J; Walsh, Conor J; Vasilyev, Nikolay V

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an implantable intracardiac soft robotic right ventricular ejection device (RVED) for dynamic approximation of the right ventricular (RV) free wall and the interventricular septum (IVS) in synchrony with the cardiac cycle to augment blood ejection in right heart failure (RHF). The RVED is designed for safe and effective intracardiac operation and consists of an anchoring system deployed across the IVS, an RV free wall anchor, and a pneumatic artificial muscle linear actuator that spans the RV chamber between the two anchors. Using a ventricular simulator and a custom controller, we characterized ventricular volume ejection, linear approximation against different loads and the effect of varying device actuation periods on volume ejection. The RVED was then tested in vivo in adult pigs (n = 5). First, we successfully deployed the device into the beating heart under 3D echocardiography guidance (n = 4). Next, we performed a feasibility study to evaluate the device's ability to augment RV ejection in an experimental model of RHF (n = 1). RVED actuation augmented RV ejection during RHF; while further chronic animal studies will provide details about the efficacy of this support device. These results demonstrate successful design and implementation of the RVED and its deployment into the beating heart. This soft robotic ejection device has potential to serve as a rapidly deployable system for mechanical circulatory assistance in RHF.

  2. Identification of ultrasound contrast agent dilution systems for ejection fraction measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischi, Massimo; Jansen, Annemieke H M; Kalker, Antonius A C M; Korsten, Hendrikus H M

    2005-03-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction is an important cardiac-efficiency measure. Standard estimations are based on geometric analysis and modeling; they require time and experienced cardiologists. Alternative methods make use of indicator dilutions, but they are invasive due to the need for catheterization. This study presents a new minimally invasive indicator dilution technique for ejection fraction quantification. It is based on a peripheral injection of an ultrasound contrast agent bolus. Left atrium and left ventricle acoustic intensities are recorded versus time by transthoracic echocardiography. The measured curves are corrected for attenuation distortion and processed by an adaptive Wiener deconvolution algorithm for the estimation of the left ventricle impulse response, which is interpolated by a monocompartment exponential model for the ejection fraction assessment. This technique measures forward ejection fraction, which excludes regurgitant volumes. The feasibility of the method was tested on a group of 20 patients with left ventricular ejection fractions going from 10% to 70%. The results are promising and show a 0.93 correlation coefficient with echographic bi-plane ejection fraction measurements. A more extensive validation as well as an investigation on the method applicability for valve insufficiency and right ventricular ejection fraction quantification will be an object of future study.

  3. Evidence for direct geographic influences on linguistic sounds: the case of ejectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Everett

    Full Text Available We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes. In addition to documenting this correlation in detail, we offer two plausible motivations for its existence. We suggest that ejective sounds might be facilitated at higher elevations due to the associated decrease in ambient air pressure, which reduces the physiological effort required for the compression of air in the pharyngeal cavity--a unique articulatory component of ejective sounds. In addition, we hypothesize that ejective sounds may help to mitigate rates of water vapor loss through exhaled air. These explications demonstrate how a reduction of ambient air density could promote the usage of ejective phonemes in a given language. Our results reveal the direct influence of a geographic factor on the basic sound inventories of human languages.

  4. Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-09

    No. DODIG‑2015‑090 M A R C H 9 , 2 0 1 5 Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors...Defense F r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2015-090 (Project No. D2014-DT0TAD-0002.000) │ i Results in Brief Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat

  5. New Classification for Heart Failure with Mildly Reduced Ejection Fraction; Greater clarity or more confusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nadar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure include a new patient group for those with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF. By defining this group of patients as a separate entity, the ESC hope to encourage more research focusing on patients with HFmrEF. Previously, patients with this condition were caught between two classifications—heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hopefully, the inclusion of new terminology will not increase confusion, but rather aid our understanding of heart failure, a complex clinical syndrome.

  6. Recurrent mass ejections observed in H-alpha and CIV. [solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Simon, G.; Martres, M.-J.; Mein, P.; Mein, N.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Time sequences of recurrent mass ejections have been observed during a coordinated SMY program (Sept. 1, 1980 - Sept. 23, 1980 - Oct. 2, 1980). Comparison of the temporal evolution of H-alpha and CIV brightnesses shows a weak phase lag between H-alpha and CIV maxima, in the case of homologous flares, with CIV brightness maxima preceding H-alpha maxima. The analysis of the variation of the ejection velocities is expected to lead to the determination of an energy balance. Such recurrent ejections could be due to periodic energy storage and periodic reorganization of magnetic field as envisaged to occur for flares, but at lower energy levels.

  7. Prolonged vortex formation during the ejection period in the left ventricle with low ejection fraction: a study by vector flow mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Nobuaki; Itatani, Keiichi; Kimura, Koichi; Ebihara, Aya; Negishi, Kazuaki; Uno, Kansei; Miyaji, Kagami; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Takenaka, Katsu

    2014-07-01

    Vortex formation in the left ventricle (LV) can be visualized by novel vector flow mapping (VFM) based on color Doppler and speckle tracking data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a vortex during the ejection period using VFM. Color Doppler images were obtained to produce VFM images in 80 subjects (20 normal, 29 with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 31 with old myocardial infarction). The duration of the LV vortex was measured and expressed as the ratio to the ejection time (VTRe). The VTRe showed significant correlations with EDV (ρ = 0.672, p vortex existed for only a limited time during the early ejection period. In contrast, the lower the EF was, the longer the vortex remained during systole. Evaluation of vortices by VFM may noninvasively provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of impaired cardiac function.

  8. Disturbed Zone and Piston Shock Ahead of Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eselevich, V.; Eselevich, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 June 13 coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward the position angle P.A. ≈ 245° (measured counterclockwise from the Sun's north pole) was studied from the SDO/AIA and SOHO/LASCO C2, C3 data. We show that ahead of the CME frontal structure, as a result of its interaction with the undisturbed solar wind, a disturbed region (with an increased and disturbed plasma density), whose size increases as the CME travels away from the Sun, emerges gradually. Discontinuity formation at the disturbed zone front is observed in the narrow P.A. ≈ 245°-250° range. Its characteristics satisfy the properties of a piston collision shock. In the other directions relative to the CME motion axis (P.A. > 250° and P.A. piston shock formation ahead of a CME, which are as follows: (1) Shock formation ahead of a CME in a vicinity along its propagation axis may occur at various distances R = Ru from the Sun's center. Its formation is determined by fulfilling a local inequality u(R) > VA (R), where u(R) is a CME velocity relative to the surrounding solar wind and VA (R) is a local Alfvén velocity that is approximately equal to the velocity of fast magnetic sound in the solar corona. (2) At R ~ 10-15 R ⊙, one observes the formation of a new discontinuity δsstarf F Lt λ p wide at the head of the collision front. Within limits of error, δsstarf F does not depend on R and is determined to be δsstarf F ≈ 0.1-0.2 R ⊙ by the LASCO C3 spatial resolution and δsstarf F ≈ 0.03 R ⊙ for COR2. This discontinuity is identified with a collisionless shock.

  9. The Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Andrew Js; Shewan, Louise G

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure is defined as a clinical syndrome and is known to present with a number of different pathophysiological patterns. There is a remarkable degree of variation in measures of left ventricular systolic emptying and this has been used to categorise heart failure into two separate types: low ejection fraction (EF) heart failure or HF-REF and high EF heart failure or HF-PEF. Here we review the pathophysiology, epidemiology and management of HF-PEF and argue that sharp separation of heart failure into two forms is misguided and illogical, and the present scarcity of clinical trial evidence for effective treatment for HF-PEF is a problem of our own making; we should never have excluded patients from major trials on the basis of EF in the first place. Whilst as many heart failure patients have preserved EFs as reduced we have dramatically under-represented HF-PEF patients in trials. Only four trials have been performed in HF-PEF specifically, and another two trials that recruited both HF-PEF and HF-REF can be considered. When we consider the similarity in outcomes and neurohormonal activation between HF-REF and HF-REF, the vast corpus of trial data that we have to attest to the efficacy of various treatment (angiotensin-converting-enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs], beta-blockers and aldosterone antagonists) in HF-REF, and the much more limited number of trials of similar agents showing near statistically significant benefits in HF-PEF the time has come rethink our management of HF-PEF, and in particular our selection of patients for trials.

  10. Resonance Overlap Is Responsible for Ejecting Planets in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Wu, Yanqin

    2006-03-01

    A planet orbiting around a star in a binary system experiences both secular and resonant perturbations from the companion star. It may be dislodged from its host star if it is simultaneously affected by two or more resonances. We find that overlap between subresonances lying within mean-motion resonances (mostly of the j:1 type) can account for the boundary of orbital stability within binary systems first observed in numerical studies (e.g., Holman & Wiegert). Strong secular forcing from the companion displaces the centroids of different subresonances, producing large regions of resonance overlap. Planets lying within these overlapping regions experience chaotic diffusion, which in most cases leads to their eventual ejection. The overlap region extends to shorter period orbits as either the companion's mass or its eccentricity increase, with boundaries largely agreeing with those obtained by Holman & Wiegert. Furthermore, we find the following two results: First, at a given binary mass ratio, the instability boundary as a function of eccentricity appears jagged, with jutting peninsulas and deep inlets corresponding to islands of instability and stability, respectively; as a result, the largest stable orbit could be reduced from the Holman & Wiegert values by as much as 20%. Second, very high-order resonances (e.g., 50:3) do not significantly modify the instability boundary; these weak resonances, while producing slow chaotic diffusion that may be missed by finite-duration numerical integrations, do not contribute markedly to planet instability. We present some numerical evidence for the first result. More extensive experiments are called for to confirm these conclusions. For the special case of circular binaries, we are intrigued to find that the Hill criterion (based on the critical Jacobi integral) yields an instability boundary that is very similar to that obtained by resonance overlap arguments, making the former both a necessary and a sufficient condition for

  11. Association between Androgenic Hormone Levels and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sotoudeh Anvari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgens have been shown to have diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to compare androgenic hormone levels in patients with different left ventricular ejection fractions (EF.Methods: The study population consisted of 515 consecutive men who were referred for angiographic studies and whose results of echocardiography and coronary angiography were available. The patients were classified into four groups: EF < 35%, EF = 35-45%, EF = 45-54%, and EF ≥ 55% to evaluate the trends of baseline characteristics and serum androgens,including free testosterone (fT, total testosterone (tT, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS. To better elucidate thedifference in the patients with severe heart failure, the patients were divided into two groups according to their EF level, andcomparisons were repeated between those with EF < 35% and the ones with EF ≥ 35%.Results: There were statistically significant trends in some characteristics in the patients with different levels of EF. The subjects with higher EF levels were less likely to have diabetes (p value < 0.001, coronary artery lesion (p value < 0.001,or high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP (p value < 0.001. As regards the patients with severe heart failure, our regressionanalysis revealed that the fT level was significantly lower in those with EF < 35% than in the ones with EF ≥ 35% (5.82 ± 2.73 pg/mL vs. 6.88 ± 3.34 pg/mL, p value < 0.05.Conclusion: A significant association was found between the level of fT and EF < 35%. There is a need for further controlled prospective studies to delineate any possible causal relationship accurately.

  12. Treatment of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Anita; Bozkurt, Biykem

    2008-12-01

    Of the more than 5 million Americans who have heart failure (HF), 30% to 50% have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). HF-PEF commonly occurs in elderly patients, especially women, with comorbidities of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes, myocardial ischemia, and obesity. HF-PEF is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although two large multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in patients with HF-PEF did not demonstrate any statistically significant benefit in their primary end points, they did suggest that these agents may have a modest role in reducing HF hospitalizations. Although calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers may be of benefit in patients with HF-PEF, large clinical trial data are not available to support their routine use in all patients with HF-PEF. Subgroup analysis does not support the use of digoxin in patients with HF-PEF in sinus rhythm. Current therapeutic recommendations for HF-PEF are aimed at 1) management of HF symptoms with sodium and fluid restriction along with diuretics for volume overload and 2) treatment of concomitant comorbidities, especially hypertension, rate and possibly rhythm control of atrial fibrillation, and evaluation and treatment of myocardial ischemia and anemia. ACEIs, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers are recommended for HF-PEF patients who have other established indications for their use. Results are awaited from ongoing clinical trials with another ARB, irbesartan, and an aldosterone blocker, spironolactone.

  13. Ejection of Supernova-Enriched Gas From Dwarf Disk Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragile, P C; Murray, S D; Lin, D C

    2004-06-15

    We examine the efficiency with which supernova-enriched gas may be ejected from dwarf disk galaxies, using a methodology previously employed to study the self-enrichment efficiency of dwarf spheroidal systems. Unlike previous studies that focused on highly concentrated starbursts, in the current work we consider discrete supernova events spread throughout various fractions of the disk. We model disk systems having gas masses of 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}} with supernova rates of 30, 300, and 3000 Myr{sup -1}. The supernova events are confined to the midplane of the disk, but distributed over radii of 0, 30, and 80% of the disk radius, consistent with expectations for Type II supernovae. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that the enriched material from supernovae is largely lost when the supernovae are concentrated near the nucleus, as expected for a starburst event. In contrast, we find the loss of enriched material to be much less efficient (as low as 21%) when the supernovae occur over even a relatively small fraction of the disk. The difference is due to the ability of the system to relax following supernova events that occur over more extended regions. Larger physical separations also reduce the likelihood of supernovae going off within low-density ''chimneys'' swept out by previous supernovae. We also find that, for the most distributed systems, significant metal loss is more likely to be accompanied by significant mass loss. A comparison with theoretical predications indicates that, when undergoing self-regulated star formation, galaxies in the mass range considered shall efficiently retain the products of Type II supernovae.

  14. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  15. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  16. Noninvasive ventilation in functional capacity of cardiac patients with normal fraction ventricular ejection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joelson dos Santos Silva; Ananília Regina Silva Cavalcante; Nathalie Cortez Bezerra de Medeiros; Carolina Taveira Gonçalves; Johnnatas Mikael Lopes; Daniela Gardano Bucharles Mont’Alverne; Gustavo Christofoletti; Karla Luciana Magnani

    2016-01-01

    ...: To evaluate the noninvasive ventilation (NIV) effects in functional capacity of patients with stable heart failure with a normal ejection fraction, evaluated using six-minute treadmill walk (tread6MWT). Method...

  17. A simple calculator of ballistic trajectories for blocks ejected during volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    During the past century, numerous observers have described the violent ejection of large blocks and bombs from volcanoes during volcanic explosions. Minakami (1942) mapped the locations of blocks ejected from Asama Volcano during explosions in 1937. He developed a mathematical expression relating initial velocity and trajectory angle of ejected blocks to the ejection distance, taking into account air drag and assuming a constant drag coefficient. In the late 1950’s, Gorshkov (1959) estimated ejection velocities at Bezymianny volcano during its sector-collapse eruption. Wilson (1972) developed the first mathematical algorithm for ballistic trajectories in the volcanological literature (earlier ones had been available for military applications) that considered variations in drag coefficient with Reynolds number. Fagents and Wilson (1993) advanced the method of Wilson (1972) by considering the effect of reduced drag near the vent. From the 1970’s through the 1990’s other papers, too numerous to mention, have estimated volcanic ejection velocities from ballistic blocks. Since the early 1990’s there has been a decrease in the number of published papers that quantify ejection velocities from ballistic trajectories. This decrease has resulted in part from the appreciation that ejection velocities cannot be uniquely determined by ejection distance due to uncertainties in initial trajectory angle and drag force. On the other hand, the decrease in usage has coincided with an increase in the ease with which ballistic calculations can be made, due to the vast improvement in computer power and in the user-friendliness of computers. During the 1970’s, only volcanologists with mathematical acumen or those who could collaborate with applied mathematicians were able to make such estimates. With 21st century computer power, ballistic computation should be available to anyone as a back-of-the-envelope indicator of explosive power; the only factor preventing such usage is

  18. The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Previous studies have reported mixed results whether survival is similar to those patients with heart failure and reduced EF (HF-REF).......A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Previous studies have reported mixed results whether survival is similar to those patients with heart failure and reduced EF (HF-REF)....

  19. Failed Filament Eruption Inside a Coronal Mass Ejection in Active Region 11121 (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    2003, ApJ, 592, 597 Moore, R. L., & LaBonte, B. J. 1980, in Solar and Interplanetary Dynamics, eds. M. Dryer , & E. Tandberg-Hanssen (Dordrecht...Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA 3 Air Force Research Laboratory, Solar and Solar Disturbances, Sunspot...prominences – Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) 1. Introduction Solar eruptions are explosive ejections of large amounts of plasma from the lower

  20. Nest sanitation does not elicit egg ejection in a brown-headed cowbird host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Brian D

    2017-03-01

    Most passerine birds practice nest sanitation whereby they remove debris from their nest. Nest sanitation has been posited as a pre-adaptation for egg ejection by hosts of avian brood parasites. However, relatively few North American hosts of the brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) eject cowbird eggs to the detriment of their fitness. In this study, I added either a piece of flagging tape or a pine cone bract scale along with an artificial cowbird egg to nests of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) to determine whether the act of nest sanitation would elicit egg ejection. All red-winged blackbirds removed the debris within 24 h, but all individuals also accepted the cowbird eggs and this rate of ejection did not differ from that in nests that only received a cowbird egg. While nest cleaning and egg ejection are similar mechanically, they differ cognitively and egg ejection is not elicited in red-winged blackbirds during the act of removing debris from their nests.

  1. Rollover Car Crashes with Ejection: A Deadly Combination—An Analysis of 719 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Latifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rollover car crashes (ROCs are serious public safety concerns worldwide. Objective. To determine the incidence and outcomes of ROCs with or without ejection of occupants in the State of Qatar. Methods. A retrospective study of all patients involved in ROCs admitted to Level I trauma center in Qatar (2011-2012. Patients were divided into Group I (ROC with ejection and Group II (ROC without ejection. Results. A total of 719 patients were evaluated (237 in Group I and 482 in Group II. The mean age in Group I was lower than in Group II (24.3±10.3 versus 29±12.2; P=0.001. Group I had higher injury severity score and sustained significantly more head, chest, and abdominal injuries in comparison to Group II. The mortality rate was higher in Group I (25% versus 7%; P=0.001. Group I patients required higher ICU admission rate (P=0.001. Patients in Group I had a 5-fold increased risk for age-adjusted mortality (OR 5.43; 95% CI 3.11–9.49, P=0.001. Conclusion. ROCs with ejection are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality compared to ROCs without ejection. As an increased number of young Qatari males sustain ROCs with ejection, these findings highlight the need for research-based injury prevention initiatives in the country.

  2. Linear theory on temporal instability of megahertz faraday waves for monodisperse microdroplet ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C; Tsai, Chen S

    2013-08-01

    A linear theory on temporal instability of megahertz Faraday waves for monodisperse microdroplet ejection based on mass conservation and linearized Navier-Stokes equations is presented using the most recently observed micrometer- sized droplet ejection from a millimeter-sized spherical water ball as a specific example. The theory is verified in the experiments utilizing silicon-based multiple-Fourier horn ultrasonic nozzles at megahertz frequency to facilitate temporal instability of the Faraday waves. Specifically, the linear theory not only correctly predicted the Faraday wave frequency and onset threshold of Faraday instability, the effect of viscosity, the dynamics of droplet ejection, but also established the first theoretical formula for the size of the ejected droplets, namely, the droplet diameter equals four-tenths of the Faraday wavelength involved. The high rate of increase in Faraday wave amplitude at megahertz drive frequency subsequent to onset threshold, together with enhanced excitation displacement on the nozzle end face, facilitated by the megahertz multiple Fourier horns in resonance, led to high-rate ejection of micrometer- sized monodisperse droplets (>10(7) droplets/s) at low electrical drive power (<;1 W) with short initiation time (<;0.05 s). This is in stark contrast to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a liquid jet, which ejects one droplet at a time. The measured diameters of the droplets ranging from 2.2 to 4.6 μm at 2 to 1 MHz drive frequency fall within the optimum particle size range for pulmonary drug delivery.

  3. The Interaction of Successive Coronal Mass Ejections: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaz, Noé; Temmer, Manuela; Wang, Yuming; Farrugia, Charles J.

    2017-04-01

    We present a review of the different aspects associated with the interaction of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the corona and inner heliosphere, focusing on the initiation of series of CMEs, their interaction in the heliosphere, the particle acceleration associated with successive CMEs, and the effect of compound events on Earth's magnetosphere. The two main mechanisms resulting in the eruption of series of CMEs are sympathetic eruptions, when one eruption triggers another, and homologous eruptions, when a series of similar eruptions originates from one active region. CME - CME interaction may also be associated with two unrelated eruptions. The interaction of successive CMEs has been observed remotely in coronagraphs (with the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment - LASCO - since the early 2000s) and heliospheric imagers (since the late 2000s), and inferred from in situ measurements, starting with early measurements in the 1970s. The interaction of two or more CMEs is associated with complex phenomena, including magnetic reconnection, momentum exchange, the propagation of a fast magnetosonic shock through a magnetic ejecta, and changes in the CME expansion. The presence of a preceding CME a few hours before a fast eruption has been found to be connected with higher fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs), while CME - CME interaction occurring in the corona is often associated with unusual radio bursts, indicating electron acceleration. Higher suprathermal population, enhanced turbulence and wave activity, stronger shocks, and shock - shock or shock - CME interaction have been proposed as potential physical mechanisms to explain the observed associated SEP events. When measured in situ, CME - CME interaction may be associated with relatively well organized multiple-magnetic cloud events, instances of shocks propagating through a previous magnetic ejecta or more complex ejecta, when the characteristics of the individual eruptions

  4. Rocket-borne Lithium ejection system for neutral wind measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Watanabe, S.; Larsen, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    Chemical tracer releases represent the most widely used technique for in situ neutral wind measurements in the thermosphere/ionosphere region. Different chemicals have been used for this purpose, but lithium releases in particular provide some unique capabilities due to the strong resonant emissions that are produced when lithium is illuminated by sunlight. The majority of the lithium releases from sounding rockets were carried out in the 1960's and 1970's, but there has been recent renewed interest in the use of lithium vapor releases to extend neutral wind measurements into the F region and for daytime wind profile measurements in the E region. The rocketborne Lithium Ejection System (LES) is a chemical release device that has been developed for the Japanese space research program. Since lithium vapor acts as a neutral tracer, the winds are obtained by tracking the motion of the clouds or trails optically from the ground using the bright red emission that is characteristic of the chemical. Lithium is a solid at room temperature, so that a gas release requires rapid vaporization of the metal to make the cloud at the intended altitude. The release canister is designed to produce a high-heat chemical reaction without gaseous products. Appropriate mixtures of thermite are employed as the heat source. In early experiments, lithium pellets were mixed directly into the thermite. However, since lithium is an active chemical, the use of lithium-thermite mixtures creates potential hazards when used in a rocket-borne device. Moreover, the pyrotechnic devices used to ignite the thermite also have to be considered in the payload canister design to assure that the safety standards for sounding rockets are satisfied. The design of the LES, described in this paper, was based on the safety requirements and the reliability in storing and handling of the materials. The LES design is also flexible in that the lithium tracer material can be replaced with other chemicals without

  5. VLA Measurements of Faraday Rotation through Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2017-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of plasma from the Sun, which play an important role in space weather. Faraday rotation is the rotation of the plane of polarization that results when a linearly polarized signal passes through a magnetized plasma such as a CME. Faraday rotation is proportional to the path integral through the plasma of the electron density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. Faraday-rotation observations of a source near the Sun can provide information on the plasma structure of a CME shortly after launch. We report on simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of three CMEs in August 2012. We made sensitive Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations using 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a constellation of radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged from 6 - 15 R_{⊙}. Two sources (0842+1835 and 0900+1832) were occulted by a single CME, and one source (0843+1547) was occulted by two CMEs. In addition to our radioastronomical observations, which represent one of the first active hunts for CME Faraday rotation since Bird et al. ( Solar Phys., 98, 341, 1985) and the first active hunt using the VLA, we obtained white-light coronagraph images from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C3 instrument to determine the Thomson-scattering brightness [BT], providing a means to independently estimate the plasma density and determine its contribution to the observed Faraday rotation. A constant-density force-free flux rope embedded in the background corona was used to model the effects of the CMEs on BT and Faraday rotation. The plasma densities (6 - 22×103 cm^{-3}) and axial magnetic-field strengths (2 - 12 mG) inferred from our models are consistent with the modeling work of Liu et al. ( Astrophys. J., 665, 1439, 2007) and Jensen and Russell ( Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02103, 2008), as well as previous CME Faraday-rotation observations by Bird et al

  6. Heart Failure with Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Lucas; Katz, Marcelo; Bacal, Fernando; Makdisse, Marcia Regina Pinho; Correa, Alessandra Graça; Pereira, Carolina; Franken, Marcelo; Fava, Anderson Nunes; Serrano Junior, Carlos Vicente; Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and clinical outcomes of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction have not been well elucidated. Objective To analyze the prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction and its association with mortality. Methods Patients with acute myocardial infarction (n = 1,474) were prospectively included. Patients without heart failure (Killip score = 1), with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (Killip score > 1 and left ventricle ejection fraction ≥ 50%), and with systolic dysfunction (Killip score > 1 and left ventricle ejection fraction < 50%) on admission were compared. The association between systolic dysfunction with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and in-hospital mortality was tested in adjusted models. Results Among the patients included, 1,256 (85.2%) were admitted without heart failure (72% men, 67 ± 15 years), 78 (5.3%) with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (59% men, 76 ± 14 years), and 140 (9.5%) with systolic dysfunction (69% men, 76 ± 14 years), with mortality rates of 4.3%, 17.9%, and 27.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Logistic regression (adjusted for sex, age, troponin, diabetes, and body mass index) demonstrated that heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.35–6.27; p = 0.006) and systolic dysfunction (OR 5.38; 95% CI 3.10 to 9.32; p < 0.001) were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion One-third of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted with heart failure had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Although this subgroup exhibited more favorable outcomes than those with systolic dysfunction, this condition presented a three-fold higher risk of death than the group without heart failure. Patients with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure with preserved left

  7. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Tadasu; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kachi, Shu; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Nonobe, Norie; Kataoka, Keiko; Suzumura, Ayana; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL) ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients’ characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs) over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB), and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome after open

  8. Studies of limb-dislodging forces acting on an ejection seat occupant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, D J

    1980-03-01

    A mathematical theory is being developed in order to calculate the aerodynamic loading to which a pilot is exposed during high-speed ejections. Neglecting the initial effects of flow separation, results thus far indicate that a pilot's musculoskeletal system is not likely to withstand the tendency for limb-flailing if he is ejecting at Mach numbers in excess of about 0.7. This tendency depends very strongly upon the angle at which the pilot's limbs intercept a high-speed flow; the forces that cause limb dislodgement increase dramatically with speed of ejection. Examining the time-course of limb-dislodging forces after the initial onset of windblast, the theory further predicts the generation of a double vortex street pattern on the downstream side of the limbs of an ejection seat occupant. This results in the corresponding appearance of oscillating forces tending to cause lateral motion (vibration) of the limbs. The amplitude and frequency of these oscillating forces are also very dependent on the Mach number of ejection and the angle at which the pilot's limbs intercept the flow. However, even at moderate Mach numbers, the frequency can be as high as 100 cycles per second, and the amplitude rapidly exceeds a pilot's musculo-skeletal resistive powers for Mach numbers above 0.7.

  9. Real-time imaging of DNA ejection from single phage particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangenot, Stéphanie; Hochrein, Marion; Rädler, Joachim; Letellier, Lucienne

    2005-03-08

    Infection by tailed dsDNA phages is initiated by release of the viral DNA from the capsid and its polarized injection into the host. The driving force for the genome transport remains poorly defined. Among many hypothesis [1], it has been proposed that the internal pressure built up during packaging of the DNA in the capsid is responsible for its injection [2-4]. Whether the energy stored during packaging is sufficient to cause full DNA ejection or only to initiate the process was tested on phage T5 whose DNA (121,400 bp) can be released in vitro by mere interaction of the phage with its E. coli membrane receptor FhuA [5-7]. We present a fluorescence microscopy study investigating in real time the dynamics of DNA ejection from single T5 phages adsorbed onto a microfluidic cell. The ejected DNA was fluorescently stained, and its length was measured at different stages of the ejection after being stretched in a hydrodynamic flow. We conclude that DNA release is not an all-or-none process but occurs in a stepwise fashion and at a rate reaching 75,000 bp/sec. The relevance of this stepwise ejection to the in vivo DNA transfer is discussed.

  10. THE NATURE OF HYPERVELOCITY STARS AND THE TIME BETWEEN THEIR FORMATION AND EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cohen, Judith G., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We obtain Keck HIRES spectroscopy of HVS5, one of the fastest unbound stars in the Milky Way halo. We show that HVS5 is a 3.62 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} main-sequence B star at a distance of 50 {+-} 5 kpc. The difference between its age and its flight time from the Galactic center is 105 {+-} 18 (stat) {+-}30 (sys) Myr; flight times from locations elsewhere in the Galactic disk are similar. This 10{sup 8} yr 'arrival time' between formation and ejection is difficult to reconcile with any ejection scenario involving massive stars that live for only 10{sup 7} yr. For comparison, we derive arrival times of 10{sup 7} yr for two unbound runaway B stars, consistent with their disk origin where ejection results from a supernova in a binary system or dynamical interactions between massive stars in a dense star cluster. For HVS5, ejection during the first 10{sup 7} yr of its lifetime is ruled out at the 3{sigma} level. Together with the 10{sup 8} yr arrival times inferred for three other well-studied hypervelocity stars (HVSs), these results are consistent with a Galactic center origin for the HVSs. If the HVSs were indeed ejected by the central black hole, then the Galactic center was forming stars {approx_equal}200 Myr ago, and the progenitors of the HVSs took {approx_equal}100 Myr to enter the black hole's loss cone.

  11. A three-dimensional pin-wise analysis for CEA ejection accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Guen-Tae; Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Um, Kil-Sup; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The ejection of a control element assembly (CEA) with high reactivity worth causes the sudden insertion of reactivity into the core. Immediately after the CEA ejection, the nuclear power of the reactor dramatically increases in an exponential behavior until the doppler effect becomes important and turns the reactivity balance and power down to lower levels. The 3-D CEA ejection analysis methodology has been developed using the multi-dimensional code coupling system, CHASER, which couples three dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, subchannel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). This paper presents the pin-by-pin level analysis result with the 3-D CEA ejection analysis methodology using the CHASER. The pin-by-pin level analysis consists of DNBR, enthalpy and Pellet/Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI) analysis. All the evaluations are simulated for APR1400 plant loaded with PLUS7 fuel. In this paper, the pin-by-pin analysis using the multidimensional core transient code, CHASER, is presented with respect to enthalpy, DNBR and PCMI for APR1400 plant loaded with PLUS7 fuel. For the pin-by-pin enthalpy and DNBR analysis, the quarter core for HFP case or 15 - 20 assemblies around the most severe assembly for part powers or HZP cases are selected. And PCMI calculation is performed for all the rods in the whole core during a conservative time period. The pin-by-pin analysis results show that the regulatory guidelines of CEA ejection accident are satisfied.

  12. Relations between daytime pre-ejection period reactivity and sleep in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system and children's sleep serve critical arousal regulation functions. Shortened pre-ejection period, a reliable indirect index of greater sympathetic nervous system activity, has been associated with reduced sleep duration and quality in adults, but limited evidence exists in children regarding associations between pre-ejection period and sleep. We examined relations between pre-ejection period reactivity in response to a laboratory-based stressor and multiple parameters of actigraphy-based sleep duration and quality in children. The sample included 123 boys and 112 girls [mean age = 11.31 years, standard deviation (SD) = 0.63 years]. Controlling for body mass index, sex and pre-ejection period baseline, increased sympathetic nervous system reactivity, indexed by a lower level of pre-ejection period during the challenge than the baseline, was associated with worse sleep quality indicated by lower sleep efficiency, greater sleep activity and greater long wake episodes. The findings add to a small literature on relations between sympathetic nervous system functioning and children's sleep, suggesting that poor sleep quality is related to dysregulation of this stress response system. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Influence of edge conditions on material ejection from periodic grooves in laser shock-loaded tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rességuier, T. de; Roland, C. [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346, CNRS, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 ave. Clément Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Prudhomme, G.; Lescoute, E.; Mercier, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Loison, D. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2016-05-14

    In a material subjected to high dynamic compression, the breakout of a shock wave at a rough free surface can lead to the ejection of high velocity debris. Anticipating the ballistic properties of such debris is a key safety issue in many applications involving shock loading, including pyrotechnics and inertial confinement fusion experiments. In this paper, we use laser driven shocks to investigate particle ejection from calibrated grooves of micrometric dimensions and approximately sinusoidal profile in tin samples, with various boundary conditions at the groove edges, including single groove and periodic patterns. Fast transverse shadowgraphy provides ejection velocities after shock breakout. They are found to depend not only on the groove depth and wavelength, as predicted theoretically and already observed in the past, but also, unexpectedly, on the edge conditions, with a jet tip velocity significantly lower in the case of a single groove than behind a periodic pattern.

  14. Experimental study of window-ejected flame and plume on glass curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an experimental study to investigate the performance of glass curtain walls exposed to exterior flame and plume ejected from windows. A test facility with 3-storey in height was constructed using steel frame to perform full-scale tests. Ventilation-controlled fire scenarios were designed to generate exterior flame and plume ejected from the burning room through a window opening. To characterize potential threats from window-ejected flame and plume to the glass curtain walls of upper floors, temperature, heat flux and air velocity at different heights above the opening upon curtain walls were measured during each test. The effects of window aspect ratio, horizontal projection were studied. It was found that the window with large aspect ratio provided more severe threat to the curtain walls on upper floors. A horizontal projection of 0.5m in depth was able to protect the glass on the upper floor from breaking.

  15. A linear MHD instability analysis of solar mass ejections with gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M. T.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The linear MHD instability of a cylindrical plasma is used to investigate the origin of solar mass ejections, and the dispersion relation is solved numerically. The initial plasma-flow velocity is found to have a significant effect on the instability criteria and growth rate, and the instability growth-rate is shown to be larger in cases where plasma flow exists, relative to the static case. Results suggest that the plasma column may break into small pieces. Assuming a thin-tube approximation, gravity is found to have little effect on the instability of quasi-horizontal ejection, but to have considerable effect on the vertical ejection. In considering the gravitational force, an exact analytical solution is found for the vertical case, while asymptotic solutions are given for the horizontal and oblique cases.

  16. Model for estimating the effects of surface roughness on mass ejection from shocked materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asay, J R; Bertholf, L D

    1978-10-01

    A statistical model is presented for estimating the effects of surface roughness on mass ejection from shocked surfaces. In the model, roughness is characterized by the total volume of defects, such as pits, scratches and machine marks, on a surface. The amount of material ejected from these defects during shock loading can be estimated by assuming that jetting from surface depressions is the primary mode of ejection and by making simplifying assumptions about jetting processes. Techniques are discussed for estimating the effects of distribution in defect size and shape, and results are presented for several different geometries of defects. The model is used to compare predicted and measured ejecta masses from six different materials. Surface defects in these materials range from pits and scratches on polished surfaces to prepared defects such as machined or porous surfaces. Good agreement is achieved between predicted and measured results which suggests general applicability of the model.

  17. Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft flier Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Boltzmannstasse 14, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

  18. ISAAC: A REXUS Student Experiment to Demonstrate an Ejection System with Predefined Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, G.; Berquand, A.; Company-Vallet, E.; Granberg, V.; Grigore, V.; Ivchenko, N.; Kevorkov, R.; Lundkvist, E.; Olentsenko, G.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Tibert, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-09-01

    ISAAC Infrared Spectroscopy to Analyse the middle Atmosphere Composition — was a student experiment launched from SSC's Esrange Space Centre, Sweden, on 29th May 2014, on board the sounding rocket REXUS 15 in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. The main focus of the experiment was to implement an ejection system for two large Free Falling Units (FFUs) (240 mm x 80 mm) to be ejected from a spinning rocket into a predefined direction. The system design relied on a spring-based ejection system. Sun and angular rate sensors were used to control and time the ejection. The flight data includes telemetry from the Rocket Mounted Unit (RMU), received and saved during flight, as well as video footage from the GoPro camera mounted inside the RMU and recovered after the flight. The FFUs' direction, speed and spin frequency as well as the rocket spin frequency were determined by analyzing the video footage. The FFU-Rocket-Sun angles were 64.3° and 104.3°, within the required margins of 90°+45°. The FFU speeds were 3.98 mIs and 3.74 mIs, lower than the expected 5± 1 mIs. The FFUs' spin frequencies were 1 .38 Hz and 1 .60 Hz, approximately half the rocket's spin frequency. The rocket spin rate slightly changed from 3. 163 Hz before the ejection to 3.1 17 Hz after the ejection of the two FFUs. The angular rate, sun sensor data and temperature on the inside of the rocket module skin were also recorded. The experiment design and results of the data analysis are presented in this paper.

  19. COMET 22P/KOPFF: DUST ENVIRONMENT AND GRAIN EJECTION ANISOTROPY FROM VISIBLE AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Fernando; Pozuelos, Francisco; Aceituno, Francisco; Casanova, Victor; Sota, Alfredo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castellano, Julio; Reina, Esteban, E-mail: fernando@iaa.es [Amateur Association Cometas-Obs (Spain)

    2012-06-20

    We present optical observations and Monte Carlo models of the dust coma, tail, and trail structures of the comet 22P/Kopff during the 2002 and 2009 apparitions. Dust loss rates, ejection velocities, and power-law size distribution functions are derived as functions of the heliocentric distance using pre- and post-perihelion imaging observations during both apparitions. The 2009 post-perihelion images can be accurately fitted by an isotropic ejection model. On the other hand, strong dust ejection anisotropies are required to fit the near-coma regions at large heliocentric distances (both inbound at r{sub h} = 2.5 AU and outbound at r{sub h} = 2.6 AU) for the 2002 apparition. These asymmetries are compatible with a scenario where dust ejection is mostly seasonally driven, coming mainly from regions near subsolar latitudes at far heliocentric distances inbound and outbound. At intermediate to near-perihelion heliocentric distances, the outgassing would affect much more extended latitude regions, the emission becoming almost isotropic near perihelion. We derived a maximum dust production rate of 260 kg s{sup -1} at perihelion, and an averaged production rate over one orbit of 40 kg s{sup -1}. An enhanced emission rate, also accompanied by a large ejection velocity, is predicted at r{sub h} > 2.5 pre-perihelion. The model has also been extended to the thermal infrared in order to be applied to available trail observations of this comet taken with IRAS and Infrared Space Observatory spacecrafts. The modeled trail intensities are in good agreement with those observations, which is remarkable taking into account that those data are sensitive to dust ejection patterns corresponding to several orbits before the 2002 and 2009 apparitions.

  20. A Physical Model for Mass Ejection in Failed Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    During the core collapse of a massive star, the formation of the protoneutron star is accompanied by the emission of a significant amount of mass-energy (a few tenths of a Solar mass) in the form of neutrinos. This mass-energy loss generates an outward-propagating pressure wave that steepens into a shock near the stellar surface, potentially powering a weak transient associated with an otherwise-failed supernova -- where the shock associated with the original core collapse cannot unbind the envelope in a successful explosion. We provide both rough estimates of the energy contained in the shock that powers the transient and a general formalism for analyzing the propagation and steepening of the pressure wave, and we apply this formalism to polytropic stellar models. We compare our results to simulations, and we find excellent agreement in both the early evolution of the pressure wave and in the energy contained in the shock. Our estimates provide important constraints on the observational implications of failed supernovae.

  1. Ethnic differences in the association of QRS duration with ejection fraction and outcome in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsberts, Crystel M.; Benson, Lina; Dahlström, Ulf; Sim, David; Yeo, Daniel P S; Ong, Hean Yee; Jaufeerally, Fazlur; Leong, Gerard K T; Ling, Lieng H.; Richards, A. Mark; De Kleijn, Dominique P V; Lund, Lars H.; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-01-01

    Background QRS duration (QRSd) criteria for device therapy in heart failure (HF) were derived from predominantly white populations and ethnic differences are poorly understood. Methods We compared the association of QRSd with ejection fraction (EF) and outcomes between 839 Singaporean Asian and 11

  2. Biomarkers of heart failure with normal ejection fraction : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Jin M.; Akkerhuis, K. Martijn; Battes, Linda C.; van Vark, Laura C.; Hillege, Hans L.; Paulus, Walter J.; Boersma, Eric; Kardys, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a major and growing public health problem, currently representing half of the heart failure burden. Although many studies have investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of new biomarkers in heart failure, limited data are available on

  3. Association between Hypotension, Low Ejection Fraction and Cognitive Performance in Cardiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F. Gottesman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Impaired cardiac function can adversely affect the brain via decreased perfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine if cardiac ejection fraction (EF is associated with cognitive performance, and whether this is modified by low blood pressure.

  4. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Injuries associated with the use of ejection seats in Finnish pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, T; Aho, J

    1992-08-01

    During the years 1958-91 17 Finnish pilots were forced to use ejection seats. The aircraft types were as follows: a) BA Hawk in 6 instances; b) a Mig 21-F-13 in 4; c) a Mig-21-Bis in 3; d) a Gnat Folland in 2; e) a Vampire Trainer in 1; and f) a MU-3 in 1 case. There were 3 ejections completed successfully, 12 pilots sustained slight injuries, and 5 pilots suffered major injuries--3 from compression fractures of the thoracic spine, 1 from fracture of the femur, and 1 from rupture of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. All major injuries were associated with Soviet aircraft. One BA-Hawk pilot died due to a direct impact against a tree after a low-altitude ejection. Two pilots launched the seat under negative G-forces. One of these became temporarily blind, and suffered a partial loss of vision for 3 months. Four Hawk pilots were saved during landing phase by a tandem ejection, receiving only minor injuries.

  6. The Solar Atmosphere at Three Temperatures During a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnik, I.; Pertzov, A.; Oparin, S.; Oraevsky, V.; Slemzin, V.; Sobelman, I.; Feynman, J.; Goldstein, B.

    1998-01-01

    On April 14, 1994 a major coronal mass ejection (CME) occured while the solar atmosphere was being observed in XUV by the Terek C instrument aboard the CORONAS spacecraft. We here compare the TEREK data before and after the CME with the Yohkoh soft x-ray data and the National Solar Observatory He I 10830 data from April 13 and 14.

  7. Simultaneous Observations of p-mode Light Walls and Magnetic Reconnection Ejections above Sunspot Light Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Xiaohong, E-mail: yijunhou@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-10-10

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal bright wall-shaped structures in active regions (ARs), especially above sunspot light bridges. Their most prominent feature is the bright oscillating front in the 1400/1330 Å channel. These structures are named light walls and are often interpreted to be driven by p-mode waves. Above the light bridge of AR 12222 on 2014 December 06, we observed intermittent ejections superimposed on an oscillating light wall in the 1400 Å passband. At the base location of each ejection, the emission enhancement was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory 1600 Å channel. Thus, we suggest that in wall bases (light bridges), in addition to the leaked p-mode waves consistently driving the oscillating light wall, magnetic reconnection could happen intermittently at some locations and eject the heated plasma upward. Similarly, in the second event occurring in AR 12371 on 2015 June 16, a jet was simultaneously detected in addition to the light wall with a wave-shaped bright front above the light bridge. At the footpoint of this jet, lasting brightening was observed, implying magnetic reconnection at the base. We propose that in these events, two mechanisms, p-mode waves and magnetic reconnection, simultaneously play roles in the light bridge, and lead to the distinct kinetic features of the light walls and the ejection-like activities, respectively. To illustrate the two mechanisms and their resulting activities above light bridges, in this study we present a cartoon model.

  8. High-resolution imaging of ejection dynamics in laser-induced forward transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Sun, C.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Lohse, Detlef; Nakata, Yoshiki; Xianfan, Xianfan; Roth, Stephan; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. As the ejection mechanism of picosecond LIFT has not been visualized in detail, the governing physics are not fully understood yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental

  9. Comparative Influences of Fluid and Shell on Modeled Ejection Performance of a Piezoelectric Micro-Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric micro-jet, which can achieve the drop-on-demand requirement, is based on ink-jet technology and small droplets can be ejected out by precise control. The droplets are driven out of the nozzle by the acoustic pressure waves which are generated by the piezoelectric vibrator. The propagation processes of the acoustic pressure waves are affected by the acoustic properties of the fluid and the shell material of the micro-jet, as well as the excitations and the structure sizes. The influences of the fluid density and acoustic velocity in the fluid on the nozzle pressure and support reaction force of the vibrator are analyzed in this paper. The effects of the shell material on the ejection performance are studied as well. In order to improve the ejection performance of the micro-jet, for ejecting a given fluid, the recommended methods of selecting the shell material and adjusting excitations are provided based on the results, and the influences of the factors on working frequencies are obtained as well.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of shock induced ejection on fused silica surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Xiang, Meizhen; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Shengli; Wei, Han

    2014-05-01

    Shock response and surface ejection behaviors of fused silica are studied by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics combining with the Tersoff potential. First, bulk structure and Hugoniot curves of fused silica are calculated and compared with experimental results. Then, the dynamical process of surface ejection behavior is simulated under different loading velocities ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 km/s, corresponding to shock wave velocities from 7.1 to 8.8 km/s. The local atomistic shear strain parameter is used to describe the local plastic deformation under conditions of shock compression or releasing. Our result shows that the shear strain is localized in the bottom area of groove under the shock compression. Surface ejection is observed when the loading velocity exceeds 4.0 km/s. Meanwhile, the temperature of the micro-jet is ˜5574.7 K, which is close to experiment measurement. Several kinds of structural defects including non-bridging oxygen are found in the bulk area of the sample after ejection.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of shock induced ejection on fused silica surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Rui [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xiang, Meizhen; Jiang, Shengli [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Chen, Jun, E-mail: jun-chen@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100087 (China); Wei, Han [Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-05-21

    Shock response and surface ejection behaviors of fused silica are studied by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics combining with the Tersoff potential. First, bulk structure and Hugoniot curves of fused silica are calculated and compared with experimental results. Then, the dynamical process of surface ejection behavior is simulated under different loading velocities ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 km∕s, corresponding to shock wave velocities from 7.1 to 8.8 km∕s. The local atomistic shear strain parameter is used to describe the local plastic deformation under conditions of shock compression or releasing. Our result shows that the shear strain is localized in the bottom area of groove under the shock compression. Surface ejection is observed when the loading velocity exceeds 4.0 km∕s. Meanwhile, the temperature of the micro-jet is ∼5574.7 K, which is close to experiment measurement. Several kinds of structural defects including non-bridging oxygen are found in the bulk area of the sample after ejection.

  12. Outcome of patients with low-gradient "severe" aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Minners, Jan; Holme, Ingar

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies have suggested that patients with a low transvalvular gradient in the presence of an aortic valve area <1.0 cm² and normal ejection fraction may represent a subgroup with an advanced stage of aortic valve disease, reduced stroke volume, and poor prognosis requiring early sur...

  13. Predicting Heart Failure With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction : The International Collaboration on Heart Failure Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Enserro, Danielle; Brouwers, Frank P.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Bartz, Traci M.; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Lee, Douglas S.; Chan, Cheeling; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J.; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Kop, Willem J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Gardin, Julius M.; Levy, Daniel; Gottdiener, John S.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Larson, Martin G.

    Background-Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and deadly disease, and preventive strategies focused on at-risk individuals are needed. Current HF prediction models have not examined HF subtypes. We sought to develop and validate risk prediction models for HF with preserved and reduced ejection

  14. Predicting heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction : The international collaboration on heart failure subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Jennifer E; Enserro, Danielle; Brouwers, Frank P; Kizer, Jorge R; Shah, Sanjiv J; Psaty, Bruce M; Bartz, Traci M; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Lee, Douglas S; Chan, Cheeling; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J; Hillege, Hans L; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H; Kop, W.J.; Gansevoort, Ron T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Gardin, Julius M; Levy, Daniel; Gottdiener, John S; de Boer, Rudolf A; Larson, Martin G

    Background—Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and deadly disease, and preventive strategies focused on at-risk individuals are needed. Current HF prediction models have not examined HF subtypes. We sought to develop and validate risk prediction models for HF with preserved and reduced ejection

  15. Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, J.C.; DiSessa, T.G.; Jarmakani, J.M.; Nakanishi, T.; Hiraishi, S.; Isabel-Jones, J.; Friedman, W.F.

    1982-05-01

    The ability of two-dimensional echocardiography to measure left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction was evaluated in 25 children with congenital heart disease. Dimensions and planimetered areas were obtained in the short-axis view at the mitral valve and high and low papillary muscle levels and in the apical two- and four-chamber views. Eight algorithms using five geometric models were assessed. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction were compared with data from biplane cineangiocardiograms. The correlation varied with the algorithm used. Algorithms using short-axis views appeared superior to those using only apical long-axis views. Four algorithms estimated left ventricular volumes with equal accuracy (Simpson's rule, assuming the ventricle to be a truncated cone; Simpson's rule, algorithm that best estimated left ventricular ejection fraction was the ellipsoid biplane formula using the short-axis view at the papillary muscle level (r = 0.91, slope = 0.94, SEE = 6.7%). Thus, two-dimensional echocardiography can accurately assess left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in children with congenital heart disease.

  16. Imaging of the ejection process of nanosecond laser-induced forward transfer of gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer is a direct-write process suitable for high precision 3D printing of several materials. However, the driving forces related to the ejection mechanism of the donor ma-terial are still under debate. So far, most of the experimental studies of nanosecond LIFT, are based

  17. Impact of Ejection Fraction on the Clinical Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Mild Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Cecilia; Daubert, Claude; Abraham, William T

    2013-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in mild heart failure (HF) patients with QRS prolongation and ejection fraction (EF) ≤30%. To assess the effect of CRT in less severe systolic dysfunction, outcomes in the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic left v...

  18. 76 FR 3211 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Ejection Mitigation; Phase-In Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... impact mass is based on the mass imposed by a 50th percentile male's head and upper torso on the window... prepared that presents a detailed analysis of engineering studies, and other information supporting the... final rule, for cases coded as ejected through ``rear'' or ``other'' glazing, we assume that the...

  19. Investigations of the sensitivity of a coronal mass ejection model (ENLIL) to solar input parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vršnak, B.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding space weather is not only important for satellite operations and human exploration of the solar system but also to phenomena here on Earth that may potentially disturb and disrupt electrical signals. Some of the most violent space weather effects are caused by coronal mass ejections...

  20. A long-duration active region: Evolution and quadrature observations of ejective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Fuentes, M. C. López; Merenda, L.; Cabello, I.; López, F. M.; Poisson, M.

    2017-10-01

    Unknown aspects of the initiation, evolution, and associated phenomena of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), together with their capability of perturbing the fragile technological equilibrium on which nowadays society depends, turn them a compelling subject of study. While space weather forecasts are thus far not able to predict when and where in the Sun will the next CME take place, various CME triggering mechanisms have been proposed, without reaching consensus on which is the predominant one. To improve our knowledge in these respects, we investigate a long-duration active region throughout its life, from birth until decay along five solar rotations, in connection with its production of ejective events. We benefit from the wealth of solar remote-sensing data with improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution provided by the ground-breaking space missions STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. During the investigated time interval, which covers the months July - November 2010, the STEREO spacecraft were nearly 180 degrees apart, allowing for the uninterrupted tracking of the active region and its ensuing CMEs. The ejective aspect is examined from multi-viewpoint coronagraphic images, while the dynamics of the active region photospheric magnetic field are inspected by means of SDO/HMI data for specific subintervals of interest. The ultimate goal of this work in progress is to identify common patterns in the ejective aspect that can be connected with the active region characteristics.

  1. A transcatheter intracardiac shunt device for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (REDUCE LAP-HF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasenfuß, Gerd; Hayward, Chris; Burkhoff, Dan

    2016-01-01

    was an open-label, single-arm, phase 1 study designed to assess the performance and safety of a transcatheter interatrial shunt device (IASD, Corvia Medical, Tewkesbury, MA, USA) in patients older than 40 years of age with symptoms of HFPEF despite pharmacological therapy, left ventricular ejection fraction...

  2. Simultaneous Observations of p-mode Light Walls and Magnetic Reconnection Ejections above Sunspot Light Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal bright wall-shaped structures in active regions (ARs), especially above sunspot light bridges. Their most prominent feature is the bright oscillating front in the 1400/1330 Å channel. These structures are named light walls and are often interpreted to be driven by p-mode waves. Above the light bridge of AR 12222 on 2014 December 06, we observed intermittent ejections superimposed on an oscillating light wall in the 1400 Å passband. At the base location of each ejection, the emission enhancement was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory 1600 Å channel. Thus, we suggest that in wall bases (light bridges), in addition to the leaked p-mode waves consistently driving the oscillating light wall, magnetic reconnection could happen intermittently at some locations and eject the heated plasma upward. Similarly, in the second event occurring in AR 12371 on 2015 June 16, a jet was simultaneously detected in addition to the light wall with a wave-shaped bright front above the light bridge. At the footpoint of this jet, lasting brightening was observed, implying magnetic reconnection at the base. We propose that in these events, two mechanisms, p-mode waves and magnetic reconnection, simultaneously play roles in the light bridge, and lead to the distinct kinetic features of the light walls and the ejection-like activities, respectively. To illustrate the two mechanisms and their resulting activities above light bridges, in this study we present a cartoon model.

  3. Effects of variation in posture and respiration on RSA and pre-ejection period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, J.H.; Groot, P.F.C.; de Geus, J.C.N.

    2005-01-01

    The extent to which variation in posture and respiration can confound pre-ejection period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as indices of cardiac sympatho-vagal activity was examined. Within-subjects changes in these measures were assessed in 36 subjects during different postures and (paced)

  4. Ejection of molecules from solid deuterium excited by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrys, R.; Warczak, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The energy distribution of sputtered D-2 from electron-bombarded solid deuterium has been studied for the first time. The spectra from this quantum solid show features that may originate from an energy release sequence of association of atoms. For ejection energies above 1 meV the gross features...

  5. Evaluation of impaired left ventricular ejection fraction and increased dimensions by multiple neurohumoral plasma concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønning, Bjørn Aaris; Nilsson, Jens C; Søndergaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    of the study was to compare the value of epinephrine, norepinephrine, renin activity, aldosterone (ALDO), atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides, arginine-vasopressin and endothelin (ENDO) as markers for left ventricular (LV) dimensions and ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with systolic heart...

  6. Observation of two coronal mass ejections on April 7, 2011 by radio telescope URAN-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, A.; Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Dorovskyy, V.; Vashchishin, V.; Franzusenko, A.; Rucker, H.

    2012-09-01

    Two CME's (coronal mass ejection) were registered by SOHO and STEREO on April 7, 2011. The results of observations obtained by radio telescope URAN-2 of different CME manifestations in radio emission at decameter wavelengths are discussed in this paper. Particularly we report about registration of new type of fine structure of type II bursts.

  7. Observation of Two Coronal Mass Ejections on April 7, 2011, Using URAN-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskiy, V. V.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Panchenko, M.; Rucker, G.

    Two CME's (coronal mass ejection) were registered by SOHO and STEREO on April 2, 2011. The results of observations obtained by radio telescope URAN-2 of different CME manifestations in radio emission at decameter wavelengths are discussed in this paper. Particularly it is reported about registration of new type of fine structure of type II bursts.

  8. Sesquinary catanae on Phobos from reaccretion of ejected material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Asphaug, Erik

    2015-11-01

    surface geology has implications for theories surrounding the origin of the families of grooves.[1] Zahnle et al, 2008, Icarus. [2] Melosh & Schenk, 1993, Nature. [3] Ferrill et al, 2004, GSA Today. [4] Asphaug et al. 2015, EPSC. [5] Yoder, 1982, Icarus.

  9. Ispitivanje piropatrona i raketnog motora pilotskog sedišta / Testing pyrocartridges and the rocket motor of the ejection seat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milorad Savković

    2008-01-01

    .... U radu je prikazan teorijski model kretanja sedišta. / Due to a complex geometrical shape of the rocket motor of the ejection seat, the rocket motor thrust occurs under certain angle in relation to the plane of symmetry of the ejection seat...

  10. Prevalence and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and elevated N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Christian Malchau; Bay, Morten; Kirk, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological features and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and to compare these findings with those from patients with reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore the effects of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-p...

  11. Comparison between tagged MRI and standard cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornier, Christophe; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Didier, Dominique; Vallee, Jean-Paul [Departement de Radiologie et d' Informatique Medicale, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Somsen, G. Aernout; Righetti, Alberto [Div. de Cardiologie, Departement de Medecine Interne, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Osman, Nael F. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 North Wolfe Street, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Global left ventricular function is a prognostic indicator and is used to evaluate therapeutical interventions in patients with heart failure. Regional left ventricular function can be determined with tagged MRI. Assessment of global left ventricular function using the tagging data may have additional clinical value without incurring extra scanning time, which is currently a limiting factor in cardiac imaging. Direct determination of end-diastolic volume is not possible with conventional tagged MRI. However, end-systolic volume can be directly measured because myocardium-blood contrast improves through a tagged image series. We investigated the potential of tagged MRI using frequency-domain analysis software to retrospectively track end-diastolic contour from end-systolic contour and subsequently calculate the ejection fraction. Tagged MRI was compared with the standard bright-blood cine MRI in healthy volunteers (n=20) and patients with previous myocardial infarction (n=8). Left ventricular ejection fraction derived from tagged MRI is linearly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction obtained by standard cardiac cine MRI (y=1.0x+1.31, r>0.98, p=0.014). In addition, the inter-observer and intra-observer coefficient of variation for left ventricular ejection fraction measurements was low (CV{sub intra}=0.4%, CV{sub inter}=1.3%). With tagged MRI, only end-systolic volume needs to be manually determined, and accurate estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction is obtained because end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes are determined using identical anatomical points. Our data indicate that tagged MRI can be used to quantitatively assess both regional and global left ventricular function. Therefore, tagged MRI may be a valuable clinical tool for determining the prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutical intervention using a single imaging session in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Ripple Geometry on Vortex Generation, Ejection, and Strength in Oscillatory Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent vortex structures generated around bedforms have a large potential for significant suspended sediment transport. In the nearshore, the flow separation over ripples results in the generation of a lee vortex that can entrain sediment during half of the wave cycle. As the flow reverses, the sediment-laden vortex is ejected into the water column. The vortex is translated with the reversed flow and dissipates, releasing its sediment load back to the bed. The generation and ejection processes are functions of the ripple geometry and the wave acceleration. These same processes are also present for other geometries placed near the sea bed. Studies around bottom-seated cylindrical structures have shown multiple generation and ejection events off of the lee of the cylinder during half of the wave cycle. This generation is a function of Keulegan-Carpenter number, which balances the semi-excursion of the wave to the dominant length scale of the structure. In this work, the flow over rippled beds of various geometries over a range of hydrodynamic forcing will be numerically simulated to investigate the generation, ejection mechanisms, and strength of vortices created by this interaction. The simulations will be performed with the finite-difference CFD model, FLOW-3D. An advantage to this model is its ability to resolve complicated geometries in the flow with cartesian grids. In order to resolve the complex, three-dimensional flow field over an approximately two-dimensional rippled bed, a Smagorinsky Large Eddy Simulation closure scheme will be utilized. This model configuration has been shown to accurately predict the lift and drag force coefficients for bottom-mounted cylinders under linear waves, which are dominated by vortex generation and ejection. The three-dimensional vortex structure and strength will be evaluated with swirling strength criterion. Three-dimensional isosurfaces of the swirling strength will allow for the visual identification of the interaction

  13. Preoperative ejection fraction as a predictor of survival after coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison with a matched general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Elisabeth J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is an established risk factor for early and late mortality after revascularization. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the effects of preoperative ejection fraction on the short-term and long-term survival of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods Early and late mortality were determined retrospectively in 10 626 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary bypass between January 1998 and December 2007. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their preoperative ejection fraction. Expected survival was estimated by comparison with a general Dutch population group described in the database of the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics. For each of our groups with a known preoperative ejection fraction, a general Dutch population group was matched for age, sex, and year of operation. Results and Discussion One hundred twenty-two patients were lost to follow-up. In 219 patients, the preoperative ejection fraction could not be retrieved. In the remaining patients (n = 10 285, the results of multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression analysis identified the ejection fraction as a predictor of early and late mortality. When we compared long-term survival and expected survival, we found a relatively poorer outcome in all subjects with an ejection fraction of 50%, long-term survival exceeded expected survival. Conclusions The severity of left ventricular dysfunction was associated with poor survival. Compared with the survival of the matched general population, our coronary bypass patients had a worse outcome only if their preoperative ejection fraction was

  14. Three-Dimensional Structure and Energy Balance of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-Y.; Raymond, J. C.; Ko, Y.-K.; Kim, K.-S.

    2009-01-01

    UVCS observed Doppler-shifted material of a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2001 December 13. The observed ratio of [O VJ/O V] is a reliable density diagnostic important for assessing the state of the plasma. Earlier UVCS observations of CMEs found evidence that the ejected plasma is heated long after the eruption. This paper investigated the heating rates, which represent a significant fraction of the CME energy budget. The parameterized heating and radiative and adiabatic cooling have been used to evaluate the temperature evolution of the CME material with a time-dependent ionization state model. Continuous heating is required to match the UVCS observations. To match the O VI bright knots, a higher heating rate is required such that the heating energy is greater than the kinetic energy.

  15. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections and their geomagnetic consequences during solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris Muntean, Georgeta; Mierla, Marilena; Besliu-Ionescu, Diana; Lacatus, Dana; Razvan Paraschiv, Alin

    Geomagnetic storms are known to be of great importance to life on Earth through their impact on telecommunications, electric power networks and much more. Our study will analyse in detail two months of solar and geomagnetic activity in March 2012 and, March 2013. There is an ICME (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection) recorded on March 9, 2012 listed in the Richardson and Cane catalogue, correlated with a Halo CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) from March 7. An intense geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -131 nT) was registered on March 9, 2012. Out of the two ICMEs recorded on the 17th and 20th March 2013, only the first was clearly associated with a Halo CME from March, 15. March, 17 is a day of intense geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -132 nT). We will focus on these events, such that the interaction between ICMEs and interplanetary magnetic field from the Sun to the Earth can be thoroughly described.

  16. Feasibility Study to Advanced Design Features of the APR1000 through CEA Ejection Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yo Han; Yang, Chang Keun; Lee, Hwan Soo; Ha, Sang Jun [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To supply various power level options to customers abroad, Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO) has preliminarily designed the Advanced Power Reactor 1000 (APR1000) plants since the end of 2009. The APR1000 has been designed to consider the operational experience of Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) plants and some Advanced Design Features (ADFs) to meet the requirements of Generation III+ nuclear power plants. In this study, the Control Element Assembly (CEA) ejection accident was analyzed to confirm the feasibility of the ADFs. On the viewpoint of CEA ejection, the 24-month fuel cycle, 30% mixed oxide (MOX) fuel loading, or cold head design was reviewed among the ADFs. The results were compared each others

  17. Evidence that magnetic energy shedding in solar filament eruptions is the drive in accompanying flares and coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of the magnetic energy on the field expansion and untwisting of the flux tube in which an erupting solar filament is embedded has been determined in order to evaluate the energy decrease in the erupting flux tube. Magnetic energy shedding by the filament-field eruption is found to be the driving mechanism in both filament-eruption flares and coronal mass ejections. Confined filament-eruption flares, filament-eruption flares with sprays and coronal mass ejections, and coronal mass ejections from quiescent filament eruptions are all shown to be similar types of events.

  18. Differing prognostic value of pulse pressure in patients with heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Colette E; Castagno, Davide; Maggioni, Aldo P

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Low pulse pressure is a marker of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) but the prognostic value of pulse pressure in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is unknown. We examined the prognostic value of pulse pressure......) and 5008 with HF-PEF (828 deaths). Pulse pressure was analysed in quintiles in a multivariable model adjusted for the previously reported Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure prognostic variables. Heart failure and reduced ejection fraction patients in the lowest pulse pressure quintile had...

  19. Ejection injury to the spine in small aviators: sled tests of manikins vs. post mortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzar, Robert S; Bolton, James R; Crandall, Jeff R; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S

    2009-07-01

    This study presents the results of seven aerospace manikin and three post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) horizontal deceleration sled tests. The objective of this study was to establish a body of baseline data that examines the ability of small (fifth percentile) manikins to predict whole-body kinematics associated with aircraft ejection, and whether currently available head and neck injury criteria are applicable in these situations. Subjects were exposed to a short-duration local z-axis sled pulse while horizontally seated and restrained in an ejection seat. Test subjects included instrumented fifth percentile female and male manikins, and two small (163.8 cm, 48.3 kg; 143.5 cm, 48.6 kg) female and one small (166.2 cm, 54.3 kg) male PMHS. The anterior (local x-axis) translations of the PMHS heads were less than those observed in the manikin tests, but the local z-axis translations of the PMHS heads were greater than those of the manikins. Z-axis translations of the manikins' T1 were generally similar to those of the PMHS T1, but the anterior x-axis translations of T1 were greater in the PMHS. The neck injury criterion (Nij) tended to under-predict observed injury (primarily ruptures of the posterior ligaments at C4-5, T2-3), and the Beam Criterion (BC) tended to over-predict observed injury for small occupants. The USN/USAF neck injury criteria (NIC) performed best in predicting the observed injuries. Present manikin designs do not predict the kinematics of PMHS in ejection tests. Further refinement of existing injury criteria is required to accurately predict location and severity of ejection-induced injuries.

  20. Certified Ejection Seat Weight Ranges and their Effects on Personnel Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Human Systems Integration (HSI) Capstone Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Current ejection seat certified aircrew weight ranges (136 to 213 lbs.), such as for the F/A-18, prohibited over one third (38%) of women and (8%) of men from accessing the naval aviation strike pipeline (carrierbased aviation) between 2008 and 2013. This is deleterious to the Naval Aviation Enterprise to restrict access of otherwise qualified and talented applicants to the strike av...

  1. The role of aerodynamic drag in propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vršnak, B.; Žic, T.; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    2010-01-01

    Context. The propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and the forecast of their arrival on Earth is one of the central issues of space weather studies. Aims. We investigate to which degree various ICME parameters (mass, size, take-off speed) and the ambient solar-wind paramete...... streams. We apply the model to the Sun-Earth event associated with the CME of 25 July 2004 and compare the results with the outcome of the numerical MHD modeling....

  2. IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF THE JET PUMP AT LOW COEFFICIENTS OF EJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Butenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jet pumps are widely used in the power industry as well as in many others. Their main disadvantage is low operating efficiency which aggravates when the jet pump is working with a low ejection coefficient. Such modes are sometimes unavoidable being conditioned by the character of technological process. The article considers methods of improving the operation of central ejectors at small ejection coefficients.The authors use mathematical simulation approach to study the particularities of kinematic structure of the flow in the mixing chamber of the central ejector operating with low ejection coefficients. They utilize Solid Works Cosmos Flo application-program package for the mathematical simulation. The study shows that areas of reverse flows appear alongside the walls of the mixing chamber under the above conditions which reduces the efficiency of the jet apparatus. The more is the extent of the discovered areas the more is the loss of energy. The study detects the regime zones where detached flows areas appear. The authors propose to replace such areas with solid surface (substitution bodies for preventing them from emerging. The  mathematical  simulation  results  determine  the  geometric  parameters  of the  substitution bodies for the central ejectors with different modules and ejection coefficients and yield mathematical description of their shape. Mathematical and physical simulation of the centralejector operation with the substitution bodies shows the increase in pressure-head and efficiency coefficients in such apparatuses as compared to ejectors of the conventional form. Efficiency increase is the case in quite a wide range of operating modes.The proposed method of the efficiency increase for the central ejectors is rather straightforward and does not require substantial financial expenditures for its implementation.

  3. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the eliophysics System Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Möstl, C.; Isavnin, A.; Boakes, P. D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Barnes, D.; Krupař, Vratislav; Eastwood, J.; Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Bothmer, V.; Reiss, M. A.; Amerstorfer, T.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B.J.; Philpott, L. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Gallagher, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2017), s. 955-970 ISSN 1539-4956 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space weather * coronal mass ejections * STEREO * heliospheric imagers * Heliophysics System Observatory * heliophysics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001614/full

  4. A Unified Bond Graph Modeling Approach for the Ejection Phase of the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    LUBNA MOIN; VALI UDDIN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is presented, simulated and validated. The integro-differential and ordinary differential equations obtained from the bond graph models are simulated using ODE45 (Ordinary Differential Equation Solver) on MATLAB and Simulink. The results, thus, obtained are compared with CVS (Cardiovascular System) physiological data present in Simbiosys (a software for simulating biological systems) and also with the CVS Wigge...

  5. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  6. Propagation of capillary waves and ejection of small droplets in rapid droplet spreading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Hang

    2012-03-12

    A new regime of droplet ejection following the slow deposition of drops onto a near-complete wetting solid substrate is identified in experiments and direct numerical simulations; a coalescence cascade subsequent to pinch-off is also observed for the first time. Results of numerical simulations indicate that the propagation of capillary waves that lead to pinch-off is closely related to the self-similar behaviour observed in the inviscid recoil of droplets, and that motions of the crests and troughs of capillary waves along the interface do not depend on the wettability and surface tension (or Ohnesorge number). The simulations also show that a self-similar theory for universal pinch-off can be used for the time evolution of the pinching neck. However, although good agreement is also found with the double-cone shape of the pinching neck for droplet ejection in drop deposition on a pool of the same liquid, substantial deviations are observed in such a comparison for droplet ejection in rapid drop spreading (including the newly identified regime). This deviation is shown to result from interference by the solid substrate, a rapid downwards acceleration of the top of the drop surface and the rapid spreading process. The experiments also confirm non-monotonic spreading behaviour observed previously only in numerical simulations, and suggest substantial inertial effects on the relation between an apparent contact angle and the dimensionless contact-line speed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  8. Structural and Functional Phenotyping of the Failing Heart: Is the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Michael R; Kao, David P; Breathett, Khadijah K; Altman, Natasha L; Gorcsan, John; Gill, Edward A; Lowes, Brian D; Gilbert, Edward M; Quaife, Robert A; Mann, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and development of new therapies for diseases or syndromes depend on a reliable means of identifying phenotypes associated with distinct predictive probabilities for these various objectives. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) provides the current basis for combined functional and structural phenotyping in heart failure by classifying patients as those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Recently the utility of LVEF as the major phenotypic determinant of heart failure has been challenged based on its load dependency and measurement variability. We review the history of the development and adoption of LVEF as a critical measurement of LV function and structure and demonstrate that, in chronic heart failure, load dependency is not an important practical issue, and we provide hemodynamic and molecular biomarker evidence that LVEF is superior or equal to more unwieldy methods of identifying phenotypes of ventricular remodeling. We conclude that, because it reliably measures both left ventricular function and structure, LVEF remains the best current method of assessing pathologic remodeling in heart failure in both individual clinical and multicenter group settings. Because of the present and future importance of left ventricular phenotyping in heart failure, LVEF should be measured by using the most accurate technology and methodologic refinements available, and improved characterization methods should continue to be sought. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity studies for 3-D rod ejection analyses on axial power shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Guen-Tae; Ryu, Seok-Hee; Um, Kil-Sup; Lee, Jae-Il [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The current safety analysis methodology using the point kinetics model combined with numerous conservative assumptions result in unrealistic prediction of the transient behavior wasting huge margin for safety analyses while the safety regulation criteria for the reactivity initiated accident are going strict. To deal with this, KNF is developing a 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional code coupling system CHASER. The CHASER system couples three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, sub-channel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). A sensitivity study for 3-D rod ejection analysis on axial power shape (APS) is carried out to survey the tendency of safety parameters by power distributions and to build up a realistic safety analysis methodology while maintaining conservatism. The currently developing 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional core transient analysis code system, CHASER was shown to reasonably reflect the conservative assumptions by tuning up kinetic parameters.

  10. Results from the DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) experiment. [Pressurized melt ejection and direct containment heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.; Ross, J.E.; Oliver, M.S.; Lucero, D.A.; Kerley, T.E.; Arellano, F.E.; Gomez, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    The DCH-1 (Direct Containment Heating) test was the first experiment performed in the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility. The test involved 20 kg of molten core debris simulant ejected into a 1:10 scale model of the Zion reactor cavity. The melt was produced by a metallothermic reaction of iron oxide and aluminum powders to yield molten iron and alumina. The cavity model was placed so that the emerging debris propagated directly upwards along the vertical centerline of the chamber. Results from the experiment showed that the molten material was ejected from the caviity as a cloud of particles and aerosol. The dispersed debris caused a rapid pressurization of the 103-m/sup 3/ chamber atmosphere. Peak pressure from the six transducers ranged from 0.09 to 0.13 MPa (13.4 to 19.4 psig) above the initial value in the chamber. Posttest debris collection yielded 11.6 kg of material outside the cavity, of which approximately 1.6 kg was attributed to the uptake of oxygen by the iron particles. Mechanical sieving of the recovered debris showed a lognormal size distribution with a mass mean size of 0.55 mm. Aerosol measurements indicated a subsantial portion (2 to 16%) of the ejected mass was in the size range less than 10 m aerodynamic equivalent diameter.

  11. Pre-ejection period by radial artery tonometry supplements echo doppler findings during biventricular pacemaker optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamruddin Salima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biventricular (Biv pacemaker echo optimization has been shown to improve cardiac output however is not routinely used due to its complexity. We investigated the role of a simple method involving computerized pre-ejection time (PEP assessment by radial artery tonometry in guiding Biv pacemaker optimization. Methods Blinded echo and radial artery tonometry were performed simultaneously in 37 patients, age 69.1 ± 12.8 years, left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (EF 33 ± 10%, during Biv pacemaker optimization. Effect of optimization on echo derived velocity time integral (VTI, ejection time (ET, myocardial performance index (MPI, radial artery tonometry derived PEP and echo-radial artery tonometry derived PEP/VTI and PEP/ET indices was evaluated. Results Significant improvement post optimization was achieved in LV ET (286.9 ± 37.3 to 299 ± 34.6 ms, p Conclusion An acute shortening of PEP by radial artery tonometry occurs post Biv pacemaker optimization and correlates with improvement in hemodynamics by echo Doppler and may provide a cost-efficient approach to assist with Biv pacemaker echo optimization.

  12. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and cardiovascular outcomes according to diabetes status in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. A report from the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Trial (I-Preserve)

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Søren L.; Mogensen, Ulrik M.; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Petrie, Mark C.; Preiss, David; Win, Sithu; Køber, Lars; McKelvie, Robert S.; Zile, Michael R.; Anand, Inder S; Komajda, Michel; Gottdiener, John S.; Peter E Carson; McMurray, John J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Background—In patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), little is known about the characteristics of and outcomes in those with and without diabetes.\\ud \\ud Methods—We examined clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and outcomes in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction trial (I-Preserve), according to history of diabetes. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for cardiovascular outcomes adjusted for known predictors, ...

  13. Optimising the dichotomy limit for left ventricular ejection fraction in selecting patients for defibrillator therapy after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selection of patients for prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrilator (ICD) treatment after myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. AIM: To determine the optimum left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) dichotomy limit for ICD treatment in patients with a history...

  14. Clinical and Echocardiographic Characteristics and Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Diabetes Status in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Mogensen, Ulrik M; Jhund, Pardeep S

    2017-01-01

    structural and functional echocardiographic abnormalities. Further investigation is needed to determine the mediators of the adverse impact of diabetes mellitus on outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and whether they are modifiable. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http...

  15. Development and Testing of a New Reefing System to Reduce Parachute Opening Shock Characteristics During Seat Ejection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brinkman, John

    1992-01-01

    .... It has been theorized that if one could control the opening of the parachute canopy used during emergency ejections, the parachute opening forces on the crewmember could he significantly reduced...

  16. Genetic Testing in the Evaluation of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest: From the CASPER (Cardiac Arrest Survivors With Preserved Ejection Fraction Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Greg; Laksman, Zachary W M; Tadros, Rafik; Roberts, Jason D; Gerull, Brenda; Simpson, Christopher S; Klein, George J; Champagne, Jean; Talajic, Mario; Gardner, Martin; Steinberg, Christian; Arbour, Laura; Birnie, David H; Angaran, Paul; Leather, Richard; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Chauhan, Vijay S; Seifer, Colette; Healey, Jeffrey S; Krahn, Andrew D

    2017-06-01

    Unexplained cardiac arrest may be because of an inherited arrhythmia syndrome. The role of genetic testing in cardiac arrest survivors without a definite clinical phenotype is unclear. The CASPER (Cardiac Arrest Survivors with Preserved Ejection Fraction Registry) is a large registry of cardiac arrest survivors where initial assessment reveals normal coronary arteries, left ventricular function, and resting ECG. Of 375 cardiac arrest survivors in CASPER from 2006 to 2015, 174 underwent genetic testing. Patients were classified as phenotype-positive (n=72) or phenotype-negative (n=102). Genetic testing was performed at treating physicians' discretion in line with contemporary guidelines and availability. All genetic variants identified from original laboratory reports were reassessed by the investigators in line with modern criteria. Pathogenic variants were identified in 29 (17%) patients (60% channelopathy-associated and 40% cardiomyopathy-associated genes) and 70 variants of unknown significance were identified in 32 (18%) patients. Prior syncope (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-9.7) and a family history of sudden death (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-9.4) were independently associated with the presence of a pathogenic variant. In phenotype-negative patients, broad multiphenotype genetic testing led to higher yields (21% versus 8%; P=0.04) but was associated with more variants of unknown significance (55% versus 5%; Pcardiac arrest survivors. Prior syncope and family history of sudden death are predictors of a positive genetic test. Both arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy genes are implicated. Broad, multiphenotype testing revealed the highest frequency of pathogenic variants in phenotype-negative patients. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00292032. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of core-engine-cooled turbine vanes. 2: Pressure surface trailing edge ejection and split trailing edge ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of two trailing edge ejection cooling configurations of a core-engine stator vane were experimentally determined in an ambient inlet-air full-annular cascade where three-dimensional effects could be obtained. The tests were conducted at the design mean-radius ideal aftermixed critical velocity ratio of 0.778. Overall vane aftermixed thermodynamic and primary efficiencies were obtained over a range of coolant flows to about 10 percent of the primary flow at a primary to coolant total temperature ratio of 1.0. The radial variation in efficiency and the circumferential and radial variations in vane-exit total pressure were determined. Comparisons are made with the solid (uncooled) vane.

  18. A new systolic parameter defined as the ratio of brachial pre-ejection period to brachial ejection time predicts overall and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-05-01

    Impaired left ventricular systolic function is an important cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. An increase in the ratio of pre-ejection period (PEP) to ejection time (ET) is associated with a decrease in left ventricular systolic function. Brachial PEP (bPEP) and brachial ET (bET) can be automatically determined from an ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bPEP/bET was a useful predictor for overall and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. We enrolled 212 hemodialysis patients in one regional hospital. The bPEP and bET were measured using an ABI-form device. The mean follow-up period was 28.3+/-5.7 months. The relative mortality risk was analyzed by Cox-regression methods. Twenty-two deaths were recorded in 212 patients (10.4%). In a multivariate analysis, the bPEP/bET (hazard ratio [HR], 1.055; P=0.047) and serum creatinine level (P=0.029) were positively and negatively associated with overall mortality, respectively. In addition, increased bPEP/bET (HR, 1.080; P=0.017), increased fasting glucose (P=0.046) and decreased serum creatinine level (P=0.004) were independent predictors for cardiovascular mortality. Our findings show that bPEP/bET, a surrogate of left ventricular systolic function, is a useful predictor for overall and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Screening hemodialysis patients by means of bPEP/bET may help to identify a high-risk group for increased mortality.

  19. Model to predict shrinkage and ejection forces of injection moulded tubular parts of short glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, M. C. R.; Netto, A. C. S.; Pontes, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a model to predict shrinkage and ejection forces for glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics of tubular geometry. This mathematical model was based in Jansen’s Model to predict shrinkage and residual stresses in fiber reinforced injection molded products and Pontes’s Model to predict ejection forces for tubular parts of pure PP. The model used the modified classical laminate theory applied to injection moulding and it uses the fiber orientation state, temperatu...

  20. Ispitivanje piropatrona i raketnog motora pilotskog sedišta / Testing pyrocartridges and the rocket motor of the ejection seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Savković

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Raketni motor pilotskog sedišta ima složen geometrijski oblik, tako da njegov potisak deluje pod određenim uglom u odnosu na ravan simetrije pilotskog sedišta. Radi određivanja intenziteta i napadne linije potiska izvršen je veći broj eksperimenata. Meren je potisak raketnog motora na višekomponentnom opitnom stolu. Letno ispitivanje pilotskog sedišta obavljeno je pomoću lutke koja simulira masu pilota. Takođe, analizirano je letno ispitivanje pilotskog sedišta u početnom periodu katapultiranja za vreme rada raketnog motora. Obrađeni su i rezultati merenja ubrzanja, koji su korišćeni za određivanje karakteristika leta pilotskog sedišta. U radu je prikazan teorijski model kretanja sedišta. / Due to a complex geometrical shape of the rocket motor of the ejection seat, the rocket motor thrust occurs under certain angle in relation to the plane of symmetry of the ejection seat. A number of tests were carried out in order to determine thrust intensity and angle of attack. The rocket motor thrust was measured on the multicomponent test stand. The ejection seat whit a dummy simulating a mass of a pilot was tested during ejection. The paper presents an analysis of the ejection seat flight in the initial phase of ejection, during the rocket motor running. The results of the acceleration read-outs were processed and then used for the determination of the characteristics of the ejection seat flight. A theoretical model of the ejection seat flight is given in the paper.

  1. The characteristics of high velocity O and B stars which are ejected from supernovae in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Simon F. Portegies

    2000-01-01

    We perform binary population synthesis calculations to study the origin and the characteristics of runaway O and B stars which are ejected by the supernova explosion of the companion star in a binary system. The number of OB runaways can be explained from supernova ejections only if: high mass stars are preferentially formed in binaries, the initial mass ratio distribution is strongly peaked to unity and stars are rejuvenated to zero age upon accretion of mass from a companion star. Taking th...

  2. ETHOS 1: a high-latitude planetary nebula with jets forged by a post-common-envelope binary central star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jones, D.; Sabin, L.; Santander-García, M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the discovery of ETHOS 1 (PN G068.1+11.0), the first spectroscopically confirmed planetary nebula (PN) from a survey of the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive for high-latitude PNe. ETHOS 1 stands out as one of the few PNe to have both polar outflows (jets) travelling at 120 ± 10 km s-1 and a close binary central star. The light curve observed with the Mercator Telescope reveals an orbital period of 0.535 d and an extremely large amplitude (0.816 mag) due to irradiation of the companion by a very hot pre-white dwarf. ETHOS 1 further strengthens the long-suspected link between binary central stars of PNe (CSPN) and jets. The Isaac Newton Telescope/Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and Very Large Telescope (VLT) FORS spectroscopy of the CSPN reveals weak N III, C III and C IV emission lines seen in other close binary CSPN and suggests that many CSPN with these weak emission lines are misclassified close binaries. We present VLT FORS imaging and Manchester Echelle Spectrometer long-slit observations from which a kinematic model of the nebula is built. An unusual combination of bipolar outflows and a spherical nebula conspires to produce an X-shaped appearance. The kinematic age of the jets (1750 ± 250 yr kpc-1) is found to be more than that of the inner nebula (900 ± 100 yr kpc-1), consistent with previous studies of similar PNe. Emission-line ratios of the jets are found to be consistent with that of reverse-shock models for fast low-ionization emitting regions (FLIERs) in PNe. Further large-scale surveys for close binary CSPN will be required to securely establish whether FLIERs are launched by close binaries. Based on observations made with the Flemish Mercator Telescope and Isaac Newton Telescope of the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos and the VLT at the Paranal Observatory under programs 083.D-0654(A) and 085.D-0629(A).

  3. Ejection Performance of Coated Core Pins Intended for Application on High Pressure Die Casting Tools for Aluminium Alloys Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Terek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure die casting (HPDC process of aluminium alloys cast alloy soldering severely damages tool surfaces. It hampers casting ejection, reduces the casting quality and decreases the overall production efficiency. Thin ceramic PVD (physical vapor deposition coatings applied on tool surfaces successfully reduce these effects. However, their performance is still not recognised for surfaces with various topographies. In this investigation, soldering tendency of Al-Si-Cu alloy toward EN X27CrMoV51 steel, plasma nitrided steel, CrN and TiAlN duplex PVD coatings is evaluated using ejection test. The coatings were prepared to a range of surface roughness and topographies. After the tests sample surfaces were analysed by different microscopy techniques and profilometry. It was found that the ejection performance is independent of the chemical composition of investigated materials. After the ejection, the cast alloy soldering layer was found on surfaces of all tested materials. This built-up layer formed by effects of mechanical soldering, without corrosion reactions. Coated samples displayed a pronounced dependence of ejection force on surface roughness and topography. By decreasing roughness, ejection force increased, which is a consequence of intensified adhesion effects. Presented findings are a novel information important for efficient application of PVD coatings intendent for protection of HPDC tools.

  4. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  5. Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction – Concept, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Challenges for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Veterovska Miljkovik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF with preserved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (HFpEF occurs in 40 to 60% of the patients with HF, with a prognosis which is similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF. HFpEF pathophysiology is different from that of HFrEF, and has been characterized with diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction has been defined with elevated left ventricular stiffness, prolonged iso-volumetric LV relaxation, slow LV filing and elevated LV end-diastolic pressure. Arterial hypertension occurs in majority cases with HFpEF worldwide. Patients are mostly older and obese. Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation appear proportionally in a high frequency of patients with HFpEF. The HFpEF diagnosis is based on existence of symptoms and signs of heart failure, normal or approximately normal ejection and diagnosing of LV diastolic dysfunction by means of heart catheterization or Doppler echocardiography and/or elevated concentration of plasma natriuretic peptide. The present recommendations for HFpEF treatment include blood pressure control, heart chamber frequency control when atrial fibrillation exists, in some situations even coronary revascularization and an attempt for sinus rhythm reestablishment. Up to now, it is considered that no medication or a group of medications improve the survival of HFpEF patients. Due to these causes and the bad prognosis of the disorder, rigorous control is recommended of the previously mentioned precipitating factors for this disorder. This paper presents a universal review of the most important parameters which determine this disorder.

  6. Turbulence and Heating in the Flank and Wake Regions of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Siteng; He, Jiansen; Yan, Limei; Tomczyk, Steven; Tian, Hui; Song, Hongqiang; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) passes, the flank and wake regions are typically strongly disturbed. Various instruments, including the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP), observed a CME close to the east limb on 26 October 2013. A hot ({≈} 10 MK) rising blob was detected on the east limb, with an initial ejection flow speed of {≈} 330 km s^{-1}. The magnetic structures on both sides and in the wake of the CME were strongly distorted, showing initiation of turbulent motions with Doppler-shift oscillations enhanced from {≈} ± 3 km s^{-1} to {≈} ± 15 km s^{-1} and effective thermal velocities from {≈} 30 km s^{-1} to {≈} 60 km s^{-1}, according to the CoMP observations at the Fe xiii line. The CoMP Doppler-shift maps suggest that the turbulence behaved differently at various heights; it showed clear wave-like torsional oscillations at lower altitudes, which are interpreted as the antiphase oscillation of an alternating red/blue Doppler shift across the strands at the flank. The turbulence seems to appear differently in the channels of different temperatures. Its turnover time was {≈} 1000 seconds for the Fe 171 Å channel, while it was {≈} 500 seconds for the Fe 193 Å channel. Mainly horizontal swaying rotations were observed in the Fe 171 Å channel, while more vertical vortices were seen in the Fe 193 Å channel. The differential-emission-measure profiles in the flank and wake regions have two components that evolve differently: the cool component decreased over time, evidently indicating a drop-out of cool materials due to ejection, while the hot component increased dramatically, probably because of the heating process, which is suspected to be a result of magnetic reconnection and turbulence dissipation. These results suggest a new turbulence-heating scenario of the solar corona and solar wind.

  7. r -process nucleosynthesis from matter ejected in binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Luke; Martin, Dirk; Guercilena, Federico; Arcones, Almudena; Rezzolla, Luciano; Korobkin, Oleg

    2017-12-01

    When binary systems of neutron stars merge, a very small fraction of their rest mass is ejected, either dynamically or secularly. This material is neutron-rich and its nucleosynthesis provides the astrophysical site for the production of heavy elements in the Universe, together with a kilonova signal confirming neutron-star mergers as the origin of short gamma-ray bursts. We perform full general-relativistic simulations of binary neutron-star mergers employing three different nuclear-physics equations of state (EOSs), considering both equal- and unequal-mass configurations, and adopting a leakage scheme to account for neutrino radiative losses. Using a combination of techniques, we carry out an extensive and systematic study of the hydrodynamical, thermodynamical, and geometrical properties of the matter ejected dynamically, employing the WinNet nuclear-reaction network to recover the relative abundances of heavy elements produced by each configurations. Among the results obtained, three are particularly important. First, we find that, within the sample considered here, both the properties of the dynamical ejecta and the nucleosynthesis yields are robust against variations of the EOS and masses. Second, using a conservative but robust criterion for unbound matter, we find that the amount of ejected mass is ≲10-3 M⊙, hence at least one order of magnitude smaller than what normally assumed in modelling kilonova signals. Finally, using a simplified and gray-opacity model we assess the observability of the infrared kilonova emission finding, that for all binaries the luminosity peaks around ˜1 /2 day in the H -band, reaching a maximum magnitude of -13 , and decreasing rapidly after one day.

  8. Mid-range Ejection Fraction Does Not Permit Risk Stratification Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Otero, Inés; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Varela Román, Alfonso; Seijas Amigo, José; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A; Delgado Jiménez, Juan; Álvarez-García, Jesús; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Worner Diz, Fernando; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis; Cinca, Juan; Gónzalez-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2017-05-01

    European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines include a new patient category with mid-range (40%-49%) left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF). HFmrEF patient characteristics and prognosis are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to analyze the HFmrEF category in a cohort of hospitalized heart failure patients (REDINSCOR II Registry). A prospective observational study was conducted with 1420 patients classified according to ejection fraction as follows: HFrEF, < 40%; HFmrEF, 40%-49%; and HFpEF, ≥ 50%. Baseline patient characteristics were examined, and outcome measures were mortality and readmission for heart failure at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Propensity score matching was used to compare the HFmrEF group with the other ejection fraction groups. Among the study participants, 583 (41%) had HFrEF, 227 (16%) HFmrEF, and 610 (43%) HFpEF. HFmrEF patients had a clinical profile similar to that of HFpEF patients in terms of age, blood pressure, and atrial fibrillation prevalence, but shared with HFrEF patients a higher proportion of male participants and ischemic etiology, and use of class I drugs targeting HFrEF. All other features were intermediate, and comorbidities were similar among the 3 groups. There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality, cause of death, or heart failure readmission. The similar outcomes were confirmed in the propensity score matched cohorts. The HFmrEF patient group has characteristics between the HFrEF and HFpEF groups, with more similarities to the HFpEF group. No between-group differences were observed in total mortality, cause of death, or heart failure readmission. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Candidate biomarkers in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning, Christoph; Zengin, Elvin; Zeller, Tanja; Schnabel, Renate B; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting with heart failure symptoms are categorized into heart failure (HF) with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Aim is to investigate the additional use of candidate biomarkers to characterize patients with either sub-type of HF. Literature search was conducted in the electronic databases MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception through November 2014. The results of 47 diseased and general population cohorts were included. Current studies could outline the additional use of candidate biomarkers especially GDF-15, MR-proADM and high-sensitive determined troponin, although major outcome studies are still missing.

  10. Coronal Mass Ejection early-warning mission by solar-photon sailcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Circi, Christian; Pino, Tommaso

    2017-11-01

    A preliminary investigation of the early warning of solar storms caused by Coronal Mass Ejection has been carried out. A long warning time could be obtained with a sailcraft synchronous with the Earth-Moon barycenter, and stationed well below the L1 point. In this paper, the theory of heliocentric synchronous sailcraft is set up, its perturbed orbit is analyzed, and a potential solution capable of providing an annual synchrony is carried out. A simple analysis of the response from a low-mass electrochromic actuator for the realization of station-keeping attitude maneuvers is put forwards, and an example of propellantless re-orientation maneuver is studied.

  11. IR spectroscopy of molecular ions by nonthermal ion ejection from helium nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Brauer, Nils B; Buma, Wybren J; Drabbels, Marcel

    2010-10-13

    Infrared spectroscopy provides a means to determine the intrinsic geometrical structures of molecules. Here we present a novel spectroscopic method that uses superfluid helium nanodroplets to record IR spectra of cold molecular ions, in this particular case aniline cations. The method is based on the detection of ions that are ejected from the helium droplets following vibrational excitation of these ions. We find that spectra can be recorded with a high sensitivity and that they exhibit only a small matrix shift. The widths of the individual transitions depend on the excited vibrational level and are thought to be related to the interaction of the ion with the surrounding helium solvent shells.

  12. Are We Observing Coronal Mass Ejections in OH/IR AGB Stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, Carl

    2017-05-01

    Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are magnetic electron clouds that are violently ejected by the same magnetic reconnection events that produce Solar flares. CMEs are the major driving source of the hazardous space weather environments near the Earth. In exoplanet systems, the equivalent of Solar wind and CMEs can affect a planet's atmosphere, and in extreme cases can erode it, as probably happened with Mars, or disrupt the cosmic-ray shielding aspect of the planet's magnetic field.We (Jensen et al. 2013SoPh..285...83J, 2016SoPh..291..465J) have developed a new way to observe the electron column density and magnetic field of CMEs, namely to measure the frequency change and Faraday rotation of a spacecraft downlink carrier produced by propagation effects in the plasma. Surprisingly, this can work on other stars if they have the equivalent of the spacecraft carrier, as do OH/IR stars.OH/IR stars are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, which are red giant stars burning He in their final stages of stellar evolution. They have highly convective surfaces and large mass-ejection rates in the form of expanding dense shells of molecular gas and obscuring dust, which were ejected from the star by chaotic turbulent motions and then accelerated by radiation pressure. OH masers reside in these shells, pumped by the IR emission from the dust. The OH masers on the far side of the star (i.e., the positive-velocity masers) are the surrogate for the Solar-case spacecraft signal.The big question: Can we see CMEs in OH/IR stars? We have observed six OH/IR stars with the Arecibo Observatory for a total of about 150 hours over the past 1.5 years. We see changes in OH maser frequency and in the position angle of linear polarization. Both can be produced by electron clouds moving across the line of sight. We will present statistical summaries of the variability and interpret them in terms of CME models.

  13. Nuclear data uncertainties by the PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} core rod ejection benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasichnyk, I.; Klein, M.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.; Pautz, A. [Boltzmannstr. 14, D-85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Rod ejection transient of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} core benchmark is considered under the influence of nuclear data uncertainties. Using the GRS uncertainty and sensitivity software package XSUSA the propagation of the uncertainties in nuclear data up to the transient calculations are considered. A statistically representative set of transient calculations is analyzed and both integral as well as local output quantities are compared with the benchmark results of different participants. It is shown that the uncertainties in nuclear data play a crucial role in the interpretation of the results of the simulation. (authors)

  14. Stress Relaxation in a Perfect Nanocrystal by Coherent Ejection of Lattice Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Sengupta, Surajit; Rao, Madan

    2005-12-01

    We show that a small crystal trapped within a potential well and in contact with its own fluid responds to large compressive stresses by a novel mechanism—the transfer of complete lattice layers across the solid-fluid interface. Further, when the solid is impacted by a momentum impulse set up in the fluid, a coherently ejected lattice layer carries away a definite quantity of energy and momentum, resulting in a sharp peak in the calculated phonon absorption spectrum. Apart from its relevance to studies of stability and failure of small sized solids, such coherent nanospallation may be used to make atomic wires or monolayer films.

  15. Large density amplification measured on jets ejected from a magnetized plasma gun

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gunsu S.; You, Setthivoine; Bellan, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of a large density amplification in the collimating plasma jet ejected from a coplanar coaxial plasma gun is reported. The jet velocity is ~30 km s^-1 and the electron density increases from ~10^20 to 10^(22–23) m^-3. In previous spheromak experiments, electron density of the order 10^(19–21) m^-3 had been measured in the flux conserver region, but no density measurement had been reported for the source gun region. The coplanar geometry of our electrodes permits direct observation...

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial...... ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left...

  17. A rapid method for standardization of the gated radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, G.L.; Baker, B.J.; Murphy, M.M.; Boyd, C.M.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography has become the standard method for serially evaluating left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The gold standard for evaluating EF is the contrast ventriculogram, which uses mathematical models to arrive at the volumes used to calculate EF. These models are subject to possible error. This paper reports the standardization of volume measurements of a digital angiographic camera system using a series of cardiac phantoms and the correlation of measurement of the EF of a series of patients whose EF was determined by digital angiography and radionuclide ventriculography.

  18. The particle-size distribution in the dust ejected from IRC +10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose that in the outer envelope (more than 15 sec from the star) around IRC +10216 the grains are amorphous carbon spheres of radius a with a size distribution of the form n(a) approximately equals d(exp -3.5) exp (-a/a(sub 0)) and a(sub 0) approximately equals 0.10 micrometers. Small grains (a much less than a(sub 0)) are required to explain the shielding of circumstellar molecules against destruction by interstellar ultraviolet radiation. Larger grains (a much greater than a(sub 0)) are required to explain the observed circumstellar polarization at the K band. In this model approximately 0.1% of the mass in the ejected dust is contained in particles that are larger than 1 micrometer in diameter. If the size distribution of the ejected SiC particles is similar to the size distribution that we derive for the amorphous carbon grains, then at least some of the micron-sized SiC inclusions in meteorites thought to originate from mass-losing carbon stars may have been produced in the outflows from stars such as IRC +10216.

  19. COMPOSITION STRUCTURE OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM MULTISPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS, MODELING, AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinard, Alysha A. [University of Colorado/Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80505 (United States); Lynch, Benjamin J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mulligan, Tamitha, E-mail: alysha.reinard@noaa.gov, E-mail: blynch@ssl.berkeley.edu, E-mail: tamitha.mulligan@aero.org [Space Sciences Department, Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We present an analysis of the ionic composition of iron for two interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed on 2007 May 21-23 by the ACE and STEREO spacecraft in the context of the magnetic structure of the ejecta flux rope, sheath region, and surrounding solar wind flow. This analysis is made possible due to recent advances in multispacecraft data interpolation, reconstruction, and visualization as well as results from recent modeling of ionic charge states in MHD simulations of magnetic breakout and flux cancellation coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. We use these advances to interpret specific features of the ICME plasma composition resulting from the magnetic topology and evolution of the CME. We find that, in both the data and our MHD simulations, the flux ropes centers are relatively cool, while charge state enhancements surround and trail the flux ropes. The magnetic orientations of the ICMEs are suggestive of magnetic breakout-like reconnection during the eruption process, which could explain the spatial location of the observed iron enhancements just outside the traditional flux rope magnetic signatures and between the two ICMEs. Detailed comparisons between the simulations and data were more complicated, but a sharp increase in high iron charge states in the ACE and STEREO-A data during the second flux rope corresponds well to similar features in the flux cancellation results. We discuss the prospects of this integrated in situ data analysis and modeling approach to advancing our understanding of the unified CME-to-ICME evolution.

  20. Biomarkers of heart failure with normal ejection fraction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin M; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; Battes, Linda C; van Vark, Laura C; Hillege, Hans L; Paulus, Walter J; Boersma, Eric; Kardys, Isabella

    2013-12-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a major and growing public health problem, currently representing half of the heart failure burden. Although many studies have investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of new biomarkers in heart failure, limited data are available on biomarkers other than natriuretic peptides in HFNEF. We performed a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the associations of biomarkers with the occurrence of HFNEF and with the prognosis of HFNEF patients. Biomarkers examined most extensively in HFNEF include biomarkers of myocyte stress, inflammation, and extracellular matrix remodelling. Some biomarkers have been shown to be increased to a different extent in HFNEF compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Several biomarkers, including biomarkers of myocyte stress, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodelling, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), cystatin C, resistin, and galectin-3, were associated with development of HFNEF and with clinical outcomes of HFNEF patients in terms of morbidity and mortality. Several biomarkers, including biomarkers of myocyte stress, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodelling, GDF-15, cystatin C, resistin, and galectin-3, appeared to be promising diagnostic and prognostic tools in patients with HFNEF. Investigation of the incremental diagnostic and prognostic value of these biomarkers, or a combination thereof, over established clinical covariates and imaging techniques in large, prospective studies is warranted.

  1. Relationship of hyperuricemia with mortality in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Kanno, Yuki; Takiguchi, Mai; Sato, Akihiko; Miura, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Owada, Takashi; Abe, Satoshi; Sato, Takamasa; Suzuki, Satoshi; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2015-10-01

    Serum uric acid is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. However, the impact of uric acid on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the association between hyperuricemia and mortality in HFpEF patients. Consecutive 424 patients, who were admitted to our hospital for decompensated heart failure and diagnosed as having HFpEF, were divided into two groups based on presence of hyperuricemia (serum uric acid ≥7 mg/dl or taking antihyperuricemic agents). We compared patient characteristics, echocardiographic data, cardio-ankle vascular index, and cardiopulmonary exercise test findings between the two groups and prospectively followed cardiac and all-cause mortality. Compared with the non-hyperuricemia group (n = 170), the hyperuricemia group (n = 254) had a higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.013), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01), dyslipidemia (P = 0.038), atrial fibrillation (P = 0.001), and use of diuretics (P exercise capacity, and high mortality in HFpEF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Evaluation of postoperative cardiac function in severe ischemic heart disease associated with decreased ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuaki, Masafumi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi; Norita, Hiroaki; Naitoh, Kouzou; Suda, Hisao [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This clinical study was performed to clarify the postoperative cardiac functions after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the cases associated with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) or increased end-diastolic volume index (EDVI). The patients were divided into two groups by preoperative EF. The EF of Group I ranged from 31 to 39% in 42 cases, and the EF of Group II was below 30% in 27 cases. Several parameters of cardiac function such as EF, peak ejection rate (PER), peak filling rate (PFR) or early diastolic peak filling rate were evaluated with radionuclide ventriculography. Postoperative mean values of these parameters significantly improved in both Group I and Group II compared to preoperative values. Although these parameters and left ventricular wall motion did not improve in the 7 cases with an EDVI over 140 ml/m{sup 2} in Group II, the clinical results of these 7 cases were good during the follow-up period except one case which preoperatively had frequent ventricular arrythmia. The clinical condition improved remarkably in the 3 patients who had preoperative angina pectoris among these 7 cases. Surgical indications must be carefully determined in cases with increased EDVI and frequent ventricular arrythmia. (author)

  3. Evolution of a Geriatric Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Pisani, Barbara; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2017-11-01

    The majority of older adults who develop heart failure (HF), particularly older women, have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). The prevalence of this syndrome is increasing, and the prognosis is not improving, unlike that of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Individuals with HFpEF have severe symptoms of effort intolerance, poor quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and greater likelihood of death. Despite the importance of HFpEF, there are numerous major gaps in our understanding of its pathophysiology and management. Although it was originally viewed as a disorder due solely to abnormalities in left ventricular diastolic function, our understanding has evolved such that HFpEF is now understood as a systemic syndrome involving multiple organ systems, and it is likely that it is triggered by inflammation and other as-yet-unidentified circulating factors, with important contributions of aging and multiple comorbidities, features generally typical of other geriatric syndromes. We present an update on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and future directions in this disorder in older persons. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Extracellular Volume Fraction for Characterization of Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Karl-Philipp; von Roeder, Maximilian; Latuscynski, Konrad; Oberueck, Christian; Blazek, Stephan; Fengler, Karl; Besler, Christian; Sandri, Marcus; Lücke, Christian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Linke, Axel; Schuler, Gerhard; Lurz, Philipp

    2016-04-19

    Optimal patient characterization in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is essential to tailor successful treatment strategies. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived T1 mapping can noninvasively quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis as extracellular volume fraction (ECV). This study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic performance of T1 mapping in HFpEF by examining the relationship between ECV and invasively measured parameters of diastolic function. It also investigated the potential of ECV to differentiate among pathomechanisms in HFpEF. We performed T1 mapping in 24 patients with HFpEF and 12 patients without heart failure symptoms. Pressure-volume loops were obtained with a conductance catheter during basal conditions and handgrip exercise. Transient pre-load reduction was used to extrapolate the diastolic stiffness constant. Patients with HFpEF showed higher ECV (p Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [STIFFMAP]; NCT02459626). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A one-sided knot ejection at the core of the HH 111 outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, L.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L.

    2013-04-01

    We present an astrometry study of the radio source VLA 1 at the core of the HH 111 outflow using new data (2007) as well as archival observations (1992-1996). All data were taken at 3.6 cm with the Very Large Array in its most extended (A) configuration. The source VLA 1 has undergone a dramatic morphological change, showing a one-sided knot ejection in the 2007 epoch. We also report the detection of a 3.6 cm compact continuum source (VLA 3) located at (-10''.6, 98''.7) from VLA 1. No significant absolute proper motions were found for VLA 1 and VLA 3 and the upper limits are consistent with those found for (embedded) radio sources in the Orion Nebula. We favor the interpretation that in the continuum at 3.6 cm we are observing two nearly perpendicular jets. HH 111 presents a new case of one-sided jet ejection in a young stellar object. The galactic (or extragalactic) nature of VLA 3 remains unclear.

  6. Development of a DNBR evaluation method for the CEA ejection accident in SMART core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Yoo, Y. J.; In, W. K.; Chang, M. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    A methodology applicable to the analysis of the CEA ejection accident in SMART is developed for the evaluation of the fraction of fuel failure caused by DNB. The transient behavior of the core thermal-hydraulic conditions is calculated by the subchannel analysis code MATRA. The minimum DNBR during the accident is calculated by KRB-1 CHF correlation considering the 1/8 symmetry of hot assembly. The variation of hot assembly power during the accident is simulated by the LTC(Limiting transient Curve) which is determined from the analysis of power distribution data resulting from the three-dimensional core dynamics calculations. The initial condition of the accident is determined by considering LOC(Limiting Conditions for Operation) of SMART core. Two different methodologies for the evaluation of DNB failure rate are established; a deterministic method based on the DNB envelope, and a probabilistic method based on the DNB probability of each fuel rod. The methodology developed in this study is applied to the analysis of CEA ejection accident in the preliminary design core of SMART. As the result, the fractions of DNB fuel failure by the deterministic method and the probabilistic method are calculated as 38.7% and 7.8%, respectively. 16 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  7. Comparative Examination of Plasmoid Ejection at Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of magnetic reconnection in the near-tail of Earth, long known to herald the fast magnetospheric convection that leads to geomagnetic storms and substorms, is very closely associated with the formation and down-tail ejection of magnetic loops or flux ropes called plasmoids. Plasmoids form as a result of the fragmentation of preexisting cross-tail current sheet as a result of magnetic reconnection. Depending upon the number, location, and intensity of the individual reconnection X-lines and how they evolve, some of these loop-like or helical magnetic structures may also be carried sunward. At the inner edge of the tail they are expected to "re-reconnect' with the planetary magnetic field and dissipate. Plasmoid ejection has now been observed in the magnetotails of Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. These magnetic field and charged particle measurements have been taken by the MESSENGER, Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and numerous Earth missions. Here we present a comparative examination of the structure and dynamics of plasmoids observed in the magnetotails of these 5 planets. The results are used to learn more about how these magnetic structures form and to assess similarities and differences in the nature of magnetotail reconnection at these planets.

  8. A planetary dust ring generated by impact-ejection from the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    All outer planets in the Solar System are surrounded by a ring system. Many of these rings are dust rings or they contain at least a high proportion of dust. They are often formed by impacts of micro-meteoroids onto embedded bodies. The ejected material typically consists of micron-sized charged particles, which are susceptible to gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Generally, detailed information on the dynamics and distribution of the dust requires expensive numerical simulations of a large number of particles. Here we develop a relatively simple and fast, semi-analytical model for an impact-generated planetary dust ring governed by the planet's gravity and the relevant perturbation forces for the dynamics of small charged particles. The most important parameter of the model is the dust production rate, which is a linear factor in the calculation of the dust densities. We apply our model to dust ejected from the Galilean satellites using production rates obtained from flybys of the dust sources. The dust densities predicted by our model are in good agreement with numerical simulations and with in situ measurements by the Galileo spacecraft. The lifetimes of large particles are about two orders of magnitude greater than those of small ones, which implies a flattening of the size distribution in circumplanetary space. Information about the distribution of circumplanetary dust is also important for the risk assessment of spacecraft orbits in the respective regions.

  9. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Krucker, Säm [Also at Institute of 4-D Technologies, School of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch, Switzerland. (Switzerland); Lin, Robert P., E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Also at Physics Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ∼11 MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (∼100 × 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  10. Reynolds Number Dependence of Vortex Ring Formation by Transient Jet Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul S.

    2006-11-01

    Vortex ring formation by the sudden ejection of a jet from tube and orifice openings is investigated numerically for jet Reynolds number (Re) in the range 10 -- 2000 and jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 0.5 -- 6.0. This Re range brackets nearly inviscid behavior (vortex sheet roll-up) at the high end and highly diffusive behavior at the low end. The present investigation is motivated by how the enhanced role of viscosity at low Re affects the development and properties of the resulting vortex rings. The results for Re = 2000 show classical behavior, namely, compact vortex rings at low L/D and a leading vortex ring followed by a trailing jet for L/D sufficiently high. As Re decreases below 100, viscous diffusion leads to rapid radial growth of the vortex ring trajectories, and rapid decay of total circulation and kinetic energy. For all Re, the ratio of the impulse obtained during jet ejection to that from a steady, uniform jet of the same duration increases with L/D until a trailing jet appears. The maximum impulse ratio achieved increases as Re decreases for the tube configuration, but the opposite trend is observed for the orifice configuration.

  11. A Unified Bond Graph Modeling Approach for the Ejection Phase of the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUBNA MOIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is presented, simulated and validated. The integro-differential and ordinary differential equations obtained from the bond graph models are simulated using ODE45 (Ordinary Differential Equation Solver on MATLAB and Simulink. The results, thus, obtained are compared with CVS (Cardiovascular System physiological data present in Simbiosys (a software for simulating biological systems and also with the CVS Wiggers diagram of heart cycle. As the cardiac activity is a multi domain process that includes mechanical, hydraulic, chemical and electrical events; therefore, for modeling such systems a unified modeling approach is needed. In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is proposed. The Bond Graph conventionalism approach is a graphical method principally powerful to portray multi-energy systems, as it is formulated on the portrayal of power exchanges. The model takes into account a simplified description of the left ventricle which is close to the medical investigation promoting the apperception and the dialogue between engineers and physiologists.

  12. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  13. Computer-based assessment of left ventricular regional ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, S.-K.; Su, Y.; Tan, R. S.; Zhong, L.

    2014-03-01

    After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle (LV) undergoes progressive remodeling which adversely affects heart function and may lead to development of heart failure. There is an escalating need to accurately depict the LV remodeling process for disease surveillance and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Current practice of using ejection fraction to quantitate LV function is less than ideal as it obscures regional variation and anomaly. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a quantitative method to assess LV regional ejection fraction (REF) using a 16-segment method, and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of REF in discriminating 10 patients 1-3 months after MI and 9 normal control (sex- and agematched) based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR scans were also acquired for the MI patients to assess scar extent. We observed that the REF at the basal, mid-cavity and apical regions for the patient group is significantly lower as compared to the control group (P infarction. The results suggest that REF could potentially be used as a discriminator for MI and employed to measure myocardium homogeneity with respect to degree of infarction. The computational performance per data sample took approximately 25 sec, which demonstrates its clinical potential as a real-time cardiac assessment tool.

  14. NEW EMPHASES ON THE STUDY OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION: FOCUS ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the long time the systolic myocardial dysfunction was traditionally associated with the severity of chronic heart failure (CHF. Increasing number of patients with symptoms of CHF but without systolic dysfunction has drawn the attention of specialists to so-called CHF with preserved ejection fraction. Prognosis in CHF with preserved ejection fraction may be as bad as in CHF with reduced ejection fraction. Significant changes in views on the pathogenesis of CHF led to the creation of new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of this disease. However, at present, convincing evidence base of mortality reduction in patients with CHF with preserved ejection fraction using well-known therapeutic agents is unavailable. It makes conduct active searches for new biological markers of diastolic heart function. Participation of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular GDF-15, in the process of elasticity reduction and relaxation disorders of left ventricular myocardium, may be of great importance in the development of new medical agents designed to delay the progression of CHF with preserved ejection fraction.

  15. Regional ejection fraction: a quantitative radionuclide index of regional left ventricular performance. [/sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, D.E.; Wynne, J.; Uren, R.; Parker, J.A.; Idoine, J.; Siegel, L.C.; Neill, J.M.; Cohn, P.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-05-01

    Left ventricular regional ejection fractions were derived from background-corrected, time-activity curves in 43 patients assessed by both gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography and left ventricular contrast angiography. From a single, modified left anterior oblique projection, the regional change in background corrected counts was determined in each of three anatomic regions. The normal range for regional radionuclide ejection fraction was determined in 10 patients with normal contrast ventriculograms and without obstructive coronary artery disease at coronary arteriography. Regional ejection fraction was compared with percent segmental axis shortening and extent of akinetic segments in corresponding regions of the contrast ventriculogram. Radionuclide and roentgenographic methods were in agreement as to the presence or absence of abnormal wall motion in 83 of 99 left ventricular regions (84%) in 33 patients evaluated prospectively. Comparison of regional ejection fraction demonstrated significant differences between regions with roentgenographically determined normokinesis hypokinesis, and akinesis. We conclude that the left ventricular regional ejection fraction provides a reliable quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular performance.

  16. Ejection and Lofting of Dust from Hypervelocity Impacts on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute fine-grained regolith dust across the surfaces of planetary bodies. The ejecta mass-velocity distribution controls the location and emplacement of these materials. The current flux of material falling on the moon is dominated by small bolides and should cause frequent impacts that eject dust at high speeds. For example, approximately 25 LCROSS-sized (~20-30m diameter) craters are statistically expected to be formed naturally on the moon during any given earth year. When scaled to lunar conditions, the high-speed component of ejecta from hypervelocity impacts can be lofted for significant periods of time (as evidenced by the LCROSS mission results, c.f., Schultz, et al., 2010, Colaprete, et al., 2010). Even at laboratory scales, ejecta can approach orbital velocities; the higher impact speeds and larger projectiles bombarding the lunar surface may permit a significant portion of material to be launched closer to escape velocity. When these ejecta return to the surface (or encounter local topography), they impact at hundreds of meters per second or faster, thereby "scouring" the surface with low mass oblique impacts. While these high-speed ejecta represent only a small fraction of the total ejected mass, the lofting and subsequent ballistic return of this dust has the highest mobilization potential and will be directly applicable to the upcoming LADEE mission. A suite of hypervelocity impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). This study incorporates both canonical sand targets and air-fall pumice dust to simulate the mechanical properties of lunar regolith. The implementation of a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) technique permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging

  17. Effect of fluid and dietary sodium restriction in the management of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    D'Almeida, Karina Sanches Machado; Silva, Eneida Rejane Rabelo da; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Trojahn, Melina Maria; Barilli,Sofia Louise Santin; Mansson, Jessica V.; Biolo, Andreia; Rohde, Luis Eduardo Paim; Clausell, Nadine Oliveira; Silva, Luis Beck da

    2014-01-01

    Background Although half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal or near-normal ejection fraction and their prognosis differs little from that of patients with a reduced ejection fraction, the pathophysiology of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is still poorly understood, and its management poorly supported by clinical trials. Sodium and fluid restriction is the most common self-care measure prescribed to HF patients for management of congestive episodes. However, it...

  18. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Addis Ababa. University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(*drkvenkateswarlu@gmail.com, **berhanufk@yahoo.co.uk). ABSTRACT. In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra ...

  19. The fast shaving ejection for beam transfer from the CPS to the CERN 300 GeV machine

    CERN Document Server

    Bovet, Claude; Henny, L; Krusche, A; Plass, G

    1973-01-01

    A fast shaving ejection during 10 or 11 turns is the most promising system for the transfer of the CPS beam to the 300 GeV machine under construction for which the CPS is to be the injector. The scheme uses a pair of fast kickers which shift the beam in 10 or 11 steps across an electrostatic septum, located at a position where the amplitude function is increased to near 100m and the momentum compaction function reduced to near zero. A prototype system has been installed in the CPS and tests have been carried out at 10 GeV/c with bunched and adiabatically debunched beams. The stability of the operation, ejection efficiency, emittance and momentum spread of the ejected beam are of major interest and have been measured. The test results are in agreement with theory and no serious difficulties have been observed.

  20. Biomechanical investigation of thoracolumbar spine in different postures during ejection using a combined finite element and multi-body approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chengfei; Mo, Zhongjun; Tian, Shan; Wang, Lizhen; Fan, Jie; Liu, Songyang; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic response of a multi-segment model of the thoracolumbar spine and determine how the sitting posture affects the response under the impact of ejection. A nonlinear finite element model of the thoracolumbar-pelvis complex (T9-S1) was developed and validated. A multi-body dynamic model of a pilot was also constructed so an ejection seat restraint system could be incorporated into the finite element model. The distribution of trunk mass on each vertebra was also considered in the model. Dynamics analysis showed that ejection impact induced obvious axial compression and anterior flexion of the spine, which may contribute to spinal injuries. Compared with a normal posture, the relaxed posture led to an increase in stress on the cortical wall, endplate, and intradiscal pressure of 43%, 10%, 13%, respectively, and accordingly increased the risk of inducing spinal injuries. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A detailed observation of the ejection and retraction of defense tissue acontia in sea anemone (Exaiptasia pallida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Julie; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Chen, Wan-Nan U; Li, Hsing-Hui; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Peng, Shao-En

    2017-01-01

    Acontia, located in the gastrovascular cavity of anemone, are thread-like tissue containing numerous stinging cells which serve as a unique defense tissue against predators of the immobile acontiarian sea anemone. Although its morphology and biological functions, such as defense and digestion, have been studied, the defense behavior and the specific events of acontia ejection and retraction are unclear. The aim of this study is to observe and record the detailed process of acontia control in anemones. Observations reveal that the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, possibly controls a network of body muscles and manipulates water pressure in the gastrovascular cavity to eject and retract acontia. Instead of resynthesizing acontia after each ejection, the retraction and reuse of acontia enables the anemone to respond quickly at any given time, thus increasing its overall survivability. Since the Exaiptasia anemone is an emerging model for coral biology, this study provides a foundation to further investigate the biophysics, neuroscience, and defense biology of this marine model organism.

  2. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    Full Text Available Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i motivation and its underlying function and, ii which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  3. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláček, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bartíková, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus) population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  4. Risk of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in Older Women After Contemporary Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Hirofumi; Petersen, Ivy A; Scott, Christopher G; Bailey, Kent R; Dunlay, Shannon M; Finley, Randi R; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Yan, Elizabeth; Redfield, Margaret M

    2017-04-11

    Cardiomyocytes are resistant to radiation. However, cardiac radiation exposure causes coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation, a perturbation implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and particularly HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Radiotherapy for breast cancer results in variable cardiac radiation exposure and may increase the risk of HF. We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident HF in 170 female residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (59 cases and 111 controls), who underwent contemporary (1998-2013) radiotherapy for breast cancer with computed tomography-assisted radiotherapy planning. Controls were matched to cases for age, tumor side, chemotherapy use, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Mean cardiac radiation dose (MCRD) in each patient was calculated from the patient's computed tomography images and radiotherapy plan. Mean age at radiotherapy was 69±9 years. Of HF cases, 38 (64%) had EF≥50% (HFpEF), 18 (31%) had EFradiotherapy to HF was 5.8±3.4 years. The odds of HF was higher in patients with a history of ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. The MCRD was 2.5 Gy (range, 0.2-13.1 Gy) and higher in cases (3.3±2.7 Gy) than controls (2.1±2.0 Gy; P=0.004). The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for HF per log MCRD was 9.1 (3.4-24.4) for any HF, 16.9 (3.9-73.7) for HFpEF, and 3.17 (0.8-13.0) for HF with reduced EF. The increased odds of any HF or HFpEF with increasing MCRD remained significant after adjustment for HF risk factors and in sensitivity analyses matching by cancer stage rather than tumor side. Only 18.6% of patients experienced new or recurrent ischemic events between radiotherapy and the onset of HF. The relative risk of HFpEF increases with increasing cardiac radiation exposure during contemporary conformal breast cancer radiotherapy. These data emphasize the importance of radiotherapy techniques that limit MCRD during breast cancer treatment. Moreover, these data provide

  5. Evidence for a current sheet forming in the wake of a coronal mass ejection from multi-viewpoint coronagraph observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.; Vourlidas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Ray-like features observed by coronagraphs in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are sometimes interpreted as the white light counterparts of current sheets (CSs) produced by the eruption. The 3D geometry of these ray-like features is largely unknown and its knowledge should clarify their association to the CS and place constraints on CME physics and coronal conditions. Aims: If these rays are related to field relaxation behind CMEs, therefore representing current sheets, then they should be aligned to the CME axis. With this study we test these important implications for the first time. Methods: An example of such a post-CME ray was observed by various coronagraphs, including these of the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric investigation (SECCHI) onboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft and the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The ray was observed in the aftermath of a CME which occurred on 9 April 2008. The twin STEREO spacecraft were separated by about 48° on that day. This significant separation combined with a third “eye” view supplied by LASCO allow for a truly multi-viewpoint observation of the ray and of the CME. We applied 3D forward geometrical modeling to the CME and to the ray as simultaneously viewed by SECCHI-A and B and by SECCHI-A and LASCO, respectively. Results: We found that the ray can be approximated by a rectangular slab, nearly aligned with the CME axis, and much smaller than the CME in both terms of thickness and depth (≈0.05 and 0.15 R⊙ respectively). The ray electron density and temperature were substantially higher than their values in the ambient corona. We found that the ray and CME are significantly displaced from the associated post-CME flaring loops. Conclusions: The properties and location of the ray are fully consistent with the expectations of the standard CME theories for post-CME current

  6. Randomized Clinical Trials of Gene Transfer for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, William F; Hammond, H Kirk

    2017-05-01

    Despite improvements in drug and device therapy for heart failure, hospitalization rates and mortality have changed little in the past decade. Randomized clinical trials using gene transfer to improve function of the failing heart are the focus of this review. Four randomized clinical trials of gene transfer in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have been published. Each enrolled patients with stable symptomatic HFrEF and used either intracoronary delivery of a virus vector or endocardial injection of a plasmid. The initial CUPID trial randomized 14 subjects to placebo and 25 subjects to escalating doses of adeno-associated virus type 1 encoding sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (AAV1.SERCA2a). AAV1.SERCA2a was well tolerated, and the high-dose group met a 6 month composite endpoint. In the subsequent CUPID-2 study, 243 subjects received either placebo or the high dose of AAV1.SERCA2a. AAV1.SERCA2a administration, while safe, failed to meet the primary or any secondary endpoints. STOP-HF used plasmid endocardial injection of stromal cell-derived factor-1 to promote stem-cell recruitment. In a 93-subject trial of patients with ischemic etiology heart failure, the primary endpoint (symptoms and 6 min walk distance) failed, but subgroup analyses showed improvements in subjects with the lowest ejection fractions. A fourth trial randomized 14 subjects to placebo and 42 subjects to escalating doses of adenovirus-5 encoding adenylyl cyclase 6 (Ad5.hAC6). There were no safety concerns, and patients in the two highest dose groups (combined) showed improvements in left ventricular function (left ventricular ejection fraction and -dP/dt). The safety data from four randomized clinical trials of gene transfer in patients with symptomatic HFrEF suggest that this approach can be conducted with acceptable risk, despite invasive delivery techniques in a high-risk population. Additional trials are necessary before the approach can be endorsed for clinical

  7. Improvement of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction by Baroreflex Activation Therapy in a Young Man with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Marcel; Fritz, Thorsten; Madershahian, Navid; Pfister, Roman; Reuter, Hannes

    2017-12-12

    The progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is promoted by sympathovagal imbalance. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) by the electrical stimulation of baroreceptors at the carotid sinus significantly improved exercise capacity and NT-proBNP levels in a randomized trial; however, no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) between groups was found. Here, we report the case of a 30-year-old man with a long history of dilated cardiomyopathy and severely reduced LV-EF despite optimal medical therapy, who was treated with BAT since October 2014 and showed a remarkable improvement in both symptoms and LV-EF under this treatment.

  8. EVIDENCE OF POSTERUPTION RECONNECTION ASSOCIATED WITH CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.; Odstracil, D.; Pizzo, V. J.; Webb, D. F.

    2002-01-01

    Using a coupled 2.5-dimensional, time-dependent MHD model of the solar corona and inner heliosphere, we have simulated the eruption and evolution of a coronal mass ejection containing a flux rope all the way from the Sun to 1 AU. Although idealized, we find that the simulation reproduces many generic features of magnetic clouds. In this paper we report on a new, intriguing aspect of these comparisons. Specifically, the results suggest that jetted outflow, driven by posteruptive reconnection underneath the flux rope, occurs and may remain intact out to 1 AU and beyond. We present an example of a magnetic cloud with precisely these signatures and show that the velocity perturbations are consistent with reconnection outflow. We suggest that other velocity and/or density enhancements observed trailing magnetic clouds may be signatures of such reconnection and, in some cases, may not be associated with prominence material, as has previously been suggested.

  9. Natriuretic peptides in the monitoring of anthracycline induced reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Lassen, Ulrik; Bie, Peter

    2005-01-01

    peptide (N-ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)) for monitoring and predicting anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity using radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) measurements as reference. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 107 consecutive patients receiving anthracycline as part...... of their chemotherapy for malignant disease were studied. Plasma concentrations of the peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay and EF by radionuclide cardiography. For reduced EF values, i.e. below 0.50 a fairly strong correlation was found between N-ANP or BNP and EF. Of 48 patients with serial EF and peptide...... measurements, 19% showed a significant EF decrease (>0.10) and ended with a final EF value below 0.50. Baseline EF was no predictor of a change in EF during treatment. Neither baseline levels of N-ANP or BNP nor a change in the same variables during therapy were predictive of a change in EF. CONCLUSIONS...

  10. On the 3-D reconstruction of Coronal Mass Ejections using coronagraph data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mierla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronal Mass ejections (CMEs are enormous eruptions of magnetized plasma expelled from the Sun into the interplanetary space, over the course of hours to days. They can create major disturbances in the interplanetary medium and trigger severe magnetic storms when they collide with the Earth's magnetosphere. It is important to know their real speed, propagation direction and 3-D configuration in order to accurately predict their arrival time at the Earth. Using data from the SECCHI coronagraphs onboard the STEREO mission, which was launched in October 2006, we can infer the propagation direction and the 3-D structure of such events. In this review, we first describe different techniques that were used to model the 3-D configuration of CMEs in the coronagraph field of view (up to 15 R⊙. Then, we apply these techniques to different CMEs observed by various coronagraphs. A comparison of results obtained from the application of different reconstruction algorithms is presented and discussed.

  11. Medical treatment of hypertension in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Richard G; Deedwania, Prakash

    2013-12-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) has become an increasingly common problem, accounting for as many as half of all diagnoses of heart failure. Hypertension has been shown to be a major risk factor for the development of HPEF, and the treatment of hypertension is key to both preventing the development of HFPEF as well as mitigating its impact on our health care system. While numerous studies have looked at using various classes of antihypertensive medications to treat HFPEF, there are still no well validated treatment strategies which have shown a significant mortality benefit. As a result, when choosing an antihypertensive medication to treat or prevent HFPEF, it is important to tailor the choice of antihypertensive medication to an individual patient's specific symptoms and comorbidities.

  12. Urinary Proteomics Pilot Study for Biomarker Discovery and Diagnosis in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Kasper; Bosselmann, Helle Skovmand; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Background Biomarker discovery and new insights into the pathophysiology of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) may emerge from recent advances in high-throughput urinary proteomics. This could lead to improved diagnosis, risk stratification and management of HFrEF. Methods...... to determine a vast array of HFrEF-related urinary peptide biomarkers which might help improving our understanding and diagnosis of heart failure.......EF103 very accurately (area under the curve, AUC = 0.972) discriminated between HFrEF patients (N = 94, sensitivity = 93.6%) and control individuals with and without impaired renal function and hypertension (N = 552, specificity = 92.9%). Interestingly, HFrEF103 showed low sensitivity (12...

  13. Loss of cabin pressure in Canadian Forces ejection seat aircraft, 1962-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C J

    1984-12-01

    A review of all aircraft accidents and incidents in the Canadian Forces over the last 20 years (1962-1982) has been carried out. There have been 47 cases of serious loss of cabin pressurization in ejection seat equipped aircraft. Altitudes varied from 15,000 to 54,000 ft (4,572-16,459 m). No one aircraft appears to be more vulnerable. The most common cause was problems with the canopy seal (25%). There were three cases of hypoxia and two cases of decompression sickness. No deaths or permanent injuries occurred. Loss of pressurization is an extremely low, but definite risk to the pilot and aeromedical training with practical demonstration in the hypobaric chamber should continue.

  14. Solar wind composition from sector boundary crossings and coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Geiss, J.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) on board the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft, average abundances of He-4, He-3, O, Ne, Si, and Fe have been determined over extended periods. In this paper the abundances of He-4, O, Ne, Si, and Mg obtained by the ICI in the region of sector boundary crossings (SBCs), magnetic clouds and bidirectional streaming events (BDSs) are compared with the average abundances. Both magnetic clouds and BDSs are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). No variation of abundance is seen to occur at SBCs except for helium, as has already been observed. In CME-related material, the abundance of neon appears to be high and variable, in agreement with recent analysis of spectroscopic observations of active regions. We find that our observations can be correlated with the magnetic topology in the corona.

  15. Varying effects of recommended treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marius Mark; Lewinter, Christian; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the treatment effects of recommended drugs and devices on key clinical outcomes for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) listed in the 2012 HF guideline from the European Society of Cardiology...... as well as the 2013 HF guideline from the American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association were evaluated for use in the meta-analysis. RCTs written in English evaluating recommended drugs and devices for the treatment of patients with HFREF were included. Meta-analyses, based...... on the outcomes of all-cause mortality and hospitalization because of HF, were performed with relative risk ratio as the effect size. In the identified 47 RCTs, patients were on average 63 years old and 22% were female. Drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, beta-blockers, cardiac...

  16. The orbit's evolution of particles ejected from the surface of Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, Svetlana; Lupovka, Valery

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction It is known that all giant planets have ring systems. Generally there are faint rings, such as "gossamer rings" of Jupiter. One of the basic theories of faint's origin of rings is their formation from the dust ejected in collisions of meteorite material with the natural satellites. Thus, a question of possible existence of Mars's dust rings arises. Mars has two natural satellites, which are subjected to bombardment. Evidences of this are impact craters of different sizes that cover the surface of both satellites. 2. Methods To test the theory, a calculation of the movement of simulated particles, which could be ejected from the surface of Phobos by meteorite impact, was made. The initial coordinates of 650 particles on Phobos surface were simulated using regular grid 10° × 10°. Uniform distribution of the velocity was set to the absolute value in the range of 0.5 km/s to 3 km/sec; direction of the velocity vector was assigned randomly. In this study effect of the gravitational attraction of the Sun, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Phobos and Deimos was taken into account as an attraction of the central mass. Using software package for orbital dynamic MERCURY6 [1] - an integration of the equations of motion of particles was performed using Everhart method with a Radau spacing of the 15th order [2]. 3. Results Motion of 650 particles was considered at the time interval of 10 000 years. As a result of calculation: 202 of the particles (31.1%) returned to Phobos; 132 of the particles (20.3%) fell to Mars; 173 particles (26.6%) had a hyperbolic orbit; 143 particles rotated on their orbits around Mars, and they represent 22.0% of the total number of simulated particles. The orbits of the particles are elongated: eccentricity is within the range from 0.1 to 0.95; pericentric distance varies from 3 500 km to 48 100 km; respectively apocenteric distance is from 9000 to 421 400 km. In the space, orbits are inclined to the ecliptic from 1 to 73 degrees, so

  17. Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a Pollutant Ejected by an External Source into a Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a channel. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation, and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum and pollutant concentration are obtained. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, skin friction, and wall mass transfer rate for various parametric values. The model can be a useful tool for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water body.

  18. Risk factors for readmission to hospital in adult patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Inge; Larsen, Palle; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on risk factors associated with hospital readmission at different time points within the first year after heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients suffering from HF ...... with reduced ejection fraction (EF).More specifically, the question is: what are the risk factors for the prediction of hospital readmission within seven, 15, 30, 60, 90, 180 and 365 days of discharge in hospitalized patients with HF with reduced EF aged 18 years or older?......REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on risk factors associated with hospital readmission at different time points within the first year after heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients suffering from HF...

  19. Late ventricular potentials in chronic heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Dushina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: More than half of patients with chronic heart failure have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. It has been found that sudden cardiac death is more frequent in this patient category. A reliable and easily available marker is needed that would predict the death outcome with a high probability. The use of the late ventricular potentials for this purpose could be reasonable.Aim: To assess the prevalence of the late ventricular potential and their association with the structural and functional parameters of the myocardium in patients with early stages of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.Materials and methods: We examined 77 patients with chronic heart failure (grade I to IIА, functional class I to III with preserved ejection fraction (> 50%, aged 47 to 77 years (mean ± SD, 59.7 ± 7.8 years. Echocardiography (SonoScape 8000 and Vivid 3 at М-, В- and Doppler modes was performed in all patients. Ventricular ectopic activity and late ventricular potentials were registered during 24- hour ECG monitoring (Cardiotekhnika, INKART, St. Petersburg.Results: Late ventricular potentials were found in 13% (10 of 77 of patients. The following correlations were found in patients with concentric hypertrophy (n = 53: between the duration of the filtered QRS (TotORSF and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (r = 0.27, p = 0.049, TotORSF and the interventricular septum thickness (r = 0.28, p = 0.04, TotORSF and the left ventricular myocardial mass (r = 0.35, p = 0.01, mean square magnitude of fluctuations within the last 40 ms of ORS (RMS40 and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (r = -0.42, p < 0.01, RMS40 and the left ventricular end-systolic diameter (r = -0.37, p < 0.01. In the patients with eccentric hypertrophy (n = 14, the following correlations were found: between RMS40 and the left ventricular myocardial mass index (r = -0.77, p < 0.01, between duration

  20. Fabrication and Application of Mono-sized Spherical Micro Particles by Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel technology called pulsated orifice ejection method(POEM and used for preparing mono-sized and high-precision spherical micro particles was introduced in this article. The working principle of the technique was illustrated and it was in two modes:low-melting point diaphragm mode and high-melting point rod mode, depending on the different melting points of materials. The particles prepared by POEM have the advantages of mono-sized, uniform and controllable particle size, high sphericity, and consistent thermal history. By introducing the application of particles prepared by this method, showing the huge application prospects of this technology in electronic packaging, bioengineering, micro-fabrication, rapid solidification analysis of metal droplets, additive manufacturing and so on.With the development of POEM, this technology is predicted to have wider prospects due to its unique characteristics.

  1. Effect of calf stimulation on milk ejection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjøstein

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish methods for stimulating the milk ejection in reindeer kept for milking purpose. Calves were used to stimulate milk does’ let down. In experiment 1, five does were allowed olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with their calves during milking, whereas four does were milked in isolation. The treatment of the groups was alternated every day during the eight days experiment. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with the calf did not influence the doe’s milk yield. The milk yield varied significantly between individual females within treatment (P < 0.01. In experiment 2, the calves were allowed to suckle their mother for a short period (two seconds prior to milking being initiated. The same alternate design as in experiment 1 with groups consisting of three and two animals respectively was used, and the experiment lasted four days. The pre-suckling stimulation significantly increased the milk ejection measured as milk yield (P < 0.05, and the residual milk after the treatment was negectible. Moreover, the milk ejection varied between individual females within treatment (P < 0.05. We conclude that it is possible to achieve a complete milk removal by machine milking after the does have been pre-stimulated by suckling of calves. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with calves during milking failed to influence the milk ejection in this study. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut ulike metoder for å stimulere nedgivninga av melk hos rein. Kalvene ble tatt i bruk for å stimulere nedgivninga. I forsøk 1 hadde simla lyd-, lukt og synskontakt med kalven mens melkingen pågikk. Vi benyttet et ”switch back design” der fem simler hadde kontakt med kalven under melkingen og fire ble melket uten kontakt. Behandlingen ble byttet om annenhver dag i de åtte dagene fors

  2. Evidence for shock generation in the solar corona in the absence of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eselevich, V. G.; Eselevich, M. V.; Zimovets, I. V.; Sharykin, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    The solar event SOL2012-10-23T03:13, which was associated with a X1.8 flare without an accompanying coronal mass ejection (CME) and with a Type II radio burst, is analyzed. A method for constructing the spatial and temporal profiles of the difference brightness detected in the AIA/SDOUVand EUV channels is used together with the analysis of the Type II radio burst. The formation and propagation of a region of compression preceded by a collisional shock detected at distances R shock could be due to a transient (impulsive) action exerted on the surrounding plasma by an eruptive, high-temperature magnetic rope. The initial instability and eruption of this rope could be initiated by emerging magnetic flux, and its heating from magnetic reconnection. The cessation of the eruption of the rope could result from its interaction with surrounding magnetic structures (coronal loops).

  3. Effect of Selective Heart Rate Slowing in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nikhil; Sivaswamy, Nadiya; Mahmod, Masliza; Yavari, Arash; Rudd, Amelia; Singh, Satnam; Dawson, Dana K; Francis, Jane M; Dwight, Jeremy S; Watkins, Hugh; Neubauer, Stefan; Frenneaux, Michael; Ashrafian, Houman

    2015-11-03

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality but is currently refractory to therapy. Despite limited evidence, heart rate reduction has been advocated, on the basis of physiological considerations, as a therapeutic strategy in HFpEF. We tested the hypothesis that heart rate reduction improves exercise capacity in HFpEF. We conducted a randomized, crossover study comparing selective heart rate reduction with the If blocker ivabradine at 7.5 mg twice daily versus placebo for 2 weeks each in 22 symptomatic patients with HFpEF who had objective evidence of exercise limitation (peak oxygen consumption at maximal exercise [o2 peak] heart rate compared with placebo in the HFpEF (107 versus 129 bpm; Pheart rate reduction with ivabradine for improving symptoms in a HFpEF population characterized by exercise limitation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02354573. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Assessment of cardiac wall motion with the ejection fraction image: a comparison with contrast left ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Tonami, N.; Bunko, H.; Maeda, T.; Hisada, K.; Asanoi, H.; Ikeda, T.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty patients with ischemic heart disease were studied with biplane contrast left ventriculography and gated bloob pool scans. An ejection fraction (EF) image was calculated from each gated blood pool scan. The EF image and contrast ventriculograms were divided into three regions and seven segments respectively. The sites of asynergy observed in each study were compared. Segments two, three and six of the contrast ventriculogram corresponded to the anteroseptal and inferoapical regions of the EF image, but it was difficult to differentiate between these segments on the EF image. Segments three and four corresponded to the inferoapical region and segments five and seven corresponded to the posterolateral region. Diffuse asynergy with a low EF (less than 30%) causes a large defect on the EF image. The mean regional EF obtained from the EF image correlated well with the EF calculated from the left ventricular volume curve (n . 50, r . 0.94).

  5. Validation of a digital videodensitometric program analysis for measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaux, J.C.; Angel, C.Y.; Pernes, J.M.; Raynaud, A.; Brenot, Ph.; Vuthien, H.; Letienne, G.

    1987-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) function was studied in 30 patients using digital subtraction angiography by the intravenous approach. Each ventriculogram was processed with a specific video-densitometric analysis to determine LV ejection fraction. The program was verified in an experimental set-up consisting of nine latex balloons filled with contrast medium. Its validation has been established by comparing videodensitometric results with classical results supplied by geometric methods. A good correlation was obtained (r 0.9449) and, furthermore, with experimental models, videodensitometric analysis seemed to be more accurate than geometric analysis. Digital videodensitometry appears to be a valuable and accurate method for quantifying LV function, and a promising technique for determination of the real volumes.

  6. Observing the Unobservable: identification and Characterization of Stealth Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Huys, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis we study stealth CMEs: solar coronal mass ejections that are clearly observed in coronagraph data but do not show significant low-coronal or on-disk signatures of eruption. This lack of coronal signatures makes it challenging to determine their source region and predict their trajectory throughout interplanetary space. Combining PROBA2/SWAP data with that of other instruments, we identify 40 such events and investigate their properties both observationally and statistically. We find that our sample size is insufficient to determine the scaling law for the CME angular width reliably. We therefore analyze in general what the effect is of a limited sample size on the estimation of a power law parameter. Armed with this knowledge, we return to our sample of stealth CMEs, re-analyze the power law for their angular widths and compare the results to the power law found for normal CMEs.

  7. Observing the Unobservable: Identification and Characterisation of Stealth Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Huys, Elke; Seaton, Daniel B.; Poedts, Stefaan; Berghmans, David

    2016-05-01

    I will present my doctoral thesis research on stealth CMEs: solar coronal mass ejections that are clearly observed in coronagraph data but do not show significant low-coronal or on-disk signatures of eruption. This lack of coronal signatures makes it challenging to determine their source region and predict their trajectory throughout interplanetary space. We identified 40 such events and investigated their properties both observationally and statistically. We found that our sample size was insufficient to determine the scaling law for the CME angular width reliably. We therefore analyzed in general what the effect is of a limited sample size on the estimation of a power law parameter. Armed with this knowledge, we returned to our sample of stealth CMEs, re-analyzed the power law for their angular widths and compared the results to the power law found for normal CMEs.

  8. Left Atrial Structure and Function in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A RELAX Substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique A Abbasi

    Full Text Available Given the emerging recognition of left atrial structure and function as an important marker of disease in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-pEF, we investigated the association between left atrial volume and function with markers of disease severity and cardiac structure in HF-pEF. We studied 100 patients enrolled in the PhosphdiesteRasE-5 Inhibition to Improve CLinical Status and EXercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure (RELAX trial who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and blood collection before randomization. Maximal left atrial volume index (LAVi; N = 100, left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF; N = 99; including passive and active components (LAEFP, LAEFA; N = 80, 79, respectively were quantified by CMR. After adjustment for multiple testing, maximal LAVi was only associated with age (ρ = 0.39, transmitral filling patterns (medial E/e' ρ = 0.43, and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP; ρ = 0.65; all p<0.05. Lower LAEF was associated with older age, higher transmitral E/A ratio and higher NT-proBNP. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were not associated with left atrial structure or function. After adjustment for age, sex, transmitral E/A ratio, CMR LV mass, LV ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance, NT-proBNP remained associated with maximal LAVi (β = 0.028, p = 0.0007 and total LAEF (β = -0.033, p = 0.001. Passive and active LAEF were most strongly associated with age and NT-proBNP, but not gas exchange or other markers of ventricular structure or filling properties. Left atrial volume and emptying function are associated most strongly with NT-proBNP and diastolic filling properties, but not significantly with gas exchange, in HFpEF. Further research to explore the relevance of left atrial structure and function in HF-pEF is warranted.

  9. Cardiac I123-MIBG Correlates Better than Ejection Fraction with Symptoms Severity in Systolic Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Sandra M.; Moscavitch, Samuel D.; Carestiato, Larissa R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Felix, Renata M. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ronaldo C.; Messias, Leandro R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Jader C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nóbrega, Antonio Cláudio L.; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco, E-mail: ctinocom@cardiol.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    The association of autonomic activation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure functional class is poorly understood. Our aim was to correlate symptom severity with cardiac sympathetic activity, through iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy and with LVEF in systolic heart failure (HF) patients without previous beta-blocker treatment. Thirty-one patients with systolic HF, class I to IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA), without previous beta-blocker treatment, were enrolled and submitted to {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy and to radionuclide ventriculography for LVEF determination. The early and delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio and the washout rate (WR) were performed. According with symptom severity, patients were divided into group A, 13 patients in NYHA class I/II, and group B, 18 patients in NYHA class III/IV. Compared with group B patients, group A had a significantly higher LVEF (25% ± 12% in group B vs. 32% ± 7% in group A, p = 0.04). Group B early and delayed H/M ratios were lower than group A ratios (early H/M 1.49 ± 0.15 vs. 1.64 ± 0.14, p = 0.02; delayed H/M 1.39 ± 0.13 vs. 1.58 ± 0.16, p = 0.001, respectively). WR was significantly higher in group B (36% ± 17% vs. 30% ± 12%, p= 0.04). The variable that showed the best correlation with NYHA class was the delayed H/M ratio (r= -0.585; p=0.001), adjusted for age and sex. This study showed that cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG correlates better than ejection fraction with symptom severity in systolic heart failure patients without previous beta-blocker treatment.

  10. Renal denervation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (RDT-PEF): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh C; Rosen, Stuart D; Hayward, Carl; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Smith, Gillian C; Wage, Ricardo R; Bailey, James; Rajani, Ronak; Lindsay, Alistair C; Pennell, Dudley J; Underwood, S Richard; Prasad, Sanjay K; Mohiaddin, Raad; Gibbs, J Simon R; Lyon, Alexander R; Di Mario, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Attenuating the SNS with renal denervation (RDT) might be helpful and there are no data currently in humans with HFpEF. In this single-centre, randomized, open-controlled study we included 25 patients with HFpEF [preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, left atrial (LA) dilatation or LV hypertrophy and raised B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or echocardiographic assessment of filling pressures]. Patients were randomized (2:1) to RDT with the Symplicity™ catheter or continuing medical therapy. The primary success criterion was not met in that there were no differences between groups at 12 months for Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 ) on exercise, BNP, E/e', LA volume index or LV mass index. A greater proportion of patients improved at 3 months in the RDT group with respect to VO2 peak (56% vs. 13%, P = 0.025) and E/e' (31% vs. 13%, P = 0.04). Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate was comparable between groups. Two patients required plain balloon angioplasty during the RDT procedure to treat renal artery wall oedema. This study was terminated early because of difficulties in recruitment and was underpowered to detect whether RD improved the endpoints of quality of life, exercise function, biomarkers, and left heart remodelling. The procedure was safe in patients with HFpEF, although two patients did require intraprocedure renal artery dilatation. © 2016 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Comparison of Ejection Events in the Jet and Accretion Disc Outflows in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Markowtiz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on sub-pc scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43 GHz VLBA images to track the jet knots ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of MHD models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiation throughput of AGNs, radiation pressure should also be taken into account. From the comparison with the long-term 2-10 keV RXTE light curve we find that the UFOs are preferentially detected during periods of increasing flux. We also find the possibility to place the UFOs within the known X-ray dips-jet ejection cycles, which has been shown to be a strong proof of the disc-jet connection, in analogue with stellar-mass black holes. However, given the limited number of observations presently available, these relations are only tentative and additional spectral monitoring is needed to test them conclusively.

  12. Delayed Repolarization Underlies Ventricular Arrhythmias in Rats With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hyung; Zhang, Rui; Kilfoil, Peter J; Gallet, Romain; de Couto, Geoffrey; Bresee, Catherine; Goldhaber, Joshua I; Marbán, Eduardo; Cingolani, Eugenio

    2017-11-21

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents approximately half of heart failure, and its incidence continues to increase. The leading cause of mortality in HFpEF is sudden death, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) from 7 weeks of age to induce HFpEF (n=38). Rats fed a normal-salt diet (0.3% NaCl) served as controls (n=13). Echocardiograms were performed to assess systolic and diastolic function from 14 weeks of age. HFpEF-verified and control rats underwent programmed electrical stimulation. Corrected QT interval was measured by surface ECG. The mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) were probed by optical mapping, whole-cell patch clamp to measure action potential duration and ionic currents, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to investigate changes in ion channel expression. After 7 weeks of a high-salt diet, 31 of 38 rats showed diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction along with signs of heart failure and hence were diagnosed with HFpEF. Programmed electric stimulation demonstrated increased susceptibility to VA in HFpEF rats ( P hearts demonstrated prolonged action potentials ( P hearts. Susceptibility to VA was markedly increased in rats with HFpEF. Underlying abnormalities include QT prolongation, delayed repolarization from downregulation of potassium currents, and multiple reentry circuits during VA. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that potassium current downregulation leads to abnormal repolarization in HFpEF, which in turn predisposes to VA and sudden cardiac death. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. 3D Polarized Imaging of Coronal Mass Ejections: Chirality of a CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; de Koning, C. A.; Elliott, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a direct polarimetric determination of the chirality of a coronal mass ejection (CME), using the physics of Thomson scattering applied to synoptic polarized images from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories/COR2 coronagraph. We confirmed the determination using in situ magnetic field measurements of the same CME with the ACE spacecraft. CME chirality is related to the helicity ejected from the solar corona along with the mass and field entrained in the CME. It is also important to prediction of the space-weather-relevant Z component of the CME magnetic field. Hence, remote measurement of CME chirality is an important step toward both understanding CME physics and predicting geoeffectiveness of individual CMEs. The polarimetric properties of Thomson scattering are well known and can, in principle, be used to measure the 3D structure of imaged objects in the solar corona and inner heliosphere. However, reduction of that principle to practice has been limited by the twin difficulties of background subtraction and the signal-to-noise ratio in coronagraph data. Useful measurements of the 3D structure require relative photometry at a few percent precision level in each linear polarization component of the K corona. This corresponds to a relative photometric precision of order 10-4 in direct images of the sky before subtraction of the F corona and related signal. Our measurement was enabled by recent developments in signal processing, which enable a better separation of the photometric signal from noise in the synoptic COR2 data. We discuss the relevance of this demonstration measurement to future instrument requirements, and to the future measurements of 3D structures in CMEs and other solar wind features.

  14. Parametric studies on containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silde, A.; Lindholm, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a Nordic BWR are studied parametrically with the CONTAIN and the MELCOR codes. The work is part of the Nordic RAK-2 project. The containment analyses were divided into two categories according to composition of the discharged debris: metallic and oxidic debris cases. In the base case with highly metallic debris, all sources from the reactor coolant system to the containment were based on the MELCOR/BH calculation. In the base case with the oxidic debris, the source data was specified assuming that {approx} 15% of the whole core material inventory and 34,000 kg of saturated water was discharged from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during 30 seconds. In this case, the debris consisted mostly of oxides. The highest predicted containment pressure peaks were about 8.5 bar. In the scenarios with highly metallic debris source, very high gas temperature of about 1900 K was predicted in the pedestal, and about 1400 K in the upper drywell. The calculations with metallic debris were sensititive to model parameters, like the particle size and the parameters, which control the chemical reaction kinetics. In the scenarios with oxidic debris source, the predicted pressure peaks were comparable to the cases with the metallic debris source. The maximum gas temperatures (about 450-500 K) in the containment were, however, significantly lower than in the respective metallic debris case. The temperatures were also insensitive to parametric variations. In addition, one analysis was performed with the MELCOR code for benchmarking of the MELCOR capabilities against the more detailed CONTAIN code. The calculations showed that leak tightness of the containment penetrations could be jeopardized due to high temperature loads, if a high pressure melt ejection occurred during a severe accident. Another consequence would be an early containment venting. (au). 28 refs.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORONAL MASS EJECTION CLOUD RECONSTRUCTED FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, L.; Gan, W. Q. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Inhester, B.; Wei, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str.2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Zhang, T. L. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 Graz (Austria); Wang, M. Y., E-mail: lfeng@pmo.ac.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200030 Shanghai (China)

    2012-05-20

    The propagation properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are crucial to predict its geomagnetic effect. A newly developed three-dimensional (3D) mask fitting reconstruction method using coronagraph images from three viewpoints has been described and applied to the CME ejected on 2010 August 7. The CME's 3D localization, real shape, and morphological evolution are presented. Due to its interaction with the ambient solar wind, the morphology of this CME changed significantly in the early phase of evolution. Two hours after its initiation, it was expanding almost self-similarly. The CME's 3D localization is quite helpful to link remote sensing observations to in situ measurements. The investigated CME was propagating to Venus with its flank just touching STEREO B. Its corresponding interplanetary CME in the interplanetary space shows a possible signature of a magnetic cloud with a preceding shock in Venus Express (VEX) observations, while from STEREO B only a shock is observed. We have calculated three principal axes for the reconstructed 3D CME cloud. The orientation of the major axis is, in general, consistent with the orientation of a filament (polarity inversion line) observed by SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI. The flux rope axis derived by the Minimal Variance Analysis from VEX indicates a radial-directed axis orientation. It might be that locally only the leg of the flux rope passed through VEX. The height and speed profiles from the Sun to Venus are obtained. We find that the CME speed possibly had been adjusted to the speed of the ambient solar wind flow after leaving the COR2 field of view and before arriving at Venus. A southward deflection of the CME from the source region is found from the trajectory of the CME geometric center. We attribute it to the influence of the coronal hole where the fast solar wind emanated from.

  16. Changes in cisternal compartment based on stage of lactation and time since milk ejection in the udder of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, G; Ayadi, M; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2004-01-01

    between stages (early, 33.2%; mid, 23.1%; and late, 42.6%). In experiment 2, 7 cows were used to show return of milk from cisternal to alveolar compartments when milk ejection was induced without milking. Cisternal area was measured before (0 min) and after (3, 15, 30, and 60 min) an i.v. oxytocin (OT...

  17. Dementia-related adverse events in PARADIGM-HF and other trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Jane A; Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Inhibition of neprilysin, an enzyme degrading natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, is beneficial in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as shown in PARADIGM-HF which compared the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan with enalapril. As...

  18. SSMIR (Solid State Memory Instrumentation Recorder): A new approach to acquiring data during an aircraft seat/sled ejection sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, D. M.

    1985-04-01

    The current state of ejection seat/sled testing employs an Aydin/Vector Co., pulse code modulation/telemetry instrumentation package. While this system meets all channel/data rate requirements and has proven itself in field testing, some major deficiencies exist. Data turnaround is one drawback; up to several weeks are normally required to process and print out the results from any sled shot. A second major deficiency is the amount of data dropout that can occur. In an ejection seat test, orientation of the skull antenna or misalignment of sending and receiving antennas can result in loss of data. Current technology in data storage media and high speed controllers provides backup mode for data integrity and also permits faster data reduction. This paper summarizes an electrical/mechanical packaging design of a software controlled, nonvolatile data recording system which uses 8 megabits of bubble memory to provide 24 sec of data storage in parallel to the PCM/TM transmission. Preliminary laboratory bench testing of the Solid State Memory Instrumentation (SSMI) Recorder indicates that the bubble memory can withstand the high vibration g loads (20 Gs up to 2000 Hz) and environmental temperatures (85 C) encountered in ejection seat testing. Laboratory shock testing (ejection seat trainer) to 5 Gs has also been successful along with tower testing at the Naval Air Development Center to 25 Gs.

  19. Attempting to train a digital human model to reproduce human subject reach capabilities in an ejection seat aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehner, G.F.; Hudson, J.A.; Oudenhuijzen, A.

    2006-01-01

    From 1997 through 2002, the Air Force Research Lab and TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Business Unit Human Factors) were involved in a series of tests to quantify the accuracy of five Human Modeling Systems (HMSs) in determining accommodation limits of ejection seat aircraft. The results of these

  20. Effect of Metformin on Metabolites and Relation With Myocardial Infarct Size and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction After Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, Ruben N.; Kofink, Daniel; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Lipsic, Erik; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; van der Harst, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background-Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (ISZ) are key predictors of long-term survival after myocardial infarction (MI). However, little is known about the biochemical pathways driving LV dysfunction after MI. To identify novel biomarkers predicting post-MI LVEF and

  1. Can Skylarks Alauda arvensis discriminate a parasite nestling? Possible case of nestling Cuckoo Cuculus canorus ejection by its host parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegemann, Arne; Voesten, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus is an obligate brood parasite and many studies have dealt with egg rejection by host species. However, evidence for ejection of Cuckoo nestlings by host parents has not been reported. Here we describe an observation of a Skylark Alauda arvensis pair that probably

  2. Non-invasive measurement of stroke volume and left ventricular ejection fraction. Radionuclide cardiography compared with left ventricular cardioangiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J

    2011-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution or ...

  3. Clinical and prognostic effects of atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients with reduced and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Gerard C M; Rienstra, Michiel; Jaarsma, Trijntje; Voors, Adriaan A; van Gelder, Isabelle C; Hillege, Hans L; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in heart failure (HF), but few data regarding the prognostic relevance of AF are available in HF patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). We aimed to study the clinical impact of AF vs. sinus rhythm (SR) in stabilized HF patients

  4. 39. Speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction undergoing aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Abdelshafy

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: following AVR a significant improvement in LV myocardial strain both longitudinal and circumferential occurred. Strain analysis by 2D-STE can detect early and subtle changes in LV systolic function and might play a role in early intervention for severe AS with preserved ejection fraction.

  5. Post-ejection nest-desertion of common cuckoo hosts : a second defense mechanism or avoiding reduced reproductive success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Rosendaal, Erik C.; Boers, Myra; Zoelei, Aniko; Ban, Miklos; Komdeur, Jan; Soler, M.

    Hosts of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), an avian brood parasite, develop antiparasite defense mechanisms to increase their reproductive success. Ejection of the parasite egg and desertion of the parasitized nest are the most typical adaptations in response to brood parasitism, but nest

  6. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.

  7. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead–based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead–encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin–biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules. PMID:28393911

  8. Determining the Azimuthal Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections from Multi-Spacecraft Remote-Sensing Observations with STEREO SECCHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the Lagrangian L4 and L5 points. Subject headings: scattering — MHD — Sun: corona — Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) 1. introduction With the launch...to improve our understanding of CME physical param- eters . For example, Thernisien et al. (2009) used multi- spacecraft observations to determine the

  9. Global Longitudinal Strain Is a Superior Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Morten; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of global longitudinal strain (GLS) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients in relation to all-cause mortality. Background: Measurement of myocardial deformation by 2-dimensional speckle trackin...

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-02-28

    Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT ( P =0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P =0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P =0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake ( P =0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P =0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. URL: http

  11. RECURRENT STROKE IN THE WARFARIN VERSUS ASPIRIN IN REDUCED EJECTION FRACTION (WARCEF) TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullicino, Patrick M.; Qian, Min; Sacco, Ralph L.; Freudenberger, Ron; Graham, Susan; Teerlink, John R.; Mann, Douglas; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Lok, Dirk J.; Anker, Stefan D.; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Estol, Conrado J.; Levin, Bruce; Mohr, J.P.; Thompson, John L. P.; Homma, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose WARCEF randomized 2305 patients in sinus rhythm with ejection fraction (EF) ≤35% to warfarin (INR 2.0–3.5) or aspirin 325 mg. Warfarin reduced the incident ischemic stroke (IIS) hazard rate by 48% over aspirin in a secondary analysis. The IIS rate in heart failure (HF) is too low to warrant routine anticoagulation but epidemiologic studies show that prior stroke increases the stroke risk in HF. We here explore IIS rates in WARCEF patients with and without baseline stroke to look for risk factors for IIS and determine if a subgroup with an IIS rate high enough to give a clinically relevant stroke risk reduction can be identified. Methods We compared potential stroke risk factors between patients with baseline stroke and those without using the exact conditional score test for Poisson variables. We looked for risk factors for IIS, by comparing IIS rates between different risk factors. For EF we tried cutoff points of 10%, 15% and 20%. 15% was used as it was the highest EF that was associated with a significant increase in IIS rate. IIS and EF strata were balanced as to warfarin/aspirin assignment by the stratified randomized design. A multiple Poisson regression examined the simultaneous effects of all risk factors on IIS rate. IIS rates per hundred patient years (/100PY) were calculated in patient groups with significant risk factors. Missing values were assigned the modal value. Results Twenty of 248 (8.1%) patients with baseline stroke and 64 of 2048 (3.1%) without had IIS. IIS rate in patients with baseline stroke (2.37/100PY) was greater than patients without (0.89/100PY)(rate ratio 2.68, p<0.001). Fourteen of 219 (6.4%) patients with ejection fraction (EF)<15% and 70 of 2079 (3.4%) with EF ≥15% had IIS. In the multiple regression analysis stroke at baseline (p<0.001) and EF<15% vs. ≥15% (p=.005) remained significant predictors of IIS. IIS rate was 2.04/100PY in patients with EF<15% and 0.95/100PY in patients with EF ≥15% (p=0

  12. Magnetic field variations accompanying the filament eruption and the flare related to coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainshtein, V. G.; Egorov, Ya. I.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Field variations in the region of eruptive event of June 7, 2011, associated with the filament eruption (FE), flare, and coronal mass ejection are studied based on vector measurements of the photospheric magnetic field with the SDO/HMI instrument. Variations of the module (B), the radial (Br) and transverse (Bt) components of the magnetic induction, and the inclination angle (α) of field lines to the radial direction from the center of the Sun are analyzed. It is shown that the strongest changes of the field before the event were located near the base of the southeastern leg of the eruptive filament; after the beginning of the event, they were located in the CME flare region. It is suggested that the FE is associated with two episodes of strong and rapid field variations: before the beginning of the slow filament rise and before its sudden acceleration. For the first time, variations of the inclination angles of the field lines over time in different parts of the eruptive event are studied in detail. It was found that the inclination angles of the field lines decrease in the vicinity of its channel during the slow rise of the filament, and the inclination angles of the field lines increase sharply after the beginning of the flare in the flare region in the vicinity of the neutral line.

  13. Observations of the Coronal Mass Ejection with a Complex Acceleration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Kirichenko, A. S.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    We study the coronal mass ejection (CME) with a complex acceleration profile. The event occurred on 2009 April 23. It had an impulsive acceleration phase, an impulsive deceleration phase, and a second impulsive acceleration phase. During its evolution, the CME showed signatures of different acceleration mechanisms: kink instability, prominence drainage, flare reconnection, and a CME–CME collision. The special feature of the observations is the usage of the TESIS EUV telescope. The instrument could image the solar corona in the Fe 171 Å line up to a distance of 2 {R}ȯ from the center of the Sun. This allows us to trace the CME up to the LASCO/C2 field of view without losing the CME from sight. The onset of the CME was caused by kink instability. The mass drainage occurred after the kink instability. The mass drainage played only an auxiliary role: it decreased the CME mass, which helped to accelerate the CME. The first impulsive acceleration phase was caused by the flare reconnection. We observed the two-ribbon flare and an increase of the soft X-ray flux during the first impulsive acceleration phase. The impulsive deceleration and the second impulsive acceleration phases were caused by the CME–CME collision. The studied event shows that CMEs are complex phenomena that cannot be explained with only one acceleration mechanism. We should seek a combination of different mechanisms that accelerate CMEs at different stages of their evolution.

  14. Bright points and ejections observed on the sun by the KORONAS-FOTON instrument TESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2010-10-01

    Five-second observations of the solar corona carried out in the FeIX 171 Å line by the KORONAS-FOTON instrument TESIS are used to study the dynamics of small-scale coronal structures emitting in and around coronal bright points. The small-scale structures of the lower corona display complex dynamics similar to those of magnetic loops located at higher levels of the solar corona. Numerous detected oscillating structures with sizes below 10 000 km display oscillation periods from 50 to 350 s. The period distributions of these structures are different for P 150 s, which implies that different oscillation modes are excited at different periods. The small-scale structures generate numerous flare-like events with energies 1024-1026 erg (nanoflares) and with a spatial density of one event per arcsecond or more observed over an area of 4 × 1011 km2. Nanoflares are not associated with coronal bright points, and almost uniformly cover the solar disk in the observation region. The ejections of solar material from the coronal bright points demonstrate velocities of 80-110 km/s.

  15. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CORONAL MAGNETIC DECAY INDEX AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yan; Liu Chang; Jing Ju; Wang Haimin, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Numerical simulations suggest that kink and torus instabilities are two potential contributors to the initiation and prorogation of eruptive events. A magnetic parameter called the decay index (i.e., the coronal magnetic gradient of the overlying fields above the eruptive flux ropes) could play an important role in controlling the kinematics of eruptions. Previous studies have identified a threshold range of the decay index that distinguishes between eruptive and confined configurations. Here we advance the study by investigating if there is a clear correlation between the decay index and coronal mass ejection (CME) speed. Thirty-eight CMEs associated with filament eruptions and/or two-ribbon flares are selected using the H{alpha} data from the Global H{alpha} Network. The filaments and flare ribbons observed in H{alpha} associated with the CMEs help to locate the magnetic polarity inversion line, along which the decay index is calculated based on the potential field extrapolation using Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms as boundary conditions. The speeds of CMEs are obtained from the LASCO C2 CME catalog available online. We find that the mean decay index increases with CME speed for those CMEs with a speed below 1000 km s{sup -1} and stays flat around 2.2 for the CMEs with higher speeds. In addition, we present a case study of a partial filament eruption, in which the decay indices show different values above the erupted/non-erupted part.

  16. Aspects of the neuronal and endocrine components of reflex milk ejection in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlee, A J; Paisley, A C; O'Byrne, K T; Fairhall, K M; Robinson, I C; Fletcher, J

    1986-01-01

    Nursing behaviour and reflex milk ejection were studied over 257 suckling periods in 26 Californian rabbits. Detailed plasma profiles of oxytocin were obtained for 161 suckling periods in 16 animals. Plasma oxytocin was detected by radioimmunoassay in serial samples of 0.2 ml blood collected during nursing. Oxytocin titres were below the lower limit of the assay (5 pmol/l) before suckling, and started to rise at a rate of 2.8 +/- 0.8 (S.D.) pmol/l per s 10-30 s after the onset of suckling. Peak levels of hormone were 345 +/- 113 pmol/l and were attained towards the end of nursing. In 33 of these experiments simultaneous records of activity from oxytocin neurones were taken whilst chronically sampling the blood. Each neurone gave an average of seven bursts of neurosecretory activity in suckling. Onset of this bursting pattern of discharge began 5-24 s before the rise in plasma oxytocin was detected. Oxytocin neurone activity alone was monitored in a further 55 suckling periods in eight rabbits. A marked relationship between the duration of suckling period, milk yield, peak oxytocin levels and the length of neurosecretory bursts was demonstrated over the course of lactation. All four parameters increased in parallel from day 1 to reach maximal values on days 15-20 of lactation then started to wane until the doe ceased nursing her litter on days 25-27 of lactation.

  17. The impact of coronal mass ejection on the horizontal geomagnetic fields and the induced geoelectric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falayi, E. O.; Adebesin, B. O.; Bolaji, O. S.

    2018-02-01

    This work investigates the influence of coronal mass ejection (CME) on the time derivatives of horizontal geomagnetic and geoelectric fields, proxy parameters for identifying GICs. 16 events were identified for the year 2003 from the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft. Five of the events (May 29, June 9, October 28, October 29, and November 4) were extensively discussed over four magnetic observatories, were analyzed using the time derivatives of the horizontal geomagnetic (dH/dt) and geoelectric (EH) fields obtained from data of the INTERMAGNET network. It was observed that energy distributions of the wavelet power spectrum of the horizontal geoelectric field are noticed at the nighttime on both 29 May and 9 June 2003 across the stations. Daytime and nighttime intensification of energy distribution of the wavelet power spectrum of the horizontal geoelectric field are observed on both 28 and 29 October 2003 due to strong westward electrojet. The 4 November 2003 event depicts daytime amplification of energy distributions of the wavelet power spectrum across the stations. The highest correlation magnitude is obtained in the event of 4 November 2003 between dH/dt and EH relationships during the intense solar flare of class X 17.4. We observed that the correlation magnitude between dH/dt and EH increases with increase in CME activity. We concluded that the response of the surface impedance model for different stations plays a key role in determining the surface electric field strength, due to large electric field changes at different stations.

  18. Current Perspectives on Systemic Hypertension in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Marty C; Lee, Ran; Cascino, Thomas M; Konerman, Matthew C; Hummel, Scott L

    2017-02-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a prevalent but incompletely understood syndrome. Traditional models of HFpEF pathophysiology revolve around systemic HTN and other causes of increased left ventricular afterload leading to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction. However, emerging models attribute the development of HFpEF to systemic proinflammatory changes secondary to common comorbidities which include HTN. Alterations in passive ventricular stiffness, ventricular-arterial coupling, peripheral microvascular function, systolic reserve, and chronotropic response occur. As a result, HFpEF is heterogeneous in nature, making it difficult to prescribe uniform therapies to all patients. Nonetheless, treating systemic HTN remains a cornerstone of HFpEF management. Antihypertensive therapies have been linked to LVH regression and improvement in diastolic dysfunction. However, to date, no therapies have definitive mortality benefit in HFpEF. Non-pharmacologic management for HTN, including dietary modification, exercise, and treating sleep disordered breathing, may provide some morbidity benefit in the HFpEF population. Future research is need to identify effective treatments, perhaps in more specific subgroups, and focus may need to shift from reducing mortality to improving exercise capacity and symptoms. Tailoring antihypertensive therapies to specific phenotypes of HFpEF may be an important component of this strategy.

  19. Combined post- and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Debra D; Trivedi, Amar; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2016-05-01

    Over 2.5 million patients in the USA suffer from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH) is present in the majority of these patients. PH represents an adverse prognostic factor in HFpEF and has been identified as a potential therapeutic target to improve symptoms and outcomes. The recognition and investigation of a subset of patients with superimposed pulmonary vascular disease (on top of pulmonary venous hypertension) has led to further subclassification of PH due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) into two categories: isolated post-capillary PH and combined post- and pre-capillary PH (CpcPH). In this review, we (1) describe the evolution of the diagnostic criteria of PH-LHD; (2) identify the diagnostic modalities that can be utilized for the identification of patients with CpcPH-HFpEF; (3) review the literature on the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CpcPH-HFpEF; (4) discuss recent and ongoing clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of selective pulmonary vasodilators in PH-LHD; and (5) propose future areas for further investigation of the etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of CpcPH and highlight important considerations in the design of future trials to promote better characterization of this clinical entity. CpcPH-HFpEF is a distinct subset within HFpEF and one that may respond to targeted therapeutics.

  20. Severe mitral regurgitation is associated with increased copeptin levels in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıcgedık, Alev; Eroglu, Elıf; Kahvecı, Gokhan; Isgandarov, Khaganı; Acar, Emrah; Ozturk, Semi; Zehir, Regayip; Kulahcıoglu, Seyhmus; Toprak, Cuneyt; Yaman, Ali; Izgı, Ibrahım Akın; Kirma, Cevat

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of mitral regurgitation (MR) in the release of copeptin in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The study included 63 patients of whom 33 had functional mild MR (Group 1) and 30 had functional severe MR (Group 2). The functional class of both groups was New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. Blood samples for the determination of plasma copeptin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were obtained on the same day with the echo-cardiographic examination. Standard echocardiographic studies were performed. Copeptin and BNP levels showed a substantial agreement in the whole study group (Kappa level: 0.607, p copeptin and BNP showed a strong correlation and were both increased and significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p copeptin median level (6.4 ng/mL), and the prevalence of severe MR was significantly higher in the above-median-copeptin subgroup. A linear regression analysis showed that the presence of severe MR was the only independent predictor of high circulating plasma copeptin level (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.8-12.1; p = 0.002). Severe MR is an independent predictor of elevated plasma copeptin level in HFREF irrespective of systolic function.

  1. Gallbladder ejection fraction using {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA scan in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; An, Jun Hyup [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seok Dong [Dongkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the changes of gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) in diabetic patients with or without autonomic neuropathy. This study included 37 diabetic patients (25 women, 12 men, mean age 51 years) and 24 normal controls (10 women, 14 men, mean age 38 years). After intravenous injection of 185 MBq of {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DISIDA, serial anterior abdominal images were acquired before and after fatty meal. Regions of interest were applied on gallbladder and right hepatic lobe on 60 and 90 minute images to calculate GBEF. GBEF was significantly reduced in diabetes with autonomic neuropathy (43{+-}12.3%) and without autonomic neuropathy (57.5{+-}13.2%) compared with normal controls (68{+-}11.6%, p<0.05). And also, GBEF was significantly reduced in diabetes with autonomic neuropathy compared with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (p<0.05). Fasting blood glucose level, age, sex, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, serum lipid level were not different in these two diabetic patient groups (p>0.05). When 50.2% of GBEF was used as the criteria for diabetic autonomic neuropathy, the sensitivity and specificity were 80%, 76.5%, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.846. GBEF of diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy was significantly reduced than that of diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy.

  2. FLARE-GENERATED TYPE II BURST WITHOUT ASSOCIATED CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalenic, J.; Marque, C.; Zhukov, A. N. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Veronig, A., E-mail: Jasmina.Magdalenic@oma.be [IGAM/Kanzelhoehe Observatory, Institut of Physics, Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-02-20

    We present a study of the solar coronal shock wave on 2005 November 14 associated with the GOES M3.9 flare that occurred close to the east limb (S06 Degree-Sign E60 Degree-Sign ). The shock signature, a type II radio burst, had an unusually high starting frequency of about 800 MHz, indicating that the shock was formed at a rather low height. The position of the radio source, the direction of the shock wave propagation, and the coronal electron density were estimated using Nancay Radioheliograph observations and the dynamic spectrum of the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer. The soft X-ray, H{alpha}, and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observations show that the flare was compact, very impulsive, and of a rather high density and temperature, indicating a strong and impulsive increase of pressure in a small flare loop. The close association of the shock wave initiation with the impulsive energy release suggests that the impulsive increase of the pressure in the flare was the source of the shock wave. This is supported by the fact that, contrary to the majority of events studied previously, no coronal mass ejection was detected in association with the shock wave, although the corresponding flare occurred close to the limb.

  3. Assessment of olfactory detection thresholds in children with autism spectrum disorders using a pulse ejection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Muramatsu, Taro; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Miyao, Masutomo; Matsuura, Eri; Okada, Ken-Ichi; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Atypical responsiveness to olfactory stimuli has been reported as the strongest predictor of social impairment in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, previous laboratory-based sensory psychophysical studies that have aimed to investigate olfactory sensitivity in children with ASD have produced inconsistent results. The methodology of these studies is limited by several factors, and more sophisticated approaches are required to produce consistent results. We measured olfactory detection thresholds in children with ASD and typical development (TD) using a pulse ejection system-a newly developed methodology designed to resolve problems encountered in previous studies. The two odorants used as stimuli were isoamyl acetate and allyl caproate. Forty-three participants took part in this study: 23 (6 females, 17 males) children with ASD and 20 with TD (6 females, 14 males). Olfactory detection thresholds of children with ASD were significantly higher than those of TD children with both isoamyl acetate (2.85 ± 0.28 vs 1.57 ± 0.15; p processing in ASD may reveal important links between brain function, clinically relevant behavior, and treatment.

  4. A progenitor binary and an ejected mass donor remnant of faint type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Wang, B.; Dunlap, B.; Barlow, B. N.; Schaffenroth, V.; Chen, X.; Irrgang, A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Ziegerer, E.; Kupfer, T.; Miszalski, B.; Heber, U.; Han, Z.; Shporer, A.; Telting, J. H.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Østensen, R. H.; O'Toole, S. J.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2013-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are the most important standard candles for measuring the expansion history of the universe. The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf can explain their observed properties, but neither the progenitor systems nor any stellar remnants have been conclusively identified. Underluminous SN Ia have been proposed to originate from a so-called double-detonation of a white dwarf. After a critical amount of helium is deposited on the surface through accretion from a close companion, the helium is ignited causing a detonation wave that triggers the explosion of the white dwarf itself. We have discovered both shallow transits and eclipses in the tight binary system CD-30°11223 composed of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and a hot helium star, allowing us to determine its component masses and fundamental parameters. In the future the system will transfer mass from the helium star to the white dwarf. Modelling this process we find that the detonation in the accreted helium layer is sufficiently strong to trigger the explosion of the core. The helium star will then be ejected at such high velocity that it will escape the Galaxy. The predicted properties of this remnant are an excellent match to the so-called hypervelocity star US 708, a hot, helium-rich star moving at more than 750 km s-1, sufficient for it to leave the Galaxy. The identification of both progenitor and remnant provides a consistent picture of the formation and evolution of underluminous SNIa.

  5. Solar flare associated coronal mass ejections causing geo-effectiveness and Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Beena; Chandra, Harish

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we have selected 35 halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) associated with solar flares, Geomagnetic Storms (GSs) and Forbush decrease (Fd) chosen from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2007 (i.e., the descending phase of solar cycle 23) observed by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the SOHO spacecraft. Statistical analyses are performed to look at the distribution of solar flares associated with halo CMEs causing GSs and Fd and investigated the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters with GSs and Fd. Forbush decrease is the phenomenon of rapid decrease in cosmic ray intensity following the CME. Our analysis indicates that during 2000 to 2007 the northern region produced 44 % of solar flares associated with halo CMEs, GSs, and Fd, whereas 56 % solar flares associated with halo CMEs, GSs, and Fd were produced in the southern region. The northern and the southern hemispheres between 10° to 20° latitudinal belts are found to be more effective in producing events leading to Fd. From our selected events, we found that about 60 % of super-intense storms (Dst ≤ -200 nT) caused by halo CMEs are associated with X-class flares. Fast halo CMEs associated with X-class flares originating from 0° to 25° latitudes are better potential candidates in producing super-intense GSs than the slow halo CMEs associated with other classes of flares.

  6. On the Propagation of a Geoeffective Coronal Mass Ejection during March 15 -- 17, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuming; Liu, Jiajia; Shen, Chenglong; Shen, Fang; Yang, Zicai; Zic, T; Vrsnak, B; Webb, D F; Liu, Rui; Wang, S; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Qiang; Zhuang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The largest geomagnetic storm so far in the solar cycle 24 was produced by a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) originating on 2015 March 15. It was an initially west-oriented CME and expected to only cause a weak geomagnetic disturbance. Why did this CME finally cause such a large geomagnetic storm? We try to find some clues by investigating its propagation from the Sun to 1 AU. First, we reconstruct the CME's kinematic properties in the corona from the SOHO and SDO imaging data with the aid of the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model. It is suggested that the CME propagated to the west $\\sim$$33^\\circ$$\\pm$$10^\\circ$ away from the Sun-Earth line with a speed of about 817 km s$^{-1}$ before leaving the field of view of the SOHO/LASCO C3 camera. A magnetic cloud (MC) corresponding to this CME was measured in-situ by the Wind spacecraft two days later. By applying two MC reconstruction methods, we infer the configuration of the MC as well as some kinematic information, which implies that the CME possibly expe...

  7. Targeting Obesity and Diabetes to Treat Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Altara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is a major unmet medical need that is characterized by the presence of multiple cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Foremost among these comorbidities are obesity and diabetes, which are not only risk factors for the development of HFpEF, but worsen symptoms and outcome. Coronary microvascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction is a common denominator among HFpEF, obesity, and diabetes that likely explains at least in part the etiology of HFpEF and its synergistic relationship with obesity and diabetes. Thus, pharmacological strategies to supplement nitric oxide and subsequent cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP—protein kinase G (PKG signaling may have therapeutic promise. Other potential approaches include exercise and lifestyle modifications, as well as targeting endothelial cell mineralocorticoid receptors, non-coding RNAs, sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, and enhancers of natriuretic peptide protective NO-independent cGMP-initiated and alternative signaling, such as LCZ696 and phosphodiesterase-9 inhibitors. Additionally, understanding the role of adipokines in HFpEF may lead to new treatments. Identifying novel drug targets based on the shared underlying microvascular disease process may improve the quality of life and lifespan of those afflicted with both HFpEF and obesity or diabetes, or even prevent its occurrence.

  8. Coronary microvascular rarefaction and myocardial fibrosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Selma F; Hussain, Saad; Mirzoyev, Sultan A; Edwards, William D; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Redfield, Margaret M

    2015-02-10

    Characterization of myocardial structural changes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has been hindered by the limited availability of human cardiac tissue. Cardiac hypertrophy, coronary artery disease (CAD), coronary microvascular rarefaction, and myocardial fibrosis may contribute to HFpEF pathophysiology. We identified HFpEF patients (n=124) and age-appropriate control subjects (noncardiac death, no heart failure diagnosis; n=104) who underwent autopsy. Heart weight and CAD severity were obtained from the autopsy reports. With the use of whole-field digital microscopy and automated analysis algorithms in full-thickness left ventricular sections, microvascular density (MVD), myocardial fibrosis, and their relationship were quantified. Subjects with HFpEF had heavier hearts (median, 538 g; 169% of age-, sex-, and body size-expected heart weight versus 335 g; 112% in controls), more severe CAD (65% with ≥1 vessel with >50% diameter stenosis in HFpEF versus 13% in controls), more left ventricular fibrosis (median % area fibrosis, 9.6 versus 7.1) and lower MVD (median 961 versus 1316 vessels/mm(2)) than control (Pcoronary microvascular rarefaction, and myocardial fibrosis than controls. Each of these findings may contribute to the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiac reserve function impairment characteristic of HFpEF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Coronal Mass Ejection Initiation by Converging Photospheric Flows: Toward a Realistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, T.; Aly, J.-J.; Luciani, J.-F.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of coronal mass ejections triggering, we reconsider the class of models in which the evolution of an active region (AR) is driven by imposed boundary motions converging toward the polarity inversion line (PIL). We introduce a new model problem in which there is a large-scale flow with a diverging structure on the photosphere. This flow is reminiscent of that of the well-known moat flow around each of the two spots of a bipolar AR and transports only part of the magnetic flux toward the PIL. It is thus more compatible with observations than the one used in our previous study, which forced the whole positive and negative polarity parts of the AR approaching each other. We also include a diffusion term associated with small-scale turbulent photospheric motions, but keep the associated diffusivity at a low value in the particular study described here. We show that the evolution of an initial sheared force-free field first leads to the formation of a twisted flux rope which stays in equilibrium for some time. Eventually, however, the configuration suffers a global disruption whose underlying mechanism is found by energetic considerations to be nonequilibrium. It begins indeed when the magnetic energy becomes of the order of the energy of an accessible partially open field. For triggering an eruption by converging flows, it is thus not necessary to advect the whole AR toward the PIL, but only its central part.

  10. Magnetic field and dynamic pressure ULF fluctuations in coronal-mass-ejection-driven sheath regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. J. Kilpua

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sheath regions form ahead of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs that are sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind. The turbulent sheath regions are important drivers of magnetospheric activity, but due to their complex internal structure, relatively little is known on the distribution of the magnetic field and plasma variations in them. In this paper we investigate ultra low frequency (ULF fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and in dynamic pressure (Pdyn using a superposed epoch analysis of 41 sheath regions observed during solar cycle 23. We find strongest fluctuation power near the shock and in the vicinity of the ICME leading edge. The IMF and Pdyn ULF power have different profiles within the sheath; the former is enhanced in the leading part of the sheath, while the latter is increased in the trailing part of the sheath. We also find that the ICME properties affect the level and distribution of the ULF power in sheath regions. For example, sheath regions associated with strong or fast ICMEs, or those that are crossed at intermediate distances from the center, have strongest ULF power and large variation in the power throughout the sheath region. The weaker or slower ICMEs, or those that are crossed centrally, have in general considerably weaker ULF power with relatively smooth profiles. The strong and abrupt decrease of the IMF ULF power at the ICME leading edge could be used to distinguish the ICME from the preceding sheath plasma.

  11. On the 3-D reconstruction of Coronal Mass Ejections using coronagraph data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mierla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronal Mass ejections (CMEs are enormous eruptions of magnetized plasma expelled from the Sun into the interplanetary space, over the course of hours to days. They can create major disturbances in the interplanetary medium and trigger severe magnetic storms when they collide with the Earth's magnetosphere. It is important to know their real speed, propagation direction and 3-D configuration in order to accurately predict their arrival time at the Earth. Using data from the SECCHI coronagraphs onboard the STEREO mission, which was launched in October 2006, we can infer the propagation direction and the 3-D structure of such events. In this review, we first describe different techniques that were used to model the 3-D configuration of CMEs in the coronagraph field of view (up to 15 R⊙. Then, we apply these techniques to different CMEs observed by various coronagraphs. A comparison of results obtained from the application of different reconstruction algorithms is presented and discussed.

  12. Precision Medicine for Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-06-01

    There are few proven therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The lack of therapies, along with increased recognition of the disorder and its underlying pathophysiology, has led to the acknowledgement that HFpEF is heterogeneous and is not likely to respond to a one-size-fits-all approach. Thus, HFpEF is a prime candidate to benefit from a precision medicine approach. For this reason, we have assembled a compendium of papers on the topic of precision medicine in HFpEF in the Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. These papers cover a variety of topics relevant to precision medicine in HFpEF, including automated identification of HFpEF patients; machine learning, novel molecular approaches, genomics, and deep phenotyping of HFpEF; and clinical trial designs that can be used to advance precision medicine in HFpEF. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of precision medicine in HFpEF with the hope that the work described here and in the other papers in this special theme issue will stimulate investigators and clinicians to advance a more targeted approach to HFpEF classification and treatment.

  13. History and Development of Coronal Mass Ejections as a Key Player in Solar Terrestrial Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently discovered phenomenon in 1971, some 15 years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earths space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the 1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of CME research following the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission in 1995, resulting in the establishment of a full picture of CMEs.

  14. A comparison of coronal mass ejections identified by manual and automatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yashiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are related to many phenomena (e.g. flares, solar energetic particles, geomagnetic storms, thus compiling of event catalogs is important for a global understanding these phenomena. CMEs have been identified manually for a long time, but in the SOHO era, automatic identification methods are being developed. In order to clarify the advantage and disadvantage of the manual and automatic CME catalogs, we examined the distributions of CME properties listed in the CDAW (manual and CACTus (automatic catalogs. Both catalogs have a good agreement on the wide CMEs (width>120° in their properties, while there is a significant discrepancy on the narrow CMEs (width≤30°: CACTus has a larger number of narrow CMEs than CDAW. We carried out an event-by-event examination of a sample of events and found that the CDAW catalog have missed many narrow CMEs during the solar maximum. Another significant discrepancy was found on the fast CMEs (speed>1000 km/s: the majority of the fast CDAW CMEs are wide and originate from low latitudes, while the fast CACTus CMEs are narrow and originate from all latitudes. Event-by-event examination of a sample of events suggests that CACTus has a problem on the detection of the fast CMEs.

  15. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  16. Ejection of Hyper-Velocity Stars by Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgardt, Holger [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Gualandris, Alessia [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403 (Netherlands); Zwart, Simon Portegies [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403 (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    We have performed N-body simulations of the formation of hyper-velocity stars (HVS) in the centre of the Milky Way due to inspiralling intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We find that due to dynamical friction, IMBHs sink into the centre of the Galaxy where they deplete the central cusp of stars. Some of these stars become HVS and are ejected with velocities sufficiently high to escape the Galaxy. Our simulations show that HVS are generated in short bursts which last only a few Myrs until the IMBH is swallowed by the supermassive black hole (SMBH). After the HVS have reached the galactic halo, their escape velocities correlate with the distance from the Galactic centre in the sense that the fastest HVS can be found furthest away from the centre. Finally, our simulations show that the presence of an IMBH in the Galactic centre changes the stellar density distribution inside r < 0.02 pc into a core profile, which takes at least 100 Myrs to replenish.

  17. Tensor Factorization for Precision Medicine in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Ahmad, Faraz S; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-06-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that may benefit from improved subtyping in order to better characterize its pathophysiology and to develop novel targeted therapies. The United States Precision Medicine Initiative comes amid the rapid growth in quantity and modality of clinical data for HFpEF patients ranging from deep phenotypic to trans-omic data. Tensor factorization, a form of machine learning, allows for the integration of multiple data modalities to derive clinically relevant HFpEF subtypes that may have significant differences in underlying pathophysiology and differential response to therapies. Tensor factorization also allows for better interpretability by supporting dimensionality reduction and identifying latent groups of data for meaningful summarization of both features and disease outcomes. In this narrative review, we analyze the modest literature on the application of tensor factorization to related biomedical fields including genotyping and phenotyping. Based on the cited work including work of our own, we suggest multiple tensor factorization formulations capable of integrating the deep phenotypic and trans-omic modalities of data for HFpEF, or accounting for interactions between genetic variants at different omic hierarchies. We encourage extensive experimental studies to tackle challenges in applying tensor factorization for precision medicine in HFpEF, including effectively incorporating existing medical knowledge, properly accounting for uncertainty, and efficiently enforcing sparsity for better interpretability.

  18. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection effects on thermospheric density as inferred from International Space Station orbital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendaza, T.; Blanco-Ávalos, J. J.; Martín-Torres, J.

    2017-11-01

    The solar activity induces long term and short term periodical variations in the dynamics and composition of Earth's atmosphere. The Sun also shows non periodical (i.e., impulsive) activity that reaches the planets orbiting around it. In particular, Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) reach Earth and interact with its magnetosphere and upper neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, the interaction with the upper atmosphere is not well characterized because of the absence of regular and dedicated in situ measurements at high altitudes; thus, current descriptions of the thermosphere are based on semi empirical models. In this paper, we present the total neutral mass densities of the thermosphere retrieved from the orbital data of the International Space Station (ISS) using the General Perturbation Method, and we applied these densities to routinely compiled trajectories of the ISS in low Earth orbit (LEO). These data are explicitly independent of any atmospheric model. Our density values are consistent with atmospheric models, which demonstrates that our method is reliable for the inference of thermospheric density. We have inferred the thermospheric total neutral density response to impulsive solar activity forcing from 2001 to the end of 2006 and determined how solar events affect this response. Our results reveal that the ISS orbital parameters can be used to infer the thermospheric density and analyze solar effects on the thermosphere.

  19. CORONAL MASS EJECTION RECONSTRUCTION FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS VIA SIMULATION MORPHING. I. THEORY AND EXAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazin, Richard A., E-mail: rfrazin@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    The problem of reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) density distribution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from three simultaneous coronagraph observations is timely in that the COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs on the dual-spacecraft STEREO mission complement the LASCO coronagraphs on the SOHO satellite and the Mk4 on Mauna Loa. While the separation angle between the STEREO spacecraft and the Earth depends on the time since the launch in 2006, the reconstruction problem is always severely underinformed. So far, all 3D reconstruction efforts have made use of relatively simple parameterized models in order to determine the 3D structure of the CME. Such approaches do not utilize the power of 3D MHD simulation to inform the reconstruction. This paper considers the situation in which a specific CME event observed in coronagraphs from three viewpoints is later simulated by solving MHD equations. The reconstruction is then subjected to an invertible morphological operator chosen so that morphed MHD simulation is most consistent with the three-viewpoint coronagraph data. The morphological operations are explained mathematically and synthetic examples are given. The practical application to reconstructing CMEs from STEREO and SOHO data is discussed.

  20. Development of a current sheet in the wake of a fast coronal mass ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, A. G. [Atmospheric Environmental Research, 2201 Buena Vista Drive SE, Suite 407, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (United States); Webb, D. F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Ave., Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Burkepile, J. T. [High Altitude Observatory/National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Cliver, E. W., E-mail: aling@aer.com, E-mail: david.webb@bc.edu, E-mail: iguana@ucar.edu, E-mail: ecliver@nso.edu [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A bright ray that developed in the wake of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 September 7 presents a unique opportunity to study the early development and physical characteristics of a reconnecting current sheet (CS). Polarization brightness images from the Mk4 K-Coronameter at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory are used to determine the structure of the ray along its axis low in the corona as it progressed outward. Coverage of the early development of the ray out to ∼1.3 R {sub ☉} for a period of ∼27 hr after the start of the event enables for the first time in white light a measurement of a CME CS from the top of the arcade to the base of the flux rope. Measured widths of the ray are combined to obtain the kinematics of the upper and lower {sup Y-}points described in reconnection flux-rope models such as that of Lin and Forbes. The time dependence of these points are used to derive values for the speed and acceleration of the growth of the CS. We note the appearance of a large structure which increases in size as it expands outward in the early development of the ray and an apparent oscillation with a period of ∼0.5 hr in the position angle of the ray.

  1. Study of the early phase of a Coronal Mass Ejection driven shock in EUV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassati, Federica; Susino, Roberto; Mancuso, Salvatore; Bemporad, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The November 1st, 2014 prominence eruption (associated with a C2.7 class flare) resulted in a fast, partial-halo Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). During its early propagation, the CME produced a type II radio burst (seen by the Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer) starting around 04:57 UT when the front entered into the LASCO/C2 field of view (FOV) and the top of the CME front was at the heliocentric distance of about 2.5 R_{⊙}. In order to identify the source of the type II radio burst, we studied the kinematic of the eruption with EUV images acquired by SDO/AIA. Profiles of the observed EUV front speed have been compared with the Alfvén speed profiles derived by combining the plasma electron densities obtained from Emission Measure analysis and model magnetic fields extrapolated on the plane of the sky. Our results show that the northern half of the front became super-Alfvénic at approximately the same time when the type-II radio burst started. A comparison between the starting frequency of the type II emission and the frequencies corresponding to the coronal densities of the locations where the EUV front became super-Alfvénic suggests that the radio sources should be located in the northern flank of the front.

  2. Binary Orbits as the Driver of Gamma-Ray Emission and Mass Ejection in Classical Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Linford, Justin D.; Yang, Jun; O'Brien, T. J.; Paragi, Zsolt; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Beswick, R. J.; Cheung, C. C.; Mukai, Koji; Nelson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems. Novae typically expel about 10 (sup -4) solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometers per second.However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy, prolonged optically thick winds or binary interaction with the nova envelope. Classical novae are now routinely detected at giga-electronvolt gamma-ray wavelengths, suggesting that relativistic particles are accelerated by strong shocks in the ejecta. Here we report high-resolution radio imaging of the gamma-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon. We find that its ejecta were shaped by the motion of the binary system: some gas was expelled rapidly along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, while denser material drifted out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion..At the interface between the equatorial and polar regions, we observe synchrotron emission indicative of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration, thereby pinpointing the location of gamma-ray production. Binary shaping of the nova ejecta and associated internal shocks are expected to be widespread among novae, explaining why many novae are gamma-ray emitters.

  3. Subendocardial viability ratio and ejection duration as parameters of early cardiovascular risk in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčun-Varda, Nataša; Nikolic, Sara; Močnik, Mirjam

    The purpose of this study was to investigate subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and ejection duration (ED) in children and adolescents with common cardiovascular risk factors such as arterial hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Four groups of pediatric patients were analyzed: 31 children and adolescents had hypertension, 36 were overweight, 49 were overweight and had hypertension, and 70 had hypercholesterolemia. The patients were compared to a control group of 50 healthy individuals. Subjects were sampled by opportunity sampling at the Department of Pediatrics Maribor, Slovenia. In each patient, blood pressure, anthropometrical parameters, and pulse wave analysis (PWA) measurements using applanation tonometry technique were performed and calculated. The results show a statistically-significant difference in ED (p = 0.013) but not in SEVR (p = 0.074) in the hypercholesterolemia group in comparison to the control group. In other research groups, no statistically-significant differences were found. In all study groups, SEVR correlated significantly with age (positive, moderate) and heart rate (negative, strong) as well as with central mean pressure (CMP). Our study does not show a significant role of SEVR and ED in early cardiovascular risk determination in children. However, some results do indicate a potential role of both, at least in hypercholesterolemia, and should be further investigated.
.

  4. Valve replacement for aortic stenosis normalizes subendocardial function in patients with normal ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Per; Bajraktari, Gani; Molle, Roberta; Palmerini, Elizabetta; Holmgren, Anders; Mondillo, Sergio; Henein, Michael Y

    2010-08-01

    Long-standing aortic stenosis (AS) causes various degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, which may improve after valve replacement. The aim of this study was to assess the nature of LV subendocardial abnormalities in AS and their response to valve replacement (AVR). We studied 41 consecutive symptomatic patients (age 64 +/- 13 years) with severe AS, normal LV ejection fraction (EF), but no obstructive coronary artery disease before, a week after AVR, and 6 months after AVR. LV subendocardial function was studied from recordings of long-axis M-mode (amplitude), tissue-Doppler (myocardial velocities) and speckle tracking (myocardial strain) echocardiographic techniques. Results were compared with those from 20 age- and gender-matched controls. In patients, LV dimensions and markers of asynchrony, total isovolumic time (t-IVT), and Tei index were not different from controls before AVR and remained unchanged afterwards. LV lateral long-axis amplitude, as well as lateral and septal systolic velocities and strain, were reduced (P subendocardial function is globally abnormal showing reduced amplitude of motion, velocities, and strain. The different response of its components suggests an evidence for differential reverse remodelling, irrespective of myocardial mass regression.

  5. Role of preoperative radionuclide ejection fraction in direct abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmers, A.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Zierler, R.E.

    1988-08-01

    Preoperative radionuclide ventriculography was performed in 60 patients to assess whether such testing could define those at increased risk after direct abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. None of the patients had prophylactic coronary artery reconstruction to reduce the risk of AAA repair despite angina in 27% and previous myocardial infarction (MI) in 42%. The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 52% +/- 15% (range 14% to 78%). Low EF (normal greater than 50%) was present in 40%, whereas ventricular wall motion abnormalities were present in 39% of patients. The overall perioperative (30-day) mortality rate was 5%. MI occurred in 7% within 30 postoperative days; none was fatal. Life-table analysis revealed that overall survival after AAA repair was significantly lower in patients with an EF of 50% or less (p less than 0.025, Mantel-Cox) during a follow-up of 20.1 +/- 11.9 months. Overall survival differences were even more striking for those with an EF of 35% or less (p = 0.003, Mantel-Cox). There was a marked difference in the cumulative mortality rate during follow-up, being 50% in those patients with an EF of 35% or less (n = 10) compared with 14% in those with an EF greater than 35% (n = 50, p = 0.036, Fisher exact test). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of perioperative MI or perioperative death for those with an EF of 35% or less vs EF greater than 35%. 50 references.

  6. The mechanism of core-collapse supernovae and the ejection of heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, H.-Th.; Buras, R.; Rampp, M

    2003-05-05

    We present here the first results of two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the neutrino-heating phase is the collapsed core of a 15 M{sub [odot]} star, where the neutrino transport is treated with a variable Eddington factor method for solving the Boltzmann transport equation, and the neutrino interactions include nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, nucleon recoils and correlations, and weak-magnetism effects as well as direct interactions between neutrinos of different flavors. With the given input physics (neutrino reactions and nuclear equation of state), our best simulations do not develop strong convection in the neutrino-heating layer behind the shock and do not yield explosions. With about 30% higher neutrino-energy deposition behind the shock, however, an explosion occurs on a timescale of 150 ms after core bounce. It leaves behind a neutron star with an initial baryonic mass of 1.4 M{sub [odot]} and ejects the N = 50 isotopes of Sr, Y and Zr in amounts consistent with Galactic abundances.

  7. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-05-12

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  8. Cardiac Amyloidosis and its New Clinical Phenotype: Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is now an emerging cardiovascular epidemic, being identified as the main phenotype observed in clinical practice. It is more associated with female gender, advanced age and comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease. Amyloidosis is a clinical disorder characterized by the deposition of aggregates of insoluble fibrils originating from proteins that exhibit anomalous folding. Recently, pictures of senile amyloidosis have been described in patients with HFpEF, demonstrating the need for clinical cardiologists to investigate this etiology in suspect cases. The clinical suspicion of amyloidosis should be increased in cases of HFPS where the cardio imaging methods are compatible with infiltrative cardiomyopathy. Advances in cardio imaging methods combined with the possibility of performing genetic tests and identification of the type of amyloid material allow the diagnosis to be made. The management of the diagnosed patients can be done in partnership with centers specialized in the study of amyloidosis, which, together with the new technologies, investigate the possibility of organ or bone marrow transplantation and also the involvement of patients in clinical studies that evaluate the action of the new emerging drugs.

  9. Detection of Coronal Mass Ejections Using Multiple Features and Space-Time Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Yin, Jian-qin; Lin, Jia-ben; Feng, Zhi-quan; Zhou, Jin

    2017-07-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) release tremendous amounts of energy in the solar system, which has an impact on satellites, power facilities and wireless transmission. To effectively detect a CME in Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 images, we propose a novel algorithm to locate the suspected CME regions, using the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) method and taking into account the features of the grayscale and the texture. Furthermore, space-time continuity is used in the detection algorithm to exclude the false CME regions. The algorithm includes three steps: i) define the feature vector which contains textural and grayscale features of a running difference image; ii) design the detection algorithm based on the ELM method according to the feature vector; iii) improve the detection accuracy rate by using the decision rule of the space-time continuum. Experimental results show the efficiency and the superiority of the proposed algorithm in the detection of CMEs compared with other traditional methods. In addition, our algorithm is insensitive to most noise.

  10. Statistical Study of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections with Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew E.

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) with strong magnetic fields (B ) are typically associated with significant Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, high solar wind speed and solar flare events. Successful prediction of the arrival time of a CME at Earth is required to maximize the time available for satellite, infrastructure, and space travel programs to take protective action against the coming flux of high-energy particles. It is known that the magnetic field strength of a CME is linked to the strength of a geomagnetic storm on Earth. Unfortunately, the correlations between strong magnetic field CMEs from the entire sun (especially from the far side or non-Earth facing side of the sun) to SEP and flare events, solar source regions and other relevant solar variables are not well known. New correlation studies using an artificial intelligence engine (Eureqa) were performed to study CME events with magnetic field strength readings over 30 nanoteslas (nT) from January 2010 to October 17, 2014. This thesis presents the results of this study, validates Eureqa to obtain previously published results, and presents previously unknown functional relationships between solar source magnetic field data, CME initial speed and the CME magnetic field. These new results enable the development of more accurate CME magnetic field predictions and should help scientists develop better forecasts thereby helping to prevent damage to humanity's space and Earth assets.

  11. Faraday instability-based micro droplet ejection for inhalation drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.S.; Mao, R.W.; Lin, S.K.; Zhu, Y.; Tsai, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the technology and the underlying science of a new device for inhalation (pulmonary) drug delivery which is capable of fulfilling needs unmet by current commercial devices. The core of the new device is a centimeter-size clog-free silicon-based ultrasonic nozzle with multiple Fourier horns in resonance at megahertz (MHz) frequency. The dramatic resonance effect among the multiple horns and high growth rate of the MHz Faraday waves excited on a medicinal liquid layer together facilitate ejection of monodisperse droplets of desirable size range (2–5 µm) at low electrical drive power (<1.0 W). The small nozzle requiring low drive power has enabled realization of a pocket-size (8.6 × 5.6 × 1.5 cm3) ultrasonic nebulizer. A variety of common pulmonary drugs have been nebulized using the pocket-size unit with desirable aerosol sizes and output rate. These results clearly provide proof-of-principle for the new device and confirm its potential for commercialization. PMID:25045720

  12. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Mass-loss Rates of Hot-Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherenkov, A.; Bisikalo, D.; Fossati, L.; Möstl, C.

    2017-09-01

    Hot-Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation and plasma flows coming from their host stars. Past ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope observations, supported by hydrodynamic models, confirmed that these factors lead to the formation of an extended envelope, part of which lies beyond the Roche lobe. We use gas-dynamic simulations to study the impact of time variations in the parameters of the stellar wind, namely that of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the envelope of the typical hot-Jupiter HD 209458b. We consider three CMEs characterized by different velocities and densities, taking their parameters from typical CMEs observed for the Sun. The perturbations in the ram-pressure of the stellar wind during the passage of each CME tear off most of the envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe. This leads to a substantial increase of the mass-loss rates during the interaction with the CME. We find that the mass lost by the planet during the whole crossing of a CME is of ≈1015 g, regardless of the CME taken into consideration. We also find that over the course of 1 Gyr, the mass lost by the planet because of CME impacts is comparable to that lost because of high-energy stellar irradiation.

  13. [Influence of the treatment of subclinical mastitis on the electric conductivity of milk before ejection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, K; Kraetzl, W D

    2000-01-01

    10 cows (German Brown x Brown Swiss) with 29 infected quarters (14 Staphylococcus aureus, 10 esculin positive streptococci, 5 Staphylococcus spec.) were treated daily after morning milking over a period of 4 days. Ampicillin and cloxacillin (500 mg each per dose) were administered to all 40 quarters intracisternally. During the evening milkings on 4 test days (day 3 before treatment, day 1 of treatment, days 5 and 9 after the last treatment), electrical conductivity based on 25 degrees C (EC) was measured in fore milk. To avoid ejection of alveolar milk, EC measurement was the first contact to the udder. Independent of the initial level, EC of all quarters was elevated by 2.1 mS/cm on average at the first milking following the first treatment. 9 days after the end of treatment, EC had declined to the initial level in all quarters classified as mastitic, non specific and latent infected before treatment. By contrast, EC values of healthy quarters remained elevated compared to their initial level (p < 0.01). This might be due to increased cistern tissue permeability caused by mechanical and pharmacological effects of antibiotic treatment. Despite the fact that somatic cell count and total bacteria count were reduced by treatment (p < 0.01), results showed that EC measurement on the first days following treatment was unsuitable for checking the success of treatment.

  14. Propagation of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jason P; Maloney, Shane A; McAteer, R T James; Refojo, Jose M; Gallagher, Peter T

    2010-09-21

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most significant drivers of adverse space weather on Earth, but the physics governing their propagation through the heliosphere is not well understood. Although stereoscopic imaging of CMEs with NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) has provided some insight into their three-dimensional (3D) propagation, the mechanisms governing their evolution remain unclear because of difficulties in reconstructing their true 3D structure. In this paper, we use a new elliptical tie-pointing technique to reconstruct a full CME front in 3D, enabling us to quantify its deflected trajectory from high latitudes along the ecliptic, and measure its increasing angular width and propagation from 2 to 46 (∼0.2 AU). Beyond 7 , we show that its motion is determined by an aerodynamic drag in the solar wind and, using our reconstruction as input for a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation, we determine an accurate arrival time at the Lagrangian L1 point near Earth.

  15. Clinical and Echocardiographic Characteristics and Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Diabetes Status in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Report From the I-Preserve Trial (Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Mogensen, Ulrik M; Jhund, Pardeep S; Petrie, Mark C; Preiss, David; Win, Sithu; Køber, Lars; McKelvie, Robert S; Zile, Michael R; Anand, Inder S; Komajda, Michel; Gottdiener, John S; Carson, Peter E; McMurray, John J V

    2017-02-21

    In patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, little is known about the characteristics of, and outcomes in, those with and without diabetes mellitus. We examined clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and outcomes in the I-Preserve trial (Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction) according to history of diabetes mellitus. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for cardiovascular outcomes adjusted for known predictors, including age, sex, natriuretic peptides, and comorbidity. Echocardiographic data were available in 745 patients and were additionally adjusted for in supplementary analyses. Overall, 1134 of 4128 patients (27%) had diabetes mellitus. Compared with those without diabetes mellitus, they were more likely to have a history of myocardial infarction (28% versus 22%), higher body mass index (31 versus 29 kg/m 2 ), worse Minnesota Living With Heart Failure score (48 versus 40), higher median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration (403 versus 320 pg/mL; all P heart failure hospitalization occurred in 34% of patients with diabetes mellitus versus 22% of those without diabetes mellitus (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.05), and 28% versus 19% of patients with and without diabetes mellitus died (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; confidence interval, 1.33-1.91). In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, patients with diabetes mellitus have more signs of congestion, worse quality of life, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, and a poorer prognosis. They also display greater structural and functional echocardiographic abnormalities. Further investigation is needed to determine the mediators of the adverse impact of diabetes mellitus on outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and whether they are modifiable. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00095238. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Reduced First-Phase Ejection Fraction and Sustained Myocardial Wall Stress in Hypertensive Patients With Diastolic Dysfunction: A Manifestation of Impaired Shortening Deactivation That Links Systolic to Diastolic Dysfunction and Preserves Systolic Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haotian; Li, Ye; Fok, Henry; Simpson, John; Kentish, Jonathan C; Shah, Ajay M; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Impaired shortening deactivation of cardiac myocytes could sustain myocardial contraction, preserving ejection fraction at the expense of diastolic dysfunction. We examined the relationship between first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the fraction of left ventricular volume ejected from the start of systole to the time of the first peak in left ventricular pressure (corresponding to the time of maximal ventricular shortening) to the duration of myocardial contraction and diastolic function in patients with hypertension (n=163), and varying degrees of diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular systolic pressure was estimated by carotid tonometry; time-resolved left ventricular cavity and wall volume were obtained by echocardiography with speckle wall tracking. Measurements were repeated after nitroglycerin, a drug known to influence ventricular dynamics, in a subsample (n=18) of patients. EF1 and time of onset of ventricular relaxation (as determined from the temporal pattern of myocardial wall stress) were independently correlated with diastolic relaxation as measured by tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E', standardized regression coefficients 0.48 and -0.34 for EF1 and time of onset of ventricular relaxation, respectively, each Pratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity (E) to E' (E/E', regression coefficients -0.34 and 0.34, respectively, each Pexpense of impaired diastolic function. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Simulation of a control rod ejection in a VVER-1000 reactor with the program Relap5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Yoder, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The RELAP5-3D code has been employed to simulate the ejection of a control rod at the Balakovo-4 plant, a VVER-1000 V320 plant located in Russia. The reactor core contains 163 assemblies, three of them Lead Test Assemblies (LTAs) with mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and the remaining 160 assemblies with UO{sub 2} fuel. The worth of the ejected control rod was $ 0,225 or 142 pcm. Results from point and three-dimensional (3-D) or nodal kinetics calculations are presented. The results from both models are similar with no significant differences. All calculated results are within safety limits, with no fuel melting or cladding failures predicted to occur. (author)

  18. Ejection of the Massive Hydrogen-rich Envelope Timed with the Collapse of the Stripped SN 2014C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margutti, Raffaella; Kamble, A; Milisavljevic, D; Zapartas, E; de Mink, S E; Drout, M; Chornock, R; Risaliti, G; Zauderer, B A; Bietenholz, M; Cantiello, M; Chakraborti, S; Chomiuk, L; Fong, W; Grefenstette, B; Guidorzi, C; Kirshner, R; Parrent, J T; Patnaude, D; Soderberg, A M; Gehrels, N C; Harrison, F

    2017-02-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of SN 2014C during the first 500 days. These observations represent the first solid detection of a young extragalactic stripped-envelope SN out to high-energy X-rays ~40 keV. SN 2014C shows ordinary explosion parameters (Ek ~ 1.8 × 10(51) erg and Mej ~ 1.7 M⊙). However, over an ~1 year timescale, SN 2014C evolved from an ordinary hydrogen-poor supernova into a strongly interacting, hydrogen-rich supernova, violating the traditional classification scheme of type-I versus type-II SNe. Signatures of the SN shock interaction with a dense medium are observed across the spectrum, from radio to hard X-rays, and revealed the presence of a massive shell of ~1 M⊙of hydrogen-rich material at ~6 × 10(16) cm. The shell was ejected by the progenitor star in the decades to centuries before collapse. This result challenges current theories of massive star evolution, as it requires a physical mechanism responsible for the ejection of the deepest hydrogen layer of H-poor SN progenitors synchronized with the onset of stellar collapse. Theoretical investigations point at binary interactions and/or instabilities during the last nuclear burning stages as potential triggers of the highly time-dependent mass loss. We constrain these scenarios utilizing the sample of 183 SNe Ib/c with public radio observations. Our analysis identifies SN 2014C-like signatures in ~10% of SNe. This fraction is reasonably consistent with the expectation from the theory of recent envelope ejection due to binary evolution if the ejected material can survive in the close environment for 10(3)-10(4) years. Alternatively, nuclear burning instabilities extending to core C-burning might play a critical role.

  19. Anaesthetic management of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer in patients of dilated cardiomyopathy with poor ejection fraction: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Hua; Hu, Liang; Xia, Jin; Hao, Quan-Shui; Feng, Li; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    A patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with poor ejection fraction posted for laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer which was successfully performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation was reported. Our observations strongly indicate that detailed preoperative assessment, watchful intraoperative monitoring, and skillful optimization of fluid status and hemodynamic play important role in the high risk patient under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. PMID:26309623

  20. Ejection of the Massive Hydrogen-rich Envelope Timed with the Collapse of the Stripped SN 2014C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margutti, Raffaella; Kamble, A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Zapartas, E.; de Mink, S. E.; Drout, M.; Chornock, R.; Risaliti, G.; Zauderer, B. A.; Bietenholz, M.; Cantiello, M.; Chakraborti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Fong, W.; Grefenstette, B.; Guidorzi, C.; Kirshner, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Patnaude, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Gehrels, N. C.; Harrison, F.

    2017-02-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of SN 2014C during the first 500 days. These observations represent the first solid detection of a young extragalactic stripped-envelope SN out to high-energy X-rays ˜40 keV. SN 2014C shows ordinary explosion parameters (Ek ˜ 1.8 × 1051 erg and Mej ˜ 1.7 M⊙). However, over an ˜1 year timescale, SN 2014C evolved from an ordinary hydrogen-poor supernova into a strongly interacting, hydrogen-rich supernova, violating the traditional classification scheme of type-I versus type-II SNe. Signatures of the SN shock interaction with a dense medium are observed across the spectrum, from radio to hard X-rays, and revealed the presence of a massive shell of ˜1 M⊙ of hydrogen-rich material at ˜6 × 1016 cm. The shell was ejected by the progenitor star in the decades to centuries before collapse. This result challenges current theories of massive star evolution, as it requires a physical mechanism responsible for the ejection of the deepest hydrogen layer of H-poor SN progenitors synchronized with the onset of stellar collapse. Theoretical investigations point at binary interactions and/or instabilities during the last nuclear burning stages as potential triggers of the highly time-dependent mass loss. We constrain these scenarios utilizing the sample of 183 SNe Ib/c with public radio observations. Our analysis identifies SN 2014C-like signatures in ˜10% of SNe. This fraction is reasonably consistent with the expectation from the theory of recent envelope ejection due to binary evolution if the ejected material can survive in the close environment for 103-104 years. Alternatively, nuclear burning instabilities extending to core C-burning might play a critical role.

  1. High-Speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB to Planetary Nebula Transition: A Study of the Carbon Star V Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2017-08-01

    The carbon star V Hya is experiencing heavy mass loss as it undergoes the transition from an AGB star to a planetary nebula (PN). This is possibly the earliest object known in this brief phase, which is so short that few nearby stars are likely to be caught in the act. Molecular observations reveal that a bipolar nebula has been established even at this early stage. Using STIS, we obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya spanning 3 epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (2002-2004, 2011-2013). These data reveal high-velocity emission in [SII] lines from compact blobs located both on- and off-source, with the ejection axis executing a flip-flop, both in, and perpendicular to, the sky-plane. We have proposed a detailed model in which V Hya ejects high-speed (200-250 km/s) bullets once every 8.5 yr associated with periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit with an 8.5 yr period. We suggest that the jet driver is an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing. Our model predicts the locations of previously ejected bullets in V Hya and future epochs at which new bullets will emerge. We now propose new STIS observations of these remarkable bullet ejections over two new epochs well separated from previous ones, to robustly test our model. The proposed observations will provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to look on as V Hya's circumstellar envelope is sculpted by these bullets. Our study will help solve the long-standing puzzle of how the spherical mass-loss envelopes of AGB stars evolve into bipolar and multipolar PNe.

  2. Ejection of the Massive Hydrogen-rich Envelope Timed with the Collapse of the Stripped SN 2014C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margutti, Raffaella [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Kamble, A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Drout, M.; Chakraborti, S.; Kirshner, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Patnaude, D.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zapartas, E.; De Mink, S. E. [Anton Pannenkoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Risaliti, G. [INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Zauderer, B. A. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bietenholz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Cantiello, M. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Chomiuk, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Fong, W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Grefenstette, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 E. California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guidorzi, C. [University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); and others

    2017-02-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of SN 2014C during the first 500 days. These observations represent the first solid detection of a young extragalactic stripped-envelope SN out to high-energy X-rays ∼40 keV. SN 2014C shows ordinary explosion parameters ( E {sub k} ∼ 1.8 × 10{sup 51} erg and M {sub ej} ∼ 1.7 M{sub ⊙}). However, over an ∼1 year timescale, SN 2014C evolved from an ordinary hydrogen-poor supernova into a strongly interacting, hydrogen-rich supernova, violating the traditional classification scheme of type-I versus type-II SNe. Signatures of the SN shock interaction with a dense medium are observed across the spectrum, from radio to hard X-rays, and revealed the presence of a massive shell of ∼1 M {sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material at ∼6 × 10{sup 16} cm. The shell was ejected by the progenitor star in the decades to centuries before collapse. This result challenges current theories of massive star evolution, as it requires a physical mechanism responsible for the ejection of the deepest hydrogen layer of H-poor SN progenitors synchronized with the onset of stellar collapse. Theoretical investigations point at binary interactions and/or instabilities during the last nuclear burning stages as potential triggers of the highly time-dependent mass loss. We constrain these scenarios utilizing the sample of 183 SNe Ib/c with public radio observations. Our analysis identifies SN 2014C-like signatures in ∼10% of SNe. This fraction is reasonably consistent with the expectation from the theory of recent envelope ejection due to binary evolution if the ejected material can survive in the close environment for 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} years. Alternatively, nuclear burning instabilities extending to core C-burning might play a critical role.

  3. Comparing SSN Index to X-ray Flare and Coronal Mass Ejection Rates from Solar Cycles 22-24

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Lisa M.; Pernak, Rick; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    The newly revised sunspot number series allows for placing historical geoeffective storms in the context of several hundred years of solar activity. Using statistical analyses of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray observations from the past ~30 years and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) catalog (1996-present), we present sunspot-number-dependent flare and CME rates. In p...

  4. Observation on the Radio Telescope Uran-4 Of Radio Sources, Connected with the Coronal Mass Ejection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanin, V. V.; Derevjagin, V. G.; Kravetz, R. O.

    In 2012 and 2013 the observations of radio sources covering by the solar corona was conducted on the radio telescope URAN-4. In obtained data there was fixed the records of the strong radio sources, which had flow level comparable with the 3c461 source. As a result of information analysis from miscellaneous observatories about the solar activity conditions there is done the conclusion that they are connected with the coronal mass ejections which was took place that time.

  5. On the deficit problem of mass and energy of solar coronal mass ejections connected with interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchuk, V. I.; Pishkalo, N. I.

    1995-01-01

    Mean values of a number of parameters of the most powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and interplanetary shocks generated by these ejections are estimated using an analysis of data obtained by the cosmic coronagraphs and spacecrafts, and geomagnetic storm measurements. It was payed attention that the shock mass and mechanical energy, averaging 5 x 10(exp 16) grm and 2 x 10(exp 32) erg respectively, are nearly 10 times larger than corresponding parameters of the ejections. So, the CME energy deficit problem seems to exist really. To solve this problem one can make an assumption that the process of the mass and energy growth of CMEs during their propagation out of the Sun observed in the solar corona is continued in supercorona too up to distances of 10-30 solar radii. This assumption is confirmed by the data analysis of five events observed using zodiacal light photometers of the HELIOS- I and HELIOS-2 spacecrafts. The mass growth rate is estimated to be equal to (1-7) x 10(exp 11) grm/sec. It is concluded that the CME contribution to mass and energy flows in the solar winds probably, is larger enough than the value of 3-5% adopted usually.

  6. Ergospirometry and Echocardiography in Early Stage of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lima Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a syndrome characterized by changes in diastolic function; it is more prevalent among the elderly, women, and individuals with systemic hypertension (SH and diabetes mellitus. However, in its early stages, there are no signs of congestion and it is identified in tests by adverse remodeling, decreased exercise capacity and diastolic dysfunction. Objective: To compare doppler, echocardiographic (Echo, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET variables - ergospirometry variables - between two population samples: one of individuals in the early stage of this syndrome, and the other of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty eight outpatients diagnosed with heart failure according to Framingham’s criteria, ejection fraction > 50% and diastolic dysfunction according to the european society of cardiology (ESC, and 24 healthy individuals underwent Echo and CPET. Results: The group of patients showed indexed atrial volume and left ventricular mass as well as E/E’ and ILAV/A´ ratios significantly higher, in addition to a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and increased VE/VCO2 slope, even having similar left ventricular sizes in comparison to those of the sample of healthy individuals. Conclusion: There are significant differences between the structural and functional variables analyzed by Echo and CPET when comparing two population samples: one of patients in the early stage of heart failure with ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50% and another of healthy individuals.

  7. The hemodynamic effects of spinal block with low dose of bupivacaine and sufentanil in patients with low myocardial ejection fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sanatkar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of spinal block with low dose of bupivacaine and sufentanil on patients with low cardiac output who underwent lower limb surgery. Fifteen patients who had ejection fraction less than 40% (group 1 were compared with 65 cases with ejection fraction more than 40% (group 2 in our study. Our subjects underwent spinal block with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and 5 µg sufentanil. We recorded early events such as hypotension, bradycardia, vasopressor need and ST segment change in our cases. The average mean arterial pressure decreased 13% (110 mmHg to 95.7 mmHg in group 1 and 20% (160 mmHg to 128 mmHg in group 2 (P<0.001. Hypotension due to spinal anesthesia was observed in none of our subjects in both groups and none of our cases need to vasopressor support. All patients remained alert, and no ST segment changes were observed in two groups. In our study none of subjects complained of pain intraoperatively. The subjects were without complaints during the spinal anesthetic in both groups. Spinal block with low dose local anesthetic and sufentanil was a safe and effective method for lower limb surgery in patients with low ejection fraction.

  8. On injection-ejection fluid influence through different accelerating porous surfaces on unsteady 2d incompressible boundary layer characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Dečan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the porous contour in perpendicular direction, the fluid of the same properties as incompressible fluid in basic flow, has been injected or ejected with velocity who is a function of the contour longitudinal coordinate and time. The corresponding equations of unsteady boundary layer, by introducing the appropriate variable transformations, momentum and energy equations and two similarity parameters sets, are transformed into generalized form. These parameters are expressing the influence of the outer flow velocity, the injection or ejection velocity and the flow history in boundary layer, on the boundary layer characteristics. Obtained generalized solutions are used to calculate the distributions of velocity, and shear stress in laminar-turbulent transition of unsteady incompressible boundary layer on different porous contours: circular cylinder, thin elliptical cylinder and aerofoil, whose centers velocities changes in time as a degree functions. The ejection of fluid postpones the boundary layer separation, i.e. laminar-turbulent transition, and vice versa the injection of fluid favors the separation. Boundary layer characteristics are found directly, no further numerical integration of momentum equation.

  9. Computer simulations of material ejection during C60 and Arm bombardment of octane and β-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, G.; Kanski, M.; Maciazek, D.; Garrison, B. J.; Postawa, Z.

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations are used to investigate material ejection and fragment formation during keV C60 and Arm (m = 60, 101, 205, 366, 872 and 2953) bombardment of organic solids composed from octane and β-carotene molecules at 0° and 45° impact angle. Both systems are found to sputter efficiently. For the octane system, material removal occurs predominantly by ejection of intact molecules, while fragment emission is a significant ejection channel for β-carotene. A difference in the molecular dimensions is proposed to explain this observation. It has been shown that the dependence of the sputtering yield Y on the primary kinetic energy E and the cluster size n can be expressed in a simplified form if represented in reduced units. A linear and nonlinear dependence of the Y/n on the E/n are identified and the position of the transition point from the linear to nonlinear regions depends on the size of the cluster projectile. The impact angle has a minor influence on the shape of the simplified representation.

  10. The Verification of Coupled Neutronics Thermal-Hydraulics Code NODAL3 in the PWR Rod Ejection Benchmark

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    Surian Pinem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics code NODAL3 has been developed based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry for typical PWR static and transient analyses. The spatial variables are treated by using a polynomial nodal method while for the neutron dynamic solver the adiabatic and improved quasistatic methods are adopted. In this paper we report the benchmark calculation results of the code against the OECD/NEA CRP PWR rod ejection cases. The objective of this work is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in analysing the reactivity initiated accident due to the control rod ejection. The NEACRP PWR rod ejection cases are chosen since many organizations participated in the NEA project using various methods as well as approximations, so that, in addition to the reference solutions, the calculation results of NODAL3 code can also be compared to other codes’ results. The transient parameters to be verified are time of power peak, power peak, final power, final average Doppler temperature, maximum fuel temperature, and final coolant temperature. The results of NODAL3 code agree well with the PHANTHER reference solutions in 1993 and 1997 (revised. Comparison with other validated codes, DYN3D/R and ANCK, shows also a satisfactory agreement.

  11. A detailed observation of the ejection and retraction of defense tissue acontia in sea anemone (Exaiptasia pallida

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    Julie Lam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acontia, located in the gastrovascular cavity of anemone, are thread-like tissue containing numerous stinging cells which serve as a unique defense tissue against predators of the immobile acontiarian sea anemone. Although its morphology and biological functions, such as defense and digestion, have been studied, the defense behavior and the specific events of acontia ejection and retraction are unclear. The aim of this study is to observe and record the detailed process of acontia control in anemones. Observations reveal that the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, possibly controls a network of body muscles and manipulates water pressure in the gastrovascular cavity to eject and retract acontia. Instead of resynthesizing acontia after each ejection, the retraction and reuse of acontia enables the anemone to respond quickly at any given time, thus increasing its overall survivability. Since the Exaiptasia anemone is an emerging model for coral biology, this study provides a foundation to further investigate the biophysics, neuroscience, and defense biology of this marine model organism.

  12. Designing a Tool System for Lowering Friction during the Ejection of In-Die Sintered Micro Gears

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    Emanuele Cannella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in micro-forging technologies generally involve process, material, and tool design. The field assisted sintering technique (FAST is a process that makes possible the manufacture of near-net-shape components in a closed-die setup. However, the final part quality is affected by the influence of friction during the ejection phase, caused by radial expansion of the compacted and sintered powder. This paper presents the development of a pre-stressed tool system for the manufacture of micro gears made of aluminum. By using the hot isostatic pressing (HIP sintering process and different combinations of process parameters, the designed tool system was compared to a similar tool system designed without a pre-stressing strategy. The comparison between the two tool systems was based on the ejection force and part fidelity. The ejection force was measured during the tests, while the part fidelity was documented using an optical microscope and computed tomography in order to obtain a multi-scale characterization. The results showed that the use of pre-stress reduced the porosity in the gear by 40% and improved the dimensional fidelity by more than 75% compared to gears produced without pre-stress.

  13. New Approach for Studying Slow Fragmentation Kinetics in FT-ICR: Surface-Induced Dissociation Combined with Resonant Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a new approach for studying the kinetics of large ion fragmentation in the gas phase by coupling surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer with resonant ejection of selected fragment ions using a relatively short (5 ms) ejection pulse. The approach is demonstrated for singly protonated angiotensin III ions excited by collisions with a self-assembled monolayer of alkylthiol on gold (HSAM). The overall decomposition rate and rate constants of individual reaction channels are controlled by varying the kinetic energy of the precursor ion in a range of 65–95 eV. The kinetics of peptide fragmentation are probed by varying the delay time between resonant ejection and fragment ion detection at a constant total reaction time. RRKM modeling indicates that the shape of the kinetics plots is strongly affected by the shape and position of the energy deposition function (EDF) describing the internal energy distribution of the ion following ion-surface collision. Modeling of the kinetics data provides detailed information on the shape of the EDF and energy and entropy effects of individual reaction channels.

  14. An efficient, selective collisional ejection mechanism for inner-shell population inversion in laser-driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHROEDER,W. ANDREAS; NELSON,THOMAS R.; BORISOV,A.B.; LONGWORTH,J.W.; BOYER,K.; RHODES,C.K.

    2000-06-07

    A theoretical analysis of laser-driven collisional ejection of inner-shell electrons is presented to explain the previously observed anomalous kilovolt L-shell x-ray emission spectra from atomic Xe cluster targets excited by intense sub-picosecond 248nrn ultraviolet radiation. For incident ponderomotively-driven electrons photoionized by strong above threshold ionization, the collisional ejection mechanism is shown to be highly l-state and significantly n-state (i.e. radially) selective for time periods shorter than the collisional dephasing time of the photoionized electronic wavefunction. The resulting preference for the collisional ejection of 2p electrons by an ionized 4p state produces the measured anomalous Xe(L) emission which contains direct evidence for (i) the generation of Xe{sup 27+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}) and Xe{sup 28+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 9}) ions exhibiting inner-shell population inversion and (ii) a coherent correlated electron state collision responsible for the production of double 2p vacancies. For longer time periods, the selectivity of this coherent impact ionization mechanism is rapidly reduced by the combined effects of intrinsic quantum mechanical spreading and dephasing--in agreement with the experimentally observed and extremely strong {minus}{lambda}{sup {minus}6} pump-laser wavelength dependence of the efficiency of inner-shell (2p) vacancy production in Xe clusters excited in underdense plasmas.

  15. Outcomes of de novo and acute decompensated heart failure patients according to ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, Ga Yeon; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Lee, Hae-Young; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Jae-Joong; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Chae, Shung Chull; Baek, Sang Hong; Kang, Seok-Min; Choi, Dong-Ju; Yoo, Byung-Su; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyun-Young; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Oh, Byung-Hee

    2018-03-01

    There are conflicting results among previous studies regarding the prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with de novo acute heart failure (AHF) or acute decompensated HF (ADHF) according to HFpEF (EF≥50%), or HFrEF (EF<40%) and to define the prognosis of patients with HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF, 40≤EF<50%). Between March 2011 and February 2014, 5625 consecutive patients with AHF were recruited from 10 university hospitals. A total of 5414 (96.2%) patients with EF data were enrolled, which consisted of 2867 (53.0%) patients with de novo and 2547 (47.0%) with ADHF. Each of the enrolled group was stratified by EF. In de novo, all-cause death rates were not significantly different between HFpEF and HFrEF (HFpEF vs HFrEF, 206/744 (27.7%) vs 438/1631 (26.9%), HR adj 1.15, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.38, p=0.14). However, among patients with ADHF, HFrEF had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with HFpEF (HFpEF vs HFrEF, 245/613 (40.0%) vs 694/1551 (44.7%), HR adj 1.25, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.47, p=0.007). Also, in ADHF, HFmrEF was associated with a significantly lower mortality rate within 1 year compared with HFrEF (HFmrEF vs HFrEF, 88/383 (23.0%) vs 430/1551 (27.7%), HR adj 1.31, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.65, p=0.03), but a significantly higher mortality rate after 1 year compared with HFpEF (HFmrEF vs HFpEF, 83/295 (28.1%) vs 101/469 (21.5%), HR adj 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96, p=0.02). HFpEF may indicate a better prognosis compared with HFrEF in ADHF, but not in de novo AHF. For patients with ADHF, the prognosis associated with HFmrEF was similar to that of HFpEF within the first year following hospitalisation and similar to HFrEF 1  year after hospitalisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  16. Modelling the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Soenen, A.; Poedts, S.

    2008-09-01

    The possible role of magnetic flux emergence as triggering mechanism for the initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is studied in the framework of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model. The full MHD equations are solved numerically on a spherical, axisymmetric (2.5D) domain. All simulations are performed with a modified version of the Versatile Advection Code (VAC) (Toth 1996). The magnetic field of the solution is maintained divergence-free at machine precision by exploiting an approach similar to that of Balsara and Spicer (1999): instead of storing the magnetic field components on a staggered mesh, we use the vector potential components in the nodes. In order to get satisfactorily solar wind properties, the Manchester et al. (2004) source term is implemented in the energy equation and gravity is taken into account as well in the model. Finally, a magnetic vector potential is superimposed at the inlet boundary of the Parker wind solution so that, when the steady state is reached, the Antiochos et al. (1999) triple arcade 'break out' magnetic field configuration (symmetric with respect to the equator) of a helmet streamers is obtained. When the steady state has been reached, we impose a magnetic flux emergence at the inlet boundary that is linearly growing in time during a time interval of ? t = 24 hours. After this time the vector potential at the solar base is again fixed. Due to the magnetic flux emergence at the solar base, extra radial magnetic field, is built up near the neutral line of the central arcade that expands outward. This generates an extra upward magnetic pressure force. As a consequence, the central flux system expands outward. Also the overlying field expands and, therefore, the downward magnetic tension increases. As a result, the X-point is flattened. When the distance between the central expanding arcade field and the overlying streamer field is of the order of the grid resolution, the (numerical) reconnection between these fields

  17. Relationship between ankle-brachial index and left ventricle ejection fraction in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Khosroshahi, Hamid; Abbasnejad, Mohsen; Gojazade, Morteza; Mansouri, Saeed; Ahadi, Hamid Reza; Moghadaszade, Majid

    2015-11-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a noninvasive test which employs as a diagnostic marker of atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to investigate the association between ABI and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients on hemodialysis. Eighty-six patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis and 100 patients referred for echocardiography without apparent kidney disease were included. Ankle-brachial index was calculated by dividing the highest ankle pressure (the left and right dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial) by the brachial systolic blood pressure on the arm with no arteriovenous fistula. The relationship between ABI and LVEF was investigated. The hemodialysis patients were older on average than the control group (P = .004). The total average of ABI in the hemodialysis group was less than 0.9 in 20 patients (23.3%) and 0.9 to 1.3 in 66 (76.7%). These were 11 (11%) and 89 (89%), respectively, among the controls (P = .02). The mean LVEF was 49.7 ± 8.6% in the hemodialysis patients and 53.8 ± 9.5% in the controls (P = .003). There was a significant correlation between LVEF and ABI in the hemodialysis patients (r = 0.06; P = .001), and ABI could predict the LVEF with sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 94.1%, respectively (positive predictive value, 34.6%; negative predictive value, 48.5%). These findings show that ABI may be applied in predicting the presence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are recommended to confirm this association.

  18. Poor Reproducibility of Gallbladder Ejection Fraction by Biliary Scintigraphy for Diagnosis of Biliary Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J Bart; Fields, Ryan C; Strasberg, Steven M

    2018-02-01

    Twenty percent of cholecystectomies in the US are performed for a diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia. Diagnosis is made by measuring gallbladder ejection fraction (GbEF) using hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Our purpose was to evaluate the reproducibility of GbEF measurements. This is a retrospective review of patients referred for cholecystectomy, from 2010 to 2016, with a diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia based on a GbEF test, who then underwent a repeat GbEF test. Thirty consecutive patients were identified by hospital records. Re-testing of GbEF was performed at least 6 weeks after the initial test using Tc-99m and slow injection of sincalide at 0.02 mcg/kg. On re-testing, 16 of 30 patients (53%) patients had a normal GbEF of >35%, ie the initial test result was not reproducible in them. Age, sex, days between testing, and initial GbEF did not differ between groups. The 14 patients who re-tested positive for biliary dyskinesia with reduced GbEF were significantly more likely to have episodic pain than steady pain. Re-testing frequently resulted in change in management in that most patients who re-tested in the normal range were not offered cholecystectomy. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with GbEF is a poorly reproducible test. Re-testing resulted in a change in management in many patients who then avoided cholecystectomy. Strong consideration should be given to repeating hepatobiliary scintigraphy with GbEF before cholecystectomy in patients with an initial positive test. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Localization of the Houdinisome (Ejection Proteins inside the Bacteriophage P22 Virion by Bubblegram Imaging

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    Weimin Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The P22 capsid is a T=7 icosahedrally symmetric protein shell with a portal protein dodecamer at one 5-fold vertex. Extending outwards from that vertex is a short tail, and putatively extending inwards is a 15-nm-long α-helical barrel formed by the C-terminal domains of portal protein subunits. In addition to the densely packed genome, the capsid contains three “ejection proteins” (E-proteins [gp7, gp16, and gp20] destined to exit from the tightly sealed capsid during the process of DNA delivery into target cells. We estimated their copy numbers by quantitative SDS-PAGE as approximately 12 molecules per virion of gp16 and gp7 and 30 copies of gp20. To localize them, we used bubblegram imaging, an adaptation of cryo-electron microscopy in which gaseous bubbles induced in proteins by prolonged irradiation are used to map the proteins’ locations. We applied this technique to wild-type P22, a triple mutant lacking all three E-proteins, and three mutants each lacking one E-protein. We conclude that all three E-proteins are loosely clustered around the portal axis, in the region displaced radially inwards from the portal crown. The bubblegram data imply that approximately half of the α-helical barrel seen in the portal crystal structure is disordered in the mature virion, and parts of the disordered region present binding sites for E-proteins. Thus positioned, the E-proteins are strategically placed to pass down the shortened barrel and through the portal ring and the tail, as they exit from the capsid during an infection.

  20. Neck injury criteria formulation and injury risk curves for the ejection environment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeffrey C; Miller, Michael E; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Erich, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    Helmet mounted displays provide increased pilot capability, but can also increase the risk of injury during ejection. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) neck injury criteria (Nij) metric is evaluated for understanding the impact of helmet mass on the risk of injury and modified risk curves are developed which are compatible with the needs of the aviation community. Existent human subject data collected under various accelerative and head loading conditions were applied to understand the sensitivity of the Nij construct to changes in acceleration and helmet mass, as well as its stability with respect to gender, body mass, neck circumference, and sitting height. A portion of this data was combined with data from an earlier postmortem human subject study to create pilot study modified risk curves. These curves were compared and contrasted with the NHTSA risk curves. A statistically significant difference in the peak mean Nij was observed when seat acceleration increased by 2 G, but not when helmet mass was varied from 1.6 kg to 2 kg at a constant seat acceleration of 8 G. Although NHTSA risk curves predict a 13% risk of AIS 2+ injury for the 8-G, 2-kg helmet condition mean Nij of 0.138, no AIS 2+ injuries were observed. Modified risk curves were produced which predict a 0.91% risk of AIS 2+ injury under these conditions. The Nij was shown to be sensitive to changes in acceleration and generally robust to anthropometric differences between individuals. Modified risk curves are proposed which improve risk prediction at lower Nij values.

  1. Effects of beta-blockers on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a meta-analysis.

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    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of beta-blockers on the prognosis of the heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF remain controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of beta-blockers on mortality and hospitalization in the patients with HFpEF. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases from 2005 to June 2013 was conducted. Clinical studies reporting outcomes of mortality and/or hospitalization for patients with HFpEF (EF ≥ 40%, being assigned to beta-blockers treatment and non-beta-blockers control group were included. RESULTS: A total of 12 clinical studies (2 randomized controlled trials and 10 observational studies involving 21,206 HFpEF patients were included for this meta-analysis. The pooled analysis demonstrated that beta-blocker exposure was associated with a 9% reduction in relative risk for all-cause mortality in patients with HFpEF (95% CI: 0.87 - 0.95; P < 0.001. Whereas, the all-cause hospitalization, HF hospitalization and composite outcomes (mortality and hospitalization were not affected by this treatment (P=0.26, P=0.97, and P=0.88 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The beta-blockers treatment for the patients with HFpEF was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, but not with a lower risk of hospitalization. These finding were mainly obtained from observational studies, and further investigations are needed to make an assertion.

  2. On the Collision Nature of Two Coronal Mass Ejections: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fang; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Feng, Xueshang

    2017-08-01

    Observational and numerical studies have shown that the kinematic characteristics of two or more coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may change significantly after a CME collision. The collision of CMEs can have a different nature, i.e. inelastic, elastic, and superelastic processes, depending on their initial kinematic characteristics. In this article, we first review the existing definitions of collision types including Newton's classical definition, the energy definition, Poisson's definition, and Stronge's definition, of which the first two were used in the studies of CME-CME collisions. Then, we review the recent research progresses on the nature of CME-CME collisions with the focus on which CME kinematic properties affect the collision nature. It is shown that observational analysis and numerical simulations can both yield an inelastic, perfectly inelastic, merging-like collision, or a high possibility of a superelastic collision. Meanwhile, previous studies based on a 3D collision picture suggested that a low approaching speed of two CMEs is favorable for a superelastic nature. Since CMEs are an expanding magnetized plasma structure, the CME collision process is quite complex, and we discuss this complexity. Moreover, the models used in both observational and numerical studies contain many limitations. All of the previous studies on collisions have not shown the separation of two colliding CMEs after a collision. Therefore the collision between CMEs cannot be considered as an ideal process in the context of a classical Newtonian definition. In addition, many factors are not considered in either observational analysis or numerical studies, e.g. CME-driven shocks and magnetic reconnections. Owing to the complexity of the CME collision process, a more detailed and in-depth observational analysis and simulation work are needed to fully understand the CME collision process.

  3. Planar magnetic structures in coronal mass ejection-driven sheath regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Palmerio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Planar magnetic structures (PMSs are periods in the solar wind during which interplanetary magnetic field vectors are nearly parallel to a single plane. One of the specific regions where PMSs have been reported are coronal mass ejection (CME-driven sheaths. We use here an automated method to identify PMSs in 95 CME sheath regions observed in situ by the Wind and ACE spacecraft between 1997 and 2015. The occurrence and location of the PMSs are related to various shock, sheath, and CME properties. We find that PMSs are ubiquitous in CME sheaths; 85 % of the studied sheath regions had PMSs with the mean duration of 6 h. In about one-third of the cases the magnetic field vectors followed a single PMS plane that covered a significant part (at least 67 % of the sheath region. Our analysis gives strong support for two suggested PMS formation mechanisms: the amplification and alignment of solar wind discontinuities near the CME-driven shock and the draping of the magnetic field lines around the CME ejecta. For example, we found that the shock and PMS plane normals generally coincided for the events where the PMSs occurred near the shock (68 % of the PMS plane normals near the shock were separated by less than 20° from the shock normal, while deviations were clearly larger when PMSs occurred close to the ejecta leading edge. In addition, PMSs near the shock were generally associated with lower upstream plasma beta than the cases where PMSs occurred near the leading edge of the CME. We also demonstrate that the planar parts of the sheath contain a higher amount of strong southward magnetic field than the non-planar parts, suggesting that planar sheaths are more likely to drive magnetospheric activity.

  4. On the relationship between interplanetary coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds

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    E. K. J. Kilpua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of magnetic clouds (MCs to interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs is still an open issue in space research. The view that all ICMEs would originate as magnetic flux ropes has received increasing attention, although near the orbit of the Earth only about one-third of ICMEs show clear MC signatures and often the MC occupies only a portion of the more extended region showing ICME signatures. In this work we analyze 79 events between 1996 and 2009 reported in existing ICME/MC catalogs (Wind magnetic cloud list and the Richardson and Cane ICME list using near-Earth observations by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer and Wind. We perform a systematic comparison of cases where ICME and MC signatures coincided and where ICME signatures extended significantly beyond the MC boundaries. We find clear differences in the characteristics of these two event types. In particular, the events where ICME signatures continued more than 6 h past the MC rear boundary had 2.7 times larger speed difference between the ICME's leading edge and the preceding solar wind, 1.4 times higher magnetic fields, 2.1 times larger widths and they experienced three times more often strong expansion than the events for which the rear boundaries coincided. The events with significant mismatch in MC and ICME boundary times were also embedded in a faster solar wind and the majority of them were observed close to the solar maximum. Our analysis shows that the sheath, the MC and the regions of ICME-related plasma in front and behind the MC have different magnetic field, plasma and charge state characteristics, thus suggesting that these regions separate already close to the Sun. Our study shows that the geometrical effect (the encounter through the CME leg and/or far from the flux rope center does not contribute much to the observed mismatch in the MC and ICME boundary times.

  5. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, W. Paul; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-01

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  6. Relationship between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy among cardiac patients.

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    Yuki Fujimura

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients.Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry. Among 270 patients who were not taking UA-lowering drugs, XOR activity was associated with body mass index (BMI, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, HbA1c and renal function. Although XOR activity was not associated with serum UA overall, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, those with higher XOR activity had higher serum UA among patients without CKD. Compared with patients with the lowest XOR activity quartile, those with higher three XOR activity quartiles more frequently had left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, plasma XOR activity showed a U-shaped association with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels, and these associations were independent of age, gender, BMI, ALT, HbA1C, serum UA, and CKD stages.Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. Whether pharmaceutical modification of plasma XOR activity might inhibit cardiac remodeling and improve cardiovascular outcome should be investigated in future studies.

  7. TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION BETWEEN TWO SOLAR FILAMENTS TRIGGERING OUTFLOWS AND A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Leping [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ma, Suli, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2016-02-20

    Triggering mechanisms of solar eruptions have long been a challenge. A few previous case studies have indicated that preceding gentle filament merging via magnetic reconnection may launch following intense eruption, according to the tether-cutting (TC) model. However, the detailed process of TC reconnection between filaments has not been exhibited yet. In this work, we report the high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) of TC reconnection between two sheared filaments in NOAA active region 12146. The TC reconnection commenced on ∼15:35 UT on 2014 August 29 and triggered an eruptive GOES C4.3-class flare ∼8 minutes later. An associated coronal mass ejection appeared in the field of view of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO C2 about 40 minutes later. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of IRIS data, bright plasma outflows generated by the TC reconnection are clearly observed, which moved along the subarcsecond fine-scale flux tube structures in the erupting filament. Based on the imaging and spectral observations, the mean plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the TC reconnection outflows are separately measured to be ∼79 and 86 km s{sup −1}, which derives an average real speed of ∼120 km s{sup −1}. In addition, it is found that spectral features, such as peak intensities, Doppler shifts, and line widths in the TC reconnection region are evidently enhanced compared to those in the nearby region just before the flare.

  8. Statistical properties of solar flares and coronal mass ejections through the solar cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telloni, Daniele; Antonucci, Ester [INAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Carbone, Vincenzo [University of Calabria, Department of Physics, Ponte P. Bucci Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); CNR-Institute for Chemical-Physical Processes, Ponte P. Bucci Cubo 33B, 87036 Rende (Italy); Lepreti, Fabio [University of Calabria, Department of Physics, Ponte P. Bucci Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2016-03-25

    Waiting Time Distributions (WTDs) of solar flares are investigated all through the solar cycle. The same approach applied to Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in a previous work is considered here for flare occurrence. Our analysis reveals that flares and CMEs share some common statistical properties, which result dependent on the level of solar activity. Both flares and CMEs seem to independently occur during minimum solar activity phases, whilst their WTDs significantly deviate from a Poisson function at solar maximum, thus suggesting that these events are correlated. The characteristics of WTDs are constrained by the physical processes generating those eruptions associated with flares and CMEs. A scenario may be drawn in which different mechanisms are actively at work during different phases of the solar cycle. Stochastic processes, most likely related to random magnetic reconnections of the field lines, seem to play a key role during solar minimum periods. On the other hand, persistent processes, like sympathetic eruptions associated to the variability of the photospheric magnetism, are suggested to dominate during periods of high solar activity. Moreover, despite the similar statistical properties shown by flares and CMEs, as it was mentioned above, their WTDs appear different in some aspects. During solar minimum periods, the flare occurrence randomness seems to be more evident than for CMEs. Those persistent mechanisms generating interdependent events during maximum periods of solar activity can be suggested to play a more important role for CMEs than for flares, thus mitigating the competitive action of the random processes, which seem instead strong enough to weaken the correlations among flare event occurrence during solar minimum periods. However, it cannot be excluded that the physical processes at the basis of the origin of the temporal correlation between solar events are different for flares and CMEs, or that, more likely, more sophisticated effects are

  9. Investigating the kinematics of coronal mass ejections with the automated CORIMP catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, compounded by the variations in their dynamics, morphology and frequency of occurrence. The large amounts of data available from missions like the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO make manual cataloging of CMEs tedious and prone to human error, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required and often preferred. A new coronal image processing catalog called CORIMP has been developed in an effort to achieve this, through the implementation of a dynamic background separation technique and multiscale edge detection. These algorithms together isolate and characterise CME structure in the field-of-view of the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO onboard SOHO. CORIMP also applies a Savitzky-Golay filter, along with quadratic and linear fits, to the height-time measurements for better revealing the true CME speed and acceleration profiles across the plane-of-sky. Here we present a sample of new results from the CORIMP CME catalog, and directly compare them with the other automated catalogs of Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus and Solar Eruptive Events Detection System (SEEDS, as well as the manual CME catalog at the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW Data Center and a previously published study of the sample events. We further investigate a form of unsupervised machine learning by using a k-means clustering algorithm to distinguish detections of multiple CMEs that occur close together in space and time. While challenges still exist, this investigation and comparison of results demonstrate the reliability and robustness of the CORIMP catalog, proving its effectiveness at detecting and tracking CMEs throughout the LASCO dataset.

  10. The importance of integrated left atrial evaluation: From hypertension to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Matteo; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Padeletti, Luigi; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Coiro, Stefano; Emdin, Michele; Marcucci, Rossella; Morrone, Doralisa; Cameli, Matteo; Savino, Ketty; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2017-12-28

    Functional analysis and measurement of left atrium are an integral part of cardiac evaluation, and they represent a key element during non-invasive analysis of diastolic function in patients with hypertension (HT) and/or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, diastolic dysfunction remains quite elusive regarding classification, and atrial size and function are two key factors for left ventricular (LV) filling evaluation. Chronic left atrial (LA) remodelling is the final step of chronic intra-cavitary pressure overload, and it accompanies increased neurohormonal, proarrhythmic and prothrombotic activities. In this systematic review, we aim to purpose a multi-modality approach for LA geometry and function analysis, which integrates diastolic flow with LA characteristics and remodelling through application of both traditional and new diagnostic tools. The most important studies published in the literature on LA size, function and diastolic dysfunction in patients with HFpEF, HT and/or atrial fibrillation (AF) are considered and discussed. In HFpEF and HT, pulsed and tissue Doppler assessments are useful tools to estimate LV filling pressure, atrio-ventricular coupling and LV relaxation but they need to be enriched with LA evaluation in terms of morphology and function. An integrated evaluation should be also applied to patients with a high arrhythmic risk, in whom eccentric LA remodelling and higher LA stiffness are associated with a greater AF risk. Evaluation of LA size, volume, function and structure are mandatory in the management of patients with HT, HFpEF and AF. A multi-modality approach could provide additional information, identifying subjects with more severe LA remodelling. Left atrium assessment deserves an accurate study inside the cardiac imaging approach and optimised measurement with established cut-offs need to be better recognised through multicenter studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Left ventricular strain and twisting in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Cuspidi, Cesare; Genger, Martin; Morris, Daniel A; Zhang, Kun; Walther, Nina Alexandra; Pieske, Burket

    2017-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of the patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), our knowledge about this entity, from diagnostic tools to therapeutic approach, is still not well established. The evaluation of patients with HFpEF is mainly based on echocardiography, as the most widely accepted tool in cardiac imaging. Identification of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has long been considered as the only responsible for HFpEF, and its evaluation is still "sine qua non" of HFpEF diagnostics. However, one should be aware of the fact that identifying cardiac dysfunction in HFpEF might be very challenging and often needs more complex evaluation of cardiac structure and function. New echocardiographic modalities such as 2D and 3D speckle tracking imaging could help in the diagnosis of HFpEF and provide further information regarding LV function and mechanics. Early diagnosis, medical management, and adequate monitoring of HFpEF patients are prerequisites of modern medical treatment. New healthcare approaches require individualized patient care, which is why clinicians should have all clinical, laboratory, and diagnostic data before making final decisions about the treatment of any patients. This is particularly important for HFpEF that often remains undiagnosed for quite a long time, which further prolongs the beginning of adequate treatment and brings into question outcome of these patients. The aim of this article is to provide the overview of the main principles of LV mechanics and summarize recent data regarding LV strain in patients with HFpEF.

  12. Linking Stealthy Signatures of Coronal Mass Ejections at the Sun to 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, T.; Nitta, N.

    2015-12-01

    One of the underlying problems in the investigation of CME genesis and evolution is relating remote- sensing observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to in-situ observations of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). Typically, remote-sensing observations of an eruption are first observed in the low corona, followed by coronagraph observations of the global structure of the CME projected onto the plane of the sky, and then finally local, highly-quantitative measurements of an ICME are made in situ along a spacecraft trajectory. However, the dramatic change in solar activity in recent years has raised awareness of "stealth" CMEs, which are CMEs observed in coronagraph data but not in coronal images, especially in disk view. Largely identified during the deep minimum of cycle 23/24, stealth CMEs appear to be on the rise. Since solar cycle 25 brings with it the possibility of yet another low activity cycle, it is very likely that the number of stealth CMEs will remain a significant fraction of ejecta. We investigate the properties of stealth CMEs during the rise of solar cycle 24 and through the current solar maximum, paying special attention to their proximity to coronal holes. We investigate the existence of mismatched polarity reversals in the magnetic field and electron strahl measured in situ within ICMEs associated with stealth CMEs. We discuss the plausibility of interaction with solar wind emanating from coronal holes as a key element of stealth CME eruption as evidenced by expanding coronal hole boundaries during eruption and the presence of interchange reconnection within ICMEs.

  13. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Paul Segars, W; Lodge, Martin A; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-07

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  14. Exercise left ventricular ejection fraction predicts events in right bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Broullón, Javier; Yañez, Juan; Martinez, Dolores; Vazquez, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) during exercise is not easy in patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB). Also, the value of exercise echocardiography (ExE) for predicting outcome in them has not been addressed. We sought to assess its prognostic value in patients with RBBB and known/suspected coronary disease. Retrospective analysis of data on 703 patients with RBBB who were submitted to a clinically-indicated ExE. The end points were overall mortality and combined myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. During follow-up (4.1 ± 4.5 years) there were 130 deaths and 108 combined events. Independent predictors of combined events were history of coronary artery disease (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.37, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.24-4.52, p = 0.009) resting wall motion score index (HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.12-4.10, p = 0.02), metabolic equivalents (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.93-0.97, p = 0.007), Δ in double product with exercise (HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-1.00, p = 0.036) and Δ in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with exercise (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94-0.99, p = 0.01). Neither positive clinical nor ECG exercise testing was predictive. Combined event rates were 3.3% in patients with ΔLVEF > 5%, 4.7% in those with ΔLVEF between 1-5% and 8.2% in those with no increase (Δ < 1%). A decrease in LVEF during exercise is predictive of serious events in patients with RBBB.

  15. Influence of atrial fibrillation on the mortality of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jonathan; Formiga, Francesc; Cepeda, Jose; Llacer, Pau; Arévalo-Lorido, Juan; Cerqueiro, Jose; González-Franco, Alvaro; Epelde, Francesc; Manzano, Luis; Montero Pérez-Barquero, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    The impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) on the prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still the subject of debate. We analysed the influence of AF on the prognosis on mortality and readmission in patients with HFpEF. Prospective observational study in 1,971 patients with HFpEF, who were admitted for acute heart failure. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of AF. We analysed mortality, readmissions and combined mortality/readmissions at one year follow-up. A total of 1,177 (59%) patients had AF, mean age 80.3 (7.8) years and 1,233 (63%) were women. Patients with HFpEF and AF were older, female, greater valvular aetiology and lower comorbidity measured by the Charlson index. At the one year follow-up, 430 (22%) patients had died and 840 (43%) had been readmitted. In the 2 groups analysed, there was no difference in all-cause mortality (22 vs. 21%; P=.739, AF vs. no-AF, respectively) or cardiovascular causes (9.6 vs. 8.2%; P=.739, AF vs. no-AF, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, factors associated with higher mortality were: age, male, valvular aetiology, uric acid, and comorbidity. In the analysis of the subgroup with HFpEF with AF, the presence of chronic AF compared to de novo AF was associated with higher mortality (HR 1,716; 95% CI 1,099-2,681; P=.018). In patients with HFpEF, the presence of AF is frequent. During the one-year follow-up, the presence of AF does not influence mortality or readmissions in patients with HFpEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections Observed During the Rising Phase of Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Ibrahim, M.; Manoharan, P. K.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the interplanetary consequences and travel time details of 58 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the Sun-Earth distance. The CMEs considered are halo and partial halo events of width {>} 120°. These CMEs occurred during 2009 - 2013, in the ascending phase of the Solar Cycle 24. Moreover, they are Earth-directed events that originated close to the centre of the solar disk (within about ±30° from the Sun's centre) and propagated approximately along the Sun-Earth line. For each CME, the onset time and the initial speed have been estimated from the white-light images observed by the LASCO coronagraphs onboard the SOHO space mission. These CMEs cover an initial speed range of {˜} 260 - 2700 km s^{-1}. For these CMEs, the associated interplanetary shocks (IP shocks) and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) at the near-Earth environment have been identified from in-situ solar wind measurements available at the OMNI data base. Most of these events have been associated with moderate to intense IP shocks. However, these events have caused only weak to moderate geomagnetic storms in the Earth's magnetosphere. The relationship of the travel time with the initial speed of the CME has been compared with the observations made in the previous Cycle 23, during 1996 - 2004. In the present study, for a given initial speed of the CME, the travel time and the speed at 1 AU suggest that the CME was most likely not much affected by the drag caused by the slow-speed dominated heliosphere. Additionally, the weak geomagnetic storms and moderate IP shocks associated with the current set of Earth-directed CMEs indicate magnetically weak CME events of Cycle 24. The magnetic energy that is available to propagate CME and cause geomagnetic storm could be significantly low.

  17. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Ejection Fractions in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Long-Term Trastuzumab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yuanpeng; Zhang, Qiwen

    2016-12-21

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the long-term clinical tolerance and cardiac safety during trastuzumab treatment for patients diagnosed as having breast cancer with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total 105 female cases diagnosed as having breast cancer with high expression of Her2, were treated with trastuzumab (T). All of them underwent electrocardiography monitoring in the process of T treatment. Left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) were estimated using echocardiography before the T treatment and every 3 months. General clinical data and above parameters were collected and reviewed as analysis. RESULTS The mean value of LVEFs with baseline was higher than those at other time points. All LVEFs were more than 50% during the course of trastuzumab treatment. The decline scope ≥15% of LVEFs ranged from 2 months to 16 months, and the ratios were counted for 3.1% at 2 months, 4.3% at 6 months, 3.8% at 10 months, and 5.4% at 16 months. Furthermore, a larger decrease of LVEF during the course occurred mainly in the patients with cumulative dose of A >300 mg/m², without CPD and 16-month duration of T treatment. There was a strong correlation between cumulative dose of A, cyto/cardio-protection drugs (CPD), duration of T, and the change of LVEF (P=0.82, P=0.744, and P=0.717, respectively), which indicated that 3 factors may be associated with the change in LVEF (Ptrastuzumab treatment was significantly decreased, which may be seen as a favorable benefit-risk ratio for patients undergoing long-term trastuzumab treatment.

  18. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the Heliophysics System Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C; Isavnin, A; Boakes, P D; Kilpua, E K J; Davies, J A; Harrison, R A; Barnes, D; Krupar, V; Eastwood, J P; Good, S W; Forsyth, R J; Bothmer, V; Reiss, M A; Amerstorfer, T; Winslow, R M; Anderson, B J; Philpott, L C; Rodriguez, L; Rouillard, A P; Gallagher, P; Nieves-Chinchilla, T; Zhang, T L

    2017-07-01

    We present an advance toward accurately predicting the arrivals of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the terrestrial planets, including Earth. For the first time, we are able to assess a CME prediction model using data over two thirds of a solar cycle of observations with the Heliophysics System Observatory. We validate modeling results of 1337 CMEs observed with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) heliospheric imagers (HI) (science data) from 8 years of observations by five in situ observing spacecraft. We use the self-similar expansion model for CME fronts assuming 60° longitudinal width, constant speed, and constant propagation direction. With these assumptions we find that 23%-35% of all CMEs that were predicted to hit a certain spacecraft lead to clear in situ signatures, so that for one correct prediction, two to three false alarms would have been issued. In addition, we find that the prediction accuracy does not degrade with the HI longitudinal separation from Earth. Predicted arrival times are on average within 2.6 ± 16.6 h difference of the in situ arrival time, similar to analytical and numerical modeling, and a true skill statistic of 0.21. We also discuss various factors that may improve the accuracy of space weather forecasting using wide-angle heliospheric imager observations. These results form a first-order approximated baseline of the prediction accuracy that is possible with HI and other methods used for data by an operational space weather mission at the Sun-Earth L5 point.

  19. Usefulness of digital angiography in the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, G; van den Brand, M; Zorn, I; Loois, G; Reiber, J H

    1990-11-01

    With modern digital cardiac systems the image data are digitized on-line and in real-time, allowing the replay and subsequent interpretation and analysis during or directly after the cardiac catheterization procedure. In this study we have evaluated the advantages and limitations of a manual tracing technique for left ventricular digital angiograms on the Phillips DCI system. Thirty-three patients who were catheterized for suspected coronary artery disease were studied. The manual tracings were performed by a senior cardiologist and an experienced function-analyst. It was found that the short- and long-term intraobserver variabilities in the assessment of the global ejection fraction were very small; short-term mean difference +/- standard deviation (correlation coefficient): 0.5 +/- 2.7 (r = 0.97) global EF%-units; long term; 0.7 +/- 2.7 (r = 0.96) EF%-units. The interobserver variabilities (5.1 +/- 4.8 (r = 0.93) EF%-units) were slightly higher than the intraobserver variabilities. A decrease by 25% in the amount of contrast medium administered did not significantly influence the variabilities in the contour tracings, which would suggest the use of smaller doses. At the average, the cardiologist and the function-analyst required 6 and 11 min of analysis time for a left ventricular study, respectively, emphasizing the need for further developments towards automated contour detection. Finally, an excellent correlation was found with a standard off-line cinefilm analysis procedure. Thus, it may be concluded that quantitative digital left ventricular angiography based on manual tracing of the outlines performed immediately following the cardiac catheterization (post-processing) is feasible as a routine procedure for the assessment of left ventricular function.

  20. Onset of a Large Ejective Solar Eruption from a Typical Coronal-jet-base Field Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Yong-Jae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L., E-mail: navin@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Utilizing multiwavelength observations and magnetic field data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES ), and RHESSI , we investigate a large-scale ejective solar eruption of 2014 December 18 from active region NOAA 12241. This event produced a distinctive “three-ribbon” flare, having two parallel ribbons corresponding to the ribbons of a standard two-ribbon flare, and a larger-scale third quasi-circular ribbon offset from the other two. There are two components to this eruptive event. First, a flux rope forms above a strong-field polarity inversion line and erupts and grows as the parallel ribbons turn on, grow, and spread apart from that polarity inversion line; this evolution is consistent with the mechanism of tether-cutting reconnection for eruptions. Second, the eruption of the arcade that has the erupting flux rope in its core undergoes magnetic reconnection at the null point of a fan dome that envelops the erupting arcade, resulting in formation of the quasi-circular ribbon; this is consistent with the breakout reconnection mechanism for eruptions. We find that the parallel ribbons begin well before (∼12 minutes) the onset of the circular ribbon, indicating that tether-cutting reconnection (or a non-ideal MHD instability) initiated this event, rather than breakout reconnection. The overall setup for this large-scale eruption (diameter of the circular ribbon ∼10{sup 5} km) is analogous to that of coronal jets (base size ∼10{sup 4} km), many of which, according to recent findings, result from eruptions of small-scale “minifilaments.” Thus these findings confirm that eruptions of sheared-core magnetic arcades seated in fan–spine null-point magnetic topology happen on a wide range of size scales on the Sun.

  1. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the Heliophysics System Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Isavnin, A.; Boakes, P. D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Barnes, D.; Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Bothmer, V.; Reiss, M. A.; Amerstorfer, T.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Gallagher, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2017-07-01

    We present an advance toward accurately predicting the arrivals of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the terrestrial planets, including Earth. For the first time, we are able to assess a CME prediction model using data over two thirds of a solar cycle of observations with the Heliophysics System Observatory. We validate modeling results of 1337 CMEs observed with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) heliospheric imagers (HI) (science data) from 8 years of observations by five in situ observing spacecraft. We use the self-similar expansion model for CME fronts assuming 60° longitudinal width, constant speed, and constant propagation direction. With these assumptions we find that 23%-35% of all CMEs that were predicted to hit a certain spacecraft lead to clear in situ signatures, so that for one correct prediction, two to three false alarms would have been issued. In addition, we find that the prediction accuracy does not degrade with the HI longitudinal separation from Earth. Predicted arrival times are on average within 2.6 ± 16.6 h difference of the in situ arrival time, similar to analytical and numerical modeling, and a true skill statistic of 0.21. We also discuss various factors that may improve the accuracy of space weather forecasting using wide-angle heliospheric imager observations. These results form a first-order approximated baseline of the prediction accuracy that is possible with HI and other methods used for data by an operational space weather mission at the Sun-Earth L5 point.

  2. Investigating the kinematics of coronal mass ejections with the automated CORIMP catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jason P.

    2015-07-01

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, compounded by the variations in their dynamics, morphology and frequency of occurrence. The large amounts of data available from missions like the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) make manual cataloging of CMEs tedious and prone to human error, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required and often preferred. A new coronal image processing catalog called CORIMP has been developed in an effort to achieve this, through the implementation of a dynamic background separation technique and multiscale edge detection. These algorithms together isolate and characterise CME structure in the field-of-view of the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard SOHO. CORIMP also applies a Savitzky-Golay filter, along with quadratic and linear fits, to the height-time measurements for better revealing the true CME speed and acceleration profiles across the plane-of-sky. Here we present a sample of new results from the CORIMP CME catalog, and directly compare them with the other automated catalogs of Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) and Solar Eruptive Events Detection System (SEEDS), as well as the manual CME catalog at the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center and a previously published study of the sample events. We further investigate a form of unsupervised machine learning by using a k-means clustering algorithm to distinguish detections of multiple CMEs that occur close together in space and time. While challenges still exist, this investigation and comparison of results demonstrate the reliability and robustness of the CORIMP catalog, proving its effectiveness at detecting and tracking CMEs throughout the LASCO dataset.

  3. Urinary Proteomics Pilot Study for Biomarker Discovery and Diagnosis in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rossing

    Full Text Available Biomarker discovery and new insights into the pathophysiology of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF may emerge from recent advances in high-throughput urinary proteomics. This could lead to improved diagnosis, risk stratification and management of HFrEF.Urine samples were analyzed by on-line capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization micro time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-MS to generate individual urinary proteome profiles. In an initial biomarker discovery cohort, analysis of urinary proteome profiles from 33 HFrEF patients and 29 age- and sex-matched individuals without HFrEF resulted in identification of 103 peptides that were significantly differentially excreted in HFrEF. These 103 peptides were used to establish the support vector machine-based HFrEF classifier HFrEF103. In a subsequent validation cohort, HFrEF103 very accurately (area under the curve, AUC = 0.972 discriminated between HFrEF patients (N = 94, sensitivity = 93.6% and control individuals with and without impaired renal function and hypertension (N = 552, specificity = 92.9%. Interestingly, HFrEF103 showed low sensitivity (12.6% in individuals with diastolic left ventricular dysfunction (N = 176. The HFrEF-related peptide biomarkers mainly included fragments of fibrillar type I and III collagen but also, e.g., of fibrinogen beta and alpha-1-antitrypsin.CE-MS based urine proteome analysis served as a sensitive tool to determine a vast array of HFrEF-related urinary peptide biomarkers which might help improving our understanding and diagnosis of heart failure.

  4. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  5. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, Thomas N.; Webb, David F.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar are, as is often the case, the are component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011, plus an event on 2010 August 7 analyzed in a previous paper, to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to the dimming light curves, and compare the dimming parameters with corresponding CME parameters of mass and speed. The best linear relationships found are nu(sub CME) [km/s] approx. equals 2.36 x 10 6 [km/%] x s(sub dim) [%/s] m(sub CME) [g] approx. equals 2.59 x 10(exp.15 [g/%] x the square root of d(sub dim) [%].These relationships could be used for space weather operations of estimating CME mass and speed using near-real-time irradiance dimming measurements.

  6. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (I.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  7. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  8. Renal insufficiency and mortality in coronary artery disease with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-Li; Liu, Wei; Huang, Bao-Tao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Huang, Fang-Yang; Zhang, Chen; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Li, Qiao; Xu, Yuan-Ning; Chen, Chi; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Despite strong evidence linking decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to worse cardiovascular outcome, the impact of eGFR on mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is not well defined. A retrospective cohort study. From Jul. 2008 to Jan. 2012, consecutive patients with CAD of West China Hospital were enrolled and were grouped into 3 eGFR categories: ≥90, 60-90, and renal insufficiency significantly increases all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in a graded fashion (mortality rate, moderate or severe vs. normal: 29.3% vs. 5.4%, prenal insufficiency increased all-cause mortality by 6.10-fold (HR 6.10, 95% CI 2.50 to 14.87) and cardiac mortality by 4.10-fold (HR 4.10, 95% CI 1.51 to 11.13). Use of beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins was associated with decreased risk of mortality, but the use was lower in renal insufficiency patients, especially in combination of reduced EF. This study has found that the effect of renal function on prognosis in patients with CAD is closely related to cardiac function. In patients with reduced EF, renal insufficiency accompanies the higher risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. A higher number of treatments from beta-blocker, ACEIs or ARBs, and statin therapy were associated with decreased risk of mortality, even in the combination of renal insufficiency or declining cardiac function. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial Senescence Contributes to Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in an Aging Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Andreas B; Shakeri, Hadis; Leloup, Arthur J; Van Hove, Cor E; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Vrints, Christiaan J; Lemmens, Katrien; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M

    2017-06-01

    Because of global aging, the prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) continues to rise. Although HFpEF pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, endothelial inflammation is stated to play a central role. Cellular senescence is a process of cellular growth arrest linked with aging and inflammation. We used mice with accelerated aging to investigate the role of cellular senescence in HFpEF development. Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM, n=18) and control mice with normal senescence (n=15) were fed normal chow or a high-fat, high-salt diet (WD). Vascular and cardiac function was assessed at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age. At 24 weeks, both SAM on WD (SAM-WD) and SAM on regular diet displayed endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic segments and reduced basal nitric oxide. At week 24, SAM-WD had developed HFpEF, characterized by diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, and interstitial fibrosis. Also, exercise capacity was reduced and lung weight increased. Cardiovascular inflammation and senescence were assessed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining of hearts and aortas. SAM-WD showed increased endothelial inflammation (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression) and increased endothelial senescence (acetyl-p53/CD31 costaining). The latter correlated with diastolic function and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression. SAM develop endothelial dysfunction. Adding a high-salt, high-fat diet accelerates endothelial senescence and instigates endothelial inflammation. This coincides with hemodynamic and structural changes typical of HFpEF. Targeting endothelial senescence could be a new therapeutic avenue in HFpEF. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Impedance cardiographic waveforms in children: Involvement in left ventricular ejection time determination during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodey, Eric; Senhadji, Lotfi; Bansard, Jean Yves; Beneux, Xavier; Ecoffey, Claude; Carre, François

    2001-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The physiologic basis of the impedance cardiographic (ICG) signal is still a matter of debate. An accurate determination of left ventricular ejection time (LVET) is needed to calculate stroke volume. In children, several shapes of the ICG signal are observed during anesthesia or in critical care. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the shape of the ICG signal and various morphologic and hemodynamic determinants obtained with Doppler echocardiography to highlight the effect of the various shapes in the accuracy of LVET determination. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Pediatric surgery in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 103 children, ASA physical status I or II. INTERVENTIONS: General anesthesia for elective surgery. Measurements: Electrocardiography, ICG, and Doppler echocardiography were recorded simultaneously. Classic hemodynamic variables, such as heart rate, LVET, stroke volume, or systemic vascular resistance, were measured or calculated. A mathematical model of the ICG signal was used to determine the shape of the ICG signal and its potential relationship to various morphologic and hemodynamic determinants. The ICG signal shape was then modeled with the normalized amplitudes (NHA) and phase (NHP) of the three harmonics of the fundamental signal. Analysis was performed with a multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: ICG method LVET did not significantly correlate with LVET determined with Doppler or with heart rate. NHA and NHP of the ICG signal were not significantly related to LVET determined with Doppler or to stroke volume. NHA were linked to heart rate and the relative length of the cardiac diastolic period. CONCLUSION: The absence of relationship between LVET determined with Doppler and the main variables defining the shape of the ICG signal highlight the relative limit of stroke volume determination with ICG method. The involvement of the arterial compliance in the ICG signal shape can be discussed in regard

  11. The Three-part Structure of a Filament-unrelated Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Q.; Cheng, X.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.; Wang, B.; Li, L. P.; Li, B.; Hu, Q.; Li, G.

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often exhibit the typical three-part structure in the corona when observed with white-light coronagraphs, i.e., the bright leading front, dark cavity, and bright core, corresponding to a high-low-high density sequence. As CMEs result from eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), which can possess either lower (e.g., coronal-cavity MFRs) or higher (e.g., hot-channel MFRs) density compared to their surroundings in the corona, the traditional opinion regards the three-part structure as the manifestations of coronal plasma pileup (high density), coronal-cavity MFR (low density), and filament (high density) contained in the trailing part of MFR, respectively. In this paper, we demonstrate that filament-unrelated CMEs can also exhibit the classical three-part structure. The observations were made from different perspectives through an event that occurred on 2011 October 4. The CME cavity corresponds to the low-density zone between the leading front and the high-density core, and it is obvious in the low corona and gradually becomes fuzzy when propagating outward. The bright core corresponds to a high-density structure that is suggested to be an erupting MFR. The MFR is recorded from both edge-on and face-on perspectives, exhibiting different morphologies that are due to projection effects. We stress that the zone (MFR) with lower (higher) density in comparison to the surroundings can appear as the dark cavity (bright core) when observed through white-light coronagraphs, which is not necessarily the coronal-cavity MFR (erupted filament).

  12. Plasma osmolality predicts mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, HakkI; Yücel, Oğuzhan; Ege, Meltem Refiker; Zorlu, Ali; Yücel, Hasan; Güneş, Hakan; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a fatal disease. Plasma osmolality with individual impacts of sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose has not been studied prognostically in patients with HF. This study aims to investigate the impact of serum osmolality on clinical endpoints in HF patients. A total of 509 patients (383 males, 126 females) with HF with reduced ejection fraction in three HF centres were retrospectively analysed between January 2007 and December 2013. Follow-up data were completed for 496 patients. Plasma osmolality was calculated as (2 × Na) + (BUN/2.8) + (Glucose/18). Quartiles of plasma osmolality were produced, and the possible relationship between plasma osmolality and cardiovascular mortality was investigated. The mean follow-up was 25 ± 22 months. The mean age was 56.5 ± 17.3 years with a mean EF of 26 ± 8%. The mean levels of plasma osmolality were as follows in the quartiles: 1st % = 280 ± 6, 2nd % = 288 ± 1, 3rd % = 293 ± 2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 292.72-293.3), and 4th % = 301 ± 5 mOsm/kg. The EF and B-type natriuretic peptide levels were similar in the four quartiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses in the Cox proportional hazard model revealed a significantly higher rate of mortality in the patients with hypo-osmolality. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed graded mortality curves with the 1st quartile having the worst prognosis, followed by the 4th quartile and the 2nd quartile, while the 3rd quartile was shown to have the best prognosis. Our study results suggest that normal plasma osmolality is between 275 and 295 mOsm/kg. However, being close to the upper limit of normal range (292-293 mOsm/kg) seems to be the optimal plasma osmolality level in terms of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with HF.

  13. Vertical Impact Tests of a Proposed B-52 Ejection Seat Cushion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public...The consequences of less-than-optimum seating comfort have severe medical implication for wheelchair -bound patients. As a result, substantial... Wheelchair posture and pressure sores. C.C. Thomas Publishers, Springfield IL, 1984. 17 APPENDIX A

  14. Relationship of serum sodium concentration to mortality in a wide spectrum of heart failure patients with preserved and with reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusinaru, Dan; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Berry, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatraemia has been associated with reduced survival in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF). The relationship between serum sodium and outcome is unclear in heart failure with preserved (≥ 50%) ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Therefore, we used a large individual...... patient data meta-analysis to study the risk of death associated with hyponatraemia in HF-REF and in HF-PEF....

  15. Evaluation of training nurses to perform semi-automated three-dimensional left ventricular ejection fraction using a customised workstation-based training protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy-Coles, Kristyan B; Prasad, Sandhir B; Smith, Kym C; Hillier, Samuel; Lo, Ada; Atherton, John J

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to determine the feasibility of training cardiac nurses to evaluate left ventricular function utilising a semi-automated, workstation-based protocol on three dimensional echocardiography images. Assessment of left ventricular function by nurses is an attractive concept. Recent developments in three dimensional echocardiography coupled with border detection assistance have reduced inter- and intra-observer variability and analysis time. This could allow abbreviated training of nurses to assess cardiac function. A comparative, diagnostic accuracy study evaluating left ventricular ejection fraction assessment utilising a semi-automated, workstation-based protocol performed by echocardiography-naïve nurses on previously acquired three dimensional echocardiography images. Nine cardiac nurses underwent two brief lectures about cardiac anatomy, physiology and three dimensional left ventricular ejection fraction assessment, before a hands-on demonstration in 20 cases. We then selected 50 cases from our three dimensional echocardiography library based on optimal image quality with a broad range of left ventricular ejection fractions, which was quantified by two experienced sonographers and the average used as the comparator for the nurses. Nurses independently measured three dimensional left ventricular ejection fraction using the Auto lvq package with semi-automated border detection. The left ventricular ejection fraction range was 25-72% (70% with a left ventricular ejection fraction 2 weeks later) retest. It is feasible to train nurses to measure left ventricular ejection fraction utilising a semi-automated, workstation-based protocol on previously acquired three dimensional echocardiography images. Further study is needed to determine the feasibility of training nurses to acquire three dimensional echocardiography images on real-world patients to measure left ventricular ejection fraction. Nurse-performed evaluation of left ventricular function could

  16. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle event characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Kostas; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Jiggens, Piers; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-12-01

    A new catalogue of 314 solar energetic particle (SEP) events extending over a large time span from 1984 to 2013 has been compiled. The properties as well as the associations of these SEP events with their parent solar sources have been thoroughly examined. The properties of the events include the proton peak integral flux and the fluence for energies above 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV. The associated solar events were parametrized by solar flare (SF) and coronal mass ejection (CME) characteristics, as well as related radio emissions. In particular, for SFs: the soft X-ray (SXR) peak flux, the SXR fluence, the heliographic location, the rise time and the duration were exploited; for CMEs the plane-of-sky velocity as well as the angular width were utilized. For radio emissions, type III, II and IV radio bursts were identified. Furthermore, we utilized element abundances of Fe and O. We found evidence that most of the SEP events in our catalogue do not conform to a simple two-class paradigm, with the 73% of them exhibiting both type III and type II radio bursts, and that a continuum of event properties is present. Although, the so-called hybrid or mixed events are found to be present in our catalogue, it was not possible to attribute each SEP event to a mixed/hybrid sub-category. Moreover, it appears that the start of the type III burst most often precedes the maximum of the SF and thus falls within the impulsive phase of the associated SF. At the same time, type III bursts take place within ≈5.22 min, on average, in advance from the time of maximum of the derivative of the SXR flux (Neupert effect). We further performed a statistical analysis and a mapping of the logarithm of the proton peak flux at E > 10 MeV, on different pairs of the parent solar source characteristics. This revealed correlations in 3-D space and demonstrated that the gradual SEP events that stem from the central part of the visible solar disk constitute a significant radiation risk. The velocity of

  17. The accretion/ejection paradigm in young stellar objects: from HST and Herschel to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Stellar jets and molecular outflows are observed in association with young accreting stars and are believed to play a key role in the star formation process. In this talk I will show how current and future space missions are of crucial importance to investigate the origin of stellar jets and their link to the accretion process. Thanks to its high angular (˜0.1") resolution, HST has been the first telescope allowing us to investigate the jet physics at optical/UV wavelengths down to the heart of the launching mechanism. We recently analysed a datacube of the jet emitted by the T Tauri star DG Tau obtaining spatio-kinematical maps of the hot atomic gas in the jet and of its physical conditions (Maurri et al., submitted). These data confirm the predictions of theoretical models including the fact that jets may extract the excess angular momentum from the system. In the last two years Herschel has further improved our comprehension of the ejection process observing the far infrared counterpart of fast and collimated atomic jets. PACS and HIFI observations, acquired within the GASPS (GAS in Protoplanetary Systems) Open Time Key Project (PI: B. Dent), show that T Tauri stars driving optical jets are also associated with a warm gas component emitting not only atomic ([OI], [CII]) but also molecular (high-J CO, H_2O, OH) lines. The comparison with Class 0 outflows highlights a clear evolutionary trend: the emission associated with evolved Class I/II sources is fainter and more compact and the estimated mass loss rates and lines cooling are one to two orders of magnitudes lower (Podio et al., to be submitted). The arrival of JWST will fill-in the gap between HST and Herschel opening a new window in the near and mid-infrared range at unprecedented angular resolution (down to 0.03"). This will allow resolving the emission in both atomic (e.g., [FeII]) and molecular (e.g., H_2) lines and understanding if the molecular gas is entrained by the atomic jet or launched with it

  18. Testing ElEvoHI on a multi-point in situ detected Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Hess, Phillip; Mays, M. Leila; Temmer, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) has provided us a deep insight into the interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Especially the wide-angle heliospheric imagers (HI) enabled the development of a multitude of methods for analyzing the evolution of CMEs through interplanetary (IP) space. Methods able to forecast arrival times and speeds at Earth (or other targets) use the advantage of following a CME's path of propagation up to 1 AU. However, these methods were not able to reduce today's errors in arrival time forecasts to less than ±6 hours, arrival speeds are mostly overestimated by some 100 km s-1. One reason for that is the assumption of constant propagation speed, which is clearly incorrect for most CMEs—especially for those being faster than the ambient solar wind. ElEvoHI, the Ellipse Evolution model (ElEvo) based on HI observations, is a new prediction tool, which uses the benefits of different methods and observations. It provides the possibility to adjust the CME frontal shape (angular width, ellipse aspect ratio) and the direction of motion for each CME event individually. This information can be gained from Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) flux-rope fitting within coronagraph images. Using the Ellipse Conversion (ElCon) method, the observed HI elongation angle is converted into a unit of distance, which reveals the kinematics of the event. After fitting the time-distance profile of the CME using the drag-based equation of motion, where real-time in situ solar wind speed from 1 AU is used as additional input, we receive all input parameters needed to run a forecast using the ElEvo model and to predict arrival times and speeds at any target of interest in IP space. Here, we present a test on a slow CME event of 3 November 2010, in situ detected by the lined-up spacecraft MESSENGER and STEREO Behind. We gain the shape of the CME front from a cut of the 3D GCS CME shape with the ecliptic plane, resulting in an

  19. ForeCAT - A model for magnetic deflections of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Frequently, the Sun explosively releases bubbles of magnetized plasma known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which can produce adverse space weather effects at Earth. Accurate space weather forecasting requires knowledge of the trajectory of CMEs. Decades of observations show that CMEs can deflect from a purely radial trajectory, however, no consensus exists as to the cause of these deflections. We developed a model for CME deflection and rotation from magnetic forces, called Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT). ForeCAT has been designed to run fast enough for large parameter phase space studies, and potentially real-time predictions. ForeCAT reproduces the general trends seen in observed CME deflections. In particular, CMEs deflect toward regions of minimum magnetic energy - frequently the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) on global scales. The background magnetic forces decrease rapidly with distance and quickly become negligible. Most deflections and rotations can be well-described by assuming constant angular momentum beyond 10 Rs. ForeCAT also reproduces individual observed CME deflections - the 2008 December 12, 2008 April 08, and 2010 July 12 CMEs. By determining the reduced chi-squared best fit between the ForeCAT results and the observations we constrain parameters related to the CME and the background solar wind. Additionally, we constrain whether different models for the low corona magnetic backgrounds can produce the observed CME deflection. We explore the space weather of cool M dwarfs (dMs) with surface magnetic field strengths of order kG. dMs have extreme CMEs and flares and close-in habitable zones. We use ForeCAT to explore the deflections corresponding to the range of plausible CME masses and speeds for the dM V374 Peg. The deflection of the dM CMEs exceeds their solar counterparts, and the strong magnetic gradients surrounding the dM's Astrospheric Current Sheet (ACS, analogous to the Sun's HCS) can trap the CMEs that reach it

  20. Observing Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun-Earth L5 Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere and are known to be responsible for severe space weather. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). The STEREO mission viewed CMEs from points away from the Sun-Earth line and demonstrated the importance of such observations in understanding the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and their true kinematics. In this paper, we show that it is advantageous to observe CMEs from the Sun-Earth L5 point in studying CMEs that affect Earth. In particular, these observations are important in identifying that part of the CME that is likely to arrive at Earth. L5 observations are critical for several aspects of CME studies such as: (i) they can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input for modeling Earth-arriving CMEs, (ii) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, and (iii) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, which may not be possible from the Sun-Earth line. We also discuss how the L5 vantage point compares with the Sun-Earth L4 point for observing Earth-affecting CMEs. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at

  1. Aortic valve replacement associated with survival in severe regurgitation and low ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Amy G; Bhambhani, Vijeta; Laikhter, Elizabeth; Picard, Michael H; Wasfy, Meagan M; Tolis, George; Melnitchouk, Serguei; Sundt, Thoralf M; Wasfy, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    Although guidelines support aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%, severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF <35%) is thought to confer high surgical risk. We sought to determine if a survival benefit exists with AVR compared with medical management in this high-risk, relatively rare population. A large institutional echocardiography database was queried to identify patients with severe AR and LVEF <35%. Manual chart review was performed. Due to small sample size and population heterogeneity, corrected group prognosis method was applied, which calculates the adjusted survival curve for each individual using fitted Cox proportional hazard model. Average survival adjusted for comorbidities and age was then calculated using the weighted average of the individual survival curves. Initially, 2 54 614 echocardiograms were considered, representing 1 45 785 unique patients, of which 40 patients met inclusion criteria. Of those, 18 (45.0%) underwent AVR and 22 (55.0%) were managed medically. Absolute mortality was 27.8% in the AVR group and 91.2% in the medical management group. After multivariate adjustment, end-stage renal disease (HR=17.633, p=0.0335) and peripheral arterial disease (HR=6.050, p=0.0180) were associated with higher mortality. AVR was associated with lower mortality (HR=0.143, p=0.0490). Mean follow-up time of the study cohort was 6.58 years, and mean survival for patients undergoing AVR was 6.31 years. Even after adjustment for clinical characteristics and patient age, AVR is associated with higher survival for patients with low LVEF and severe AR. Although treatment selection bias cannot be completely eliminated by this analysis, these results provide some evidence that surgery may be associated with prolonged survival in this high-risk patient group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  2. Two-Step Forecast of Geomagnetic Storm Using Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Wind Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To forecast geomagnetic storms, we had examined initially observed parameters of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and introduced an empirical storm forecast model in a previous study. Now we suggest a two-step forecast considering not only CME parameters observed in the solar vicinity but also solar wind conditions near Earth to improve the forecast capability. We consider the empirical solar wind criteria derived in this study (Bz = -5 nT or Ey = 3 mV/m for t = 2 h for moderate storms with minimum Dst less than -50 nT) (i.e. Magnetic Field Magnitude, B (sub z) less than or equal to -5 nanoTeslas or duskward Electrical Field, E (sub y) greater than or equal to 3 millivolts per meter for time greater than or equal to 2 hours for moderate storms with Minimum Disturbance Storm Time, Dst less than -50 nanoTeslas) and a Dst model developed by Temerin and Li (2002, 2006) (TL [i.e. Temerin Li] model). Using 55 CME-Dst pairs during 1997 to 2003, our solar wind criteria produce slightly better forecasts for 31 storm events (90 percent) than the forecasts based on the TL model (87 percent). However, the latter produces better forecasts for 24 nonstorm events (88 percent), while the former correctly forecasts only 71 percent of them. We then performed the two-step forecast. The results are as follows: (i) for 15 events that are incorrectly forecasted using CME parameters, 12 cases (80 percent) can be properly predicted based on solar wind conditions; (ii) if we forecast a storm when both CME and solar wind conditions are satisfied (n, i.e. cap operator - the intersection set that is comprised of all the elements that are common to both), the critical success index becomes higher than that from the forecast using CME parameters alone, however, only 25 storm events (81 percent) are correctly forecasted; and (iii) if we forecast a storm when either set of these conditions is satisfied (?, i.e. cup operator - the union set that is comprised of all the elements of either or both

  3. Solar and interplanetary activities of isolated and non-isolated coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendict Lawrance, M.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Umapathy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report our results on comparison of two halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) associated with X-class flares of similar strength (X1.4) but quite different in CME speed and acceleration, similar geo-effectiveness but quite different in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) intensity. CME1 (non-isolated) was associated with a double event in X-ray flare and it was preceded by another fast halo CME of speed = 2684 km/s (pre-CME) associated with X-ray flare class X5.4 by 1 h from the same location. Since this pre-CME was more eastern, interaction with CME1 and hitting the earth were not possible. This event (CME1) has not suffered the cannibalism since pre-CME has faster speed than post-CME. Pre-CME plays a very important role in increasing the intensity of SEP and Forbush Decrease (FD) by providing energetic seed particles. So, the seed population is the major difference between these two selected events. CME2 (isolated) was a single event. We would like to address on the kinds of physical conditions related to such CMEs and their associated activities. Their associated activities such as, type II bursts, SEP, geomagnetic storm and FD are compared. The following results are obtained from the analysis. (1) The CME leading edge height at the start of metric/DH type II bursts are 2 R⊙/ 4 R⊙ for CME1, but 2 R⊙/ 2.75 R⊙ for CME2. (2) Peak intensity of SEP event associated with the two CMEs are quite different: 6530 pfu for CME1, but 96 pfu for CME2. (3) The Forbush decrease occurred with a minimum decrease of 9.98% in magnitude for CME1, but 6.90% for CME2. (4) These two events produced similar intense geomagnetic storms of intensity of Dst index -130 nT. (5) The maximum southward magnetic fields corresponding to Interplanetary CME (ICME) of these two events are nearly the same, but there is difference in Sheath Bz maximum (-14.2, -6.9 nT). (6) The time-line chart of the associated activities of two CMEs show some difference in the time delay between the onsets of

  4. Volcanic processes recorded by inclusions in sanidine megacrystals ejected from Quaternary Rockeskyll volcano, Eifel, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilhard, Nicole; Schreuer, Jürgen; Stöckhert, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Sanidine megacrystals were ejected by a late stage explosive eruption at the Quaternary Rockeskyll volcanic complex, Eifel volcanic field, Germany. The homogeneous distribution of barium (about 1 % wt BaO equivalent to about 2 mole % celsian component) indicates that the nearly perfect single crystals must have crystallized in the Ostwald-Miers range from a huge reservoir, probably in the roof of a magma chamber. Irregularities during crystal growth caused trapping of hydrous melt inclusions, which are the objective of the present study. The inclusions show a characteristic concentric microstructure, in the following described from the sanidine host towards the inclusion center: (1) Ba is enriched by a factor of 2 to 3 in a ca. 0.01 mm wide rim, compared to the otherwise homogeneous sanidine host; (2) inwards, the continuous rim is overgrown by a thin crust of Ba enriched sanidine with irregular surface; (3) a layer of glass with a composition similar to sanidine; (4) a second, thinner layer of glass slightly reduced in Na2O and K2O, separated from the first glass layer by a sharp interface with approximately spherical shape; (5) a bubble containing a fluid phase, composed of H2O and minor CO2. This record is interpreted as follows: After crystallization of the sanidine megacrystals, a rise in temperature within the magmatic system caused some re-melting of the Ba-rich sanidine around the inclusions. Partitioning of Ba between the small included melt reservoir and the host caused formation of the Ba-rich rim (layer 1) by diffusive exchange. The onset of cooling lead to crystallization of the thin sanidine crust (layer 2). Finally, very rapid decompression and cooling during the subsequent explosive eruption caused sequential phase separation (two stages) in the remaining melt, the denser melt phase (layers 3 and 4) quenched to glass, the complementary low-density volatile-rich phase forming the central bubble. In summary, the microstructure and phase composition of

  5. Systolic ejection click versus split first heart sound: Are our ears deceiving us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeting, Natalie M; McCracken, Courtney E; McConnell, Michael; Sallee, Denver; Iannucci, Glen J; Oster, Matthew E

    2017-07-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is associated with potential lifetime complications, but auscultation of a BAV click is commonly missed or mistaken for a benign split first heart sound. Our objective was to determine whether pediatric cardiologists could reliably distinguish between BAV clicks and benign split first heart sounds. Quality evaluation project using de-identified recordings from an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Twenty-one cardiologists listened to five de-identified recordings of pediatric heart sounds (three with BAV clicks, two with mitral components of benign split first heart sounds) and indicated whether they believed each recording was a BAV or split first heart sound. The accuracy of diagnoses was determined using percent agreement and calculated kappa coefficients for the cohort and subgroups based on those with less than 10 years of experience versus those with ≥10 years. To assess precision, a kappa extension was used for multiple raters to assess interrater agreement. Among participants, diagnostic accuracy of BAV click was 38%, while accuracy of split first heart sound was 41%. No participant correctly diagnosed all sounds. No difference in agreement was observed when stratifying by experience. Kappa was -0.11 (CI 95% -0.31 to 0.08) for all raters, -0.03 (CI 95% -0.39 to 0.33) for those with less than 10 years' experience, and -0.15 (CI 95% -0.38 to 0.08) for those with ≥10 years' experience. The kappa statistic among the 21 raters was 0.01 (95% CI -0.03 to 0.04), indicating poor precision among the raters. In this sample of pediatric cardiologists, the diagnostic accuracy of BAV clicks versus split first heart sounds was worse than chance. There was no association between years of experience and diagnostic accuracy. While further study is needed, these data suggest that an echocardiogram may be valuable when either a systolic ejection click or split first heart sound is heard. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Alveolar Opening in Cardiosurgical Patients with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G Zorina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the optimum alveolar opening parameters for the improvement of postoperative pulmonary oxygenizing function in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of less or more than 40% after aortocoronary bypass surgery (ACBS. Subjects and methods. Twenty patients with a LVEF of less than 40% after ACBS and with postoperative pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 less than 250 (Group 1 were examined. A control group consisted of 20 patients with a LVEF of more than 40% (Group 2. Gas exchange, respiration biomechanics, and central hemodynamic (CH parameters were monitored (a Vigilance monitor (Edvard LifeScience. Alveolar mobilization was carried out on Drager Evita-2 apparatuses in the BIPAP mode, by taking into account the previous artificial ventilation (AV parameters. The low pressure phase corresponded to the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP with volume AV, the high pressure phase was Pplato; the duration of both phases — that of inspiration and expiration (the high pressure phase was inspiration time; the low pressure phase was expiration time. Then the values of Pplato and PEEP were simultaneously increased by 2 cm H2O with a duration of 10 breathing cycles, by continuously monitoring Vt and SaO2 over this interval. By continuously monitoring Vt, a stepwise increase in PEEP and Pplato was continued until there was a Vt reduction or a negative impact of AV on CH. All alveoli were considered to be open when the maximum Vt and SaO2 were achieved. Conclusion. In Group 1 patients with Pinsp of 27—30 cm H2O, PEEP of 10—12 cm H2O, there are increases in PaO2/FiO2 and Cst. In Group 2, the increase of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst is observed with Pinsp of 30—35 cm H2O and PEEP 12—14 cm H2O. With these AV indices, there is an allowable hemodynamic reduction that results in no negative consequences and development of cardiovascular events. After switching to AV in an individually chosen mode, all

  7. Effect of Nebivolol on MIBG Parameters and Exercise in Heart Failure with Normal Ejection Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messias, Leandro Rocha, E-mail: lmessias@cardiol.br; Ferreira, Aryanne Guimarães; Miranda, Sandra Marina Ribeiro de; Teixeira, José Antônio Caldas [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Jader Cunha de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Procardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Messias, Ana Carolina Nader Vasconcelos [Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maróstica, Elisabeth [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Procardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    More than 50% of the patients with heart failure have normal ejection fraction (HFNEF). Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) are prognostic markers in HFNEF. Nebivolol is a beta-blocker with vasodilating properties. To evaluate the impact of nebivolol therapy on CPET and123I-MIBG scintigraphic parameters in patients with HFNEF. Twenty-five patients underwent 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to determine the washout rate and early and late heart-to-mediastinum ratios. During the CPET, we analyzed the systolic blood pressure (SBP) response, heart rate (HR) during effort and recovery (HRR), and oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2}). After the initial evaluation, we divided our cohort into control and intervention groups. We then started nebivolol and repeated the tests after 3 months. After treatment, the intervention group showed improvement in rest SBP (149 mmHg [143.5-171 mmHg] versus 135 mmHg [125-151 mmHg, p = 0.016]), rest HR (78 bpm [65.5-84 bpm] versus 64.5 bpm [57.5-75.5 bpm, p = 0.028]), peak SBP (235 mmHg [216.5-249 mmHg] versus 198 mmHg [191-220.5 mmHg], p = 0.001), peak HR (124.5 bpm [115-142 bpm] versus 115 bpm [103.7-124 bpm], p= 0.043), HRR on the 1st minute (6.5 bpm [4.75-12.75 bpm] versus 14.5 bpm [6.7-22 bpm], p = 0.025) and HRR on the 2nd minute (15.5 bpm [13-21.75 bpm] versus 23.5 bpm [16-31.7 bpm], p = 0.005), but no change in peak VO{sub 2} and 123I-MIBG scintigraphic parameters. Despite a better control in SBP, HR during rest and exercise, and improvement in HRR, nebivolol failed to show a positive effect on peak VO2 and 123I-MIBG scintigraphic parameters. The lack of effect on adrenergic activity may be the cause of the lack of effect on functional capacity.

  8. White-Light and Radioastronomical Remote-Sensing of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of plasma from the Sun that play an important role in space weather. Faraday rotation (FR) is the rotation of the plane of polarization that results when a linearly polarized signal passes through a magnetized plasma (such as a CME) and is proportional to the path integral through the plasma of the electron density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. FR observations of a source near the Sun can provide information on the plasma structure of a CME shortly after launch; however, separating the contribution of the plasma density from the line-of-sight magnetic field is challenging.We report on simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of three CMEs in August 2012. We made radio observations using the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a "constellation" of radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged from 6 - 15 solar radii: two sources (0842+1835 and 0900+1832) were occulted by a single CME and one source (0843+1547) was occulted by two CMEs. In addition to our radioastronomical observations, which represent one of the first active hunts for CME Faraday rotation since Bird et al. (1985) and the first active hunt using the VLA, we obtained white-light coronagraph images from the LASCO/C3 instrument to determine the Thomson scattering brightness (BT), providing a means to independently estimate the plasma density and determine its contribution to the observed Faraday rotation.A constant density force-free flux rope embedded in the background corona was used to model the effects of the CMEs on BT and FR and infer the plasma densities (6 - 22 x 103 cm-3) and axial magnetic field strengths (2 - 12 mG) for the three CMEs. A single flux rope model successfully reproduces the observed BT and FR profiles for 0842+1835 and 0900+1832; however 0843+1547 was occulted by two CMEs. Using the multiple viewpoints provided by LASCO/C3 and STEREO-A/COR2

  9. Plasma Biomarkers Reflecting Profibrotic Processes in Heart Failure With a Preserved Ejection Fraction: Data From the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB on Management of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Michael R; Jhund, Pardeep S; Baicu, Catalin F; Claggett, Brian L; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A; Prescott, Margaret F; Shi, Victor; Lefkowitz, Martin; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a clinical syndrome that has been associated with changes in the extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to determine whether profibrotic biomarkers accurately reflect the presence and severity of disease and underlying pathophysiology and modify response to therapy in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Four biomarkers, soluble form of ST2 (an interleukin-1 receptor family member), galectin-3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and collagen III N-terminal propeptide were measured in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB on Management of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (PARAMOUNT) trial at baseline, 12 and 36 weeks after randomization to valsartan or LCZ696. We examined the relationship between baseline biomarkers, demographic and echocardiographic characteristics, change in primary (change in N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide) and secondary (change in left atrial volume) end points. The median (interquartile range) value for soluble form of ST2 (33 [24.6-48.1] ng/mL) and galectin 3 (17.8 [14.1-22.8] ng/mL) were higher, and for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (188 [155.5-230.6] ng/mL) lower, than in previously published referent controls; collagen III N-terminal propeptide (5.6 [4.3-6.9] ng/mL) was similar to referent control values. All 4 biomarkers correlated with severity of disease as indicated by N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, E/E', and left atrial volume. Baseline biomarkers did not modify the response to LCZ696 for lowering N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; however, left atrial volume reduction varied by baseline level of soluble form of ST2 and galectin 3; patients with values less than the observed median (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, biomarkers that reflect collagen homeostasis correlated with the presence and severity of disease and underlying pathophysiology, and may modify the structural response to treatment

  10. A prospective evaluation of the established criteria for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction using the Alberta HEART cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekowitz, Justin A; McAlister, Finlay A; Howlett, Jonathan; Alemayehu, Wendimagegn; Paterson, Ian; Belenkie, Israel; Oudit, Gavin Y; Kaul, Padma; Dyck, Jason R; Anderson, Todd

    2018-02-01

    Heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. The aim of this study was to test the utility of established criteria to classify patients with HF-PEF. We prospectively enrolled patients into one of five groups across a spectrum of cardiac disease and applied three different criteria for HF-PEF and calculated diagnostic metrics. A total of 565 patients were included in the analysis, including 170 patients with an adjudicated diagnosis of HF-PEF, 152 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, 152 patients at risk for heart failure, and 91 age-matched healthy controls. For the diagnosis of HF-PEF, the positive likelihood ratios were 6.1, 6.9, and 4.8 for the Zile, European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2007, and ESC 2016 criteria, respectively. The negative likelihood ratios were 0.58, 0.60, and 0.42 for the Zile, ESC 2007, and ESC 2016 criteria, respectively. All three criteria lacked sensitivity to detect HF-PEF (46.5%, 44.1%, and 51.8%, respectively) but were highly specific (92.4%, 93.9%, and 89%, respectively). We further evaluated the criteria to distinguish HF-PEF from other diagnoses after excluding heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; the results were similar. In this community based cohort, the likelihood ratios of the existing criteria for HF-PEF were not at the level necessary to be considered diagnostic. Improved criteria for the diagnosis of patients with HF-PEF are needed. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Three-dimensional neutrino-driven supernovae: Neutron star kicks, spins, and asymmetric ejection of nucleosynthesis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwathanarat, A.; Janka, H.-Th.; Müller, E.

    2013-04-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) simulations of supernova explosions of nonrotating stars, triggered by the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism with a suitable choice of the core-neutrino luminosity. Our results show that asymmetric mass ejection caused by hydrodynamic instabilities can accelerate the neutron star (NS) up to recoil velocities of more than 700 km s-1 by the "gravitational tug-boat mechanism", which is sufficient to explain most observed pulsar space velocities. The associated NS spin periods for our nonrotating progenitors are about 100 ms to 8000 ms without any obvious correlation between spin and kick magnitudes or directions. This suggests that faster spins and a possible spin-kick alignment might require angular momentum in the progenitor core prior to collapse. Our simulations for the first time demonstrate a clear correlation between the size of the NS kick and anisotropic production and distribution of heavy elements created by explosive burning behind the shock. In the case of large pulsar kicks, the explosion is significantly stronger opposite to the kick vector. Therefore the bulk of the explosively fused iron-group elements, in particular nickel, are ejected mostly in large clumps against the kick direction. This contrasts with the case of low recoil velocity, where the nickel-rich lumps are more isotropically distributed. Explosively produced intermediate-mass nuclei heavier than 28Si (like 40Ca and 44Ti) also exhibit significant enhancement in the hemisphere opposite to the direction of fast NS motion, while the distribution of 12C, 16O, and 20Ne is not affected, and that of 24Mg only marginally. Mapping the spatial distribution of the heavy elements in supernova remnants with identified pulsar motion may offer an important diagnostic test of the kick mechanism. Unlike kick scenarios based on anisotropic neutrino emission, our hydrodynamical acceleration model predicts enhanced ejection of iron-group elements and of their nuclear

  12. Thirty Years of Evidence on the Efficacy of Drug Treatments for Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Amy; Voors, Adriaan A.; Senni, Michele; McMurray, John J.V.; Deschaseaux, Celine; Cope, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Background— Treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), β-blockers (BB), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), and angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), have not been studied in a head-to-head fashion. This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of these drugs and their combinations regarding all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Methods and Results— A systematic literature review identified 57 randomized controlled trials published between 1987 and 2015, which were compared in terms of study and patient characteristics, baseline risk, outcome definitions, and the observed treatment effects. Despite differences identified in terms of study duration, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, and use of background digoxin, a network meta-analysis was considered feasible and all trials were analyzed simultaneously. The random-effects network meta-analysis suggested that the combination of ACEI+BB+MRA was associated with a 56% reduction in mortality versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% credible interval 0.26–0.66); ARNI+BB+MRA was associated with the greatest reduction in all-cause mortality versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.37, 95% credible interval 0.19–0.65). A sensitivity analysis that did not account for background therapy suggested that ARNI monotherapy is more efficacious than ACEI or ARB monotherapy. Conclusions— The network meta-analysis showed that treatment with ACEI, ARB, BB, MRA, and ARNI and their combinations were better than the treatment with placebo in reducing all-cause mortality, with the exception of ARB monotherapy and ARB plus ACEI. The combination of ARNI+BB+MRA resulted in the greatest mortality reduction. PMID:28087688

  13. Drug treatment effects on outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sean Lee; Chan, Fiona T; Nabeebaccus, Adam A; Shah, Ajay M; McDonagh, Theresa; Okonko, Darlington O; Ayis, Salma

    2018-03-01

    Clinical drug trials in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction have failed to demonstrate improvements in mortality. We systematically searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCT) assessing pharmacological treatments in patients with heart failure with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction≥40% from January 1996 to May 2016. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular mortality, heart failure hospitalisation, exercise capacity (6-min walk distance, exercise duration, VO 2 max), quality of life and biomarkers (B-type natriuretic peptide, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled relative risks (RR) for the binary outcomes, and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes, with 95% CI. We included data from 25 RCTs comprising data for 18101 patients. All-cause mortality was reduced with beta-blocker therapy compared with placebo (RR: 0.78, 95%CI 0.65 to 0.94, p=0.008). There was no effect seen with ACE inhibitors, aldosterone receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and other drug classes, compared with placebo. Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality. No single drug class reduced heart failure hospitalisation compared with placebo. The efficacy of treatments in patients with heart failure and an LV ejection fraction≥40% differ depending on the type of therapy, with beta-blockers demonstrating reductions in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Further trials are warranted to confirm treatment effects of beta-blockers in this patient group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Development of a simulation method for dynamics of electrons ejected from DNA molecules irradiated with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takeshi; Higuchi, Mariko; Fujii, Kentaro; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Yokoya, Akinari

    2012-12-01

    To develop a method for simulating the dynamics of the photoelectrons and Auger electrons ejected from DNA molecules irradiated with pulsed monochromatic X-rays. A 30-base-pair (bp) DNA molecule was used as the target model, and the X-rays were assumed to have a Gaussian-shaped time distribution. Photoionization and Auger decay were considered as the atomic processes. The atoms from which the photoelectrons or Auger electrons were emitted were specified in the DNA molecule (or DNA ion) using the Monte Carlo method, and the trajectory of each electron in the electric field formed around the positively charged DNA molecule was calculated with a Newtonian equation. The kinetics of the electrons produced by irradiation with X-rays at an intensity ranging from 1 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(16) photons/mm(2) and energies of 380 eV (below the carbon K-edge), 435 eV (above the nitrogen K-edge), and 560 eV (above the oxygen K-edge) were evaluated. It was found that at an X-ray intensity of 1 × 10(14) photons/mm(2) or less, all the produced electrons escaped from the target. However, above an X-ray intensity of 1 × 10(15) photons/mm(2) and an energy of 560 eV, some photoelectrons that were ejected from the oxygen atoms were trapped near the target DNA. A simulation method for studying the trajectories of electrons ejected from a 30-bp DNA molecule irradiated with pulsed monochromatic X-rays has been developed. The present results show that electron dynamics are strongly dependent on the charged density induced in DNA by pulsed X-ray irradiation.

  15. Rapid Generation of Multiplexed Cell Cocultures Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection Followed by Aqueous Two-Phase Exclusion Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Frampton, John P.; Raghavan, Shreya; Sabahi-Kaviani, Rahman; Luker, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The development of tools for patterning cocultures of cells is a fundamental interest among cell biologists and tissue engineers. Although a variety of systems exist for micropatterning cells, the methods used to generate cell micropatterns are often cumbersome and difficult to adapt for tissue engineering purposes. This study combines acoustic droplet ejection and aqueous two-phase system exclusion patterning to introduce a method for patterning cocultures of cells in multiplexed arrays. This new method uses focused acoustic radiation pressure to eject discrete droplets of uniform size from the surface of a dextran solution containing cells. The size of droplets is controlled by adjusting ultrasound parameters, such as pulse, duration, and amplitude. The ejected dextran droplets are captured on a cell culture substrate that is manipulated by a computer-controlled 3D positioning system according to predesigned patterns. Polyethylene glycol solution containing an additional cell type is then added to the culture dish to produce a two-phase system capable of depositing different types of cells around the initial pattern of cells. We demonstrate that our method can produce patterns of islands or lines with two or more cell types. Further, we demonstrate that patterns can be multiplexed for studies involving combinations of multiple cell types. This method offers a tool to transfer cell-containing samples in a contact-free, nozzle-less manner, avoiding sample cross-contamination. It can be used to pattern cell cocultures without complicated fabrication of culture substrates. These capabilities were used to examine the response of cancer cells to the presence of a ligand (CXCL12) secreted from surrounding cocultured cells. PMID:22356298

  16. PTFE surface etching in the post-discharge of a RF scanning plasma torch: evidence of ejected fluorinated species

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Thierry; Viville, Pascal; Duluard, Corinne Y; Desbief, Simon; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Reniers, François

    2016-01-01

    The texturization of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces is achieved at atmospheric pressure by using the post-discharge of a radio-frequency plasma torch supplied in helium and oxygen gases. The surface properties are characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We show that the plasma treatment increases the surface hydrophobicity (with water contact angles increasing from 115 to 155{\\deg}) only by modifying the PTFE surface morphology and not the stoichiometry. Measurements of sample mass losses correlated to the ejection of CF$_2$ fragments from the PTFE surface evidenced an etching mechanism at atmospheric pressure.

  17. Force Reconstruction from Ejection Tests of Stores from Aircraft Used for Model Predictions and Missing/Bad Gages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Michael; Cap, Jerome S.; Starr, Michael J.; Urbina, Angel; Brink, Adam Ray

    2015-12-01

    One of the more severe environments for a store on an aircraft is during the ejection of the store. During this environment it is not possible to instrument all component responses, and it is also likely that some instruments may fail during the environment testing. This work provides a method for developing these responses from failed gages and uninstrumented locations. First, the forces observed by the store during the environment are reconstructed. A simple sampling method is used to reconstruct these forces given various parameters. Then, these forces are applied to a model to generate the component responses. Validation is performed on this methodology.

  18. DualBLESS: Bufferless Router with Dual Ejection Ports for 2D and 3D NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors proposed a 1-cycle bufferless router with dual ejection ports (which is also called DualBLESS for 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip. The router uses a simple route computer module, a MUX module instead of the Flit Ejector module and a MUX module in a baseline bufferless router to achieve high performance. Simulation results under six synthetic workloads illustrate that the two proposed DualBLESS routers achieve less average packet latency and higher throughput than the baseline 2D and 3D bufferless routers.

  19. Associations of anemia and renal dysfunction with outcomes among patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Katsuya; Sato, Naoki; Keida, Takehiko; Sakata, Yasushi; Takano, Teruo

    2014-11-07

    The relationship among anemia, renal dysfunction, left ventricular ejection fraction, and outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cardiorenal anemia syndrome and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for heart failure with a preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Of 4842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes Registry between April 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011, 4393 patients were evaluated to investigate the association among anemia, renal dysfunction, preserved or reduced ejection fraction, and the primary end point (mortality and readmission for heart failure since discharge). The patients were divided into four groups on the basis of eGFR and hemoglobin at discharge. The median follow-up period after discharge was 432 (range=253-659) days. The primary end point was reached in 37.6% and 34.8% of the preserved and reduced ejection fraction groups, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comorbidities, there was no significant association of either renal dysfunction or anemia alone with the primary end point in patients with preserved ejection fraction, but the combination of renal dysfunction and anemia was associated with a significantly higher risk than that without either condition (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.12; Prenal dysfunction alone (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.25; P=0.002) and also, renal dysfunction plus anemia relative to the risk without either condition (hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 2.96; Prenal dysfunction combined with anemia is associated with an increased risk of adverse postdischarge outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction, whereas renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of the risk of adverse outcomes in patients with reduced ejection fraction, regardless of anemia. Copyright © 2014 by the American

  20. Benefits of Permanent His Bundle Pacing Combined With Atrioventricular Node Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Heart Failure With Both Preserved and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijian; Su, Lan; Wu, Shengjie; Xu, Lei; Xiao, Fangyi; Zhou, Xiaohong; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2017-04-01

    Clinical benefits from His bundle pacing (HBP) in heart failure patients with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction are still inconclusive. This study evaluated clinical outcomes of permanent HBP in atrial fibrillation patients with narrow QRS who underwent atrioventricular node ablation for heart failure symptoms despite rate control by medication. The study enrolled 52 consecutive heart failure patients who underwent attempted atrioventricular node ablation and HBP for symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, New York Heart Association classification and use of diuretics for heart failure were assessed during follow-up visits after permanent HBP. Of 52 patients, 42 patients (80.8%) received permanent HBP and atrioventricular node ablation with a median 20-month follow-up. There was no significant change between native and paced QRS duration (107.1±25.8 versus 105.3±23.9 milliseconds, P =0.07). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension decreased from the baseline ( P heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients (N=20) than in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients (N=22). New York Heart Association classification improved from a baseline 2.9±0.6 to 1.4±0.4 after HBP in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients and from a baseline 2.7±0.6 to 1.4±0.5 after HBP in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. After 1 year of HBP, the numbers of patients who used diuretics for heart failure decreased significantly ( P Heart Association classification and reduced diuretics use for heart failure management in atrial fibrillation patients with narrow QRS who suffered from heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Heights of Coronal Mass Ejections and Shocks Inferred from Metric and DH Type II Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.; Moon, Y. J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Suresh, K.

    2017-09-01

    A set of 27 continuous events that showed extension of metric Type-II radio bursts (m-Type IIs) into the deca-hectometric (DH) domain is considered. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with this type of continuous event supply more energy to produce space-weather effects than the CMEs that produce Type-II bursts in any one region. Since the heights of shock formation at the start of m-Type IIs were not available from observations, they were estimated using kinematic modeling in previous studies. In the present study, the heights of shock formation during metric and DH Type-II bursts are determined using two methods: i) the CME leading-edge method and ii) a method employing known electron-density models and start/end frequencies. In the first method, assuming that the shocks are generated by the associated CMEs at the leading edge, the height of the CME leading edge (LE) is calculated at the onset and end of m-Type IIs using the kinematic equation with constant acceleration or constant speed. The LE heights of CMEs that are assumed to be the heights of shock formation/end of nearly 79% of m-Type IIs are found to be within the acceptable range of 1 - 3 R_{⊙}. For other events, the heights are beyond this range, for which the shocks might either have been generated at the CME flanks/flare-blast waves, or the initial CME height might have been different. The CME/shock height at the onset and end of 17 DH Type IIs are found to be in the range of 2 - 6 R_{⊙} and within 30 R_{⊙}, respectively. In addition, the CME LE heights from observations at the onset and end of metric/DH Type IIs are compared with the heights corresponding to the observed frequency that is determined using the known electron-density models, and they are in agreement with the model results. The heights are also estimated using the space speed available for 15 halo CMEs, and it is found that the difference is smaller at the m-Type II start/end (0.02 to 0.66 R_{⊙}) and slightly greater

  2. Cardiac Amyloidosis and its New Clinical Phenotype: Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Jorge, Antonio José Lagoeiro; Souza, Celso Vale; Andrade, Thais Ribeiro de

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is now an emerging cardiovascular epidemic, being identified as the main phenotype observed in clinical practice. It is more associated with female gender, advanced age and comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease. Amyloidosis is a clinical disorder characterized by the deposition of aggregates of insoluble fibrils originating from proteins that exhibit anomalous folding. Recently, pictures of senile amyloidosis have been described in patients with HFpEF, demonstrating the need for clinical cardiologists to investigate this etiology in suspect cases. The clinical suspicion of amyloidosis should be increased in cases of HFPS where the cardio imaging methods are compatible with infiltrative cardiomyopathy. Advances in cardio imaging methods combined with the possibility of performing genetic tests and identification of the type of amyloid material allow the diagnosis to be made. The management of the diagnosed patients can be done in partnership with centers specialized in the study of amyloidosis, which, together with the new technologies, investigate the possibility of organ or bone marrow transplantation and also the involvement of patients in clinical studies that evaluate the action of the new emerging drugs. Resumo A insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) é hoje uma epidemia cardiovascular emergente, sendo identificada como o principal fenótipo observado na prática clínica. Está mais associado ao sexo feminino, idade avançada e a comorbidades como hipertensão arterial, diabetes, obesidade e doença renal crônica. A amiloidose é uma desordem clínica caracterizada pelo depósito de agregados de fibrilas insolúveis originadas de proteínas que apresentam dobramento anômalo. Recentemente, têm sido descritos quadros de amiloidose senil em pacientes com ICFEP, demonstrando a necessidade de os cardiologistas clínicos investigarem

  3. Relationship between right and left ventricular function in candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillator with low left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Karur, Gauri R; Connelly, Kim A; Deva, Djeven; Yan, Raymond T; Wald, Rachel M; Singh, Sheldon; Leung, General; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Dorian, Paul; Angaran, Paul; Yan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Indications for the primary prevention of sudden death using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are based predominantly on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is also a known prognostic factor in a variety of structural heart diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death. We sought to investigate the relationship between right and left ventricular parameters (function and volume) measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) among a broad spectrum of patients considered for an ICD. In this retrospective, single tertiary-care center study, consecutive patients considered for ICD implantation who were referred for LVEF assessment by CMR were included. Right and left ventricular function and volumes were measured. In total, 102 patients (age 62±14 years; 23% women) had a mean LVEF of 28±11% and RVEF of 44±12%. The left ventricular and right ventricular end diastolic volume index was 140±42 mL/m 2 and 81±27 mL/m 2 , respectively. Eighty-six (84%) patients had a LVEF right ventricular systolic dysfunction. Although there was a significant and moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF ( r =0.40, p right ventricular systolic dysfunction (Kappa=0.041). Among patients being considered for an ICD, there is a positive but moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF. A considerable proportion of patients who qualify for an ICD based on low LVEF have preserved RVEF, and vice versa.

  4. Proizvodnja piropatrona i raketnih motora pilotskih sedišta / Production of cartridges and eject seat rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Savković

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovaj rad sadrži opis uspešnog razvoja i proizvodnje piropatrona, pogonskih punjenja i raketnih motora izbacivih pilotskih sedišta. Opisan je proces razvoja putem kopiranja stranog rešenja i njihovih modifikacija. Dati su primeri korišćenja te metodologije, razvoj i poređenje rezultata ispitivanja stranih i domaćih rešenja. Objašnjava se i važnost proizvodnje piropatrona, pogonskih punjenja i raketnih motora izbacivih pilotskih sedišta. / Scope of this work contains description of successful development and preparation for production of cartridges, propellants and rocket motors for pilot eject seat. Process of development through copying foreign solutions and their modifications is described. There are examples of used methodology for development and comparison of results of tests of foreign and domestic solutions. This work also explains importance of production of cartridges, propellants and rocket motors for pilots eject seat.

  5. The effect of a new ejection seat headbox and high G garments on head mobility during air combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G W; Anton, D J; Bayley, N J; Martin, T E; Stallard, N

    1994-03-01

    Full coverage anti-G trousers, a chest counter pressure garment for positive pressure breathing for G tolerance, and a smaller ejection seat headbox have been developed for future agile aircraft. The hypotheses that the new headbox might improve, and that the more restrictive high G garments might compromise, pilot head mobility were tested. The RAF institute of Aviation Medicine Hawk aircraft was equipped with a wide angle video camera facing the front seat pilot. Two experimental conditions were compared to the control air combat sortie: 1. standard garments and the smaller headbox; 2. high G garments and the smaller headbox. Data were recorded from five instructor pilots during three scheduled air combat training sorties. Their helmets were marked with 10-mm white dots in a standardized pattern. Software for recording helmet dot positions from single frame video images, and a trigonometric method for calculating head rotation and translation from changes in the helmet dot positions were devised. No differences were found between headboxes or garments at the three extremes of head movements analyzed. Observed neck rotations were similar to maximal seated norms. Optimal head and neck extension is impeded by the ejection seat headbox. Pilots' head movements are not restricted during air combat at moderate G levels.

  6. International Geographic Variation in Event Rates in Trials of Heart Failure With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International geographic differences in outcomes may exist for clinical trials of heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), but there are few data for those with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed outcomes by international geographic...... Trial in HF-REF (CORONA). Crude rates of heart failure hospitalization varied by geographic region, and more so for HF-PEF than for HF-REF. Rates in patients with HF-PEF were highest in the United States/Canada (HF hospitalization rate 7.6 per 100 patient-years in I-Preserve; 8.8 in CHARM.......01-1.74; P=0.04) in I-Preserve and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.91; P=0.01) in CHARM-Preserved. In HF-REF, rates of HF hospitalization were slightly lower in Western Europe compared with other regions. For both HF-REF and HF-PEF, there were few regional differences in rates of all...

  7. Predictions of the arrival time of Coronal Mass Ejections at 1AU: an analysis of the causes of errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three existing models of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME transit between the Sun and the Earth are compared to coronagraph and in situ observations: all three models are found to perform with a similar level of accuracy (i.e. an average error between observed and predicted 1AU transit times of approximately 11h. To improve long-term space weather prediction, factors influencing CME transit are investigated. Both the removal of the plane of sky projection (as suffered by coronagraph derived speeds of Earth directed CMEs and the use of observed values of solar wind speed, fail to significantly improve transit time prediction. However, a correlation is found to exist between the late/early arrival of an ICME and the width of the preceding sheath region, suggesting that the error is a geometrical effect that can only be removed by a more accurate determination of a CME trajectory and expansion. The correlation between magnetic field intensity and speed of ejecta at 1AU is also investigated. It is found to be weak in the body of the ICME, but strong in the sheath, if the upstream solar wind conditions are taken into account.

    Key words. Solar physics, astronomy and astrophysics (flares and mass ejections – Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields; sources of the solar wind

  8. Factors determining the magnitude of the pre-ejection leftward septal motion in left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remme, Espen W; Niederer, Steven; Gjesdal, Ola; Russell, Kristoffer; Hyde, Eoin R; Smith, Nicolas; Smiseth, Otto A

    2016-12-01

    An abnormal large leftward septal motion prior to ejection is frequently observed in left bundle branch block (LBBB) patients. This motion has been proposed as a predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Our goal was to investigate factors that influence its magnitude. Left (LVP) and right ventricular (RVP) pressures and left ventricular (LV) volume were measured in eight canines. After induction of LBBB, LVP and, hence, the transmural septal pressure (P LV-RV = LVP-RVP) increased more slowly (P bundle branch block lowers afterload against pre-ejection septal contraction, expressed as slowed rise of P LV-RV , which is a main cause and determinant of the magnitude of leftward septal motion. The motion may be small or absent due to septal infarct, impaired global or RV contractility or RV volume overload, which should be kept in mind if this motion is to be used in evaluation of CRT response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Height of Shock Formation in the Solar Corona Inferred from Observations of Type II Radio Bursts and Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Employing coronagraphic and EUV observations close to the solar surface made by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we determined the heliocentric distance of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the starting time of associated metric type II bursts. We used the wave diameter and leading edge methods and measured the CME heights for a set of 32 metric type II bursts from solar cycle 24. We minimized the projection effects by making the measurements from a view that is roughly orthogonal to the direction of the ejection. We also chose image frames close to the onset times of the type II bursts, so no extrapolation was necessary. We found that the CMEs were located in the heliocentric distance range from 1.20 to 1.93 solar radii (Rs), with mean and median values of 1.43 and 1.38 Rs, respectively. We conclusively find that the shock formation can occur at heights substantially below 1.5 Rs. In a few cases, the CME height at type II onset was close to 2 Rs. In these cases, the starting frequency of the type II bursts was very low, in the range 25-40 MHz, which confirms that the shock can also form at larger heights. The starting frequencies of metric type II bursts have a weak correlation with the measured CME/shock heights and are consistent with the rapid decline of density with height in the inner corona.

  10. Association of Modifiable Risk Factors and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction among Hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Todd B; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Howard, Barbara; Ratner, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010. Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age ≥ 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% or LVEF ≤ 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/defibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently associated with lower LVEF (P < .05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality. PMID:25535596

  11. Milk flow rates can be used to identify and investigate milk ejection in women expressing breast milk using an electric breast pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Donna T; Mitoulas, Leon R; Kent, Jacqueline C; Cregan, Mark D; Doherty, Dorota A; Larsson, Michael; Hartmann, Peter E

    2006-01-01

    Currently there is no simple method available to assess milk ejection and breast milk flow in lactating women in both the clinical and research setting. The authors hypothesize that changes in milk flow rate are associated with milk ejection and therefore may provide a method suitable for the assessment of milk ejection and removal. Mothers (n = 23) expressed milk from one breast for a 15-minute period using both weak and strong vacuums on two to four separate occasions using an experimental electric breast pump (Medela AG, Baar, Switzerland). Breast milk flow rates were recorded at 5-second intervals by connecting a tube from the breast shield to a bottle placed on a balance that was connected to a computer. Milk ejection was determined by an acute increase in milk duct diameter in the contralateral breast using ultrasound (Acuson XP10, Siemens, Mountain View, CA), and the change in duct diameter was compared with milk flow rates. Milk flow rates ranged from 0 to 4.6 g per 5-second period. Increases in flow rates were positively associated with increases in duct diameter (p flow rates. This direct relationship between increases in duct diameter and acute increases in milk flow rates suggests that changes in flow rates can be used to identify milk ejection in the absence of ultrasound data.

  12. Influence of image filtering on fully automatic measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction; Influence du filtrage des images sur la mesure automatique de la fraction d'ejection ventriculaire gauche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merabet, Y.; Bouyoucef, S.E. [Institut National d' Enseignement Superieur des Sciences Medicales (INESSM), Constantine (Algeria); Bontemps, L.; Felecan, R.; Itti, R. [Hopital Louis-Pradel, 69 - Lyon (France). Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Cardiovasculaire et Pneumologique; Kenzai, C. [Universite de Constantine (Algeria)

    1999-08-01

    Pre-filtering of gated blood pool studies, before fully automatic measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, should be able to improve the results in terms of success and accuracy, compared to unfiltered series of pictures. We have evaluated 12 filters referring to four different principles (Metz, Wiener, Butterworth and band-pass) and correlated the results with those obtained without filtering, as well as with a reference achieved by an experienced observer, using a manual technique of regions of interest drawing. Most filters (10 out of 12) provided 100 % success and correlations with coefficients higher than 0.9, and finally we propose to use in clinical practice the Butterworth filter, with 0.2 cycles per pixel cut-off frequency and 10. order, mainly due to its independence of the characteristics of the imaging system (no involvement of the modulation transfer function) rather than to its excellent results, although not significantly different from others. (author)

  13. Ejecting intact large molecular structures by C{sub 60} ion impact upon bio-organic solids; Ejection de tres grandes structures moleculaires intactes par impact de C{sub 60} sur des solides bioorganiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunelle, A.; Della Negra, S.; Deprun, C.; Depauw, J.; Jacquet, D.; Le Beyec, Y.; Pautrat, N. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Haakansson, P. [Division of Ion Physics, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala Univ. Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    C{sub 60} molecules accelerated to MeV energies (20 MeV) have been used to induce the desorption-ionization of large bio-molecules from solid samples. In the case of the trypsin molecules, the secondary molecular ion emission yield is about two orders of magnitude larger than with MeV atomic ions. This is a consequence of the very high energy density deposited in solids by 20 MeV C{sub 60} projectiles that gives rise to a large amount of matter ejected after each impact. Although time-of-flight mass spectra can be recorded within a few seconds, it is more the mechanistic aspects in comparison with other particle induced desorption methods, which are the objective of these first results with energetic fullerenes. (authors) 1 fig.

  14. Impact of left ventricular ejection fraction and medication adherence on major adverse cardiac events during the first year after successful primary percutaneous coronary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Shim, Sook Kyung; Hwang, Sun Young; Ahn, Ji Hun; Yu, Hye Yon

    2016-04-01

    To identify the impact of preprocedural left ventricular ejection fraction and adherence to prescribed medication on major adverse cardiac events in patients with a successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Although advances in percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease have considerably reduced poor outcomes such as major adverse cardiac events, many patients still experience adverse outcomes after a percutaneous coronary intervention. Thus, in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention, it is extremely important to identify the predictors for major adverse cardiac events. A retrospective and cross-sectional design. Three hundred and nineteen patients who underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention participated in this study. Participants were assessed for major adverse cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention for the first year. Preprocedural left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by echocardiogram. Medication adherence was used with the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 items at the first year after the successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Of the 319 patients, 102 had major adverse cardiac events after the successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. On the basis of Cox regression, after adjusting for patient characteristics, lower baseline left ventricular ejection fraction and medication nonadherence and were statistically significant and independent predictors of major adverse cardiac events. Our results show that major adverse cardiac events after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with low left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and medication nonadherence after discharge. Therefore, healthcare providers should consider multidimensional approaches to improve low left ventricular ejection fraction and medication adherence. The findings suggest that the classification of high-risk patients aft