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Sample records for common risk allele

  1. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0-2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score......, as it is likely more sensitive in detecting associations with risks of other endpoints than breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast cancer incidence in the 19,010 women was increased across allele sum quintiles (log-rank trend test; p=1*10(-12)), but not incidence of other cancers (p=0.41). Age- and study-adjusted hazard...... ratio for the 5(th) vs. 1(st) allele sum quintile was 1.82(95% confidence interval;1.53-2.18). Corresponding hazard ratios per allele were 1.04(1.03-1.05) and 1.05(1.02-1.08) for breast cancer incidence and mortality, similar across risk factors. In 50-year old women, the starting age for screening...

  2. A strategy to discover genes that carry multi-allelic or mono-allelic risk for common diseases: A cohort allelic sums test (CAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenthaler, Stephan; Thilly, William G.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described to discover if a gene carries one or more allelic mutations that confer risk for any specified common disease. The method does not depend upon genetic linkage of risk-conferring mutations to high frequency genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Instead, the sums of allelic mutation frequencies in case and control cohorts are determined and a statistical test is applied to discover if the difference in these sums is greater than would be expected by chance. A statistical model is presented that defines the ability of such tests to detect significant gene-disease relationships as a function of case and control cohort sizes and key confounding variables: zygosity and genicity, environmental risk factors, errors in diagnosis, limits to mutant detection, linkage of neutral and risk-conferring mutations, ethnic diversity in the general population and the expectation that among all exonic mutants in the human genome greater than 90% will be neutral with regard to any effect on disease risk. Means to test the null hypothesis for, and determine the statistical power of, each test are provided. For this 'cohort allelic sums test' or 'CAST', the statistical model and test are provided as an Excel (TM) program, CASTAT (C) at http://epidemiology.mit.edu. Based on genetics, technology and statistics, a strategy of enumerating the mutant alleles carried in the exons and splice sites of the estimated ∼25,000 human genes in case cohort samples of 10,000 persons for each of 100 common diseases is proposed and evaluated: A wide range of possible conditions of multi-allelic or mono-allelic and monogenic, multigenic or polygenic (including epistatic) risk are found to be detectable using the statistical criteria of 1 or 10 ''false positive'' gene associations per 25,000 gene-disease pair-wise trials and a statistical power of >0.8. Using estimates of the distribution of both neutral and gene-inactivating nondeleterious mutations in humans and

  3. A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard

    2010-10-15

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner\\'s curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.

  4. A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anney, Richard; Klei, Lambertus; Pinto, Dalila; Regan, Regina; Conroy, Judith; Magalhaes, Tiago R; Correia, Catarina; Abrahams, Brett S; Sykes, Nuala; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bailey, Anthony J; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bölte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick F; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Brian, Jessica; Carson, Andrew R; Casallo, Guillermo; Casey, Jillian; Chu, Su H; Cochrane, Lynne; Corsello, Christina; Crawford, Emily L; Crossett, Andrew; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Drmic, Irene; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A; Folstein, Susan E; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T; Goldberg, Jeremy; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Heron, Elizabeth A; Hill, Matthew; Holt, Richard; Howe, Jennifer L; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Korvatska, Olena; Kustanovich, Vlad; Lajonchere, Clara M; Lamb, Janine A; Laskawiec, Magdalena; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lionel, Anath C; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Lord, Catherine; Lotspeich, Linda; Lund, Sabata C; Maestrini, Elena; Mahoney, William; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M; Melhem, Nadine M; Merikangas, Alison; Migita, Ohsuke; Minshew, Nancy J; Mirza, Ghazala K; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F; Noakes, Carolyn; Noor, Abdul; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R; Parrini, Barbara; Paton, Tara; Pickles, Andrew; Piven, Joseph; Posey, David J; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Prasad, Aparna; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Renshaw, Katy; Rickaby, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Roeder, Kathryn; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L; Bierut, Laura J; Rice, John P; Salt, Jeff; Sansom, Katherine; Sato, Daisuke; Segurado, Ricardo; Senman, Lili; Shah, Naisha; Sheffield, Val C; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Inês; Stoppioni, Vera; Strawbridge, Christina; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tansey, Katherine; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma; Thompson, Ann P; Thomson, Susanne; Tryfon, Ana; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B; Volkmar, Fred; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhouzhi; Wassink, Thomas H; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Wood, Shawn; Yaspan, Brian L; Zurawiecki, Danielle; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Cantor, Rita M; Cook, Edwin H; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L; Gallagher, Louise; Geschwind, Daniel H; Gill, Michael; Haines, Jonathan L; Miller, Judith; Monaco, Anthony P; Nurnberger, John I; Paterson, Andrew D; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Scherer, Stephen W; Sutcliffe, James S; Szatmari, Peter; Vicente, Astrid M; Vieland, Veronica J; Wijsman, Ellen M; Devlin, Bernie; Ennis, Sean; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2010-10-15

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.

  5. Common breast cancer-predisposition alleles are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Spurdle, Amanda B; Sinilnikova, Olga M

    2008-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast cancer. However, evidence suggests that these risks are modified by other genetic or environmental factors that cluster in families. A recent genome-wide association study has shown that common alleles at single nucleotide polymorp...

  6. Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Alleles at 4q25 Predict Recurrence after Catheter-based Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M. Benjamin; Muhammad, Raafia; Parvez, Babar; White, Brenda W.; Streur, Megan; Song, Yanna; Stubblefield, Tanya; Kucera, Gayle; Blair, Marcia; Rytlewski, Jason; Parvathaneni, Sunthosh; Nagarakanti, Rangadham; Saavedra, Pablo; Ellis, Christopher; Whalen, S. Patrick; Roden, Dan M; Darbar, Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Background Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 4q25 (rs2200733, rs10033464) are associated with both lone and typical AF. Risk alleles at 4q25 have recently been shown to predict recurrence of AF after ablation in a population of predominately lone AF, but lone AF represents only 5–30% of AF cases. Objective To test the hypothesis that 4q25 AF risk alleles can predict response to AF ablation in the majority of AF cases. Methods Patients enrolled in the Vanderbilt AF Registry underwent 378 catheter-based AF ablations (median age 60 years, 71% male, 89% typical AF) between 2004 and 2011. The primary endpoint was time to recurrence of any non-sinus atrial tachyarrhythmia (atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, or AF; [AT/AF]). Results Two-hundred AT/AF recurrences (53%) were observed. In multivariable analysis, the rs2200733 risk allele predicted a 24% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio 0.76 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6–0.95, P=0.016) compared with wild-type. The heterozygous haplotype demonstrated a 21% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62–0.99) and the homozygous risk allele carriers a 39% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.0) (P=0.037). Conclusion Risk alleles at the 4q25 loci predict impaired clinical response to AF ablation in a population of predominately typical AF patients. Our findings suggest the rs2200733 polymorphism may hold promise as an as an objectively measured patient characteristic that can used as a clinical tool for selection of patients for AF ablation. PMID:23178686

  7. A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anney, Richard; Klei, Lambertus; Pinto, Dalila; Regan, Regina; Conroy, Judith; Magalhaes, Tiago R.; Correia, Catarina; Abrahams, Brett S.; Sykes, Nuala; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bölte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Brian, Jessica; Carson, Andrew R.; Casallo, Guillermo; Casey, Jillian; Chu, Su H.; Cochrane, Lynne; Corsello, Christina; Crawford, Emily L.; Crossett, Andrew; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Drmic, Irene; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Folstein, Susan E.; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M.; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Heron, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Matthew; Holt, Richard; Howe, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Korvatska, Olena; Kustanovich, Vlad; Lajonchere, Clara M.; Lamb, Janine A.; Laskawiec, Magdalena; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lionel, Anath C.; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Lord, Catherine; Lotspeich, Linda; Lund, Sabata C.; Maestrini, Elena; Mahoney, William; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R.; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J.; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Merikangas, Alison; Migita, Ohsuke; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mirza, Ghazala K.; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F.; Noakes, Carolyn; Noor, Abdul; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R.; Parrini, Barbara; Paton, Tara; Pickles, Andrew; Piven, Joseph; Posey, David J; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Prasad, Aparna; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Renshaw, Katy; Rickaby, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Roeder, Kathryn; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L.; Bierut, Laura J.; Rice, John P.; Salt, Jeff; Sansom, Katherine; Sato, Daisuke; Segurado, Ricardo; Senman, Lili; Shah, Naisha; Sheffield, Val C.; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Inês; Stoppioni, Vera; Strawbridge, Christina; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tansey, Katherine; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma; Thompson, Ann P.; Thomson, Susanne; Tryfon, Ana; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B.; Volkmar, Fred; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhouzhi; Wassink, Thomas H.; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Wood, Shawn; Yaspan, Brian L.; Zurawiecki, Danielle; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cantor, Rita M.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Gallagher, Louise; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Gill, Michael; Haines, Jonathan L.; Miller, Judith; Monaco, Anthony P.; Nurnberger, John I.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Devlin, Bernie; Ennis, Sean; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10−8. When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10−8 threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C. PMID:20663923

  8. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrulis, IL; Mulligan, AM; Schmutzler, RK; Barrowdale, D; McGuffog, L; Robson, M; Schmidt, MK; Spurdle, AB; Neuhausen, SL; Kuchenbaecker, KB

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and the general population for several loci, no study has comprehensively evaluated the associations of all known BC susceptibility alleles with risk of BC subtypes in BRCA1 and BRC...

  9. A common allele on chromosome 9 associated with coronary heartdisease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Ruth; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kavaslar, Nihan; Stewart, Alexandre; Roberts, Robert; Cox, David R.; Hinds, David; Pennachio, Len; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle,Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2007-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in Western countries. Here we used genome-wide association scanning to identify a 58 kb interval on chromosome 9 that was consistently associated with CHD in six independent samples. The interval contains no annotated genes and is not associated with established CHD risk factors such as plasma lipoproteins, hypertension or diabetes. Homozygotes for the risk allele comprise 20-25% of Caucasians and have a {approx}30-40% increased risk of CHD. These data indicate that the susceptibility allele acts through a novel mechanism to increase CHD risk in a large fraction of the population.

  10. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A common mutation associated with the Duarte galactosemia allele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Dembure, P.P.; Langley, S.; Paulk, E.M.; Hjelm, L.N.; Fridovich-Keil, J. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The human cDNA and gene for galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) have been cloned and sequenced. A prevalant mutation (Q188R) is known to cause classic galactosemia (G/G). G/G galactosemia has an incidence of 1/38,886 in 1,396,766 Georgia live-born infants, but a more common variant of galactosemia, Duarte, has an unknown incidence. The proposed Duarte biochemical phenotypes of GALT are as follows: D/N, D/D, and D/G, which have [approximately]75%, 50%, and 25% of normal GALT activity, respectively. In addition, the D allele has isoforms of its enzyme that have more acidic pI than normal. Here the authors systematically determine (a) the prevalence of an A-to-G transition at base pair 2744 of exon 10 in the GALT gene, a transition that produces a codon change converting asparagine to aspartic acid at position 314 (N314D), and (b) the association of this mutation with the Duarte biochemical phenotype. The 2744G nucleotide change adds an AvaII (SinI) cut site, which was identified in PCR-amplified DNA. In 111 biochemically unphenotyped controls with no history of galactosemia, 13 N314D alleles were identified (prevalence 5.9%). In a prospective study, 40 D alleles were biochemically phenotyped, and 40 N314D alleles were found. By contrast, in 36 individuals known not to have the Duarte biochemical phenotype, no N314D alleles were found. The authors conclude that the N314D mutation is a common allele that probably causes the Duarte GALT biochemical phenotype and occurs in a predominantly Caucasian, nongalactosemic population, with a prevalence of 5.9%. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Identification of Ppd-B1 alleles in common wheat cultivars by CAPS marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, S; Kowalczyk, K; Miazga, D

    2012-05-01

    Photoperiod response is a major determinant of the duration of growth stages in common wheat. In common wheat, many genes play a role in determining flowering time, but the Ppd genes located on the homoeologous group 2 play a major role. Of these Ppd-B1 is located on the short arm of 2B. In 107 common wheat cultivars grown in Poland and neighboring countries, the identification of Ppd-B1 alleles using in-del analysis by using a CAPS markers was investigated. 87 cultivars were shown to carry dominant Ppd-B1 alleles. This shows that Ppd-B1 alleles is have been widely used in common wheat breeding programme in these countries. Recessive ppd-B1 alleles were found only in 20 cultivars (12 Polish, 5 former Soviet Union, 2 German, 1 Swedish).

  13. Widespread signatures of positive selection in common risk alleles associated to autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Polimanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is the outcome of innumerable evolutionary processes; the systems genetics of psychiatric disorders could bear their signatures. On this basis, we analyzed five psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia (SCZ, using GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Machine learning-derived scores were used to investigate two natural-selection scenarios: complete selection (loci where a selected allele reached fixation and incomplete selection (loci where a selected allele has not yet reached fixation. ASD GWAS results positively correlated with incomplete-selection (p = 3.53*10-4. Variants with ASD GWAS p<0.1 were shown to have a 19%-increased probability to be in the top-5% for incomplete-selection score (OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.11-1.8, p = 9.56*10-7. Investigating the effect directions of minor alleles, we observed an enrichment for positive associations in SNPs with ASD GWAS p<0.1 and top-5% incomplete-selection score (permutation p<10-4. Considering the set of these ASD-positive-associated variants, we observed gene-expression enrichments for brain and pituitary tissues (p = 2.3*10-5 and p = 3*10-5, respectively and 53 gene ontology (GO enrichments, such as nervous system development (GO:0007399, p = 7.57*10-12, synapse organization (GO:0050808, p = 8.29*10-7, and axon guidance (GO:0007411, p = 1.81*10-7. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that ASD positively correlates with childhood intelligence, college completion, and years of schooling. Accordingly, we hypothesize that certain ASD risk alleles were under positive selection during human evolution due to their involvement in neurogenesis and cognitive ability.

  14. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anna Carbone

    Full Text Available The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC. We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  15. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Mary Anna; Chen, Yuhong; Hughes, Guy A; Weinreb, Robert N; Zabriskie, Norman A; Zhang, Kang; Anholt, Robert R H

    2011-01-01

    The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC). We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  16. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Pharoah, Paul D P; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is lacking. M...

  17. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mavaddat (Nasim); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); M.N. Brook (Mark N.); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune F.); H. Flyger (Henrik); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Johnson (Nichola); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); S. Verhoef; E.J. Rutgers (Emiel J.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L.A. Brinton (Louise); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); D. Lambrechts (Diether); H. Wildiers (Hans); C. van Ongeval (Chantal); E. van Limbergen (Erik); V. Kristensen (Vessela); G. Grenaker Alnæs (Grethe); S. Nord (Silje); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); A. Trentham-Dietz (Amy); P. Newcomb (Polly); L. Titus (Linda); K.M. Egan (Kathleen M.); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); R. Tamimi (Rulla); P. Kraft (Peter); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C. Turnbull (Clare); A. Renwick (Anthony); S. Seal (Sheila); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); L. Bernstein (Leslie); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofyeva (Darya); Z. Takhirova (Zalina); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C. Sutter (Christian); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Schürmann (Peter); M. Bremer (Michael); H. Christiansen (Hans); T.-W. Park-Simon; P. Hillemanns (Peter); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Sanchez (Marie); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); V. Pensotti (Valeria); J. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); A.J. Sigurdson (Alice); M.M. Doody (Michele M.); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Försti (Asta); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A. Marie Mulligan (Anna); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); R. Balleine (Rosemary); G.G. Giles (Graham); R.L. Milne (Roger); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); U. Eilber (Ursula); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); L.B. Koppert (Lisa); J. Carpenter (Jane); C. Clarke (Christine); R.J. Scott (Rodney J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Karina Dieffenbach (Aida); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); K. Offit (Kenneth); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); R. Rau-Murthy (Rohini); M. Dwek (Miriam); R. Swann (Ruth); K. Annie Perkins (Katherine); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); D. Eccles (Diana); W. Tapper (William); M. Rafiq (Meena); E.M. John (Esther M.); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); S. Slager (Susan); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A.E. Toland (Amanda); S. Yao (Song); W. Zheng (Wei); S.L. Halverson (Sandra L.); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (Guillermo); M. Rosario Alonso; N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); S. Healey (Sue); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M. García-Closas (Montserrat)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is

  18. Allele variants of HLA II genes DRB1 and DQB1 regarding risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus in population of Bashkortostan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamilevna Avzaletdinova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To estimate significance of HLA II DRB1 and DRB2 allele variants for development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in Bashkortostanpopulation (ethnical Russians, Tatar, Bashkir. Materials and methods. We analyzed DNA of 323 patients with T1DM and 683 healthy controls. DNA was derived from venous bloodsamples by phenol-chloroform extraction. DRB1 and DQB1 gene typing was performed by PCR method. Amplification products wereidentified with electrophoresis on a 1% agarose gel. Statistica for Windows v6.0 and MS Excel 98 software were applied for statisticalprocessing of acquired data. Results. Common markers of high risk for T1DM were found to be DRB1*04, DRB1*17, genotype DRB1*04/*17. On the contrary,lower risk was associated with DRB1*15 allele. In ethnical Russians lower risk of T1DM is also determined by DRB1*11 allele andDRB1*01 in Tatars. Predisposition by DQB1-alleles in Russians and Bashkir realizes only within DRB1*04/*17 genotype. However,in Tatar subpopulation DQB1*0302 is an independent risk marker of T1DM development. Conclusion. Common low risk markers for all three ethnic groups are DQB1*0301, DQB1*0602-08 alleles. Their presence negates riskof disease in all studied subpopulations even within DRB1*04/*17-genotype.

  19. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Robson, Mark; Barrowdale, Daniel; McGuffog, Lesley; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Andrulis, Irene L.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Nevanlinna, Heli; Thomassen, Mads; Southey, Melissa; Radice, Paolo; Ramus, Susan J.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; James, Paul; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lester, Jenny; Cass, Ilana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Steele, Linda; v O Hansen, Thomas; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Finn C.; Dennis, Joe; Cunningham, Julie; Hart, Steven; Slager, Susan; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Tafur, Isaac; Hander, Mary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Roversi, Gaia; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariani, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Giuseppe; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Ong, Kai-Ren; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Ellis, Steve; Godwin, Andrew K.; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Steinemann, Doris; Bogdanova-Markov, Nadja; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Gehrig, Andrea; Markiefka, Birgid; Buecher, Bruno; Lefol, Cédrick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Barjhoux, Laure; Faivre, Laurence; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Isaacs, Claudine; van Maerken, Tom; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Andrews, Lesley; Hays, John; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, J. L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Wijnen, Juul T.; van Roozendaal, K. E. P.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Teulé, Alex; Menendez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Arason, Adalgeir; Maugard, Christine; Soucy, Penny; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Hallberg, Emily; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Vijai, Joseph; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Lincoln, Anne; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; tea, Muy-Kheng; Phelan, Catherine M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Berger, Raanan; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Borg, Ake; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Perkins, Jo; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; Hoffman, Jonathan; James, Margaret; Paterson, Joan; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; McCann, Emma; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Serra-Feliu, Gemma; Ellis, Ian; Lalloo, Fiona; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Weaver, Joellen; Bove, Betsy; Sinilnikova, Olga; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Calender, Alain; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Handallo, Sandrine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Remenieras, Audrey; Eisinger, François; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Coron, Fanny; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Sokolowska, Johanna; Bronner, Myriam; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Damette, Alexandre; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Coene, Ilse; Crombez, Brecht; Segura, Pedro Perez; Romero, Atocha; Diaque, Paula; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Erkkilä, Irja; Palola, Virpi; Rookus, M. A.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Verhoef, S.; Schmidt, M. K.; Wijnands, R.; Collée, J. M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Hooning, M. J.; Seynaeve, C.; van Deurzen, C. H. M.; Obdeijn, I. M.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Devilee, P.; van Cronenburg, T. C. T. E. F.; Kets, C. M.; Mensenkamp, A. R.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gómez-Garcia, E. B.; Blok, M. J.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.; Vasen, H. F.; Siesling, S.; Overbeek, L. I. H.; Papp, Janos; Vaszko, Tibor; Bozsik, Aniko; Pocza, Timea; Franko, Judit; Balogh, Maria; Domokos, Gabriella; Ferenczi, Judit; Balmaña, J.; Capella, Gabriel; Dumont, Martine; Tranchant, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation

  20. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); M. Robson (Mark); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C. Engel (Christoph); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); M. Thomassen (Mads); M.C. Southey (Melissa); P. Radice (Paolo); S.J. Ramus (Susan); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); A. Lee (Andrew); S. Healey (Sue); R. Nussbaum (Robert); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); M. James (Margaret); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); I. Cass (Ilana); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); M.J. Daly (Mark); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); L. Tihomirova (Laima); N. Tung (Nadine); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); L. Steele (Linda); T. v O Hansen (Thomas); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); F. Nielsen (Finn); J. Dennis (Joe); J.M. Cunningham (Julie); S. Hart (Stewart); S. Slager (Susan); A. Osorio (Ana); J. Benítez (Javier); M. Duran (Mercedes); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); I. Tafur (Isaac); M. Hander (Mary); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); G. Roversi (Gaia); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); P. Mariani (Paolo); S. Volorio (Sara); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); L. Varesco (Liliana); L. Papi (Laura); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); F. Fostira (Florentia); I. Konstantopoulou (I.); J. Garber (Judy); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Brewer (Carole); C. Foo (Claire); D.G. Evans (Gareth); D. Frost (Debra); D. Eccles (Diana); F. Douglas (Fiona); A. Brady (A.); J. Cook (Jackie); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); L. Adlard; J. Barwell (Julian); K. Ong; L.J. Walker (Lisa); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Side (Lucy); M.J. Kennedy (John); M.T. Rogers (Mark); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); R. Platte (Radka); R. Eeles (Ros); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); S. Hodgson (Shirley); S.D. Ellis (Steve); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); D. Steinemann (Doris); N. Bogdanova-Markov (Nadja); K. Kast (Karin); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); B. Markiefka (Birgid); B. Buecher (Bruno); C. Lefol (Cédrick); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); E. Rouleau (Etienne); F. Prieur (Fabienne); F. Damiola (Francesca); L. Barjhoux (Laure); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Longy (Michel); N. Sevenet (Nicolas); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); V. Bonadona (Valérie); V. Caux-Moncoutier (Virginie); C. Isaacs (Claudine); T. Van Maerken (Tom); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); M. Piedmonte (Marion); L. Andrews (Lesley); J. Hays (John); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); S. Khan (Sofia); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.L. de Lange (J.); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); K.E. van Roozendaal (Kees); A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); A. Teulé (A.); M. Menéndez (Mireia); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); A. Arason (Adalgeir); C. Maugard; P. Soucy (Penny); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Agata (Simona); P.J. Teixeira; C. Olswold (Curtis); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); B. Hallberg (Boubou); X. Wang (Xianshu); C. Szabo (Csilla); J. Vijai (Joseph); L. Jacobs (Lauren); M. Corines (Marina); A. Lincoln (Anne); A. Berger (Andreas); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D.G. Kaulich (Daphne Gschwantler); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; C. Phelan (Catherine); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); G. Rennert (Gad); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); G. Glendon (Gord); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A. Bojesen (Anders); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); U.B. Jensen; M.A. Caligo (Maria); E. Friedman (Eitan); R. Berger (Raanan); Y. Laitman (Yael); J. Rantala (Johanna); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); N. Loman (Niklas); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); K. Offit (Kenneth); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); CIMBA; EMBRACE Study; Breast Cancer Family; GEMO Study Collaborators; HEBON; KConFab Investigators

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2

  1. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); F.J. Couch (Fergus); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); S.M. Domchek (Susan); D. Eccles (Diana); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); S.J. Ramus (Susan); M. Robson (Mark); M.E. Sherman (Mark); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); A. Lee (Andrew); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); F.C. Nielsen (Finn); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); A. Osorio (Ana); I. Muñoz-Repeto (Iván); M. Durán (Mercedes); J. Godino (Javier); M. Pertesi (Maroulio); J. Benítez (Javier); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); E. Cattaneo (Elisa); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); A. Viel (Alessandra); B. Pasini (Barbara); L. Papi (Laura); L. Ottini (Laura); A. Savarese (Antonella); L. Bernard (Loris); P. Radice (Paolo); U. Hamann (Ute); M. Verheus (Martijn); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); M.R. Nelen (Marcel); C.M. Kets; C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); T.V. Os (Theo); M.A. Rookus (Matti); D. Frost (Debra); J.L. Jones (J Louise); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L. Izatt (Louise); J.W. Adlard (Julian); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); J. Cook (Jackie); A. Donaldson (Alan); H. Dorkins (Huw); H. Gregory (Helen); J. Eason (Jacqueline); C. Houghton (Catherine); J. Barwell (Julian); L. Side (Lucy); E. McCann (Emma); A. Murray (Alexandra); S. Peock (Susan); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); C.W. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); I. Ruehl (Ina); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); K. Kast (Karin); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); I. Schoenbuchner (Ines); B. Fiebig (Britta); W. Heinritz (Wolfram); D. Schäfer (Dieter); H. Gevensleben (Heidrun); V. Caux-Moncoutier (Virginie); M. Fassy-Colcombet (Marion); F. Cornelis (Franco̧is); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); M. Léone (Mélanie); N. Boutry-Kryza (N.); A. Hardouin (Agnès); P. Berthet (Pascaline); D.W. Muller (Danièle); J.P. Fricker (Jean Pierre); I. Mortemousque (Isabelle); P. Pujol (Pascal); I. Coupier (Isabelle); M. Lebrun (Marine); C. Kientz (Caroline); M. Longy (Michel); N. Sevenet (Nicolas); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); C. Isaacs (Claudine); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); T. Heikinen (Tuomas); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); I. Blanco (Ignacio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); P. Soucy (Penny); M. Dumont (Martine); J. Simard (Jacques); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); E. D'Andrea (Emma); S.B. Fox (Stephen); M. Yan (Max); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); H. Lynch (Henry); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); G. Tomlinson (Gail); X. Wang (Xing); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); C. Szabo (Csilla); K. Offit (Kenneth); R. Sakr (Rita); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); K.P. Bhatia (Kailash); N. Kauff (Noah); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); F.P. O'Malley (Frances); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); G. Glendon (Gord); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); M. Thomassen (Mads); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); M.A. Caligo (Maria); M. Soller (Maria); K. Henriksson (Karin); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); P. Karlsson (Per); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); M.S. Beattie (Mary); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); J. Gross (Jenny); E.M. John (Esther); M.B. Daly (Mary); S.S. Buys (Saundra); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); W. Chung (Wendy); A. Miron (Alexander); D. Goldgar (David); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes

  2. Common genetic variants associated with thyroid function may be risk alleles for Hashimoto's disease and Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Purdey; Brix, Thomas H; Wilson, Scott G; Ward, Lynley C; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John P; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Walsh, John P

    2015-02-14

    Recent studies have identified common genetic variants associated with TSH, free T4 and thyroid peroxidase antibodies, but it is unclear whether these differ between patients with Hashimoto's disease and Graves' disease. To examine whether 11 common genetic variants differ between Graves' disease and Hashimoto's disease. We genotyped 11 common variants in a discovery cohort of 203 Australian patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Two variants with significant or suggestive associations were analysed in a replication cohort of 384 Danish patients. For rs753760 (PDE10A), the minor allele frequency in Graves' disease and Hashimoto's disease was 0·38 vs. 0·23, respectively, (P = 6·42 × 10 -4 ) in the discovery cohort, 0·29 vs. 0·24 (P = 0·147) in the replication cohort and 0·32 vs. 0·24 in combined analysis (P = 0·0021; all analyses adjusted for sex). In healthy controls from Busselton, the frequency was 0·29, significantly different from Hashimoto's disease but not Graves' disease. For rs4889009 (MAF gene region), the frequency of the minor G-allele in Graves' disease and Hashimoto's disease was 0·48 vs. 0·36 (P = 0·0156) in the discovery cohort, 0·48 vs. 0·34 (P = 1·83 × 10 -4 ) in the replication cohort and 0·48 vs. 0·35 in the combined analysis (P = 7·53 × 10 -6 ); in controls, the frequency was 0·38, significantly different from Graves' disease but not Hashimoto's disease. After further adjustment for smoking, associations with rs4889009 remained significant, whereas those with rs753760 were not. Common variants in PDE10A and MAF gene regions may influence whether patients with AITD develop Graves' disease or Hashimoto's disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  4. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Lee, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Hansen, Thomas vO; Nielsen, Finn C.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Osorio, Ana; Muñoz-Repeto, Iván; Durán, Mercedes; Godino, Javier; Pertesi, Maroulio; Benítez, Javier; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Savarese, Antonella; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Verheus, Martijn; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Wijnen, Juul; Gómez García, Encarna B.; Nelen, Marcel R.; Kets, C. Marleen; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo; Rookus, Matti; Frost, Debra; Jones, J. Louise; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cook, Jackie; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Gregory, Helen; Eason, Jacqueline; Houghton, Catherine; Barwell, Julian; Side, Lucy E.; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Kast, Karin; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Schäfer, Dieter; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Isaacs, Claudine; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Soucy, Penny; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; D'Andrea, Emma; Fox, Stephen; Yan, Max; Rebbeck, Tim; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia; Bhatia, Jasmine; Kauff, Noah; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Imyanitov, Evgeny; O'Malley, Frances P.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gordon; Toland, Amanda E.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Soller, Maria; Henriksson, Karin; Wachenfeldt, von Anna; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Karlsson, Per; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Beattie, Mary; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.; Buys, Saundra M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; Miron, Alexander F.; Goldgar, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; James, Margaret; Paterson, Joan; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Rogers, T.; Kennedy, John M.; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Chu, Carol; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Taylor, Jane; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Collier, Rebecca; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; Walker, Lisa; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; de Pauw, Antoine; Roussy, Gustave; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bérard, Léon; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Baclesse, François; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Lacassagne, Antoine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Snyder, Carrie L.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van 't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; Aalfs, C. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Melin, Beatrice; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rosenquist, Richard; Dahl, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2

  5. A common polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNFSF4 gene is associated with lower allele-specific expression and risk of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The TNFSF4/TNFRSF4 system, along with several other receptor-ligand pairs, is involved in the recruitment and activation of T-cells and is therefore tentatively implicated in atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. We have previously shown that genetic variants in TNFSF4 are associated with myocardial infarction (MI in women. This prompted functional studies of TNFSF4 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a screening of the TNFSF4 genomic region, a promoter polymorphism (rs45454293 and a haplotype were identified, conceivably involved in gene regulation. The rs45454293T-allele, in agreement with the linked rs3850641G-allele, proved to be associated with increased risk of MI in women. Haplotype-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation of activated polymerase II, as a measure of transcriptional activity in vivo, suggested that the haplotype including the rs45454293 and rs3850641 polymorphisms is functionally important, the rs45454293T- and rs3850641G-alleles being associated with lower transcriptional activity in cells heterozygous for both polymorphisms. The functional role of rs45454293 on transcriptional levels of TNFSF4 was clarified by luciferase reporter assays, where the rs45454293T-allele decreased gene expression when compared with the rs45454293C-allele, while the rs3850641 SNP did not have any effect on TNFSF4 promoter activity. Electromobility shift assay showed that the rs45454293 polymorphism, but not rs3850641, affects the binding of nuclear factors, thus suggesting that the lower transcriptional activity is attributed to binding of one or more transcriptional repressor(s to the T-allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the TNFSF4 rs45454293T-allele is associated with lower TNFSF4 expression and increased risk of MI.

  6. Lower Frequency of HLA-DRB1 Type 1 Diabetes Risk Alleles in Pediatric Patients with MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Inés; Martínez, Rosa; López-Euba, Tamara; Velayos, Teresa; Martínez de LaPiscina, Idoia; Bilbao, José Ramón; Rica, Itxaso; Castaño, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes in a cohort of pediatric patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of MODY. 160 families with a proband diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 74 families with a molecular diagnosis of MODY (61 GCK-MODY and 13 HNF1A-MODY) were categorized at high definition for HLA-DRB1 locus. According to the presence or absence of the susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes, we considered three different HLA-DRB1 genotypes: 0 risk alleles (no DR3 no DR4); 1 risk allele (DR3 or DR4); 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4). Compared with type 1 diabetes, patients with MODY carried higher frequency of 0 risk alleles, OR 22.7 (95% CI: 10.7-48.6) and lower frequency of 1 or 2 risk alleles, OR 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.96) and OR 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18), respectively. The frequency of HLA-DRB1 risk alleles for type 1 diabetes is significantly lower in patients with MODY. In children and adolescents with diabetes, the presence of 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4) reduces the probability of MODY diagnosis, whereas the lack of risk alleles increases it. Therefore, we might consider that HLA-DRB1 provides additional information for the selection of patients with high probability of monogenic diabetes.

  7. Lower Frequency of HLA-DRB1 Type 1 Diabetes Risk Alleles in Pediatric Patients with MODY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Urrutia

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes in a cohort of pediatric patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of MODY.160 families with a proband diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 74 families with a molecular diagnosis of MODY (61 GCK-MODY and 13 HNF1A-MODY were categorized at high definition for HLA-DRB1 locus. According to the presence or absence of the susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles for type 1 diabetes, we considered three different HLA-DRB1 genotypes: 0 risk alleles (no DR3 no DR4; 1 risk allele (DR3 or DR4; 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4.Compared with type 1 diabetes, patients with MODY carried higher frequency of 0 risk alleles, OR 22.7 (95% CI: 10.7-48.6 and lower frequency of 1 or 2 risk alleles, OR 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.96 and OR 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18, respectively.The frequency of HLA-DRB1 risk alleles for type 1 diabetes is significantly lower in patients with MODY. In children and adolescents with diabetes, the presence of 2 risk alleles (DR3 and/or DR4 reduces the probability of MODY diagnosis, whereas the lack of risk alleles increases it. Therefore, we might consider that HLA-DRB1 provides additional information for the selection of patients with high probability of monogenic diabetes.

  8. Enrichment of minor allele of SNPs and genetic prediction of type 2 diabetes risk in British population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Lei

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex disorder characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. The collective effects of genome wide minor alleles of common SNPs, or the minor allele content (MAC in an individual, have been linked with quantitative variations of complex traits and diseases. Here we studied MAC in T2D using previously published SNP datasets and found higher MAC in cases relative to matched controls. A set of 357 SNPs was found to have the best predictive accuracy in a British population. A weighted risk score calculated by using this set produced an area under the curve (AUC score of 0.86, which is comparable to risk models built by phenotypic markers. These results identify a novel genetic risk element in T2D susceptibility and provide a potentially useful genetic method to identify individuals with high risk of T2D.

  9. Low-risk susceptibility alleles in 40 human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Elstrodt, Fons; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Dehghan, Abbas; Klijn, Jan GM; Schutte, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Low-risk breast cancer susceptibility alleles or SNPs confer only modest breast cancer risks ranging from just over 1.0 to1.3 fold. Yet, they are common among most populations and therefore are involved in the development of essentially all breast cancers. The mechanism by which the low-risk SNPs confer breast cancer risks is currently unclear. The breast cancer association consortium BCAC has hypothesized that the low-risk SNPs modulate expression levels of nearby located genes. Genotypes of five low-risk SNPs were determined for 40 human breast cancer cell lines, by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic templates. We have analyzed expression of the four genes that are located nearby the low-risk SNPs, by using real-time RT-PCR and Human Exon microarrays. The SNP genotypes and additional phenotypic data on the breast cancer cell lines are presented. We did not detect any effect of the SNP genotypes on expression levels of the nearby-located genes MAP3K1, FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1. The SNP genotypes provide a base line for functional studies in a well-characterized cohort of 40 human breast cancer cell lines. Our expression analyses suggest that a putative disease mechanism through gene expression modulation is not operative in breast cancer cell lines

  10. DNA Methylation Analysis of BRD1 Promoter Regions and the Schizophrenia rs138880 Risk Allele.

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    Mads Dyrvig

    Full Text Available The bromodomain containing 1 gene, BRD1 is essential for embryogenesis and CNS development. It encodes a protein that participates in histone modifying complexes and thereby regulates the expression of a large number of genes. Genetic variants in the BRD1 locus show association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and risk alleles in the promoter region correlate with reduced BRD1 expression. Insights into the transcriptional regulation of BRD1 and the pathogenic mechanisms associated with BRD1 risk variants, however, remain sparse. By studying transcripts in human HeLa and SH-SY5Y cells we provide evidence for differences in relative expression of BRD1 transcripts with three alternative 5' UTRs (exon 1C, 1B, and 1A. We further show that expression of these transcript variants covaries negatively with DNA methylation proportions in their upstream promoter regions suggesting that promoter usage might be regulated by DNA methylation. In line with findings that the risk allele of the rs138880 SNP in the BRD1 promoter region correlates with reduced BRD1 expression, we find that it is also associated with moderate regional BRD1 promoter hypermethylation in both adipose tissue and blood. Importantly, we demonstrate by inspecting available DNA methylation and expression data that these regions undergo changes in methylation during fetal brain development and that differences in their methylation proportions in fetal compared to postnatal frontal cortex correlate significantly with BRD1 expression. These findings suggest that BRD1 may be dysregulated in both the developing and mature brain of risk allele carriers. Finally, we demonstrate that commonly used mood stabilizers Lithium, Valproate, and Carbamazepine affect the expression of BRD1 in SH-SY5Y cells. Altogether this study indicates a link between genetic risk and epigenetic dysregulation of BRD1 which raises interesting perspectives for targeting the mechanisms pharmacologically.

  11. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaoyong, Zhu [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Odeberg, Jacob [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hamsten, Anders [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Per [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, King Gustav V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  12. EOMES-positive CD4+ T cells are increased in PTPN22 (1858T) risk allele carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Karine; Ramsköld, Daniel; Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Herrath, Jessica; Houtman, Miranda; Tandre, Karolina; Rönnblom, Lars; Catrina, Anca; Malmström, Vivianne

    2018-04-01

    The presence of the PTPN22 risk allele (1858T) is associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite a number of studies exploring the function of PTPN22 in T cells, the exact impact of the PTPN22 risk allele on T-cell function in humans is still unclear. In this study, using RNA sequencing, we show that, upon TCR-activation, naïve human CD4 + T cells homozygous for the PTPN22 risk allele overexpress a set of genes including CFLAR and 4-1BB, which are important for cytotoxic T-cell differentiation. Moreover, the protein expression of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (EOMES) was increased in T cells from healthy donors homozygous for the PTPN22 risk allele and correlated with a decreased number of naïve CD4 + T cells. There was no difference in the frequency of other CD4 + T-cell subsets (Th1, Th17, Tfh, Treg). Finally, an accumulation of EOMES + CD4 + T cells was observed in synovial fluid of RA patients with a more pronounced production of Perforin-1 in PTPN22 risk allele carriers. Altogether, we propose a novel mechanism of action of PTPN22 risk allele through the generation of cytotoxic CD4 + T cells and identify EOMES + CD4 + T cells as a relevant T-cell subset in RA pathogenesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fine-mapping the HOXB region detects common variants tagging a rare coding allele: evidence for synthetic association in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Saunders

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10(-14. Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197, which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.

  14. The protease inhibitor PI*S allele and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersh, C P; Ly, N P; Berkey, C S

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, the protease inhibitor (SERPINA1) PI*S allele is more common than PI*Z, the allele responsible for most cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. However, the risk of COPD due to the PI*S allele is not clear. The current...... authors located studies that addressed the risk of COPD or measured lung function in individuals with the PI SZ, PI MS and PI SS genotypes. A separate meta-analysis for each genotype was performed. Aggregating data from six studies, the odds ratio (OR) for COPD in PI SZ compound heterozygotes compared...... with PI MM (normal) individuals was significantly increased at 3.26 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.24-8.57). In 17 cross-sectional and case-control studies, the OR for COPD in PI MS heterozygotes was 1.19 (95%CI: 1.02-1.38). However, PI MS genotype was not associated with COPD risk after correcting...

  15. A risk allele for nicotine dependence in CHRNA5 is a protective allele for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Stitzel, Jerry A; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Cloninger, C Robert; Neuman, Rosalind J; Budde, John P; Fox, Louis; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kramer, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Tischfield, Jay; Nurnberger, John I; Almasy, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A; Edenberg, Howard J; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2008-12-01

    A nonsynonymous coding polymorphism, rs16969968, of the CHRNA5 gene that encodes the alpha-5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been found to be associated with nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the association of this variant with cocaine dependence. Genetic association analysis was performed in two independent samples of unrelated case and control subjects: 1) 504 European Americans participating in the Family Study on Cocaine Dependence (FSCD) and 2) 814 European Americans participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). In the FSCD, there was a significant association between the CHRNA5 variant and cocaine dependence (odds ratio = .67 per allele, p = .0045, assuming an additive genetic model), but in the reverse direction compared with that previously observed for nicotine dependence. In multivariate analyses that controlled for the effects of nicotine dependence, both the protective effect for cocaine dependence and the previously documented risk effect for nicotine dependence were statistically significant. The protective effect for cocaine dependence was replicated in the COGA sample. In COGA, effect sizes for habitual smoking, a proxy phenotype for nicotine dependence, were consistent with those observed in FSCD. The minor (A) allele of rs16969968, relative to the major G allele, appears to be both a risk factor for nicotine dependence and a protective factor for cocaine dependence. The biological plausibility of such a bidirectional association stems from the involvement of nAChRs with both excitatory and inhibitory modulation of dopamine-mediated reward pathways.

  16. Identification of common bean alleles resistant to anthracnose using RAPD

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    Ana L.M. Castanheira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were identified close to common bean alleles responsible for resistance to the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and may be useful in selecting plants resistant to this pathogen. DNA from F2 plants of the crosses Carioca 300V x P45, Carioca 300V x Ouro and P24 x Ouro was amplified by RAPD. Line P45 has the Co.4 allele for resistance, and the Ouro cultivar has the Co.5 allele. The primer OPC08 amplified a DNA fragment of about 1059 bp linked to the Co.4 allele. The recombination frequency was 0.133 (SE = 0.039; 95% CI = 0.056-0.211. Using the primer OPF10 a DNA fragment of about 912 bp was amplified and found to be associated with the Co.5 allele. The recombination frequency was 0.115 (SE = 0.038; 95% CI = 0.041-0.189. A second marker (1122 pb amplified by the OPR03 primer was identified in the population P24 x Ouro. The recombination frequency for this marker was 0.363 (SE = 0.081; 95% CI = 0.205-0.522. Both these markers flanked the Co.5 allele. The markers identified in this study may be useful in identifying lines with the Co.4 and Co.5 alleles.Marcadores RAPD foram identificados próximos de alelos do feijão responsáveis pela resistência ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, visando auxiliar na seleção de plantas resistentes ao patógeno. Empregou-se o método dos bulks segregantes de DNA extraídos de plantas F2 dos seguintes cruzamentos: Carioca 300V x P45, Carioca 300V x Ouro e P24 x Ouro. A linhagem P45 é portadora do alelo Co.4 de resistência e o cultivar Ouro é portador do alelo Co.5, os quais foram marcados. Procedeu-se à reação RAPD dos bulks e foi identificado o iniciador OPC08 que amplificou um fragmento de DNA com cerca de 1059 pb, ligado ao alelo Co.4. A freqüência de recombinação foi de 0,133 (erro padrão 0,039 e o intervalo de confiança foi 0,056 e 0,211, com 95% de probabilidade. Em relação ao alelo Co.5 foi identificado um fragmento de DNA amplificado pelo iniciador OPF10 com cerca de 912 pb, na

  17. Efficient computation of the joint probability of multiple inherited risk alleles from pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Braun, Danielle; Peng, Gang; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Trippa, Lorenzo

    2018-06-25

    The Elston-Stewart peeling algorithm enables estimation of an individual's probability of harboring germline risk alleles based on pedigree data, and serves as the computational backbone of important genetic counseling tools. However, it remains limited to the analysis of risk alleles at a small number of genetic loci because its computing time grows exponentially with the number of loci considered. We propose a novel, approximate version of this algorithm, dubbed the peeling and paring algorithm, which scales polynomially in the number of loci. This allows extending peeling-based models to include many genetic loci. The algorithm creates a trade-off between accuracy and speed, and allows the user to control this trade-off. We provide exact bounds on the approximation error and evaluate it in realistic simulations. Results show that the loss of accuracy due to the approximation is negligible in important applications. This algorithm will improve genetic counseling tools by increasing the number of pathogenic risk alleles that can be addressed. To illustrate we create an extended five genes version of BRCAPRO, a widely used model for estimating the carrier probabilities of BRCA1 and BRCA2 risk alleles and assess its computational properties. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Evaluation of common type 2 diabetes risk variants in a South Asian population of Sri Lankan descent.

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    Neelam Hassanali

    Full Text Available Most studies seeking common variant associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D have focused on individuals of European ancestry. These discoveries need to be evaluated in other major ancestral groups, to understand ethnic differences in predisposition, and establish whether these contribute to variation in T2D prevalence and presentation. This study aims to establish whether common variants conferring T2D-risk in Europeans contribute to T2D-susceptibility in the South Asian population of Sri Lanka.Lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs at 37 T2D-risk loci attaining genome-wide significance in Europeans were genotyped in 878 T2D cases and 1523 normoglycaemic controls from Sri Lanka. Association testing was performed by logistic regression adjusting for age and sex and by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test after stratifying according to self-identified ethnolinguistic subgroup. A weighted genetic risk score was generated to examine the combined effect of these SNPs on T2D-risk in the Sri Lankan population.Of the 36 SNPs passing quality control, sixteen showed nominal (p<0.05 association in Sri Lankan samples, fifteen of those directionally-consistent with the original signal. Overall, these association findings were robust to analyses that accounted for membership of ethnolinguistic subgroups. Overall, the odds ratios for 31 of the 36 SNPs were directionally-consistent with those observed in Europeans (p = 3.2×10(-6. Allelic odds ratios and risk allele frequencies in Sri Lankan subjects were not systematically different to those reported in Europeans. Genetic risk score and risk of T2D were strongly related in Sri Lankans (per allele OR 1.10 [95%CI 1.08-1.13], p = 1.2×10(-17.Our data indicate that most T2D-risk variants identified in Europeans have similar effects in South Asians from Sri Lanka, and that systematic difference in common variant associations are unlikely to explain inter-ethnic differences in prevalence or presentation of T2D.

  19. Common breast cancer risk variants in the post-COGS era: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kara N; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2013-12-20

    Breast cancer has a strong heritable component, with approximately 15% of cases exhibiting a family history of the disease. Mutations in genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 lead to autosomal dominant inherited cancer susceptibility and confer a high lifetime risk of breast cancers. Identification of mutations in these genes through clinical genetic testing enables patients to undergo screening and prevention strategies, some of which provide overall survival benefit. In addition, a number of mutant alleles have been identified in genes such as CHEK2, PALB2, ATM and BRIP1, which often display incomplete penetrance and confer moderate lifetime risks of breast cancer. Studies are underway to determine how to use the identification of mutations in these genes to guide clinical practice. Altogether, however, mutations in high and moderate penetrance genes probably account for approximately 25% of familial breast cancer risk; the remainder may be due to mutations in as yet unidentified genes or lower penetrance variants. Common low penetrance alleles, which have been mainly identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), are generally present at 10 to 50% population frequencies and confer less than 1.5-fold increases in breast cancer risk. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified and risk associations extensively replicated in populations of European ancestry, the number of which has substantially increased as a result of GWAS performed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study consortium. It is now estimated that 28% of familial breast cancer risk is explained by common breast cancer susceptibility loci. In some cases, SNP associations may be specific to different subsets of women with breast cancer, as defined by ethnicity or estrogen receptor status. Although not yet clinically established, it is hoped that identification of common risk variants may eventually allow identification of women at higher risk of

  20. Mutation intolerant genes and targets of FMRP are enriched for nonsynonymous alleles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonenko, Ganna; Richards, Alexander L; Walters, James T; Pocklington, Andrew; Chambert, Kimberly; Al Eissa, Mariam M; Sharp, Sally I; O'Brien, Niamh L; Curtis, David; Bass, Nicholas J; McQuillin, Andrew; Hultman, Christina; Moran, Jennifer L; McCarroll, Steven A; Sklar, Pamela; Neale, Benjamin M; Holmans, Peter A; Owen, Michael J; Sullivan, Patrick F; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2017-10-01

    Risk of schizophrenia is conferred by alleles occurring across the full spectrum of frequencies from common SNPs of weak effect through to ultra rare alleles, some of which may be moderately to highly penetrant. Previous studies have suggested that some of the risk of schizophrenia is attributable to uncommon alleles represented on Illumina exome arrays. Here, we present the largest study of exomic variation in schizophrenia to date, using samples from the United Kingdom and Sweden (10,011 schizophrenia cases and 13,791 controls). Single variants, genes, and gene sets were analyzed for association with schizophrenia. No single variant or gene reached genome-wide significance. Among candidate gene sets, we found significant enrichment for rare alleles (minor allele frequency [MAF] schizophrenia by excluding a role for uncommon exomic variants (0.01 ≤ MAF ≥ 0.001) that confer a relatively large effect (odds ratio [OR] > 4). We also show risk alleles within this frequency range exist, but confer smaller effects and should be identified by larger studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Common LPA Null Allele Associates With Lower Lipoprotein(a) Levels and Coronary Artery Disease Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Seedorf, Udo; Goel, Anuj; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Clarke, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; van der Hout, A.H.

    Objective-Increased levels of lipoprotein(a) are a highly heritable risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The genetic determinants of lipoprotein(a) levels are mainly because of genetic variation in the apolipoprotein(a) gene (LPA). We have tested the association of a relatively common null

  2. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nickels

    Full Text Available Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6 and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4. Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16 in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10 in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37 in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98 in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85 in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5, with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17 in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05 in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  3. Characterization of an Integrated Active Glu-1Ay Allele in Common Wheat from Wild Emmer and Its Potential Role in Flour Improvement

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    Zhenzhen Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glu-1Ay, one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS, is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides accession D97 into the common wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide. Its nucleotide sequence was 99.2% identical to that of the sequence within the wild emmer parent. The TaAy7-40 introgression line containing the active Glu-1Ay allele showed higher protein content, higher sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS sedimentation value, higher content of wet gluten in the flour, higher grain weight, and bigger grain size than Chuannong 16. The end-use quality parameters of the TaAy7-40 were superior to those of the medium gluten common wheat cultivars Mianmai 37 and Neimai 9. Thus, the active Glu-1Ay allele might be of potential value in breeding programs designed to improve wheat flour quality.

  4. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  5. Delimiting Allelic Imbalance of TYMS by Allele-Specific Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Beltrán, Emilia; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel; Barros, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Allelic imbalance of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is attributed to polymorphisms in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTR). These polymorphisms have been related to the risk of suffering different cancers, for example leukemia, breast or gastric cancer, and response to different drugs, among which are methotrexate glutamates, stavudine, and specifically 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as TYMS is its direct target. A vast literature has been published in relation to 5-FU, even suggesting the sole use of these polymorphisms to effectively manage 5-FU dosage. Estimates of the extent to which these polymorphisms influence in TYMS expression have in the past been based on functional analysis by luciferase assays and quantification of TYMS mRNA, but both these studies, as the association studies with cancer risk or with toxicity or response to 5-FU, are very contradictory. Regarding functional assays, the artificial genetic environment created in luciferase assay and the problems derived from quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs), for example the use of a reference gene, may have distorted the results. To avoid these sources of interference, we have analyzed the allelic imbalance of TYMS by allelic-specific analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients.Allelic imbalance in PBMCs, taken from 40 patients with suspected myeloproliferative haematological diseases, was determined by fluorescent fragment analysis (for the 3'-UTR polymorphism), Sanger sequencing and allelic-specific qPCR in multiplex (for the 5'-UTR polymorphisms).For neither the 3'- nor the 5'-UTR polymorphisms did the observed allelic imbalance exceed 1.5 fold. None of the TYMS polymorphisms is statistically associated with allelic imbalance.The results acquired allow us to deny the previously established assertion of an influence of 2 to 4 fold of the rs45445694 and rs2853542 polymorphisms in the expression of TYMS and narrow its allelic imbalance to 1.5 fold, in our population

  6. Association of the insertion allele of the common ACE gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus among Kuwaiti cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serri, Ahmad; Ismael, Fatma G; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A; Al-Rashdan, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    The D allele of the common angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism (rs4646994) predisposes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, results on which allele predisposes to disease susceptibility remain controversial in Asian populations. This study was performed to evaluate the association of the common ACE I/D gene polymorphism with both T2DM and CVD susceptibility in an Arab population. We genotyped the ACE I/D polymorphisms by direct allele-specific PCR in 183 healthy controls and 400 CVD patients with diabetes (n=204) and without (n=196). Statistical analysis comparing between the different groups were conducted using R statistic package "SNPassoc". Two genetic models were used: the additive and co-dominant models. The I allele was found to be associated with T2DM (OR=1.84, p=0.00009) after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. However, there was no association with CVD susceptibility (p>0.05). The ACE I allele is found to be associated with T2DM; however, no association was observed with CVD. The inconsistency between studies is suggested to be attributed to genetic diversity due to the existence of sub-populations found in Asian populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Common Variants at VRK2 and TCF4 Conferring Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinberg, Stacy; de Jong, Simone; Andreassen, Ole A

    2011-01-01

    Common sequence variants have recently joined rare structural polymorphisms as genetic factors with strong evidence for association with schizophrenia. Here we extend our previous genome-wide association (GWA) study and meta-analysis (totalling 7,946 cases and 19,036 controls) by examining...... an expanded set of variants using an enlarged follow-up sample (up to 10,260 cases and 23,500 controls). In addition to previously-reported alleles in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, near neurogranin (NRGN) and in an intron of transcription factor 4 (TCF4), we find two novel variants...... showing genome-wide significant association: rs2312147[C], upstream of vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2) (OR = 1.09, P = 1.9 x 10(-9)), and rs4309482[A], between coiled-coiled domain containing 68 (CCDC68) and TCF4, about 400 kb from the previously-described risk allele, but not accounted for by its...

  8. Significance of common variants on human chromosome 8q24 in relation to the risk of prostate cancer in native Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoi Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variants on human chromosome 8q24, rs1447295 (C/A and rs6983267 (T/G, have been recently linked to the prevalence of prostate cancer in European and American populations. Here, we evaluated whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1447295 and rs6983267 were associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer as well as latent prostate cancer in a native Japanese population. Results We analyzed genomic DNA samples from 391 sporadic prostate cancer patients, 323 controls who had died from causes unrelated to cancer and 112 Japanese men who were diagnosed as having latent prostate cancer based on autopsy results. The polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using a fluorescent-based TaqMan assay. The A allele of rs1447295 was significantly associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer (p = 0.04; age-adjusted OR, 1.34, while the G allele of rs6983267 showed a trend towards being a high-risk allele (p = 0.06; age-adjusted OR, 1.27. No significant difference between these two polymorphisms and the risk of latent prostate cancer was observed in the present Japanese population. Conclusion Known variants on human chromosome 8q24 may be risk factors for sporadic prostate cancer in native Japanese men.

  9. Increased risk for CRC in diabetic patients with the nonrisk allele of SNPs at 8q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Shinya; Mimori, Koshi; Yamamoto, Ken; Inoue, Hiroshi; Imoto, Seiya; Kawano, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Sato, Tetsuya; Toh, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Hisae; Maeda, Toyoki; Ishii, Hideshi; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Watanabe, Masahiko; Tanaka, Jun-ichi; Kudo, Shin-ei; Sugihara, Ken-ichi; Hase, Kazuo; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Kusunoki, Masato; Yamada, Kazutaka; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Barnard, Graham F; Miyano, Satoru; Mori, Masaki

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) oncogenesis was considered to be determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Specific interacting factors that influence CRC morbidity have yet to be fully investigated. A multi-institutional collaborative study with 1511 CRC patients and 2098 control subjects was used to compare the odds ratios for the occurrence of polymorphisms at 11 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). TaqMan PCR and questionnaires were used to evaluate the effects of environmental exposures. Variants of rs6983267 on 8q24 were the most significant markers of risk for CRC (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27, P = 0.0015). Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM), a higher body mass index at age 20, and meat consumption were environmental risk factors, whereas a tuna-rich diet and vitamin intake were protective factors. The cohort of rs6983267 SNP major (T) allele at 8q24 and DM had a 1.66-fold higher risk ratio than the cohort of major allele patients without DM. We confirmed that interactions between the genetic background and environmental factors are associated with increased risk for CRC. There is a robust risk of the minor G allele at the 8q24 rs6983267 SNP; however, a major T allele SNP could more clearly reveal a correlation with CRC specifically when DM is present.

  10. Human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles and cervical adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis of two epidemiologic studies

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    Mahboobeh eSafaeian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Associations between human leukocyte antigens (HLA alleles and cervical cancer are largely representative of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the major histologic subtype. We evaluated the association between HLA class I (A, B, and C and class II (DRB1 and DQB1 loci and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC, a less common but aggressive histologic subtype.We pooled data from the Eastern and Western US cervical cancer studies, and evaluated the association between individual alleles and allele combinations and ADC (n=630 ADC; n=775 controls. Risk estimates were calculated for 11 a priori (based on known associations with cervical cancer regardless of histologic type and 38 non a priori common alleles, as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age and study. In exploratory analysis, we compared the risk associations between subgroups with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA in ADC tumor tissues in the Western US study cases and controls. Three of the a priori alleles were significantly associated with decreased risk of ADC (DRB1*13:01 (OR=0.61; 95%CI:0.41-0.93, DRB1*13:02 (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.31-0.77, and DQB1*06:03 (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.42-0.95; one was associated with increased risk (B*07:02(OR=1.39; 95%CI:1.07-1.79. Among alleles not previously reported, DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.27-0.78 was associated with decreased risk of ADC and C*07:02 (OR=1.41; 95%CI:1.09-1.81 was associated with increased risk. We did not observe a difference by histologic subtype. ADC was most strongly associated with increased risk with B*07:02/C*07:02 alleles (OR=1.33; 95%CI:1.01-1.76 and decreased risk with DRB1*13:02/DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.41; 95%CI:0.21-0.80. Results suggest that HLA allele associations with cervical ADC are similar to those for cervical SCC. An intriguing finding was the difference in risk associated with several alleles restricted to HPV16 or HPV18 related tumors, consistent with the hypothesis that HLA recognition is HPV type specific.

  11. The HLA-B*39 allele increases type 1 diabetes risk conferred by HLA-DRB1*04:04-DQB1*03:02 and HLA-DRB1*08-DQB1*04 class II haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikk, M-L; Kiviniemi, M; Laine, A-P; Härkönen, T; Veijola, R; Simell, O; Knip, M; Ilonen, J

    2014-01-01

    To further characterise the effect of the HLA-B*39 allele on type 1 diabetes risk we assessed its role in different HLA-DR/DQ haplotypes and genotypes using 1764 nuclear families with a diabetic child collected in the framework of the Finnish Paediatric Diabetes Register. HLA assays were based on sequence specific hybridization using lanthanide labelled oligonucleotide probes. Transmissions of major HLA-DR/DQ haplotypes with and without the HLA-B*39 allele to diabetic index cases were analysed by direct haplotype and allele counting. The HLA-B*39 allele significantly increased the disease risk conferred by DRB1*04:04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 and (DR8)-DQB1*04 haplotypes. The same effect was observed on genotype level as disease association for the HLA-B*39 allele was observed in multiple genotypes containing DRB1*04:04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 or (DR8)-DQB1*04 haplotypes. Finally we considered the two common subtypes of the HLA-B*39 allele, B*39:01 and B*39:06 and observed their unequal distribution when stratified for specific DR-DQ haplotypes. The risk for type 1 diabetes conferred by certain DR/DQ haplotypes is modified by the presence of the HLA-B*39 and this confirms the independent disease predisposing effect of the HLA-B*39 allele. The results can be applied in enhancing the sensitivity and specificity of DR/DQ based screening programs for subjects at disease risk. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  13. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  14. Highly preferential association of NonF508del CF mutations with the M470 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, B M; Bonizzato, A; Bombieri, C; Pompei, F; Gabaldo, M; Ciccacci, C; Begnini, A; Holubova, A; Zorzi, P; Piskackova, T; Macek, M; Castellani, C; Modiano, G; Pignatti, P F

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of previous findings on random individuals, we hypothesized a preferential association of CF causing mutations with the M allele of the M470V polymorphic site of the CFTR gene. We have determined the M/V-CF mutation haplotype in a series of 201 North East Italian and 73 Czech CF patients who were not F508del homozygotes, as F508del was already known to be fully associated with the M allele. Out of 358 not F508del CF genes, 84 carried the V allele and 274 the less common M allele. In the N-E Italian population, MM subjects have a risk of carrying a CF causing mutation 6.9x greater than VV subjects when F508del is excluded and 15.4x when F508del is included. In the Czech population a similar, although less pronounced, association is observed. Besides the possible biological significance of this association, the possibility of exploiting it for a pilot screening program has been explored in a local North East Italian population for which CF patients were characterized for their CF mutation. General M470V genotyping followed by common CF mutation screening limited to couples in which each partner carries at least one M allele would need testing only 39% of the couples, which contribute 89% of the total risk, with a cost benefit.

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F W; Chen, W; O'Hanlon, T P; Cooper, R G; Vencovsky, J; Rider, L G; Danko, K; Wedderburn, L R; Lundberg, I E; Pachman, L M; Reed, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Padyukov, L; Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Radstake, T R; Isenberg, D A; Chinoy, H; Ollier, W E R; Scheet, P; Peng, B; Lee, A; Byun, J; Lamb, J A; Gregersen, P K; Amos, C I

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune muscle diseases (myositis) comprise a group of complex phenotypes influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify genetic risk factors in patients of European ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the major myositis phenotypes in a total of 1710 cases, which included 705 adult dermatomyositis, 473 juvenile dermatomyositis, 532 polymyositis and 202 adult dermatomyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis or polymyositis patients with anti-histidyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-Jo-1) autoantibodies, and compared them with 4724 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms showing strong associations (Pmyositis phenotypes together, as well as for the four clinical and autoantibody phenotypes studied separately. Imputation and regression analyses found that alleles comprising the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH8.1) defined essentially all the genetic risk in the phenotypes studied. Although the HLA DRB1*03:01 allele showed slightly stronger associations with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, and HLA B*08:01 with polymyositis and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody-positive myositis, multiple alleles of AH8.1 were required for the full risk effects. Our findings establish that alleles of the AH8.1 comprise the primary genetic risk factors associated with the major myositis phenotypes in geographically diverse Caucasian populations.

  16. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  17. The rs10993994 risk allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley C Whitaker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB regulates apoptosis and using genome-wide association studies the rs10993994 single nucleotide polymorphism in the MSMB promoter has been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The promoter location of the risk allele, and its ability to reduce promoter activity, suggested that the rs10993994 risk allele could result in lowered MSMB in benign tissue leading to increased prostate cancer risk.MSMB expression in benign and malignant prostate tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and compared with the rs10993994 genotype. Urinary MSMB concentrations were determined by ELISA and correlated with urinary PSA, the presence or absence of cancer, rs10993994 genotype and age of onset. MSMB levels in prostate tissue and urine were greatly reduced with tumourigenesis. Urinary MSMB was better than urinary PSA at differentiating men with prostate cancer at all Gleason grades. The high risk allele was associated with heterogeneity of MSMB staining and loss of MSMB in both tissue and urine in benign prostate.These data show that some high risk alleles discovered using genome-wide association studies produce phenotypic effects with potential clinical utility. We provide the first link between a low penetrance polymorphism for prostate cancer and a potential test in human tissue and bodily fluids. There is potential to develop tissue and urinary MSMB for a biomarker of prostate cancer risk, diagnosis and disease monitoring.

  18. The rs10993994 risk allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Hayley C; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ross-Adams, Helen; Warren, Anne Y; Burge, Johanna; George, Anne; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Jhavar, Sameer; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Saunders, Edward; Page, Elizabeth; Mitra, Anita; Mitchell, Gillian; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Evans, D Gareth; Blanco, Ignacio; Mercer, Catherine; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Clowes, Virginia; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Walker, Lisa; Donaldson, Alan; Izatt, Louise; Dorkins, Huw; Male, Alison; Tucker, Kathy; Stapleton, Alan; Lam, Jimmy; Kirk, Judy; Lilja, Hans; Easton, Douglas; Cooper, Colin; Eeles, Rosalind; Neal, David E

    2010-10-13

    Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) regulates apoptosis and using genome-wide association studies the rs10993994 single nucleotide polymorphism in the MSMB promoter has been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The promoter location of the risk allele, and its ability to reduce promoter activity, suggested that the rs10993994 risk allele could result in lowered MSMB in benign tissue leading to increased prostate cancer risk. MSMB expression in benign and malignant prostate tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and compared with the rs10993994 genotype. Urinary MSMB concentrations were determined by ELISA and correlated with urinary PSA, the presence or absence of cancer, rs10993994 genotype and age of onset. MSMB levels in prostate tissue and urine were greatly reduced with tumourigenesis. Urinary MSMB was better than urinary PSA at differentiating men with prostate cancer at all Gleason grades. The high risk allele was associated with heterogeneity of MSMB staining and loss of MSMB in both tissue and urine in benign prostate. These data show that some high risk alleles discovered using genome-wide association studies produce phenotypic effects with potential clinical utility. We provide the first link between a low penetrance polymorphism for prostate cancer and a potential test in human tissue and bodily fluids. There is potential to develop tissue and urinary MSMB for a biomarker of prostate cancer risk, diagnosis and disease monitoring.

  19. Human hypervariable sequences in risk assessment: rare Ha-ras alleles in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krontiris, T.G.; DiMartino, N.A.; Mitcheson, H.D.; Lonergan, J.A.; Begg, C.; Parkinson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A variable tandem repeat (VTR) is responsible for the hyperallelism one kilobase 3' to the human c-Ha-ras-1 (Ha-ras) gene. Thirty-two distinct restriction fragments, comprising 3 allelic classes by frequency of occurrence, have thus far been detected in a sample size of approximately 800 caucasians. Rare Ha-ras alleles, 21 in all, are almost exclusively confined to the genomes of cancer patients. From their data the authors have computed the relative cancer risk associated with possession of a rare Ha-ras allele to be 27. To understand the molecular basis for this phenomenon, they have begun to clone Ha-ras fragments from nontumor DNA of cancer patients. They report here the weak activation, as detected by transfection and transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse cells, of two Ha-ras genes which were obtained from lymphocyte DNA of a melanoma patient. They have mapped the regions that confer this transforming activity to the fragment containing the VTR in one Ha-ras clone and the fragment containing gene coding sequences in the other

  20. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  1. Common type 2 diabetes risk gene variants associate with gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Grarup, Niels; Damm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to examine the association between gestational diabetes (GDM) and eleven recently identified type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci. Research Design and Methods: Type 2 diabetes risk variants in TCF7L2, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKN2A/2B, IGF2BP2, FTO, TCF2, PPARG, KCNJ11 and WFS......1 loci were genotyped in a cohort of women with a history of GDM (n=283) and in glucose tolerant women of the population-based Inter99 cohort (n=2,446). Results: All the risk alleles in the 11 examined type 2 diabetes risk variants showed an odds ratio greater than 1 for the GDM group compared...... previously proven type 2 diabetes risk alleles equals the findings from association studies on type 2 diabetes. This supports the hypothesis that GDM and type 2 diabetes are two of the same entity....

  2. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II alleles which confer susceptibility or protection in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-class I) and II (HLA-class II) alleles associated with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort by a nested case–control association study. Methods Morphea patients were included from MAC cohort and matched controls from the NIH/NIAMS Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA- Class II genotyping and SSCP typing was performed of HLA-A, -B, -C alleles. Associations between HLA-Class I and II alleles and morphea as well as its subphenotypes were determined. Results There were 211 cases available for HLA-class I typing with 726 matched controls and 158 cases available for HLA Class-II typing with 1108 matched controls. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–4.0 P=0.002) and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among Class I alleles (3.3, 95% CI 1.6–6.9, P= 0.0016). Comparison with risk alleles in systemic sclerosis determined using the same methods and control population revealed one common allele (DRB*04:04). Conclusion Results of the present study demonstrate specific HLA Class I and II alleles are associated with morphea and likely generalized and linear subtypes. The associated morphea alleles are different than in scleroderma, implicating morphea is also immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population based studies indicate patients with RA have increased risk of morphea, implicating a common susceptibility allele. PMID:25223600

  3. Haptoglobin genotyping of Vietnamese: global distribution of HP del, complete deletion allele of the HP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Mikiko; Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Lan, Vi Thi Mai; Minh, Tu Binh; Takahashi, Shin; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    The haptoglobin (HP) gene deletion allele (HP(del)) is responsible for anhaptoglobinemia and a genetic risk factor for anaphylaxis reaction after transfusion due to production of the anti-HP antibody. The distribution of this allele has been explored by several groups including ours. Here, we studied the frequency of HP(del) in addition to the distribution of common HP genotypes in 293 Vietnamese. The HP(del) was encountered with the frequency of 0.020. The present result suggested that this deletion allele is restricted to East and Southeast Asians. Thus, this allele seems to be a potential ancestry informative marker for these populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling Glaucoma: Retinal Ganglion Cells Generated from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Patients with SIX6 Risk Allele Show Developmental Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pooja; Van Hook, Matthew J; Wichman, Christopher S; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Glaucoma represents a group of multifactorial diseases with a unifying pathology of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, causing irreversible vision loss. To test the hypothesis that RGCs are intrinsically vulnerable in glaucoma, we have developed an in vitro model using the SIX6 risk allele carrying glaucoma patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for generating functional RGCs. Here, we demonstrate that the efficiency of RGC generation by SIX6 risk allele iPSCs is significantly lower than iPSCs-derived from healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. The decrease in the number of RGC generation is accompanied by repressed developmental expression of RGC regulatory genes. The SIX6 risk allele RGCs display short and simple neurites, reduced expression of guidance molecules, and immature electrophysiological signature. In addition, these cells have higher expression of glaucoma-associated genes, CDKN2A and CDKN2B, suggesting an early onset of the disease phenotype. Consistent with the developmental abnormalities, the SIX6 risk allele RGCs display global dysregulation of genes which map on developmentally relevant biological processes for RGC differentiation and signaling pathways such as mammalian target of rapamycin that integrate diverse functions for differentiation, metabolism, and survival. The results suggest that SIX6 influences different stages of RGC differentiation and their survival; therefore, alteration in SIX6 function due to the risk allele may lead to cellular and molecular abnormalities. These abnormalities, if carried into adulthood, may make RGCs vulnerable in glaucoma. Stem Cells 2017;35:2239-2252. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Assessing the impact of a combined analysis of four common low-risk genetic variants on autism risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carayol Jerome

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a complex disorder characterized by deficits involving communication, social interaction, and repetitive and restrictive patterns of behavior. Twin studies have shown that autism is strongly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. In other disease states with a complex etiology, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease, combined analysis of multiple genetic variants in a genetic score has helped to identify individuals at high risk of disease. Genetic scores are designed to test for association of genetic markers with disease. Method The accumulation of multiple risk alleles markedly increases the risk of being affected, and compared with studying polymorphisms individually, it improves the identification of subgroups of individuals at greater risk. In the present study, we show that this approach can be applied to autism by specifically looking at a high-risk population of children who have siblings with autism. A two-sample study design and the generation of a genetic score using multiple independent genes were used to assess the risk of autism in a high-risk population. Results In both samples, odds ratios (ORs increased significantly as a function of the number of risk alleles, with a genetic score of 8 being associated with an OR of 5.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45 to 12.49. The sensitivities and specificities for each genetic score were similar in both analyses, and the resultant area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were identical (0.59. Conclusions These results suggest that the accumulation of multiple risk alleles in a genetic score is a useful strategy for assessing the risk of autism in siblings of affected individuals, and may be better than studying single polymorphisms for identifying subgroups of individuals with significantly greater risk.

  6. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on common genetic variants in women of East Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wanqing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Guo, Xingyi; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Ying; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Brennan, Paul; Chen, Shou-Tung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Ito, Hidemi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Teo, Soo H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Wu, Anna H; Yip, Cheng Har; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yongbing; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-12-08

    Approximately 100 common breast cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The utility of these variants in breast cancer risk prediction models has not been evaluated adequately in women of Asian ancestry. We evaluated 88 breast cancer risk variants that were identified previously by GWAS in 11,760 cases and 11,612 controls of Asian ancestry. SNPs confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian women were used to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relative and absolute risks of breast cancer by the PRS percentiles were estimated based on the PRS distribution, and were used to stratify women into different levels of breast cancer risk. We confirmed significant associations with breast cancer risk for SNPs in 44 of the 78 previously reported loci at P women in the middle quintile of the PRS, women in the top 1% group had a 2.70-fold elevated risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 2.15-3.40). The risk prediction model with the PRS had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.606. The lifetime risk of breast cancer for Shanghai Chinese women in the lowest and highest 1% of the PRS was 1.35% and 10.06%, respectively. Approximately one-half of GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants can be directly replicated in East Asian women. Collectively, common genetic variants are important predictors for breast cancer risk. Using common genetic variants for breast cancer could help identify women at high risk of breast cancer.

  7. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers ...

  8. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K. E. P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Issacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Iganacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Donaldson, Alan; James, Margaret; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark T.; McCann, Emma; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Izatt, Louise; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Serra-Feliu, Gemma; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrede, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Urhammer, Nancy; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révilliion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Megalie; Coron, Fanny; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M. A.; Seynaeve, C.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Gill, Mona; Collins, Lucine; Gokgoz, Nalan; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Karlsson, Per; Nordlilng, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rosenquist, Richard; Dahl, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of

  9. Evidence of an association between the Arg72 allele of the peptide YY and increased risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe S; Larsen, Lesli H; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that variants in the gene encoding the prepropeptide YY (PYY) associate with type 2 diabetes and/or obesity. Mutation analyses of DNA from 84 patients with obesity and familial type 2 diabetes identified two polymorphisms, IVS3 + 68C>T and Arg72Thr, and one rare variant......, +151C>A of PYY. The common allele of the Arg72Thr variant associated with type 2 diabetes with an allele frequency of the Arg allele of 0.667 (95% CI 0.658-0.677) among 4,639 glucose-tolerant subjects and 0.692 (0.674-0.710) among 1,326 patients with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.005, odds ratio 1.19 [95% CI...... tolerance test (OGTT) (P = 0.03), an increased area under the curve for the post-OGTT plasma glucose level (P = 0.03), and a lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the common Arg allele of the PYY Arg72Thr variant modestly associates with type 2 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes...

  10. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Bennett, Claire E.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD We included 4333 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS), of whom 2118 were early menopause cases (menopause under 46 years) and 2215 were controls. We analysed the relationship between length of FMR1 alleles and early menopause using logistic regression with allele length as continuous and categorical variables. We also conducted analyses with the outcome age at menopause as a quantitative trait as well as appropriate sensitivity and exploratory analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no association of the shorter or longer FMR1 allele or their combined genotype with the clinically relevant end point of early menopause in our main analysis. Likewise, there were no associations with age at menopause as a quantitative trait in our secondary analysis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Women with homozygous alleles in the normal range may have undetected FMR1 premutation alleles, although there was no evidence to suggest this. We

  11. Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K.E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:22253144

  12. Allelic variation at the 8q23.3 colorectal cancer risk locus functions as a cis-acting regulator of EIF3H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Pittman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Common genetic variation at human 8q23.3 is significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. To elucidate the basis of this association we compared the frequency of common variants at 8q23.3 in 1,964 CRC cases and 2,081 healthy controls. Reporter gene studies showed that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16888589 acts as an allele-specific transcriptional repressor. Chromosome conformation capture (3C analysis demonstrated that the genomic region harboring rs16888589 interacts with the promoter of gene for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit H (EIF3H. We show that increased expression of EIF3H gene increases CRC growth and invasiveness thereby providing a biological mechanism for the 8q23.3 association. These data provide evidence for a functional basis for the non-coding risk variant rs16888589 at 8q23.3 and provides novel insight into the etiological basis of CRC.

  13. Common variation in the vitamin D receptor gene and risk of inflammatory bowel disease in an Irish case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, David J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D may protect against the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several preliminary studies in separate geographical locations suggest that these effects may be partly mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The data, however, are yet to be confirmed in large European cohorts. This study aimed to determine if common VDR polymorphisms affected IBD risk in an Irish population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on a cohort of 1359 Irish participants. Frequencies of the common VDR gene polymorphisms rs2228570 (FokI), rs1544410 (BsmI), rs7975232 (ApaI), and rs731236 (TaqI) were determined using allele-specific PCR in a case-control analysis of 660 patients with IBD and 699 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between these variants and risk of IBD. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant effect observed on IBD risk for any of the four VDR polymorphisms tested. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in susceptibility when the population was stratified by sex or IBD subtype (Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis). Notably, however, there was an increased risk observed for both IBD and ulcerative colitis associated with heterozygote carriage of the FokI allele that approached significance (OR=1.21, 95% CI=0.95-1.53, P=0.12 and OR=1.36, 95% CI=0.98-1.89, P=0.06, respectively), this merits further investigation. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that there is no major effect for common variation in the VDR gene alone on predisposition to IBD in the Irish population.

  14. Longevity is independent of common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E M; Andersen-Ranberg, K; Maat, M de

    1999-01-01

    Do extremely old persons have a genetically favourable profile which has protected them from cardiovascular death? We have tried to answer this question by measuring DNA polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular risk indicators [factor VII, FVII (R/Q353, intron 7 (37bp)n, and -323ins10), beta fibr......, ACE (intron 16 ins287), and angiotensinogen (M/T235)]. Blood was collected from 187 unselected Danish centenarians, and 201 healthy Danish blood donors, aged 20-64 years (mean age 42 years). Genomic DNA was amplified using PCR and the genotype was determined by RFLP methods or allele.......33; for ACE 0.52; and for angiotensinogen 0.36. Comparable frequencies were observed in the blood donors. Subgroup analysis of men and women separately gave similar results. The genotype frequencies in the centenarians and the blood donors were similar for all polymorphisms, and this study suggests...... that common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk do not contribute significantly to longevity....

  15. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast–ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Beesley, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J.; Li, Qiyuan; Delgado, Melissa K.; Lee, Janet M.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K.; Arver, Brita; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S.; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Canniotto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Collonge-Rame, Marie- Agnès; Damette, Alexandre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Berthet, Pascaline; Vaur, Dominique; Castera, Laurent; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Baurand, Amandine; Jacquot, Caroline; Bertolone, Geoffrey; Lizard, Sarab; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Adenis, Claude; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Léone, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Calender, Alain; Giraud, Sophie; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Barjhoux, Laure; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Remenieras, Audrey; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Sokolowska, Johanna; Bronner, Myriam; Delnatte, Capucine; Bézieau, Stéphane; Mari, Véronique; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Buecher, Bruno; Rouleau, Etienne; Golmard, Lisa; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Birot, Anne-Marie; Saule, Claire; Laurent, Maïté; Houdayer, Claude; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mebirouk, Noura; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Warcoin, Mathilde; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Cook, Linda S.; Cox, Angela; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cross, Simon S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Domchek, Susan M.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Gregory, Helen; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick J.; Donaldson, Alan; Rogers, Mark T.; Kennedy, M. John; Porteous, Mary E.; Brady, Angela; Barwell, Julian; Foo, Claire; Lalloo, Fiona; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Henderson, Alex; Walker, Lisa; Cook, Jackie; Snape, Katie; Murray, Alex; McCann, Emma; Engel, Christoph; Lee, Eunjung; Evans, D. Gareth; Fasching, Peter A.; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gambino, Gaetana; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Greene, Mark H.; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Harrington, Patricia A.; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Rookus, M. A.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; van der Kolk, L. E.; Schmidt, M. K.; Russell, N. S.; de Lange, J. L.; Wijnands, R.; Collée, J. M.; Hooning, M. J.; Seynaeve, C.; van Deurzen, C. H. M.; Obdeijn, I. M.; van Asperen, C. J.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; van Cronenburg, T. C. T. E. F.; Kets, C. M.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van der Pol, C. C.; van Os, T. A. M.; Waisfisz, Q.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. E. J.; Gómez-Garcia, E. B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.; Vasen, H. F.; Siesling, S.; Verloop, J.; Overbeek, L. I. H.; Heitz, Florian; Herzog, Josef; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Hulick, Peter J.; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Fox, Stephen; Kirk, Judy; Lindeman, Geoff; Price, Melanie; Bowtell, David; deFazio, Anna; Webb, Penny; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Allan; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Kapuscinski, Miroslav; Karlan, Beth Y.; Khan, Sofia; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Knight, Julia A.; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; de la Hoya, Miguel; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Le, Nhu; De Leeneer, Kim; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Loud, Jennifer T.; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; McLean, Catriona; McNeish, Iain; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Milne, Roger L.; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ness, Roberta B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Odunsi, Kunle; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David; Orlow, Irene; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez, Gus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Salvesen, Helga B.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Slager, Susan; Song, Honglin; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa C.; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Vachon, Celine; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Vergote, Ignace; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Khanna, Kum Kum; Simard, Jacques; Monteiro, Alvaro N.; French, Juliet D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Gayther, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10−20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10−13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10−16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10−5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10−3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10−3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk. PMID:27601076

  16. Association and Validation of Yield-Favored Alleles in Chinese Cultivars of Common Wheat (Triticumaestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    Full Text Available Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, thousand-kernel weight (TKW, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and sterile spikelet number (SSN per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely 1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138, Xgwm337-1D186, Xgwm102-2D144, and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield.

  17. Mining the Human Phenome Using Allelic Scores That Index Biological Intermediates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David M; Brion, Marie Jo A; Paternoster, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease...... aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we...

  18. Hippocampal Sclerosis of Aging, a Common Alzheimer's Disease 'Mimic': Risk Genotypes are Associated with Brain Atrophy Outside the Temporal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common brain disease in older adults with a clinical course that is similar to Alzheimer's disease. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously shown association with HS-Aging. The present study investigated structural brain changes associated with these SNPs using surface-based analysis. Participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n = 1,239), with both MRI scans and genotype data, were used to assess the association between brain atrophy and previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs in the following genes: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2 (minor allele frequency for each is >30%). A fifth SNP (near the ABCC9 gene) was evaluated in post-hoc analysis. The GRN risk SNP (rs5848_T) was associated with a pattern of atrophy in the dorsomedial frontal lobes bilaterally, remarkable since GRN is a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia. The ABCC9 risk SNP (rs704180_A) was associated with multifocal atrophy whereas a SNP (rs7488080_A) nearby (∼50 kb upstream) ABCC9 was associated with atrophy in the right entorhinal cortex. Neither TMEM106B (rs1990622_T), KCNMB2 (rs9637454_A), nor any of the non-risk alleles were associated with brain atrophy. When all four previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs were summed into a polygenic risk score, there was a pattern of associated multifocal brain atrophy in a predominately frontal pattern. We conclude that common SNPs previously linked to HS-Aging pathology were associated with a distinct pattern of anterior cortical atrophy. Genetic variation associated with HS-Aging pathology may represent a non-Alzheimer's disease contribution to atrophy outside of the hippocampus in older adults.

  19. Probability Model of Allele Frequency of Alzheimer’s Disease Genetic Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Fayyaz-Movaghar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The identification of genetics risk factors of human diseases is very important. This study is conducted to model the allele frequencies (AFs of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, several candidate probability distributions are fitted on a data set of Alzheimer’s disease genetic risk factor. Unknown parameters of the considered distributions are estimated, and some criterions of goodness-of-fit are calculated for the sake of comparison. Results: Based on some statistical criterions, the beta distribution gives the best fit on AFs. However, the estimate values of the parameters of beta distribution lead us to the standard uniform distribution. Conclusion: The AFs of Alzheimer’s disease follow the standard uniform distribution.

  20. ADHD and DAT1: Further evidence of paternal over-transmission of risk alleles and haplotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawi, Z.; Kent, L.; Hill, M.; Anney, R.J.; Brookes, K. J.; Barry, E.; Franke, B.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.; Ebstein, R.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.

    2009-01-01

    We [Hawi et al. (2005); Am J Hum Genet 77:958-965] reported paternal over-transmission of risk alleles in some ADHD-associated genes. This was particularly clear in the case of the DAT1 30-UTR VNTR. In the current investigation, we analyzed three new sample comprising of 1,248 ADHD nuclear families

  1. ADHD and DAT1: further evidence of paternal over-transmission of risk alleles and haplotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawi, Z.; Kent, L.; Hill, M.; Anney, R.J.; Brookes, K.J.; Barry, E.; Franke, B.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Ebstein, R.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.

    2010-01-01

    We [Hawi et al. (2005); Am J Hum Genet 77:958-965] reported paternal over-transmission of risk alleles in some ADHD-associated genes. This was particularly clear in the case of the DAT1 3'-UTR VNTR. In the current investigation, we analyzed three new sample comprising of 1,248 ADHD nuclear families

  2. ZNF804A risk allele is associated with relatively intact gray matter volume in patients with schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Gary

    2011-02-01

    ZNF804A rs1344706 is the first genetic risk variant to achieve genome wide significance for psychosis. Following earlier evidence that patients carrying the ZNF804A risk allele had relatively spared memory function compared to patient non-carriers, we investigated whether ZNF804A was also associated with variation in brain volume. In a sample of 70 patients and 38 healthy participants we used voxel based morphometry to compare homozygous (AA) carriers of the ZNF804A risk allele to heterozygous and homozygous (AC\\/CC) non-carriers for both whole brain volume and specific regions implicated in earlier ZNF804A studies-the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. For patients, but not for controls, we found that homozygous \\'AA\\' risk carriers had relatively larger gray matter volumes than heterozygous\\/homozygous non-carriers (AC\\/CC), particularly for hippocampal volumes. These data are consistent with our earlier behavioral data and suggest that ZNF804A is delineating a schizophrenia subtype characterized by relatively intact brain volume. Establishing if this represents a discrete molecular pathogenesis with consequences for nosology and treatment will be an important next step in understanding ZNF084A\\'s role in illness risk.

  3. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These

  4. Prevalence of high-risk alleles in the LOXL1 gene and its association with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma in a Latin American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Martha; Rivera-Parra, David; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Valdés, Gerardo; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a major risk factor for exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). A significant association exists between XFG and several SNPs in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene. The purpose of this study was to report the results of the first association study between LOXL1 polymorphisms and XFS and/or XFG in a Latin American population. Genotypes of three high-risk SNPs of LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) were analyzed by direct sequencing. A case-control study was conducted with 102 unrelated XFS/XFG Mexican patients (42 XFS/60 XFG) as well as 97 control subjects. Allele frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and haplotype association analysis were assessed with the Haplo View software. The T allele of the intronic SNP rs2165241 was more frequent in XFS/XFG patients than in controls (OR [95% CI] = 2.41 [1.59-3.64]; p = 0.00001). The G allele of rs3825942 was found in a higher frequency in XFS/XFG than in controls (100% vs 95% respectively, p = 0.0019). No significant association between XFS and the rs1048661 (R141L) SNP was observed. The TGT haplotype was observed in a higher frequency in patients than in controls (p = 0.025), and produced the highest risk in our study (OR [95% CI] = 3.20 [1.09-9.39]; p = 0.025). This is the first study associating LOXL1 gene polymorphism and XFS/XFG in Latin America. LOXL1 variants are associated with an elevated risk for XFS/XFG in the Mexican population. A higher risk was conferred by the T allele of the intronic rs2165241 SNP rather than by the worldwide "high-risk" G allele of rs3825942.

  5. CYP21A2 polymorphisms in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease, and linkage disequilibrium to HLA risk alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønstad, Ingeborg; Skinningsrud, Beate; Bratland, Eirik; Løvås, Kristian; Undlien, Dag; Sverre Husebye, Eystein; Wolff, Anette Susanne Bøe

    2014-12-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase, encoded by CYP21A2, is the major autoantigen in autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). CYP21A2 is located in the region of the HLA complex on chromosome 6p21.3, which harbours several risk alleles for AAD. The objective was to investigate whether CYP21A2 gene variants confer risk of AAD independently of other risk alleles in the HLA loci. DNA samples from 381 Norwegian patients with AAD and 340 healthy controls (HC) previously genotyped for the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, and -DQB1 and MICA loci were used for genotyping of CYP21A2. Genotyping of CYP21A2 was carried out by direct sequencing. Linkage of CYP21A2 to the HLA loci was assessed using UNPHASED version 3.0.10 and PHASE version 2.1. Heterozygotes of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs397515394, rs6467, rs6474, rs76565726 and rs6473 were detected significantly more frequently in AAD patients compared with HC (P<0.005), but all SNPs were in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) with high-risk HLA-DRB1 haplotypes. rs6472C protected against AAD (odds ratio=0.15, 95% CI (0.08-0.30), P=3.8×10(-10)). This SNP was not in an LD with HLA loci (P=0.02), but did not increase protection when considering the effect of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Mutations causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia were found in heterozygosity in <1.5% of the cases in both groups. Genetic variants of CYP21A2 associated to AAD are in LD with the main AAD risk locus HLA-DRB1, and CYP21A2 does not constitute an independent susceptibility locus. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis risk allele PTPRC is also associated with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Jing; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Thomson, Brian; Padyukov, Leonid; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Nititham, Joanne; Hughes, Laura B.; de Vries, Niek; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wedrén, Sara; Ding, Bo; Guiducci, Candace; Wolbink, Gert Jan; Crusius, J. Bart A.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Herenius, Marieke; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Worthington, Jane; Batliwalla, Franak; Kern, Marlena; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Isaacs, John D.; Hyrich, Kimme; Seldin, Michael F.; Moreland, Larry W.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Tak, Paul P.; Bridges, S. Louis; Toes, Rene E. M.; Barton, Anne; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to test established RA genetic risk factors to determine whether the same alleles also influence the response to anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: A total

  8. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  9. Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Schaffner, Stephen F; Yu, Fuli; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bonnen, Penelope E; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Deloukas, Panos; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah; Inouye, Michael; Jia, Xiaoming; Palotie, Aarno; Parkin, Melissa; Whittaker, Pamela; Yu, Fuli; Chang, Kyle; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora R; Ren, Yanru; Wheeler, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna Marie; Barnes, Chris; Darvishi, Katayoon; Hurles, Matthew; Korn, Joshua M; Kristiansson, Kati; Lee, Charles; McCarrol, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Keinan, Alon; Montgomery, Stephen B; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Soranzo, Nicole; Bonnen, Penelope E; Gibbs, Richard A; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Keinan, Alon; Price, Alkes L; Yu, Fuli; Anttila, Verneri; Brodeur, Wendy; Daly, Mark J; Leslie, Stephen; McVean, Gil; Moutsianas, Loukas; Nguyen, Huy; Schaffner, Stephen F; Zhang, Qingrun; Ghori, Mohammed J R; McGinnis, Ralph; McLaren, William; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Schaffner, Stephen F; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Grossman, Sharon R; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Hostetter, Elizabeth B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Foster, Morris W; Gordon, Deborah R; Licinio, Julio; Manca, Maria Cristina; Marshall, Patricia A; Matsuda, Ichiro; Ngare, Duncan; Wang, Vivian Ota; Reddy, Deepa; Rotimi, Charles N; Royal, Charmaine D; Sharp, Richard R; Zeng, Changqing; Brooks, Lisa D; McEwen, Jean E

    2010-09-02

    Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations, and sequenced ten 100-kilobase regions in 692 of these individuals. This integrated data set of common and rare alleles, called 'HapMap 3', includes both SNPs and copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). We characterized population-specific differences among low-frequency variants, measured the improvement in imputation accuracy afforded by the larger reference panel, especially in imputing SNPs with a minor allele frequency of

  10. The rs10993994 risk allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, H.C.; Kote-Jarai, Z.; Ross-Adams, H.; Warren, A.Y.; Burge, J.; George, A.; Bancroft, E.; Jhavar, S.; Leongamornlert, D.; Tymrakiewicz, M.; Saunders, E.; Page, E.; Mitra, A.; Mitchell, G.; Lindeman, G.J.; Evans, D.G.; Blanco, I.; Mercer, C.; Rubinstein, W.S.; Clowes, V.; Douglas, F.; Hodgson, S.; Walker, L.; Donaldson, A.; Izatt, L.; Dorkins, H.; Male, A.; Tucker, K.; Stapleton, A.; Lam, J.; Kirk, J.; Lilja, H.; Easton, D.; Cooper, C.; Eeles, R.; Neal, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) regulates apoptosis and using genome-wide association studies the rs10993994 single nucleotide polymorphism in the MSMB promoter has been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The promoter location of the risk allele, and its ability to

  11. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Alleles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shahidul; Applebee, Marie; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determining dough properties and breadmaking quality. However, resolution of the currently used methodologies for analyzing LMW-GS is rather low which prevents an efficient use of genetic variations associated with these alleles in wheat breeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate and develop a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate LMW-GS alleles using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A set of standard single LMW-GS allele lines as well as a suite of well documented wheat cultivars were collected from France, CIMMYT, and Canada. Method development and optimization were focused on protein extraction procedures and MALDI-TOF instrument settings to generate reproducible diagnostic spectrum peak profiles for each of the known wheat LMW-GS allele. Results revealed a total of 48 unique allele combinations among the studied genotypes. Characteristic MALDI-TOF peak patterns were obtained for 17 common LMW-GS alleles, including 5 (b, a or c, d, e, f), 7 (a, b, c, d or i, f, g, h) and 5 (a, b, c, d, f) patterns or alleles for the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. In addition, some reproducible MALDI-TOF peak patterns were also obtained that did not match with any known alleles. The results demonstrated a high resolution and throughput nature of MALDI-TOF technology in analyzing LMW-GS alleles, which is suitable for application in wheat breeding programs in processing a large number of wheat lines with high accuracy in limited time. It also suggested that the variation of LMW-GS alleles is more abundant than what has been defined by the current nomenclature system that is mainly based on SDS-PAGE system. The MALDI-TOF technology is useful to differentiate these variations. An international joint effort may be needed to assign allele symbols to these newly identified alleles and determine their effects on end

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Allele PTPRC Is Also Associated With Response to Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor α Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Thomson, Brian; Padyukov, Leonid; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Nititham, Joanne; Hughes, Laura B.; de Vries, Niek; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wedrén, Sara; Ding, Bo; Guiducci, Candace; Wolbink, Gert Jan; Crusius, J. Bart A.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Herenius, Marieke; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Worthington, Jane; Batliwalla, Franak; Kern, Marlena; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Isaacs, John D.; Hyrich, Kimme; Seldin, Michael F.; Moreland, Larry W.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Tak, Paul P.; Bridges, S. Louis; Toes, Rene E. M.; Barton, Anne; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anti–tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to test established RA genetic risk factors to determine whether the same alleles also influence the response to anti-TNF therapy. Methods A total of 1,283 RA patients receiving etanercept, infliximab, or adalimumab therapy were studied from among an international collaborative consortium of 9 different RA cohorts. The primary end point compared RA patients with a good treatment response according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria (n = 505) with RA patients considered to be nonresponders (n = 316). The secondary end point was the change from baseline in the level of disease activity according to the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (ΔDAS28). Clinical factors such as age, sex, and concomitant medications were tested as possible correlates of treatment response. Thirty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of RA were genotyped and tested for any association with treatment response, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results Of the 31 RA-associated risk alleles, a SNP at the PTPRC (also known as CD45) gene locus (rs10919563) was associated with the primary end point, a EULAR good response versus no response (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, P = 0.0001 in the multivariate model). Similar results were obtained using the secondary end point, the ΔDAS28 (P = 0.0002). There was suggestive evidence of a stronger association in autoantibody-positive patients with RA (OR 0.55, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.39–0.76) as compared with autoantibody-negative patients (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.41–1.99). Conclusion Statistically significant associations were observed between the response to anti-TNF therapy and an RA risk allele at the PTPRC gene locus. Additional studies will be required to replicate this finding in additional patient collections

  13. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  14. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: Identification of a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Goldberg, Mark S.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Investigators, kConFab/AOCS; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas. PMID:27792995

  15. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: Identification of a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M W; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques

    2016-12-06

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas.

  16. Shared epitope alleles remain a risk factor for anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA--positive rheumatoid arthritis in three Asian ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Chun-Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia.

  17. Maternal and fetal human leukocyte antigen class Ia and II alleles in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmery, J.; Hachmon, R.; Pyo, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    and -DPB1) alleles and the risk of developing severe preeclampsia/eclampsia were investigated in a detailed and large-scale study. In total, 259 women diagnosed with severe preeclampsia or eclampsia and 260 matched control women with no preeclampsia, together with their neonates, were included in the study....... HLA genotyping for mothers and neonates was performed using next-generation sequencing. The HLA-DPB1*04:01:01G allele was significantly more frequent (Pc=0.044) among women diagnosed with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia compared with controls, and the DQA1*01:02:01G allele frequency was significantly...... lower (Pc=0.042) among newborns born by women with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia compared with controls. In mothers with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, homozygosity was significantly more common compared with controls at the HLA-DPB1 locus (Pc=0.0028). Although the current large study shows some...

  18. Pleiotropic Associations of Allelic Variants in a 2q22 Region with Risks of Major Human Diseases and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Kulminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining insights into genetic predisposition to age-related diseases and lifespan is a challenging task complicated by the elusive role of evolution in these phenotypes. To gain more insights, we combined methods of genome-wide and candidate-gene studies. Genome-wide scan in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study (N = 9,573 was used to pre-select promising loci. Candidate-gene methods were used to comprehensively analyze associations of novel uncommon variants in Caucasians (minor allele frequency~2.5% located in band 2q22.3 with risks of coronary heart disease (CHD, heart failure (HF, stroke, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (ND, and mortality in the ARIC study, the Framingham Heart Study (N = 4,434, and the Health and Retirement Study (N = 9,676. We leveraged the analyses of pleiotropy, age-related heterogeneity, and causal inferences. Meta-analysis of the results from these comprehensive analyses shows that the minor allele increases risks of death by about 50% (p = 4.6×10-9, CHD by 35% (p = 8.9×10-6, HF by 55% (p = 9.7×10-5, stroke by 25% (p = 4.0×10-2, and ND by 100% (p = 1.3×10-3. This allele also significantly influences each of two diseases, diabetes and cancer, in antagonistic fashion in different populations. Combined significance of the pleiotropic effects was p = 6.6×10-21. Causal mediation analyses show that endophenotypes explained only small fractions of these effects. This locus harbors an evolutionary conserved gene-desert region with non-coding intergenic sequences likely involved in regulation of protein-coding flanking genes ZEB2 and ACVR2A. This region is intensively studied for mutations causing severe developmental/genetic disorders. Our analyses indicate a promising target region for interventions aimed to reduce risks of many major human diseases and mortality.

  19. Population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Linyong; Fang, Yayin; Campbell, Michael; Southerland, William M

    2017-11-10

    Obesity is emerging as a global health problem, with more than one-third of the world's adult population being overweight or obese. In this study, we investigated worldwide population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). We collected a total of 225 obesity-associated SNPs from a public database. Their population-level allele frequencies were derived based on the genotype data from 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3). We used hypergeometric model to assess whether the effect allele at a given SNP is significantly enriched or depleted in each of the 26 populations surveyed in the 1000 Genomes Project with respect to the overall pooled population. Our results indicate that 195 out of 225 SNPs (86.7%) possess effect alleles significantly enriched or depleted in at least one of the 26 populations. Populations within the same continental group exhibit similar allele enrichment/depletion patterns whereas inter-continental populations show distinct patterns. Among the 225 SNPs, 15 SNPs cluster in the first intron region of the FTO gene, which is a major gene associated with body-mass index (BMI) and fat mass. African populations exhibit much smaller blocks of LD (linkage disequilibrium) among these15 SNPs while European and Asian populations have larger blocks. To estimate the cumulative effect of all variants associated with obesity, we developed the personal composite genetic risk score for obesity. Our results indicate that the East Asian populations have the lowest averages of the composite risk scores, whereas three European populations have the highest averages. In addition, the population-level average of composite genetic risk scores is significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.35, P = 0.0060) with obesity prevalence. We have detected substantial population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs. The results will help elucidate the genetic basis which may contribute to population

  20. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-Associated Antigen +49G Variant Confers Risk for Anti-CCP- and Rheumatoid Factor-Positive Type of Rheumatoid Arthritis Only in Combination with CT60∗G Allele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Farago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversial observations have been published on the association of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen gene's variants with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. After genotyping 428 patients and 230 matched controls, the prevalence of the CT60∗G allele was more frequent in RF- and/or anti-CCP-seropositive RApatients, compared to the healthy controls (P<.001. Regression analysis revealed that the CT60∗G allele is a possible predisposing factor for RA in these subgroups. No accumulation of the +49∗G allele was found among patients, and this variant was not found to correlate with RA. Assaying the possible genotype variations, the +49∗G-CT60∗G allelic combination was accumulated in seropositive RA-subtypes, and was associated with the risk of RA (OR=1.73, P=.001 for the whole RA-population. Although the +49∗G allele did not mean a predisposition to RA alone, in combination with CT60∗G it, also conferred risk, suggesting that the +49A/G variant is associated with the risk of RA only in certain haplotypes.

  1. The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, William J; Elding, Heather; Jiang, Tao; Allen, Dave; Ruklisa, Dace; Mann, Alice L; Mead, Daniel; Bouman, Heleen; Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Kostadima, Myrto A; Lambourne, John J; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Downes, Kate; Kundu, Kousik; Bomba, Lorenzo; Berentsen, Kim; Bradley, John R; Daugherty, Louise C; Delaneau, Olivier; Freson, Kathleen; Garner, Stephen F; Grassi, Luigi; Guerrero, Jose; Haimel, Matthias; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Kaan, Anita; Kamat, Mihir; Kim, Bowon; Mandoli, Amit; Marchini, Jonathan; Martens, Joost H A; Meacham, Stuart; Megy, Karyn; O'Connell, Jared; Petersen, Romina; Sharifi, Nilofar; Sheard, Simon M; Staley, James R; Tuna, Salih; van der Ent, Martijn; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wilder, Steven P; Iotchkova, Valentina; Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kuijpers, Taco W; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Juan, David; Rico, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Chen, Lu; Ge, Bing; Vasquez, Louella; Kwan, Tony; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Watt, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Guigo, Roderic; Beck, Stephan; Paul, Dirk S; Pastinen, Tomi; Bujold, David; Bourque, Guillaume; Frontini, Mattia; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Soranzo, Nicole

    2016-11-17

    Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell, white cell, and platelet properties in 173,480 European-ancestry participants. This effort yielded hundreds of low frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) variants with a strong impact on blood cell phenotypes. Our data highlight general properties of the allelic architecture of complex traits, including the proportion of the heritable component of each blood trait explained by the polygenic signal across different genome regulatory domains. Finally, through Mendelian randomization, we provide evidence of shared genetic pathways linking blood cell indices with complex pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and coronary heart disease and evidence suggesting previously reported population associations between blood cell indices and cardiovascular disease may be non-causal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TNF-α -308 A allele is associated with an increased risk of distant metastasis in rectal cancer patients from Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, an important factor in systematic inflammation, is reportedly involved in several cancer types. The TNF-α -308 G>A (rs1800629 polymorphism in the promoter region influences TNF-α production. The association between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC is not fully understood, especially the connections between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and clinical features of CRC. In this study, TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism was genotyped in 1140 individuals with or without CRC from Southwestern China. In case-control studies, we found no association between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and CRC risk. Analysis of the correlations between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and clinical features of CRC revealed that TNF-α -308 A allele was associated with higher body mass index (BMI larger tumor size, and distant tumor metastasis in all CRC patients. Notably, rectal cancer (a subtype of CRC patients with TNF-α -308 A allele had a very high risk of distant tumor metastasis [odds ratio (OR = 4.481; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.072-9.693; P = 0.00025]. The association between TNF-α -308 A allele and distant tumor metastasis remained even significant after adjusting all clinical characteristics (OR = 7.099; 95% CI: 2.482-20.301; P = 0.000256 in rectal cancer patients. Our results suggested that TNF-α -308 A allele was significantly associated with distant tumor metastasis in rectal cancer patients.

  3. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele

  4. Common ERBB2 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in a white British population: a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benusiglio, Patrick R; Ponder, Bruce AJ; Lesueur, Fabienne; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Donald M; Shah, Mitul; Easton, Douglas F; Day, Nick E; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D

    2005-01-01

    About two-thirds of the excess familial risk associated with breast cancer is still unaccounted for and may be explained by multiple weakly predisposing alleles. A gene thought to be involved in low-level predisposition to the disease is ERBB2 (HER2). This gene is involved in cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis and is frequently amplified in breast tumours. Its amplification correlates with poor prognosis. Moreover, the coding polymorphism I655V has previously been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We aimed to determine if common polymorphisms (frequency ≥ 5%) in ERBB2 were associated with breast cancer risk in a white British population. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for study: SNP 1 near the promoter, SNP 2 in intron 1, SNP 3 in intron 4, SNP 4 in exon 17 (I655V), and SNP 5 in exon 27 (A1170P). We tested their association with breast cancer in a large case–control study (n = 2192 cases and 2257 controls). There were no differences in genotype frequencies between cases and controls for any of the SNPs examined. To investigate the possibility that a common polymorphism not included in our study might be involved in breast cancer predisposition, we also constructed multilocus haplotypes. Our set of SNPs generated all existing (n = 6) common haplotypes and no differences were seen in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls (P = 0.44). In our population, common ERBB2 polymorphisms are not involved in predisposition to breast cancer

  5. Associations of common copy number variants in glutathione S-transferase mu 1 and D-dopachrome tautomerase-like protein genes with risk of schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toru; Ohnuma, Tohru; Hanzawa, Ryo; Takebayashi, Yuto; Takeda, Mayu; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Katsuta, Narimasa; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Arai, Heii

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative-stress, genetic regions of interest (1p13 and 22q11), and common copy number variations (CNVs) may play roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we confirmed associations between schizophrenia and the common CNVs in the glutathione (GSH)-related genes GSTT1, DDTL, and GSTM1 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of 620 patients with schizophrenia and in 622 controls. No significant differences in GSTT1 copy number distributions were found between patient groups. However, frequencies of characterized CNVs and assumed gain alleles of DDTL and GSTM1 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia. In agreement with a previous report, the present data indicate that gains in the CNV alleles DDTL and GSTM1 are genetic risk factors in Japanese patients with schizophrenia, and suggest involvement of micro-inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preferential binding to Elk-1 by SLE-associated IL10 risk allele upregulates IL10 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sakurai

    Full Text Available Immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 is elevated in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE correlating with disease activity. The established association of IL10 with SLE and other autoimmune diseases led us to fine map causal variant(s and to explore underlying mechanisms. We assessed 19 tag SNPs, covering the IL10 gene cluster including IL19, IL20 and IL24, for association with SLE in 15,533 case and control subjects from four ancestries. The previously reported IL10 variant, rs3024505 located at 1 kb downstream of IL10, exhibited the strongest association signal and was confirmed for association with SLE in European American (EA (P = 2.7×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.30, but not in non-EA ancestries. SNP imputation conducted in EA dataset identified three additional SLE-associated SNPs tagged by rs3024505 (rs3122605, rs3024493 and rs3024495 located at 9.2 kb upstream, intron 3 and 4 of IL10, respectively, and SLE-risk alleles of these SNPs were dose-dependently associated with elevated levels of IL10 mRNA in PBMCs and circulating IL-10 protein in SLE patients and controls. Using nuclear extracts of peripheral blood cells from SLE patients for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified specific binding of transcription factor Elk-1 to oligodeoxynucleotides containing the risk (G allele of rs3122605, suggesting rs3122605 as the most likely causal variant regulating IL10 expression. Elk-1 is known to be activated by phosphorylation and nuclear localization to induce transcription. Of interest, phosphorylated Elk-1 (p-Elk-1 detected only in nuclear extracts of SLE PBMCs appeared to increase with disease activity. Co-expression levels of p-Elk-1 and IL-10 were elevated in SLE T, B cells and monocytes, associated with increased disease activity in SLE B cells, and were best downregulated by ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that preferential binding of activated Elk-1 to the IL10 rs3122605-G allele

  7. Compound Heterozygosity for Null Mutations and a Common Hypomorphic Risk Haplotype in TBX6 Causes Congenital Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Kou, Ikuyo; Kawakami, Noriaki; Iida, Aritoshi; Nakajima, Masahiro; Ogura, Yoji; Imagawa, Eri; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Sudo, Hideki; Kotani, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2017-03-01

    Congenital scoliosis (CS) occurs as a result of vertebral malformations and has an incidence of 0.5-1/1,000 births. Recently, TBX6 on chromosome 16p11.2 was reported as a disease gene for CS; about 10% of Chinese CS patients were compound heterozygotes for rare null mutations and a common haplotype defined by three SNPs in TBX6. All patients had hemivertebrae. We recruited 94 Japanese CS patients, investigated the TBX6 locus for both mutations and the risk haplotype, examined transcriptional activities of mutant TBX6 in vitro, and evaluated clinical and radiographic features. We identified TBX6 null mutations in nine patients, including a missense mutation that had a loss of function in vitro. All had the risk haplotype in the opposite allele. One of the mutations showed dominant negative effect. Although all Chinese patients had one or more hemivertebrae, two Japanese patients did not have hemivertebra. The compound heterozygosity of null mutations and the common risk haplotype in TBX6 also causes CS in Japanese patients with similar incidence. Hemivertebra was not a specific type of spinal malformation in TBX6-associated CS (TACS). A heterozygous TBX6 loss-of-function mutation has been reported in a family with autosomal-dominant spondylocostal dysostosis, but it may represent a spectrum of the same disease with TACS. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  8. Polymorphisms in chemokine and receptor genes and gastric cancer risk and survival in a high risk Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Andrew J; Fought, Angela J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Ye, Weimin; Zhang, Xiao; Chow, Wong-Ho; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Hou, Lifang

    2011-03-01

    To examine if genetic variations in chemokine receptor and ligand genes are associated with gastric cancer risk and survival. The study included 298 cases and 417 controls from a population-based study of gastric cancer conducted in Warsaw, Poland in 1994-1996. We investigated seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in a chemokine ligand (CXCL12) and chemokine receptor (CCR2, CCR5, CX3CR1) genes and one frameshift deletion (CCR5) in blood leukocyte DNA in relation to gastric cancer risk and survival. Genotyping was conducted at the NCI Core Genotyping Facility. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Gastric cancer risk was not associated with single chemokine polymorphisms. A CCR5 haplotype that contained the common alleles of IVS1+151 G>T (rs2734648), IVS2+80 C>T (rs1800024) and minor allele of IVS1+246 A>G (rs1799987) was associated with a borderline significantly increased risk (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0?2.2). For gastric cancer cases, there was a greater risk of death for carriers of the minor alleles of CCR2 Ex2+241 G>A (rs1799864) (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) and CCR5 IVS2+80 C>T (rs1800024) (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Carriers of the CCR5 minor allele of IVS1+151 G>T (rs2734648) had a decreased risk of death compared to homozygote carriers of the common allele (HR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0). Our findings do not support an association between gastric cancer risk and single chemokine genetic variation. The observed associations between cancer risk and a CCR5 haplotype and between survival and polymorphisms in CCR2 and CCR5 need replication in future studies.

  9. Enhanced low-template DNA analysis conditions and investigation of allele dropout patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Dufva, Charlotte; Ansell, Ricky; Mostad, Petter; Hedman, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Forensic DNA analysis applying PCR enables profiling of minute biological samples. Enhanced analysis conditions can be applied to further push the limit of detection, coming with the risk of visualising artefacts and allele imbalances. We have evaluated the consecutive increase of PCR cycles from 30 to 35 to investigate the limitations of low-template (LT) DNA analysis, applying the short tandem repeat (STR) analysis kit PowerPlex ESX 16. Mock crime scene DNA extracts of four different quantities (from around 8-84 pg) were tested. All PCR products were analysed using 5, 10 and 20 capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection seconds. Bayesian models describing allele dropout patterns, allele peak heights and heterozygote balance were developed to assess the overall improvements in EPG quality with altered PCR/CE settings. The models were also used to evaluate the impact of amplicon length, STR marker and fluorescent label on the risk for allele dropout. The allele dropout probability decreased for each PCR cycle increment from 30 to 33 PCR cycles. Irrespective of DNA amount, the dropout probability was not affected by further increasing the number of PCR cycles. For the 42 and 84 pg samples, mainly complete DNA profiles were generated applying 32 PCR cycles. For the 8 and 17 pg samples, the allele dropouts decreased from 100% using 30 cycles to about 75% and 20%, respectively. The results for 33, 34 and 35 PCR cycles indicated that heterozygote balance and stutter ratio were mainly affected by DNA amount, and not directly by PCR cycle number and CE injection settings. We found 32 and 33 PCR cycles with 10 CE injection seconds to be optimal, as 34 and 35 PCR cycles did not improve allele detection and also included CE saturation problems. We find allele dropout probability differences between several STR markers. Markers labelled with the fluorescent dyes CXR-ET (red in electropherogram) and TMR-ET (shown as black) generally have higher dropout risks compared with those

  10. APOL1 Risk Alleles Are Associated With More Severe Arteriosclerosis in Renal Resistance Vessels With Aging and Hypertension

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    Michael D. Hughson

    2016-05-01

    Discussion: With the limitation of the small number of subjects contributing to the positive results, the findings imply that APOL1 risk alleles recessively augment small-vessel arteriosclerosis in conjunction with age and hypertension. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was not a significant finding, indicating that in the early stages of arterionephrosclerosis, the primary pathologic influence of APOL1 genotype is vascular rather than glomerular.

  11. Common variants of xeroderma pigmentosum genes and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirecka, Aneta; Paszkowska-Szczur, Katarzyna; Scott, Rodney J; Górski, Bohdan; van de Wetering, Thierry; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Gromowski, Tomasz; Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Cybulski, Cezary; Kashyap, Aniruddh; Gupta, Satish; Gołąb, Adam; Słojewski, Marcin; Sikorski, Andrzej; Lubiński, Jan; Dębniak, Tadeusz

    2014-08-10

    The genetic basis of prostate cancer (PC) is complex and appears to involve multiple susceptibility genes. A number of studies have evaluated a possible correlation between several NER gene polymorphisms and PC risk, but most of them evaluated only single SNPs among XP genes and the results remain inconsistent. Out of 94 SNPs located in seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) a total of 15 SNPs were assayed in 720 unselected patients with PC and compared to 1121 healthy adults. An increased risk of disease was associated with the XPD SNP, rs1799793 (Asp312Asn) AG genotype (OR=2.60; p<0.001) and with the AA genotype (OR=531; p<0.0001) compared to the control population. Haplotype analysis of XPD revealed one protective haplotype and four associated with an increased disease risk, which showed that the A allele (XPD rs1799793) appeared to drive the main effect on promoting prostate cancer risk. Polymorphism in XPD gene appears to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The STAT4 SLE risk allele rs7574865[T] is associated with increased IL-12-induced IFN-γ production in T cells from patients with SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Niklas; Joelsson, Martin; Leonard, Dag; Reid, Sarah; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Mo, John; Nilsson, Magnus K; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Bryceson, Yenan T; Rönnblom, Lars

    2018-02-23

    Genetic variants in the transcription factor STAT4 are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a more severe disease phenotype. This study aimed to clarify how the SLE-associated intronic STAT4 risk allele rs7574865[T] affects the function of immune cells in SLE. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 52 genotyped patients with SLE. Phosphorylation of STAT4 (pSTAT4) and STAT1 (pSTAT1) in response to interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ or interleukin (IL)-12, total levels of STAT4, STAT1 and T-bet, and frequency of IFN-γ + cells on IL-12 stimulation were determined by flow cytometry in subsets of immune cells before and after preactivation of cells with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and IL-2. Cellular responses and phenotypes were correlated to STAT4 risk allele carriership. Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi) selective for TYK2 (TYK2i) or JAK2 (JAK2i) were evaluated for inhibition of IL-12 or IFN-γ-induced activation of SLE PBMCs. In resting PBMCs, the STAT4 risk allele was neither associated with total levels of STAT4 or STAT1, nor cytokine-induced pSTAT4 or pSTAT1. Following PHA/IL-2 activation, CD8 + T cells from STAT4 risk allele carriers displayed increased levels of STAT4 resulting in increased pSTAT4 in response to IL-12 and IFN-α, and an augmented IL-12-induced IFN-γ production in CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. The TYK2i and the JAK2i efficiently blocked IL-12 and IFN-γ-induced activation of PBMCs from STAT4 risk patients, respectively. T cells from patients with SLE carrying the STAT4 risk allele rs7574865[T] display an augmented response to IL-12 and IFN-α. This subset of patients may benefit from JAKi treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Study of Four Common Mutations of Familial Mediterranean Fever in North-West of Iran

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    Abbas Karimi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Familial Mediterranean Fever, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common and well known periodical fevers syndrome. Disease is mainly prevalent among non-Ashkenazi Jews, Arabs, Turks and Armenia. According to the geographical location of North-West of Iran, neighboring with two high risk FMF population (Turkey and Armenia, the prevalence of FMF in this region of Iran is not unlikely. The aim of this study was to estimate the carriers rate of FMF common mutations in healthy control people. Results can be potentially useful to estimate prevalence of disease.   Methods : Randomly 200 samples from healthy people [non-FMF] from North-West of Iran selected. After taking consent, DNA was extracted from blood samples of these groups. Then mutations were evaluated using ARMS-PCR and RFLP-PCR techniques.   Results : from 400 studied alleles, 44 and 7 mutant alleles were found for E148Q and V726A respectively. For 2 other mutations, no mutant alleles were found. The total allelic frequency for these four common mutations was 0.132. The carriers rate was 23.4%.   Conclusion : This study showed that E148Q has high mutation frequency relative to other mutations in North-West of Iran.

  14. Effects of interactions between common genetic variants and alcohol consumption on colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-01-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 40 common genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer risk. To investigate possible gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption with respect to colorectal cancer, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Higher levels of alcohol consumption as calculated based on a standardized definition of a drink (1 drink=12.5g of ethanol) were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.62-3.76 for heavy drinkers [>50g/day] compared to never drinkers; p trend colorectal cancer associated with the G allele of rs6687758 tended to increase among individuals in the heavier alcohol consumption strata. A statistically significant association between rs6687758 and colorectal cancer risk was observed among moderate alcohol drinkers who consumed between >12.5 and ≤50g of alcohol per day (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.01-2.11). A total of 2,109 subjects (703 colorectal cancer patients and 1,406 healthy controls) were recruited from the Korean National Cancer Center. For genotyping, 30 GWAS-identified SNPs were selected. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations of SNPs and alcohol consumption with colorectal cancer risk. We also tested GEIs between SNPs and alcohol consumption using a logistic model with multiplicative interaction terms. Our results suggest that SNP rs6687758 at 1q41 may interact with alcohol consumption in the etiology of colorectal cancer.

  15. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

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    Carol A Soderlund

    Full Text Available Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor, where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense, and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available

  16. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Allele Loci in the Qatari Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L O'Beirne

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing in the Middle East. However, the genetic risk factors for T2D in the Middle Eastern populations are not known, as the majority of studies of genetic risk for T2D are in Europeans and Asians.All subjects were ≥3 generation Qataris. Cases with T2D (n = 1,124 and controls (n = 590 were randomly recruited and assigned to the 3 known Qatari genetic subpopulations [Bedouin (Q1, Persian/South Asian (Q2 and African (Q3]. Subjects underwent genotyping for 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 29 genes known to be associated with T2D in Europeans and/or Asian populations, and an additional 27 tag SNPs related to these susceptibility loci. Pre-study power analysis suggested that with the known incidence of T2D in adult Qataris (22%, the study population size would be sufficient to detect significant differences if the SNPs were risk factors among Qataris, assuming that the odds ratio (OR for T2D SNPs in Qatari's is greater than or equal to the SNP with highest known OR in other populations.Haplotype analysis demonstrated that Qatari haplotypes in the region of known T2D risk alleles in Q1 and Q2 genetic subpopulations were similar to European haplotypes. After Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment for multiple testing, only two SNPs (rs7903146 and rs4506565, both associated with transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2, achieved statistical significance in the whole study population. When T2D subjects and control subjects were assigned to the known 3 Qatari subpopulations, and analyzed individually and with the Q1 and Q2 genetic subpopulations combined, one of these SNPs (rs4506565 was also significant in the admixed group. No other SNPs associated with T2D in all Qataris or individual genetic subpopulations.With the caveats of the power analysis, the European/Asian T2D SNPs do not contribute significantly to the high prevalence of T2D in the Qatari population, suggesting that the genetic risks for T2D are

  17. Identification of the Rare, Four Repeat Allele of IL-4 Intron-3 VNTR Polymorphism in Indian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Henu Kumar; Jha, Aditya Nath; Khodiar, Prafulla Kumar; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Bhaskar, Lakkakula Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines are cell signaling molecules which upon release by cells facilitate the recruitment of immune-modulatory cells towards the sites of inflammation. Genetic variations in cytokine genes are shown to regulate their production and affect the risk of infectious as well as autoimmune diseases. Intron-3 of interleukin-4 gene (IL-4) harbors 70-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) that may alter the expression level of IL-4 gene. To determine the distribution of IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in seven genetically heterogeneous populations of Chhattisgarh, India and their comparison with the finding of other Indian and world populations. A total of 371 healthy unrelated individuals from 5 caste and 2 tribal populations were included in the present study. The IL-4 70-bp VNTR genotyping was carried out using PCR and electrophoresis. Overall, 3 alleles of IL-4 70-bp VNTR (a2, a3 and a4) were detected. The results demonstrated the variability of the IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in Chhattisgarh populations. Allele a3 was the most common allele at the 70-bp VNTR locus in all populations followed by a2 allele. This study reports the presence four repeat allele a4 at a low frequency in the majority of the Chhattisgarh populations studied. Further, the frequency of the minor allele (a2) in Chhattisgarh populations showed similarity with the frequencies of European populations but not with the East Asian populations where the a2 allele is a major allele. Our study provides a baseline for future research into the role of the IL-4 locus in diseases linked to inflammation in Indian populations.

  18. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Liu, Chia-Chan; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun

    2013-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a major cholesterol carrier that supports lipid transport and injury repair in the brain. APOE polymorphic alleles are the main genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk: individuals carrying the ε4 allele are at increased risk of AD compared with those carrying the more common ε3 allele, whereas the ε2 allele decreases risk. Presence of the APOE ε4 allele is also associated with increased risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and age-related cognitive decline during normal ageing. Apo-E-lipoproteins bind to several cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids, and also to hydrophobic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is thought to initiate toxic events that lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in AD. Apo-E isoforms differentially regulate Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain, and have distinct functions in regulating brain lipid transport, glucose metabolism, neuronal signalling, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial function. In this Review, we describe current knowledge on Apo-E in the CNS, with a particular emphasis on the clinical and pathological features associated with carriers of different Apo-E isoforms. We also discuss Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms that link Apo-E4 status with AD risk, and consider how to design effective strategies for AD therapy by targeting Apo-E.

  19. SU94. Allele-Specific and Trauma-Related Epigenetic Changes in the FKBP5 Gene: Differences Between Psychotic Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, Marina; Franic, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Andric, Sanja; Mirjanic, Tijana; Novakovic, Ivana; Adzic, Miroslav; Maric, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    5 gene in psychotic patients, which is in line with previous reports in traumatized individuals. Trauma-related demethylation in risk controls’ group supports the hypothesis that psychotic and stress-related conditions could share common neurobiological underlying mechanism, such as HPA axis dysregulation, particularly in individuals with genetic predisposition for altered stress response. References 1.Daskalakis NP, Binder EB. Schizophrenia in the spectrum of gene-stress interactions: the FKBP5 example. Schizophr Bull. 2015;41:323–329. 2.Klengel T, Mehta D, Anacker C et al. Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:33–41.

  20. Common vaccinations among adults do not increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Camilla; Kapetanovic, Meliha C; Källberg, Henrik; Sverdrup, Berit; Nordmark, Birgitta; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the association between vaccinations in adults and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data from the Swedish population-based Epidemiological Investigation of RA case-control study encompassing 1998 incident cases of RA aged 18-70 years and 2252 randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and residency were analysed. Those vaccinated within 5 years before disease onset were compared with those not vaccinated by calculating OR with 95% CI. Vaccinations neither increased the risk of RA overall (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.1) nor the risk of two major subgroups of RA (antibodies to citrullinated peptide-positive (ACPA-positive) and ACPA-negative disease). Furthermore, vaccinations did not increase the risk of RA in smokers or carriers of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, two groups with established risk factors for RA. In this case-control study of incident cases of newly diagnosed RA, no increased risk of RA following immunisation was observed for vaccinations overall or for any specific vaccination. This indicates that immunological provocation of adults with commonly used vaccines in their present form carries no risk of RA. These findings should be implemented among public healthcare providers in order to encourage vaccinations according to recommended national vaccination schedules.

  1. Allelic inhibition of displacement activity: a simplified one tube allele-specific PCR for evaluation of ITPA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmozzi, E; Facchetti, F; Degasperi, E; Aghemo, A; Lampertico, P

    2013-02-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have identified two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene, that are associated strongly and independently with hemolytic anemia in patients exposed to pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combined therapy. Here has been developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay named allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) for evaluation of ITPA polymorphisms. AIDA system relies on three unlabeled primers only, two outer common primers and one inner primer with allele-specific 3' terminus mismatch. DNA samples from 192 patients with chronic HCV infection were used to validate the AIDA system and results were compared with the gold standard TaqMan(®) SNP genotyping assay. Concordant data were obtained for all samples, granting for high specificity of the method. In conclusion, AIDA is a practical one-tube method to reproducibly and to assess accurately rs7270101 and rs1127354 ITPA SNPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dyslexia risk variant rs600753 is linked with dyslexia-specific differential allelic expression of DYX1C1

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    Bent Müller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.

  3. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

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    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  4. Effects of the APOE ε2 Allele on Mortality and Cognitive Function in the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Tan, Qihua; Mengel-From, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Some studies indicate that the APOE ε2 allele may have a protective effect on mortality and mental health among the elderly adults. We investigated the effect of the APOE ε2 allele on cognitive function and mortality in 1651 members of the virtually extinct Danish 1905 birth cohort. We found...... no protective effect of the APOE ε2 allele on mortality compared with the APOE ε3 allele. The point estimates indicated an increased protection against cognitive decline over time for persons with the APOE ε2 allele. Cognitive score did not significantly modify the mortality risk of the various APOE genotypes....... We did not find a protective effect of the APOE ε2 allele on mortality among the oldest old, but in agreement with our previous findings, we found a 22% increased mortality risk for APOE ε4 carriers. The APOE ε2 allele may be protective on cognitive decline among the oldest old....

  5. Reduced risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in homozygous carriers of the chromosome 9p21 rs1333049 C risk allele in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Masahiko; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Suna, Shinichiro; Usami, Masaya; Matsumoto, Sen; Ozaki, Kouichi; Nishino, Masami; Sato, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nanto, Shinsuke; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a susceptibility variant for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the primary prevention setting. However, it is controversial whether this SNP is also associated with recurrent myocardial infarction (ReMI) in the secondary prevention setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of chromosome 9p21 SNP on ReMI in patients receiving secondary prevention programmes after AMI. Design A prospective observational study. Setting Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study (OACIS) in Japan. Participants 2022 patients from the OACIS database. Interventions Genotyping of the 9p21 rs1333049 variant. Primary outcome measures ReMI event after survival discharge for 1 year. Results A total of 43 ReMI occurred during the 1 year follow-up period. Although the rs1333049 C allele had an increased susceptibility to their first AMI in an additive model when compared with 1373 healthy controls (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.33, p=2.3*10−4), patients with the CC genotype had a lower incidence of ReMI at 1 year after discharge of AMI (log-rank p=0.005). The adjusted HR of the CC genotype as compared with the CG/GG genotypes was 0.20 (0.06 to 0.65, p=0.007). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the association between the rs1333049 CC genotype and a lower incidence of 1 year ReMI was common to all subgroups. Conclusions Homozygous carriers of the rs1333049 C allele on chromosome 9p21 showed a reduced risk of 1 year ReMI in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era, although the C allele had conferred susceptibility to their first AMI. PMID:25232560

  6. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

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    Arnett Donna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST can evidence environmental selection pressures. Such genetic information is limited in Puerto Ricans, the second largest Hispanic ethnic group in the US, and a group with high prevalence of chronic disease. We determined allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 30 genes involved in major metabolic and disease-relevant pathways in Puerto Ricans (n = 969, ages 45–75 years and compared them to similarly aged non-Hispanic whites (NHW (n = 597. Results Minor allele frequency (MAF distributions for 45.5% of the SNPs assessed in Puerto Ricans were significantly different from those of NHW. Puerto Ricans carried risk alleles in higher frequency and protective alleles in lower frequency than NHW. Patterns of population differentiation showed that Puerto Ricans had SNPs with exceptional FST values in intronic, non-synonymous and promoter regions. NHW had exceptional FST values in intronic and promoter region SNPs only. Conclusion These observations may serve to explain and broaden studies on the impact of gene polymorphisms on chronic diseases affecting Puerto Ricans.

  7. The impact of the CACNA1C risk allele on limbic structures and facial emotions recognition in bipolar disorder subjects and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; Dias, Carolina Zadres; Bio, Danielle S; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) during all mood states. FER has been the focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies evaluating differential activation of limbic regions. Recently, the α1-C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene has been described as a risk gene for BD and its Met allele found to increase CACNA1C mRNA expression. In healthy controls, the CACNA1C risk (Met) allele has been reported to increase limbic system activation during emotional stimuli and also to impact on cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CACNA1C genotype on FER scores and limbic system morphology in subjects with BD and healthy controls. Thirty-nine euthymic BD I subjects and 40 healthy controls were submitted to a FER recognition test battery and genotyped for CACNA1C. Subjects were also examined with a 3D 3-Tesla structural imaging protocol. The CACNA1C risk allele for BD was associated to FER impairment in BD, while in controls nothing was observed. The CACNA1C genotype did not impact on amygdala or hippocampus volume neither in BD nor controls. Sample size. The present findings suggest that a polymorphism in calcium channels interferes FER phenotype exclusively in BD and doesn't interfere on limbic structures morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of interactions between common genetic variants and alcohol consumption on colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 40 common genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer risk. To investigate possible gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption with respect to colorectal cancer, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Results Higher levels of alcohol consumption as calculated based on a standardized definition of a drink (1 drink=12.5g of ethanol) were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.62-3.76 for heavy drinkers [>50g/day] compared to never drinkers; ptrendcolorectal cancer associated with the G allele of rs6687758 tended to increase among individuals in the heavier alcohol consumption strata. A statistically significant association between rs6687758 and colorectal cancer risk was observed among moderate alcohol drinkers who consumed between >12.5 and ≤50g of alcohol per day (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.01-2.11). Methods A total of 2,109 subjects (703 colorectal cancer patients and 1,406 healthy controls) were recruited from the Korean National Cancer Center. For genotyping, 30 GWAS-identified SNPs were selected. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations of SNPs and alcohol consumption with colorectal cancer risk. We also tested GEIs between SNPs and alcohol consumption using a logistic model with multiplicative interaction terms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNP rs6687758 at 1q41 may interact with alcohol consumption in the etiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:29464080

  9. Semiparametric Allelic Tests for Mapping Multiple Phenotypes: Binomial Regression and Mahalanobis Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arunabha; Witte, John S; Ghosh, Saurabh

    2015-12-01

    Binary phenotypes commonly arise due to multiple underlying quantitative precursors and genetic variants may impact multiple traits in a pleiotropic manner. Hence, simultaneously analyzing such correlated traits may be more powerful than analyzing individual traits. Various genotype-level methods, e.g., MultiPhen (O'Reilly et al. []), have been developed to identify genetic factors underlying a multivariate phenotype. For univariate phenotypes, the usefulness and applicability of allele-level tests have been investigated. The test of allele frequency difference among cases and controls is commonly used for mapping case-control association. However, allelic methods for multivariate association mapping have not been studied much. In this article, we explore two allelic tests of multivariate association: one using a Binomial regression model based on inverted regression of genotype on phenotype (Binomial regression-based Association of Multivariate Phenotypes [BAMP]), and the other employing the Mahalanobis distance between two sample means of the multivariate phenotype vector for two alleles at a single-nucleotide polymorphism (Distance-based Association of Multivariate Phenotypes [DAMP]). These methods can incorporate both discrete and continuous phenotypes. Some theoretical properties for BAMP are studied. Using simulations, the power of the methods for detecting multivariate association is compared with the genotype-level test MultiPhen's. The allelic tests yield marginally higher power than MultiPhen for multivariate phenotypes. For one/two binary traits under recessive mode of inheritance, allelic tests are found to be substantially more powerful. All three tests are applied to two different real data and the results offer some support for the simulation study. We propose a hybrid approach for testing multivariate association that implements MultiPhen when Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) is violated and BAMP otherwise, because the allelic approaches assume HWE

  10. The link between some alleles on human leukocyte antigen system and autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Shehab, Abeer A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2013-02-15

    The reason behind the initiation of autoimmunity to brain in some patients with autism is not well understood. There is an association between some autoimmune disorders and specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Thus, we examined the frequency of some HLA-DRB1 alleles in 100 autistic children and 100 healthy matched-children by differential hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The risk of association between acquisition or absence of these alleles and autism and also a history of autoimmune diseases in autistic relatives was studied. Autistic children had significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 allele than controls (P<0.001). In contrast, autistic children had significantly lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*03 allele than controls (P<0.001). Acquisition of HLA-DRB1*011 and absence of HLA-DRB1*3 had significant risk for association with autism (odds ratio: 3.21 and 0.17, respectively; 95% CI: 1.65-6.31 and 0.06-0.45, respectively). HLA-DRB1*11 had a significant risk for association with a family history of autoimmunity in autistic children (odds ratio: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.07-16.3). In conclusions, the link of some HLA alleles to autism and to family history of autoimmunity indicates the possible contributing role of these alleles to autoimmunity in some autistic children. Despite a relatively small sample size, we are the first to report a probable protective association of HLA-DRB1*03 allele with autism. It warrants a replication study of a larger sample to validate the HLA-DRB1 genetic association with autism. This is important to determine whether therapeutic modulations of the immune function are legitimate avenues for novel therapy in selected cases of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RHD alleles in the Tunisian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchari, Mouna; Jemni-Yaacoub, Saloua; Chakroun, Taher; Abdelkefi, Saida; Houissa, Batoul; Hmida, Slama

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in Tunisia population was lacking. The aim of this study was to use a multiplex RHD typing assay for simultaneous detection of partial D especially with RHD/RHCE deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence exchange mechanism and some weak D alleles. Materials and Methods: Six RHD specific primer sets were designed to amplify RHD exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9. DNA from 2000 blood donors (1777 D+ and 223 D-) from several regions was selected for RHD genotyping using a PCR multiplex assay. Further molecular investigations were done to characterize the RHD variants that were identified by the PCR multiplex assay. Results: In the 1777 D+ samples, only 10 individuals showed the absence of amplification of exons 4 and 5 that were subsequently identified by PCR-SSP as weak D type 4 variants. No hybrid allele was detected. In the 223 D-, RHD amplification of some exons was observed only in 5 samples: 4 individuals expressed only RHD exon 9, and one subject lacking exons 4 and 5. These samples were then screened by PCR-SSPs on d(C) ces and weak D type 4, respectively. Conclusion: The weak D type 4 appears to be the most common D variant allele. We have not found any partial D variant. Findings also indicated that RHD gene deletion is the most prevalent cause of the D- phenotype in the Tunisian population. PMID:24014941

  12. Assessment of the myostatin Q204X allele using an allelic discrimination assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Puentes-Montiel,Herlinda E.; Moreno-Medina,Víctor R.; Rosa-Reyna,Xóchitl F. de la

    2006-01-01

    An allelic discrimination assay was designed and used to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the myostatin (MSTN) gene Q204X allele from two Mexican Full-French herds. The assay is a simple high throughput genotyping method that could be applied to investigate the effect of the Q204X allele on the Charolais breed.

  13. Risk allelic load in Th2 and Th3 cytokines genes as biomarker of susceptibility to HPV-16 positive cervical cancer: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Poveda, K.; Burguete-García, A. I.; Bahena-Román, M.; Méndez-Martínez, R.; Zurita-Díaz, M. A.; López-Estrada, G.; Delgado-Romero, K.; Peralta-Zaragoza, O.; Bermúdez-Morales, V. H.; Cantú, D.; García-Carrancá, A.; Madrid-Marina, V.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the host cellular immune response allow persistent infections with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and development of premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer (CC). Variations of immunosuppressive cytokine levels in cervix are associated with the natural history of CC. To assess the potential role of genetic host immunity and cytokines serum levels in the risk of developing CC, we conducted a case–control study paired by age. Peripheral blood samples from patients with CC (n = 200) and hospital controls (n = 200), were used to evaluate nine biallelic SNPs of six cytokine genes of the adaptive immune system by allelic discrimination and cytokines serum levels by ELISA. After analyzing the SNP association by multivariate logistic regression adjusted by age, CC history and smoking history, three Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and one Th3 (TGFB1) cytokine were significantly associated with CC. Individuals with at least one copy of the following risk alleles: T of SNP (−590C > T IL-4), C of SNP (−573G > C IL-6), A of SNP (−592C > A IL-10), T of SNP (−819C > T IL-10) and T of SNP (−509C > T TGFB1), had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.08 (95 % CI 1.475–2.934, p = 0.0001), an OR of 1.70 (95 % CI 1.208–2.404, p = 0.002), an OR of 1.87 (95 % CI 1.332–2.630, p = 0.0001), an OR of 1.67 (95 % CI 1.192–2.353, p = 0.003) and an OR of 1.91 (95 % CI 1.354–2.701, p = 0.0001), respectively, for CC. The burden of carrying two or more of these risk alleles was found to have an additive effect on the risk of CC (p trend = 0.0001). Finally, the serum levels of Th2 and Th3 cytokines were higher in CC cases than the controls; whereas IFNG levels, a Th1 cytokine, were higher in controls than CC cases. The significant associations of five SNPs with CC indicate that these polymorphisms are potential candidates for predicting the risk of development of CC, representing a risk allelic load for CC and can be used as a biomarker of

  14. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  15. A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Gary K; Vachon, Celine M; Canzian, Federico; Dunning, Alison; Millikan, Robert C; Wang, Xianshu; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ahmed, Shahana; Ambrosone, Christine B; Baglietto, Laura; Balleine, Rosemary; Bandera, Elisa V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berg, Christine D; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Buring, Julie E; Carey, Lisa A; Carpenter, Jane E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Clarke, Christine L; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Deming, Sandra L; Diasio, Robert B; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M; Driver, W Ryan; Dünnebier, Thomas; Durcan, Lorraine; Eccles, Diana; Edlund, Christopher K; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Feigelson, Heather S; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fostira, Florentia; Försti, Asta; Fountzilas, George; Gerty, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Godwin, Andrew K; Goodfellow, Paul; Graham, Nikki; Greco, Dario; Hamann, Ute; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Rebecca; Heinz, Judith; Holbrook, Andrea; Hoover, Robert N; Hu, Jennifer J; Hunter, David J; Ingles, Sue A; Irwanto, Astrid; Ivanovich, Jennifer; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nicola; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Kolonel, Laurence N; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kulkarni, Swati; Lambrechts, Diether; Lee, Adam M; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lesnick, Timothy; Liu, Jianjun; Lindstrom, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Martin, Nicholas G; Miron, Penelope; Montgomery, Grant W; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stephan; Nyante, Sarah; Olswold, Curtis; Palmer, Julie; Pathak, Harsh; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Perou, Charles M; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pooler, Loreall C; Press, Michael F; Pylkäs, Katri; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ross, Eric; Rüdiger, Thomas; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Sawyer, Elinor; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Schumacher, Fredrick; Severi, Gianluca; Sheng, Xin; Signorello, Lisa B; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Stevens, Kristen N; Southey, Melissa C; Tapper, William J; Tomlinson, Ian; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Wauters, Els; Weaver, JoEllen; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Van Den Berg, David; Wan, Peggy; Xia, Lucy Y; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Siddiq, Afshan; Slager, Susan L; Stram, Daniel O; Easton, Douglas; Kraft, Peter; Henderson, Brian E; Couch, Fergus J

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10−10). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10−9), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10−9). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations. PMID:22037553

  16. A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Gary K; Vachon, Celine M; Canzian, Federico; Dunning, Alison; Millikan, Robert C; Wang, Xianshu; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ahmed, Shahana; Ambrosone, Christine B; Baglietto, Laura; Balleine, Rosemary; Bandera, Elisa V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berg, Christine D; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Buring, Julie E; Carey, Lisa A; Carpenter, Jane E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Clarke, Christine L; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Deming, Sandra L; Diasio, Robert B; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M; Driver, W Ryan; Dünnebier, Thomas; Durcan, Lorraine; Eccles, Diana; Edlund, Christopher K; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Feigelson, Heather S; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fostira, Florentia; Försti, Asta; Fountzilas, George; Gerty, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Godwin, Andrew K; Goodfellow, Paul; Graham, Nikki; Greco, Dario; Hamann, Ute; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Rebecca; Heinz, Judith; Holbrook, Andrea; Hoover, Robert N; Hu, Jennifer J; Hunter, David J; Ingles, Sue A; Irwanto, Astrid; Ivanovich, Jennifer; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nicola; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Kolonel, Laurence N; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kulkarni, Swati; Lambrechts, Diether; Lee, Adam M; Marchand, Loïc Le; Lesnick, Timothy; Liu, Jianjun; Lindstrom, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Martin, Nicholas G; Miron, Penelope; Montgomery, Grant W; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stephan; Nyante, Sarah; Olswold, Curtis; Palmer, Julie; Pathak, Harsh; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Perou, Charles M; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pooler, Loreall C; Press, Michael F; Pylkäs, Katri; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ross, Eric; Rüdiger, Thomas; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Sawyer, Elinor; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Schumacher, Fredrick; Severi, Gianluca; Sheng, Xin; Signorello, Lisa B; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Stevens, Kristen N; Southey, Melissa C; Tapper, William J; Tomlinson, Ian; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Wauters, Els; Weaver, JoEllen; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Van Den Berg, David; Wan, Peggy; Xia, Lucy Y; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Siddiq, Afshan; Slager, Susan L; Stram, Daniel O; Easton, Douglas; Kraft, Peter; Henderson, Brian E; Couch, Fergus J

    2011-10-30

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.

  17. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Additive composite ABCG2, SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 scores of high-risk alleles with alcohol use modulate gout risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Chung, Chia-Min; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Lee, Su-Shin; Lai, Han-Ming; Lee, Chien-Hung; Huang, Chung-Ming; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of urate transporter genes and alcohol use to the risk of gout/tophi. Eight variants of ABCG2, SLC2A9, SLC22A12, SLC22A11 and SLC17A3 were genotyped in male individuals in a case-control study with 157 gout (33% tophi), 106 asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and 295 control subjects from Taiwan. The multilocus profiles of the genetic risk scores for urate gene variants were used to evaluate the risk of asymptomatic hyperuricaemia, gout and tophi. ABCG2 Q141K (T), SLC2A9 rs1014290 (A) and SLC22A12 rs475688 (C) under an additive model and alcohol use independently predicted the risk of gout (respective odds ratio for each factor=2.48, 2.03, 1.95 and 2.48). The additive composite Q141K, rs1014290 and rs475688 scores of high-risk alleles were associated with gout risk (Pgout and tophi risk (P for interaction=0.0452, 0.0033). The synergistic effect of genetic urate score 5-6 and alcohol use indicates that these combined factors correlate with gout and tophi occurrence.

  19. Further Confirmation of Germline Glioma Risk Variant rs78378222 in TP53 and Its Implication in Tumor Tissues via Integrative Analysis of TCGA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Rajaraman, Preetha; Melin, Beatrice S.; Chung, Charles C.; Zhang, Weijia; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique; Yeager, Meredith; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Andersson, Ulrika; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary Ann; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Hallmans, Goran; Henriksson, Roger; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Inskip, Peter D.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Le Marchand, Loic; Linet, Martha S.; Li, Shengchao; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Stampfer, Meir; Stevens, Victoria L.; Visvanathan, Kala; Wang, Sophia S.; White, Emily; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    We confirmed strong association of rs78378222:A>C (per allele odds ratio [OR] = 3.14; P = 6.48 × 10−11), a germline rare single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TP53, via imputation of a genome-wide association study of glioma (1,856 cases and 4,955 controls). We subsequently performed integrative analyses on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) and LUAD (lung adenocarcinoma). Based on SNP data, we imputed genotypes for rs78378222 and selected individuals carrying rare risk allele (C). Using RNA sequencing data, we observed aberrant transcripts with ~3 kb longer than normal for those individuals. Using exome sequencing data, we further showed that loss of haplotype carrying common protective allele (A) occurred somatically in GBM but not in LUAD. Our bioinformatic analysis suggests rare risk allele (C) disrupts mRNA termination, and an allelic loss of a genomic region harboring common protective allele (A) occurs during tumor initiation or progression for glioma. PMID:25907361

  20. Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Edward J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs u...

  1. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and the risk of arterial thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlaeger, Tommy; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene are associated with SLE as well as with severe atherosclerosis. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin variant alleles were associated...

  2. Collapsing glomerulopathy in a young woman with APOL1 risk alleles following acute parvovirus B19 infection: a case report investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Whitney; Mansour, Sherry; Jatwani, Karan; Nast, Cynthia C; Brewster, Ursula C

    2016-09-06

    Collapsing Glomerulopathy (CG), also known as the collapsing variant of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), is distinct in both its clinical severity and its pathophysiologic characteristics from other forms of FSGS. This lesion occurs disproportionally in patients carrying two APOL1 risk alleles, and is the classic histologic lesion resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection of podocytes. Other viral infections, including parvovirus B19, and drugs such as interferon that perturb the immune system, have also been associated with CG. Despite significant advances, explaining such genetic and immune/infectious associations with causative mechanisms and supporting evidence has proven challenging. We report the case of a healthy (HIV-negative) pregnant 36 year-old Caribbean-American woman who presented with nephrotic syndrome and fetal demise in the setting of acute parvovirus B19 infection. A series of three renal biopsies and rapid clinical course showed progression from significant podocyte injury with mild light microscopy findings to classic viral-associated CG to ESRD in less than 3 months. Genetic analysis revealed two APOL1 G1 risk alleles. This is the first published case report of CG in the setting of acute parvovirus infection in a patient with two APOL1 risk allelles, and parvoviral proteins identified in renal epithelium on kidney biopsy. These findings support the causative role of parvovirus B19 infection in the development of CG on the background of APOL1 genetic risk.

  3. A common genetic variant in the neurexin superfamily member CNTNAP2 is associated with increased risk for selective mutism and social anxiety-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray B; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Chavira, Denise A; Hitchcock, Carla A; Sung, Sharon C; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Gelernter, Joel

    2011-05-01

    Selective mutism (SM), considered an early-onset variant of social anxiety disorder, shares features of impaired social interaction and communication with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggesting a possible shared pathophysiology. We examined association of a susceptibility gene, contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2), for ASDs and specific language impairment with SM and social anxiety-related traits. Sample 1 subjects were 99 nuclear families including 106 children with SM. Sample 2 subjects were young adults who completed measures of social interactional anxiety (n = 1028) and childhood behavioral inhibition (n = 920). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNTNAP2 (including rs7794745 and rs2710102, previously associated with ASDs) were genotyped. Analyses revealed nominal significance (p = .018) for association of SM with rs2710102, which, with rs6944808, was part of a common haplotype associated with SM (permutation p = .022). Adjusting for sex and ancestral proportion, each copy of the rs2710102*a risk allele in the young adults was associated with increased odds of being >1 SD above the mean on the Social Interactional Anxiety Scale (odds ratio = 1.33, p = .015) and Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition (odds ratio = 1.40, p = .010). Although association was found with rs2710102, the risk allele (a) for the traits studied here is the nonrisk allele for ASD and specific language impairment. These findings suggest a partially shared etiology between ASDs and SM and raise questions about which aspects of these syndromes are potentially influenced by CNTNAP2 and mechanism(s) by which these influences may be conveyed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: identification of a modifier of breast cancer risk at locus 11q22.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Hamdi (Yosr); Soucy, P. (Penny); Kuchenbaeker, K.B. (Karoline B.); Pastinen, T. (Tomi); A. Droit (Arnaud); Lemaçon, A. (Audrey); J.W. Adlard (Julian); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A. Arason (Adalgeir); N. Arnold (Norbert); B.K. Arun (Banu); J. Azzollini; A.L. Bane (Anita L.); Barjhoux, L. (Laure); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); J. Benítez (Javier); P. Berthet (Pascaline); M.J. Blok (Marinus); K.A. Bobolis (Kristie A.); V. Bonadona (Valérie); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); Bradbury, A.R. (Angela R.); C. Brewer (Carole); B. Buecher (Bruno); Buys, S.S. (Saundra S.); M.A. Caligo (Maria); Chiquette, J. (Jocelyne); W. Chung (Wendy); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); Daly, M.B. (Mary B.); F. Damiola (Francesca); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); K. De Leeneer (Kim); O. Díez (Orland); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); S.M. Domchek (Susan); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); D. Eccles (Diana); R. Eeles (Ros); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); EMBRACE; C. Engel (Christoph); Gareth Evans, D.; L. Feliubadaló (L.); L. Foretova (Lenka); F. Fostira (Florentia); Foulkes, W.D. (William D.); G. Fountzilas (George); E. Friedman (Eitan); D. Frost (Debra); P. Ganschow (Pamela); P.A. Ganz (Patricia A.); J. Garber (Judy); S.A. Gayther (Simon); GEMO Study Collaborators; A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); A.K. Godwin (Andrew K.); D. Goldgar (David); M.H. Greene (Mark H.); J. Gronwald (Jacek); E. Hahnen (Eric); U. Hamann (Ute); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); S. Hart (Stewart); J. Hays (John); HEBON; F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); P.J. Hulick (Peter); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); C. Isaacs (Claudine); L. Izatt (Louise); A. Jakubowska (Anna); M. James (Margaret); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); U.B. Jensen; E.M. John (Esther); V. Joseph (Vijai); Just, W. (Walter); Kaczmarek, K. (Katarzyna); Karlan, B.Y. (Beth Y.); KConFab Investigators; C.M. Kets; J. Kirk (Judy); Kriege, M. (Mieke); Y. Laitman (Yael); Laurent, M. (Maïté); C. Lazaro (Conxi); Leslie, G. (Goska); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); F. Lesueur (Fabienne); A. Liljegren (Annelie); N. Loman (Niklas); J.T. Loud (Jennifer); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); Mariani, M. (Milena); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. McGuffog (Lesley); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A. Meindl (Alfons); A. Miller (Austin); M. Montagna (Marco); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); Olah, E. (Edith); O.I. Olopade (Olufunmilayo I.); K.-R. Ong (Kai-Ren); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); A. Osorio (Ana); L. Papi (Laura); S.K. Park (Sue K.); Pedersen, I.S. (Inge Sokilde); B. Peissel (Bernard); P.P. Segura (Pedro Perez); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); C. Phelan (Catherine); P. Radice (Paolo); J. Rantala (Johanna); Rappaport-Fuerhauser, C. (Christine); G. Rennert (Gad); A.L. Richardson (Andrea); M. Robson (Mark); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); M.A. Rookus (Matti); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); N. Sevenet (Nicolas); Shah, P.D. (Payal D.); C.F. Singer (Christian); Slavin, T.P. (Thomas P.); Snape, K. (Katie); J. Sokolowska (Johanna); Sønderstrup, I.M.H. (Ida Marie Heeholm); M.C. Southey (Melissa); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); Stadler, Z. (Zsofia); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); C. Sutter (Christian); Tan, Y. (Yen); M.-K. Tea; P.J. Teixeira; A. Teulé (A.); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); M. Thomassen (Mads); L. Tihomirova (Laima); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); A.E. Toland (Amanda); N. Tung (Nadine); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); K. van Engelen (Klaartje); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); K. Offit (Kenneth); Couch, F.J. (Fergus J.); S. Nord (Silje); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); Simard, J. (Jacques)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility

  5. MicroRNAs differentially regulate carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1 gene expression dependent on the allele status of the common polymorphic variant rs9024.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Kalabus

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs responsible for the post-transcriptional regulation of a variety of human genes. To date, their involvement in the regulation of CBR1 is unknown. This study reports for the first time the identification of microRNA-574-5p (hsa-miR-574-5p and microRNA-921 (hsa-miR-921 as two miRNAs capable of interacting with the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of the CBR1 gene and downregulating CBR1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CBR1 3'-UTR (rs9024, CBR1 1096G>A differentially impacts the regulation of CBR1 by hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 dependent on genotype. First, four candidate miRNAs were selected based on bioinformatic analyses, and were tested in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells transfected with CBR1 3'-UTR constructs harboring either the G or A allele for rs9024. We found that hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 significantly decreased luciferase activity in CHO cells transfected with the CBR1 3'-UTR construct carrying the major rs9024 G allele by 35% and 46%, respectively. The influence of these miRNAs was different in cells transfected with a CBR1 3'-UTR construct containing the minor rs9024 A allele in that only hsa-miR-574-5p had a demonstrable effect (i.e., 52% decrease in lucifersase activity. To further determine the functional effects of miRNA-mediated regulation of polymorphic CBR1, we assessed CBR1 protein expression and CBR1 enzymatic activity for the prototypical substrate menadione in human lymphoblastoid cell lines with distinct rs9024 genotypes. We found that hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-921 significantly decreased CBR1 protein (48% and 40%, respectively and CBR1 menadione activity (54% and 18%, respectively in lymphoblastoid cells homozygous for the major rs9024 G allele. In contrast, only hsa-miR-574-5p decreased CBR1 protein and CBR1 activity in cells homozygous for the minor rs9024 A allele, and did so by 49% and 56%, respectively. These

  6. DLA Class II Alleles Are Associated with Risk for Canine Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystropy (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbe, Maria; Ziener, Martine Lund; Aronsson, Anita; Harlos, Charlotte; Sundberg, Katarina; Norberg, Elin; Andersson, Lisa; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Lingaas, Frode

    2010-01-01

    Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802) was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33) was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%). The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis. PMID:20808798

  7. Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression : identification of a modifier of breast cancer risk at locus 11q22.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B; Pastinen, Tomi; Droit, Arnaud; Lemaçon, Audrey; Adlard, Julian; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Arason, Adalgeir; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Azzollini, Jacopo; Bane, Anita; Barjhoux, Laure; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berthet, Pascaline; Blok, Marinus J; Bobolis, Kristie; Bonadona, Valérie; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bradbury, Angela R; Brewer, Carole; Buecher, Bruno; Buys, Saundra S; Caligo, Maria A; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; De la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Ejlertsen, Bent; Engel, Christoph; Gareth Evans, D; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fountzilas, George; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganschow, Pamela; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Gayther, Simon A; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Hahnen, Eric; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Hays, John L; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joseph, Vijai; Just, Walter; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Karlan, Beth Y; Kets, Carolien M; Kirk, Judy; Kriege, Mieke; Laitman, Yael; Laurent, Maïté; Lazaro, Conxi; Leslie, Goska; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Loman, Niklas; Loud, Jennifer T; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mariani, Milena; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Montagna, Marco; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Park, Sue Kyung; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Segura, Pedro Perez; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Sevenet, Nicolas; Shah, Payal D; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Snape, Katie; Sokolowska, Johanna; Sønderstrup, Ida Marie Heeholm; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stadler, Zsofia; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Tan, Yen; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teulé, Alex; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tung, Nadine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Engelen, Klaartje; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wijnen, Juul T; Rebbeck, Timothy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Nord, Silje; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Simard, Jacques

    PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1

  8. Geographic differences in allele frequencies of susceptibility SNPs for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullo Iftikhar J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that the frequencies of risk alleles of SNPs mediating susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases differ among populations of varying geographic origin and that population-specific selection has operated on some of these variants. Methods From the database of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, we selected 36 cardiovascular phenotypes including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke, as well as related quantitative traits (eg, body mass index and plasma lipid levels. We identified 292 SNPs in 270 genes associated with a disease or trait at P -8. As part of the Human Genome-Diversity Project (HGDP, 158 (54.1% of these SNPs have been genotyped in 938 individuals belonging to 52 populations from seven geographic areas. A measure of population differentiation, FST, was calculated to quantify differences in risk allele frequencies (RAFs among populations and geographic areas. Results Large differences in RAFs were noted in populations of Africa, East Asia, America and Oceania, when compared with other geographic regions. The mean global FST (0.1042 for 158 SNPs among the populations was not significantly higher than the mean global FST of 158 autosomal SNPs randomly sampled from the HGDP database. Significantly higher global FST (P FST of 2036 putatively neutral SNPs. For four of these SNPs, additional evidence of selection was noted based on the integrated Haplotype Score. Conclusion Large differences in RAFs for a set of common SNPs that influence risk of cardiovascular disease were noted between the major world populations. Pairwise comparisons revealed RAF differences for at least eight SNPs that might be due to population-specific selection or demographic factors. These findings are relevant to a better understanding of geographic variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Low-frequency and common genetic variation in ischemic stroke: The METASTROKE collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Rainer; Traylor, Matthew; Pulit, Sara L; Bevan, Steve; Hopewell, Jemma C; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Zhao, Wei; Abrantes, Patricia; Amouyel, Philippe; Attia, John R; Battey, Thomas W K; Berger, Klaus; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B; Chauhan, Ganesh; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Wei-Min; Clarke, Robert; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Debette, Stephanie; Falcone, Guido J; Ferro, Jose M; Gamble, Dale M; Ilinca, Andreea; Kittner, Steven J; Kourkoulis, Christina E; Lemmens, Robin; Levi, Christopher R; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Arne; Liu, Jingmin; Meschia, James F; Mitchell, Braxton D; Oliveira, Sofia A; Pera, Joana; Reiner, Alex P; Rothwell, Peter M; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Thijs, Vincent; Vicente, Astrid M; Woo, Daniel; Seshadri, Sudha; Saleheen, Danish; Rosand, Jonathan; Markus, Hugh S; Worrall, Bradford B; Dichgans, Martin

    2016-03-29

    To investigate the influence of common and low-frequency genetic variants on the risk of ischemic stroke (all IS) and etiologic stroke subtypes. We meta-analyzed 12 individual genome-wide association studies comprising 10,307 cases and 19,326 controls imputed to the 1000 Genomes (1 KG) phase I reference panel. We selected variants showing the highest degree of association (p frequencies for all IS and stroke subtypes. We showed genome-wide significance for 4 loci: ABO for all IS, HDAC9 for large vessel disease (LVD), and both PITX2 and ZFHX3 for cardioembolic stroke (CE). We further refined the association peaks for ABO and PITX2. Analyzing different allele frequency bins, we showed significant enrichment in low-frequency variants (allele frequency frequency variants (allele frequency 10% and 30%) for CE (all p low-frequency and rare variants. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify the variants associated with all IS and stroke subtypes. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. STK15 polymorphisms and association with risk of invasive ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicioccio, Richard A; Song, Honglin; Waterfall, Christy; Kimura, Makoto T; Nagase, Hiroki; McGuire, Valerie; Hogdall, Estrid; Shah, Mitul N; Luben, Robert N; Easton, Douglas F; Jacobs, Ian J; Ponder, Bruce A J; Whittemore, Alice S; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kruger-Kjaer, Susan

    2004-10-01

    STK15 is a putative oncogene that codes for a centrosome-associated, serine/threonine kinase, the normal function of which is to ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Amplification of STK15 has been reported in ovarian tumors, suggesting a role in ovarian cancer pathology. STK15 is polymorphic with two single nucleotide substitutions (449t/a and 527g/a) in evolutionarily conserved regions causing amino acid changes (F31I and V57I). Two other nucleotide substitutions (287c/g and 1891g/c) of unknown significance are in 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR), respectively. To learn more about the involvement of STK15 in ovarian cancer, we genotyped and haplotyped these polymorphisms in three population-based ovarian cancer case-control studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark with 1,821 combined cases and 2,467 combined controls and calculated risks for developing ovarian cancer. Genotypes of individual polymorphisms in control groups of the United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In combined cases and combined controls, rare allele frequencies were 0.23 and 0.21 for I31, 0.16 and 0.17 for I57, 0.08 and 0.07 for 5' UTR g, and 0.25 and 0.24 for 3' UTR c, respectively. Using FF common homozygotes of F31I as comparator, there was increased ovarian cancer risk to FI heterozygotes (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.36), II homozygotes (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.75), and I31 allele carriers (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35) in the combined group data. For either V57I, 5' UTR C/G, or 3' UTR G/C, all genotypic ovarian cancer risks were essentially in unity relative to their respective common homozygotes, VV, cc, or gg. Haplotype analysis of combined group data revealed seven haplotypes with frequencies between 0.02 and 0.5, with c-F-V-g the most common. None of the haplotype-specific risks significantly differed from unity relative to

  11. Common genetic variants and modification of penetrance of BRCA2-associated breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia M Gaudet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10(-5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10(-4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499 and chromosome 10 (rs16917302. The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.86, and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.85, . FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.39, . These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.

  12. Effect of Glu-B3 Allelic Variation on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sedimentation Volume in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Si

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS sedimentation volume has long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. In order to survey the influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs at Glu-B3 locus on wheat SDS sedimentation volume, a total of 283 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties including landraces and improved and introduced cultivars were analyzed using 10 allele-specific PCR markers at the Glu-B3 locus. The highest allele frequency observed in the tested varieties was Glu-B3i with 21.9% in all varieties, 21.1% in landraces, 25.5% in improved cultivars, and 12% in introduced cultivars. Glu-B3 locus represented 8.6% of the variance in wheat SDS sedimentation volume, and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g, and Glu-B3h significantly heightened the SDS sedimentation volume, but Glu-B3a, Glu-B3c, and Glu-B3j significantly lowered the SDS sedimentation volume. For the bread-making quality, the most desirable alleles Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g become more and more popular and the least desirable alleles Glu-B3a and Glu-B3c got less and less in modern improved cultivars, suggesting that wheat grain quality in China has been significantly improved through breeding effort.

  13. The TGFBR1*6A allele is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, Adela; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Carrato, Alfredo; Soto, José-Luís; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Montenegro, Paola; Ochoa, Enrique; Lázaro, Rafael; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Guarinos, Carla; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β receptor type I is a mediator of growth inhibitory signals. TGFBR1*6A (rs11466445) is a common polymorphic variant of the TGF-β receptor I gene and has been associated with tumour susceptibility. Nevertheless, the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TGFBR1*6A and colorectal cancer, age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage in a Spanish population. The case-control study involved 800 Spanish subjects: 400 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 400 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the TGFBR1*6A polymorphism were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. Analysis of somatic mutations at the GCG repeat of TGFBR1 exon 1 and germline allele-specific expression were also conducted to obtain further information on the contribution of the TGFBR1*6A allele to CRC susceptibility. There was no statistically significant association between the TGFBR1*6A allele and CRC (p > 0.05). The OR was 1.147 (95% CI: 0.799–1.647) for carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele and 0.878 (95% CI: 0.306–2.520) for homozygous TGFBR1*6A individuals compared with the reference. The frequency of the polymorphism was not affected by age, sex or tumour stage. The TGFBR1*6A allele was more prevalent among colon tumour patients than among rectal tumour patients. Tumour somatic mutations were found in only two of 69 cases (2.9%). Both cases involved a GCG deletion that changed genotype 9A/9A in normal DNA to genotype 9A/8A. Interestingly, these two tumours were positive for microsatellite instability, suggesting that these mutations originated because of a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. Allele-specific expression of the 9A allele was detected in seven of the 14 heterozygous 9A/6A tumour cases. This could have been caused by linkage disequilibrium of the TGFBR1*6A allele with

  14. Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-10-01

    Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic-paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including 'prosociality', 'communication', 'details/patterns' and 'imagination' in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower 'prosociality', which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower 'prosociality' also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. VEGF Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Risk of Tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Chao-Liang; Li, Xiao-Xia; Li, Qing-Chen; Ma, Li-Ming; Liu, Gao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate associations of 3 common polymorphisms in the VEGF gene, −2578C>A, −634C>G, and 936C>T, with risk of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in Chinese Han children. Material/Methods From January 2010 to June 2013, a total of 400 pediatric subjects were recruited, including 160 cases with TOF (TOF group) and 240 healthy controls (control group). The genotypes of 3 common VEGF polymorphisms, −2578C>A, −634C>G, and 936C>T, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. All data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 software. Results No significant differences were observed in body mass index or sex between TOF patients and controls (both P>0.05), but significant differences in age and family history of TOF were observed between the 2 groups (both PA of VEGF was correlated with a significantly increased risk of TOF, and TOF risk in A allele carrier was 1.54-fold higher than that of C allele carrier (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.14–2.09, P=0.005); the statistical significance was still present after Bonferroni correction (Pc=0.045). GG genotype in −634C>G of VEGF gene was also associated with an increased risk of TOF, and TOF risk in patients with G allele was 1.62-fold higher compared to patients with C allele (OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.19–2.21, P=0.002); the statistical significance was still present after Bonferroni correction (Pc=0.018). Interestingly, T allele in VEGF 936C>T polymorphism is associated with a decreased TOF risk (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.49–0.87, P=0.003, the statistical significance was still present after Bonferroni correction (Pc=0.027). The result of logistic regression analysis revealed that −2578C>A, −634C>G, and 936C>T genotypes are independently related to the prevalence of TOF (all PA and −634C>G, may be associated with an increased TOF risk, while 936C>T polymorphism may be associated with decreased TOF risk. PMID:26558525

  16. DLA class II alleles are associated with risk for canine symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy [corrected](SLO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wilbe

    Full Text Available Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33 was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%. The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis.

  17. Consistent association of type 2 diabetes risk variants found in europeans in diverse racial and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Waters

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently hypothesized that many of the signals detected in genome-wide association studies (GWAS to T2D and other diseases, despite being observed to common variants, might in fact result from causal mutations that are rare. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the allelic associations should be population-specific, as the causal mutations arose after the migrations that established different populations around the world. We selected 19 common variants found to be reproducibly associated to T2D risk in European populations and studied them in a large multiethnic case-control study (6,142 cases and 7,403 controls among men and women from 5 racial/ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. In analysis pooled across ethnic groups, the allelic associations were in the same direction as the original report for all 19 variants, and 14 of the 19 were significantly associated with risk. In summing the number of risk alleles for each individual, the per-allele associations were highly statistically significant (P<10(-4 and similar in all populations (odds ratios 1.09-1.12 except in Japanese Americans the estimated effect per allele was larger than in the other populations (1.20; P(het = 3.8×10(-4. We did not observe ethnic differences in the distribution of risk that would explain the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these groups as compared to European Americans. The consistency of allelic associations in diverse racial/ethnic groups is not predicted under the hypothesis of Goldstein regarding "synthetic associations" of rare mutations in T2D.

  18. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth G; Sanderson, Brian J; McNeil, Casey L; Long, Anthony D; Macdonald, Stuart J

    2014-05-01

    Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia associated with human papillomavirus 13 and common human leukocyte antigen alleles in a Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoğlu, Gülşen; Metin, Ahmet; Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Emre, Selma; Akpolat, Demet; Süngü, Nuran

    2015-02-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare and benign papillomatous disease of the oral cavity, which is closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and 32. Genetic susceptibility to HPV infections are supported by recent studies involving the human leukocyte antigen system (HLA). In this report, we aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of a Turkish family with FEH and to detect the shared HLA DR and DQ types. HPV DNA typing of tissue samples and HLA determination from blood samples of four family members were performed by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination of all patients revealed acanthotic papillomatous epidermis, koilocytes, apoptotic keratinocytes, and mitosoid bodies. HPV13 was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HLA DQA1*0501, HLA DQB1*0302, and HLA DRB1*11 alleles were common in all family members. HLA DRB1*04 was detected in three of them. This report is the first step for the investigation of involvement of HLA types in the pathogenesis of Turkish patients with FEH. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional...

  1. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles are associated with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans O.

    2002-01-01

    /GCA, MBL variant alleles were associated with signs of increased inflammatory activity and clinical signs of arteritic manifestations. This was not found for HLA-DR4 alleles. These findings indicate that HLA-DR4 and MBL are contributing to the pathophysiology of GCA at different levels in the disease...... alleles in controls, patients with PMR only, and patients with GCA was 37, 32, and 53% (p = 0.01), respectively. HLA-DRB1*04 was found in 47% of patients with PMR only and in 54% of patients with GCA, which differed significantly from the 35% found in controls (p = 0.01). HLA-DR4 alleles were...... not associated with any clinical phenotypes of PMR/GCA, whereas MBL variant alleles were associated with cranial arteritis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and low B-hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: We found MBL variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles to be weak susceptibility markers for GCA. In patients with PMR...

  2. Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B

    2017-01-01

    and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most...... studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.......1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast...

  3. DRD2 A1 allele and P300 abnormalities in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, K. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[PATH Foundation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Wood, R.; Sheridan, L.P.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous and prevalent disorder having both inheritable and environmental components. The role of the dopamine system in P300 has been implicated. We genotyped 193 neuropsychiatrically ill patients with and without comorbid drug and alcohol/abuse/dependence and obesity for the prevalence of the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene. We found a significant linear trend ({chi}{sup 2} = 40.4, df=1, p<0.00001) where the percent prevalence of the A1 increased with increasing polysubstance abuse. Where the A1 allele was found in 44% of 40 obese subjects, the A1 allele prevalence was found in as much as 91% of 11 obese subjects with comorbid polysubstance abuse. 53 obese subjects having a mean body weight (BMI) of 34.6{+-}8.2 were mapped for brain electrical activity and compared with 15 controls with a BMI of 22.3{+-}3.0 (P<.001). The P3 amplitude was significantly different (two tailed; t=3.24, df=16.2, P = 0.005), whereas P3 latency was not significant. Preliminarily, we found a significant decreased P3 amplitude correlated with parental polysubstance abuse (p=0.4) with prolongation of P3 latency correlated with the three risk factors of parental substance abuse, chemical dependency and carbohydrate bingeing (P<0.02). Finally, in a small sample, the A1 allele was present in 25% of probands having 0 risk compared to 66% in those obese subjects with any risk. This work represents the first electrophysiological data to implicate P3 abnormalities in a subset of obesity and further confirms an association of the DRD2 gene and a electrophysiological marker previously indicated to have predictive value in vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

  4. Higher FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 allele burdens are associated with PTSD and interact with trauma exposure: implications for neuropsychiatric research and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino1,2, Porat M Erlich1,3, Stuart N Hoffman4, Xiaopeng Zhang51Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAObjective: The study aim was to assess the cumulative burden of polymorphisms located within four genetic loci previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among outpatients at risk for PTSD.Methods: Diagnostic interviews were completed and DNA samples collected among 412 pain patients to determine if FKBP5 (rs9470080, COMT (rs4680, CHRNA5 (rs16969968, and CRHR1 (rs110402 single nucleotide polymorphisms were cumulatively associated with increased risk for PTSD.Results: In bivariate analyses, it was found that a count of specific PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (allele range = 0–6, mean count = 2.92, standard deviation = 1.36 was associated with lifetime (t [409] = 3.430, P = 0.001 and early onset PTSD (t [409] = 4.239, P = 0.000028. In logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors, personality traits, and trauma exposures, this risk allele count remained associated with both lifetime (odds ratio = 1.49, P = 0.00158 and early onset PTSD (odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.000093. Interaction effects were also detected, whereby individuals with higher risk allele counts and higher trauma exposures had an increased risk of lifetime PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.026 and early onset PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.016 in these logistic regressions. Those with no or few risk alleles appeared resilient to PTSD, regardless of exposure history.Conclusion: A cumulative risk allele count involving four single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genes are associated with PTSD. Level of trauma exposure

  5. Genetic structure, diversity, and allelic richness in composite collection and reference set in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Cholenahalli LL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant genetic resources (PGR are the basic raw materials for future genetic progress and an insurance against unforeseen threats to agricultural production. An extensive characterization of PGR provides an opportunity to dissect structure, mine allelic variations, and identify diverse accessions for crop improvement. The Generation Challenge Program http://www.generationcp.org conceptualized the development of "composite collections" and extraction of "reference sets" from these for more efficient tapping of global crop-related genetic resources. In this study, we report the genetic structure, diversity and allelic richness in a composite collection of chickpea using SSR markers, and formation of a reference set of 300 accessions. Results The 48 SSR markers detected 1683 alleles in 2915 accessions, of which, 935 were considered rare, 720 common and 28 most frequent. The alleles per locus ranged from 14 to 67, averaged 35, and the polymorphic information content was from 0.467 to 0.974, averaged 0.854. Marker polymorphism varied between groups of accessions in the composite collection and reference set. A number of group-specific alleles were detected: 104 in Kabuli, 297 in desi, and 69 in wild Cicer; 114 each in Mediterranean and West Asia (WA, 117 in South and South East Asia (SSEA, and 10 in African region accessions. Desi and kabuli shared 436 alleles, while wild Cicer shared 17 and 16 alleles with desi and kabuli, respectively. The accessions from SSEA and WA shared 74 alleles, while those from Mediterranean 38 and 33 alleles with WA and SSEA, respectively. Desi chickpea contained a higher proportion of rare alleles (53% than kabuli (46%, while wild Cicer accessions were devoid of rare alleles. A genotype-based reference set captured 1315 (78% of the 1683 composite collection alleles of which 463 were rare, 826 common, and 26 the most frequent alleles. The neighbour-joining tree diagram of this reference set represents

  6. Cross-Cutting Risk Framework: Mining Data for Common Risks Across the Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gerald A., Jr.; Ruark, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk management as an integrated framework, combining risk-informed decision making and continuous risk management to foster forward-thinking and decision making from an integrated risk perspective. Therefore, decision makers must have access to risks outside of their own project to gain the knowledge that provides the integrated risk perspective. Through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) Business Change Initiative (BCI), risks were integrated into one repository to facilitate access to risk data between projects. With the centralized repository, communications between the FPD, project managers, and risk managers improved and GSFC created the cross-cutting risk framework (CCRF) team. The creation of the consolidated risk repository, in parallel with the initiation of monthly FPD risk managers and risk governance board meetings, are now providing a complete risk management picture spanning the entire directorate. This paper will describe the challenges, methodologies, tools, and techniques used to develop the CCRF, and the lessons learned as the team collectively worked to identify risks that FPD programs projects had in common, both past and present.

  7. Common variants of inflammatory cytokine genes are associated with risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Khullar, Madhu; Ahuja, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokine genes have been proposed as good candidate genes for conferring susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of multiple alleles of pro inflammatory cytokine genes for determining the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic...

  8. Carriers of the Complex Allele HFE c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] Have Increased Risk of Iron Overload in São Miguel Island Population (Azores, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Claudia C; Gomes, Cidália T; De Fez, Laura; Bulhões, Sara; Brilhante, Maria José; Pereirinha, Tânia; Cabral, Rita; Rego, Ana Catarina; Fraga, Cristina; Miguel, António G; Brasil, Gracinda; Macedo, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with acquired and genetic conditions, the most common being hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type-I, caused by HFE mutations. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 41 patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), six belonging to a family with HH type-I pseudodominant inheritance, and 35 unrelated individuals fulfilling the biochemical criteria of iron overload compatible with HH type-I. For this purpose, we analyzed the most common HFE mutations- c.845G>A [p.Cys282Tyr], c.187C>G [p.His63Asp], and c.193A>T [p.Ser65Cys]. Results revealed that the family's HH pseudodominant pattern is due to consanguineous marriage of HFE-c.845G>A carriers, and to marriage with a genetically unrelated spouse that is a -c.187G carrier. Regarding unrelated patients, six were homozygous for c.845A, and three were c.845A/c.187G compound heterozygous. We then performed sequencing of HFE exons 2, 4, 5 and their intron-flanking regions. No other mutations were observed, but we identified the -c.340+4C [IVS2+4C] splice variant in 26 (74.3%) patients. Functionally, the c.340+4C may generate alternative splicing by HFE exon 2 skipping and consequently, a protein missing the α1-domain essential for HFE/ transferrin receptor-1 interactions. Finally, we investigated HFE mutations configuration with iron overload by determining haplotypes and genotypic profiles. Results evidenced that carriers of HFE-c.187G allele also carry -c.340+4C, suggesting in-cis configuration. This data is corroborated by the association analysis where carriers of the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] have an increased iron overload risk (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-2.94, poverload because they will produce two altered proteins--the p.63Asp [c.187G], and the protein lacking 88 amino acids encoded by exon 2. In summary, we provide evidence that the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] has a role, as genetic predisposition factor, on iron overload in the S

  9. Intrinsic MYH7 expression regulation contributes to tissue level allelic imbalance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Judith; Syring, Mandy; Rose, Julia; Weber, Anna-Lena; Ernstberger, Pia; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Becker, Edgar; Keyser, Britta; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Perrot, Andreas; van der Velden, Jolanda; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francesco; Ho, Carolyn Yung; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2017-08-01

    HCM, the most common inherited cardiac disease, is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes. More than a third of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding for the β-myosin heavy chain. In HCM-patients, expression of the mutant and the wildtype allele can be unequal, thus leading to fractions of mutant and wildtype mRNA and protein which deviate from 1:1. This so-called allelic imbalance was detected in whole tissue samples but also in individual cells. There is evidence that the severity of HCM not only depends on the functional effect of the mutation itself, but also on the fraction of mutant protein in the myocardial tissue. Allelic imbalance has been shown to occur in a broad range of genes. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the MYH7-alleles are intrinsically expressed imbalanced or whether the allelic imbalance is solely associated with the disease. We compared the expression of MYH7-alleles in non-HCM donors and in HCM-patients with different MYH7-missense mutations. In the HCM-patients, we identified imbalanced as well as equal expression of both alleles. Also at the protein level, allelic imbalance was determined. Most interestingly, we also discovered allelic imbalance and balance in non-HCM donors. Our findings therefore strongly indicate that apart from mutation-specific mechanisms, also non-HCM associated allelic-mRNA expression regulation may account for the allelic imbalance of the MYH7 gene in HCM-patients. Since the relative amount of mutant mRNA and protein or the extent of allelic imbalance has been associated with the severity of HCM, individual analysis of the MYH7-allelic expression may provide valuable information for the prognosis of each patient.

  10. A rare FANCA gene variation as a breast cancer susceptibility allele in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Sakineh; Rasouli, Mina

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) is also a potential breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. A novel allele with tandem duplication of 13 base pair sequence in promoter region was identified. To investigate whether the 13 base pair sequence of tandem duplication in promoter region of the FANCA gene is of high penetrance in patients with breast cancer and to determine if the presence of the duplicated allele was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer, the present study screened DNA in blood samples from 304 breast cancer patients and 295 normal individuals as controls. The duplication allele had a frequency of 35.4 and 21.2% in patients with breast cancer and normal controls, respectively. There was a significant increase in the frequency of the duplication allele in patients with familial breast cancer compared with controls (45.1%, P=0.001). Furthermore, the estimated risk of breast cancer in individuals with a homozygote [odds ratio (OR), 4.093; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.957‑8.561] or heterozygote duplicated genotype (OR, 3.315; 95% CI, 1.996‑5.506) was higher compared with the corresponding normal homozygote genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the higher the frequency of the duplicated allele, the higher the risk of breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report FANCA gene duplication in patients with breast cancer.

  11. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  12. Variation in the γ-glutamyltransferase 1 gene and risk of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Harrison; Diergaarde, Brenda; O'Connell, Michael R; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk for pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1) gene, which was recently reported associated with pancreatic cancer risk in a genome-wide association study, is also associated with risk of chronic pancreatitis. Associations between common polymorphisms in GGT1 and chronic pancreatitis were evaluated using data and samples from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2. Patients (n = 496) and control subjects (n = 465) were genotyped for 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms: rs4820599, rs2017869, rs8135987, and rs5751901. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for chronic pancreatitis risk were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Interactions with cigarette smoking and alcohol use were explored. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs8135987 and rs4820599 were both statistically significantly associated with risk of chronic pancreatitis; compared with common allele homozygotes, individuals with at least 1 minor allele were at increased risk (rs8135987: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.80 [P(trend) = 0.01]; rs4820599: OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.84 [P(trend) = 0.0]; adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, and alcohol use). No significant interactions with cigarette smoking and alcohol use were observed. Our results suggest that common variation in the GGT1 gene may also affect risk of chronic pancreatitis.

  13. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  14. Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, David C.; LaRusch, Jessica; Krasinskas, Alyssa M.; Klei, Lambertus; Smith, Jill P.; Brand, Randall E.; Neoptolemos, John P.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tector, Matt; Sandhu, Bimaljit S.; Guda, Nalini M.; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Alkaade, Samer; Amann, Stephen T.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Baillie, John; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Coté, Gregory A.; Cotton, Peter B.; DiSario, James; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Forsmark, Chris E.; Johnstone, Marianne; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Greenhalf, William; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Hawes, Robert A.; Lawrence, Christopher; Lewis, Michele; Mayerle, Julia; Mayeux, Richard; Melhem, Nadine M.; Money, Mary E.; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sherman, Stuart; Simon, Peter; Singh, Vijay K.; Slivka, Adam; Stolz, Donna; Sutton, Robert; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Wilcox, C. Mel; Zarnescu, Narcis Octavian; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Roeder, Kathryn; Barmada, M. Michael; Yadav, Dhiraj; Devlin, Bernie; Albert, Marilyn S.; Albin, Roger L.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Arnold, Steven E.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Barber, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L.; Beach, Thomas G.; Beecham, Gary W.; Beekly, Duane; Bennett, David A.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bird, Thomas D.; Blacker, Deborah; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Cao, Chuanhai; Carney, Regina M.; Carroll, Steven L.; Chui, Helena C.; Clark, David G.; Cribbs, David H.; Crocco, Elizabeth A.; Cruchaga, Carlos; DeCarli, Charles; Demirci, F. Yesim; Dick, Malcolm; Dickson, Dennis W.; Duara, Ranjan; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Faber, Kelley M.; Fallon, Kenneth B.; Farlow, Martin R.; Ferris, Steven; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Ganguli, Mary; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gilbert, John R.; Gilman, Sid; Glass, Jonathan D.; Goate, Alison M.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Growdon, John H.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Harrell, Lindy E.; Head, Elizabeth; Honig, Lawrence S.; Hulette, Christine M.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jin, Lee-Way; Jun, Gyungah; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Ronald; Koo, Edward H.; Kowall, Neil W.; Kramer, Joel H.; Kramer, Patricia; Kukull, Walter A.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Lah, James J.; Leverenz, James B.; Levey, Allan I.; Li, Ge; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Mack, Wendy J.; Marson, Daniel C.; Martin, Eden R.; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann C.; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L.; Miller, Carol A.; Miller, Joshua W.; Montine, Thomas J.; Morris, John C.; Murrell, Jill R.; Naj, Adam C.; Olichney, John M.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Peskind, Elaine; Petersen, Ronald C.; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W.; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F.; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reiman, Eric M.; Reisberg, Barry; Reitz, Christiane; Ringman, John M.; Roberson, Erik D.; Rosen, Howard J.; Rosenberg, Roger N.; Sano, Mary; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schneider, Julie A.; Schneider, Lon S.; Seeley, William W.; Smith, Amanda G.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Valladares, Otto; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vinters, Harry V.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Wang, Li-San; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Jennifer; Woltjer, Randall L.; Wright, Clinton B.; Younkin, Steven G.; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR, and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two significant genome-wide associations identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (1×10-12) and x-linked CLDN2 (p < 1×10-21) through a two-stage genome-wide study (Stage 1, 676 cases and 4507 controls; Stage 2, 910 cases and 4170 controls). The PRSS1 variant affects susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous male) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men – male hemizygous frequency is 0.26, female homozygote is 0.07. PMID:23143602

  15. Quantitative Relationship Between Cumulative Risk Alleles Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kodama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have assessed the genetic risk of having undiagnosed or of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM using several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs based on findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS. However, the quantitative association of cumulative risk alleles (RAs of such SNPs with T2DM risk has been unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to review the strength of the association between cumulative RAs and T2DM risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted for cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that examined odds ratios (ORs for T2DM in relation to genetic profiles. Logarithm of the estimated OR (log OR of T2DM for 1 increment in RAs carried (1-ΔRA in each study was pooled using a random-effects model. There were 46 eligible studies that included 74,880 cases among 249,365 participants. In 32 studies with a cross-sectional design, the pooled OR for T2DM morbidity for 1-ΔRA was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.19. In 15 studies that had a longitudinal design, the OR for incident T2DM was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.08–1.13. There was large heterogeneity in the magnitude of log OR (P < 0.001 for both cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies. The top 10 commonly used genes significantly explained the variance in the log OR (P = 0.04 for cross-sectional studies; P = 0.006 for longitudinal studies. The current meta-analysis indicated that carrying 1-ΔRA in T2DM-associated SNPs was associated with a modest risk of prevalent or incident T2DM, although the heterogeneity in the used genes among studies requires us to interpret the results with caution.

  16. Common Risk Criteria Standards for National Test Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    supplemental) document to RCC Document 321. a. Modified aircraft vulnerability criteria for business class jets. b. Modified the aircraft vulnerability... successful , the logical relationships among criteria used at the test ranges and across different hazards are often difficult to comprehend. The...provides a common set of range safety policies, risk criteria, and guidelines for managing risk to people and assets during manned and unmanned

  17. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumor subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J; Barrowdale, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 carriers, SNP rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele HR for ER-positive=1.35, 95%CI:1.17-1.56 vs HR=0.91, 95%CI:0.85-0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity=6.5e-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER...... subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers....

  18. Deceased-Donor Apolipoprotein L1 Renal-Risk Variants Have Minimal Effects on Liver Transplant Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R Dorr

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1 G1 and G2 renal-risk variants, common in populations with recent African ancestry, are strongly associated with non-diabetic nephropathy, end-stage kidney disease, and shorter allograft survival in deceased-donor kidneys (autosomal recessive inheritance. Circulating APOL1 protein is synthesized primarily in the liver and hydrodynamic gene delivery of APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants has caused hepatic necrosis in a murine model.To evaluate the impact of these variants in liver transplantation, this multicenter study investigated the association of APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles in deceased African American liver donors with allograft survival. Transplant recipients were followed for liver allograft survival using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients.Of the 639 liver donors evaluated, 247 had no APOL1 risk allele, 300 had 1 risk allele, and 92 had 2 risk alleles. Graft failure assessed at 15 days, 6 months, 1 year and total was not significantly associated with donor APOL1 genotype (p-values = 0.25, 0.19, 0.67 and 0.89, respectively.In contrast to kidney transplantation, deceased-donor APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants do not significantly impact outcomes in liver transplantation.

  19. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  20. The type 2 diabetes risk allele of TMEM154-rs6813195 associates with decreased beta cell function in a study of 6,486 Danes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Neergaard Harder

    Full Text Available A trans-ethnic meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies has identified seven novel susceptibility variants in or near TMEM154, SSR1/RREB1, FAF1, POU5F1/TCF19, LPP, ARL15 and ABCB9/MPHOSPH9. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between these novel risk variants and type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits in a Danish population-based study with measurements of plasma glucose and serum insulin after an oral glucose tolerance test in order to elaborate on the physiological impact of the variants.Case-control analyses were performed in up to 5,777 patients with type 2 diabetes and 7,956 individuals with normal fasting glucose levels. Quantitative trait analyses were performed in up to 5,744 Inter99 participants naïve to glucose-lowering medication. Significant associations between TMEM154-rs6813195 and the beta cell measures insulinogenic index and disposition index and between FAF1-rs17106184 and 2-hour serum insulin levels were selected for further investigation in additional Danish studies and results were combined in meta-analyses including up to 6,486 Danes.We confirmed associations with type 2 diabetes for five of the seven SNPs (TMEM154-rs6813195, FAF1-rs17106184, POU5F1/TCF19-rs3130501, ARL15-rs702634 and ABCB9/MPHOSPH9-rs4275659. The type 2 diabetes risk C-allele of TMEM154-rs6813195 associated with decreased disposition index (n=5,181, β=-0.042, p=0.012 and insulinogenic index (n=5,181, β=-0.032, p=0.043 in Inter99 and these associations remained significant in meta-analyses including four additional Danish studies (disposition index n=6,486, β=-0.042, p=0.0044; and insulinogenic index n=6,486, β=-0.037, p=0.0094. The type 2 diabetes risk G-allele of FAF1-rs17106184 associated with increased levels of 2-hour serum insulin (n=5,547, β=0.055, p=0.017 in Inter99 and also when combining effects with three additional Danish studies (n=6,260, β=0.062, p=0.0040.Studies of type 2 diabetes intermediary

  1. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Odds versus risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Pramesh, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    In biomedical research, we are often interested in quantifying the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. “Odds” and “Risk” are the most common terms which are used as measures of association between variables. In this article, which is the fourth in the series of common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we explain the meaning of risk and odds and the difference between the two. PMID:26623395

  2. Advantage of using allele-specific copy numbers when testing for association in regions with common copy number variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marenne

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNV can be called from SNP-arrays; however, few studies have attempted to combine both CNV and SNP calls to test for association with complex diseases. Even when SNPs are located within CNVs, two separate association analyses are necessary, to compare the distribution of bi-allelic genotypes in cases and controls (referred to as SNP-only strategy and the number of copies of a region (referred to as CNV-only strategy. However, when disease susceptibility is actually associated with allele specific copy-number states, the two strategies may not yield comparable results, raising a series of questions about the optimal analytical approach. We performed simulations of the performance of association testing under different scenarios that varied genotype frequencies and inheritance models. We show that the SNP-only strategy lacks power under most scenarios when the SNP is located within a CNV; frequently it is excluded from analysis as it does not pass quality control metrics either because of an increased rate of missing calls or a departure from fitness for Hardy-Weinberg proportion. The CNV-only strategy also lacks power because the association testing depends on the allele which copy number varies. The combined strategy performs well in most of the scenarios. Hence, we advocate the use of this combined strategy when testing for association with SNPs located within CNVs.

  3. A putative Alzheimer's disease risk allele in PCK1 influences brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqi Xia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction are neurodegenerative features of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. We used a candidate gene approach to address whether genetic variants implicated in susceptibility to late onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD influence brain volume and cognition in MS patients.MS subjects were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps associated with susceptibility to AD: PICALM, CR1, CLU, PCK1, and ZNF224. We assessed brain volume using Brain Parenchymal Fraction (BPF measurements obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data and cognitive function using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. Genotypes were correlated with cross-sectional BPF and SDMT scores using linear regression after adjusting for sex, age at symptom onset, and disease duration. 722 MS patients with a mean (±SD age at enrollment of 41 (±10 years were followed for 44 (±28 months. The AD risk-associated allele of a non-synonymous SNP in the PCK1 locus (rs8192708G is associated with a smaller average brain volume (P=0.0047 at the baseline MRI, but it does not impact our baseline estimate of cognition. PCK1 is additionally associated with higher baseline T2-hyperintense lesion volume (P=0.0088. Finally, we provide technical validation of our observation in a subset of 641 subjects that have more than one MRI study, demonstrating the same association between PCK1 and smaller average brain volume (P=0.0089 at the last MRI visit.Our study provides suggestive evidence for greater brain atrophy in MS patients bearing the PCK1 allele associated with AD-susceptibility, yielding new insights into potentially shared neurodegenerative process between MS and late onset AD.

  4. Characterizing genetic risk at known prostate cancer susceptibility loci in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Haiman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls, we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05 with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4 that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17 over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08. In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.

  5. Sortilin-Related Receptor Expression in Human Neural Stem Cells Derived from Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Carrying the APOE Epsilon 4 Allele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Zollo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; important risk factors are old age and inheritance of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4 allele. Changes in amyloid precursor protein (APP binding, trafficking, and sorting may be important AD causative factors. Secretase-mediated APP cleavage produces neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ peptides, which form lethal deposits in the brain. In vivo and in vitro studies have implicated sortilin-related receptor (SORL1 as an important factor in APP trafficking and processing. Recent in vitro evidence has associated the APOE4 allele and alterations in the SORL1 pathway with AD development and progression. Here, we analyzed SORL1 expression in neural stem cells (NSCs from AD patients carrying null, one, or two copies of the APOE4 allele. We show reduced SORL1 expression only in NSCs of a patient carrying two copies of APOE4 allele with increased Aβ/SORL1 localization along the degenerated neurites. Interestingly, SORL1 binding to APP was largely compromised; this could be almost completely reversed by γ-secretase (but not β-secretase inhibitor treatment. These findings may yield new insights into the complex interplay of SORL1 and AD pathology and point to NSCs as a valuable tool to address unsolved AD-related questions in vitro.

  6. Senior medical students' awareness of radiation risks from common diagnostic imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Elena; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kozoriz, Michael; Chang, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks. An anonymous multiple-choice cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students to assess knowledge of radiation from common diagnostic examinations and radiation-related risks following completion of the longitudinal radiology curriculum, carried out over the four years of medical training. Sixty-three of 192 eligible students participated (33% response rate). The majority felt that knowledge of radiation doses of common imaging examinations is somewhat or very important; however, only 12% (N = 8) routinely discuss radiation-related risks with patients. While all respondents recognized children as most sensitive to the effects of radiation, only 24% (N = 15) correctly identified gonads as the most radiation-sensitive tissue. Almost all respondents recognized ultrasound and MRI as radiation free modalities. Respondents who correctly identified the relative dose of common imaging examinations in chest x-ray equivalents varied from 3-77% (N = 2 - 49); the remaining responses were largely underestimates. Finally, 44% (N = 28) correctly identified the excess risk of a fatal cancer from an abdominal CT in an adult, while the remainder underestimated this risk. Medical students acknowledge the importance of radiation-related issues to patient care. While almost all students are familiar with radiation-free modalities, many are not familiar with, and commonly underestimate, the relative doses and risks of common imaging studies. This may expose patients to increasing imaging investigations and exposure to radiation hazards.

  7. Sovereign Credit Risk in Latin America and Global Common Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Agosin Trumper; Juan Díaz Maureira

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of global common factors in the evolution of sovereign credit risk in a group of emerging economies (15 countries in Latin America for which daily data are available on sovereign credit spreads and CDS quotations from the beginning of 2007 until February 2012). We arrive at three principal results. First, there is robust evidence for the existence of a common factor in the evolution of the two measurements of sovereign credit risk that we use. Second, the com...

  8. Distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageen Hussain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is one of the classic examples of autoimmune diseases among human beings and is a rare disease in Pakistani population. Clinically it is a quite diverse and complicated autoimmune disease in a sense that it involves multiple organs of the body and mimics with other diseases as well. This study focused on the distribution of HLA alleles in SLE patients with ACE I/D Polymorphism. A total of 122 individuals were enrolled in this study, 61 were the SLE patients who fulfilled revised ACR criteria and 61 were the healthy controls. Mean age of SLE patients at diagnosis was 30.35 ± 1.687 years (12-68 years. ACE gene I/D polymorphism was performed by nested PCR and DNA based HLA typing technique was used. ACE gene I/D polymorphism of Intron16 was studied and found to be involved in the activity of SLE. There is high frequency of HLA-A*01, HLA-B*40, HLA-DRB1*01 alleles in SLE patients with ACE DD genotype. The distribution of HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles was analyzed in SLE patients with various disease phenotypes. HLA-A*01 and HLA-B*40 was the most common allele found in SLE patients with the involvement of skin. HLA-A*01, -A*03, HLA-B*13 and -B*46 were common in SLE patients with arthritis while HLA-A*26 and -A*69 were commonly found in Lupus nephritis cases. SLE patients involving both skin and kidney had an allele HLA-DRB1*01 common in them.

  9. Relative frequencies of DRB1*11 alleles and their DRB3 associations in five major population groups in a United States bone marrow registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T F; Huang, A Y; Pappas, A; Slack, R; Ng, J; Hartzman, R J; Hurley, C K

    2000-08-01

    One hundred sixty-one individuals from each of five US population groups, Caucasians (CAU), African Americans (AFA), Asians/Pacific Islanders (API), Hispanics (HIS), and Native Americans (NAT), were randomly selected from a volunteer bone marrow registry database consisting of 14,452 HLA-DRB1*11 positive individuals. This sampling provided at least an 80% probability of detecting a rare allele that occurred at 1% in the DRB1*11 positive population. Samples were typed for DRB1*11 alleles by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe typing (PCR-SSOP). A total of 10 DRB1*11 alleles out of 27 possible alleles were detected. The distribution and diversity of DRB1*11 alleles varied among populations although DRB1*1101 was the predominant DRB1*11 allele in all populations. Caucasians were the least diversified; only four common alleles (DRB1*1101-*1104) were observed. As well as the four common alleles, other groups also carried one or two other less frequent alleles including DRB1*1105 (API), *1106 (API), *1110 (AFA), *1114 (HIS), *1115 (NAT), and *1117 (AFA). A subset (418) of these individuals were also typed for DRB3 alleles. Most (97.6%) showed a strong association of DRB1*11 with DRB3*0202.

  10. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulovari, Arvis; Li, Dawei

    2014-07-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of genotypes from SNP-arrays or deep

  11. Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pangilinan, Faith

    2012-08-02

    AbstractBackgroundNeural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe) that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T) and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q)) have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate\\/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk.MethodsA tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate\\/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents), including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects.ResultsNearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p < 0.01 level. The ten strongest association signals (p-value range: 0.0003–0.0023) were found in nine genes (MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury)) and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225). The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele). Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the

  12. Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangilinan Faith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural tube defects (NTDs are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk. Methods A tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents, including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects. Results Nearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225. The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele. Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Conclusions To our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the stringency of correction are likely to have contributed to real associations failing to survive

  13. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus, implications for psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide-range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to TNF-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to up-regulation by key pro-inflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele. PMID:22113476

  14. Allele-specific cytokine responses at the HLA-C locus: implications for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Mak, Rose K; Botti, Elisabetta; Di Meglio, Paola; Clop, Alex; Laggner, Ute; Chimenti, Sergio; Hayday, Adrian C; Barker, Jonathan N; Trembath, Richard C; Capon, Francesca; Nestle, Frank O

    2012-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that is inherited as a complex trait. Genetic studies have repeatedly highlighted HLA-C as the major determinant for psoriasis susceptibility, with the Cw*0602 allele conferring significant disease risk in a wide range of populations. Despite the potential importance of HLA-C variation in psoriasis, either via an effect on peptide presentation or immuno-inhibitory activity, allele-specific expression patterns have not been investigated. Here, we used reporter assays to characterize two regulatory variants, which virtually abolished the response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (rs2524094) and IFN-γ (rs10657191) in HLA-Cw*0602 and a cluster of related alleles. We validated these findings through the analysis of HLA-Cw*0602 expression in primary keratinocytes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that HLA-Cw*0602 transcripts are not increased in psoriatic skin lesions, despite highly elevated TNF-α levels. Thus, our findings demonstrate the presence of allele-specific differences in HLA-C expression and indicate that HLA-Cw*0602 is unresponsive to upregulation by key proinflammatory cytokines in psoriasis. These data pave the way for functional studies into the pathogenic role of the major psoriasis susceptibility allele.

  15. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  16. Abnormal segregation of alleles in CEPH pedigree DNAs arising from allele loss in lymphoblastoid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1993-01-01

    Somatic events that result in the reduction to hemi- or homozygosity at all loci affected by the event have been identified in lymphoblastoid DNA from mothers of two CEPH families. Using suitably informative probes, the allele deficiencies were detected by the abnormal transmission of alleles from grandparents to grandchildren, with the apparent absence of the alleles from the parent. Undetected somatic deficiencies in family DNAs could result in misscoring of recombination events and consequently introduce errors into linkage analysis.

  17. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Street, Roger; Chu, Cordia

    2018-03-16

    Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  18. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Nicola; Rutherford, Shannon; Mackey, Brendan; Street, Roger; Chu, Cordia

    2018-01-01

    Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies. PMID:29547592

  19. Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Banwell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  20. Genetic determinants of financial risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Camelia M; Chiao, Joan Y

    2009-01-01

    Individuals vary in their willingness to take financial risks. Here we show that variants of two genes that regulate dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission and have been previously linked to emotional behavior, anxiety and addiction (5-HTTLPR and DRD4) are significant determinants of risk taking in investment decisions. We find that the 5-HTTLPR s/s allele carriers take 28% less risk than those carrying the s/l or l/l alleles of the gene. DRD4 7-repeat allele carriers take 25% more risk than individuals without the 7-repeat allele. These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the genetic determinants of economic behavior.

  1. The Human Phenotype Ontology: Semantic Unification of Common and Rare Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor; Köhler, Sebastian; Moldenhauer, Dawid; Vasilevsky, Nicole; Baynam, Gareth; Zemojtel, Tomasz; Schriml, Lynn Marie; Kibbe, Warren Alden; Schofield, Paul N.; Beck, Tim; Vasant, Drashtti; Brookes, Anthony J.; Zankl, Andreas; Washington, Nicole L.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Parkinson, Helen; Robinson, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is widely used in the rare disease community for differential diagnostics, phenotype-driven analysis of next-generation sequence-variation data, and translational research, but a comparable resource has not been available for common disease. Here, we have developed a concept-recognition procedure that analyzes the frequencies of HPO disease annotations as identified in over five million PubMed abstracts by employing an iterative procedure to optimize precision and recall of the identified terms. We derived disease models for 3,145 common human diseases comprising a total of 132,006 HPO annotations. The HPO now comprises over 250,000 phenotypic annotations for over 10,000 rare and common diseases and can be used for examining the phenotypic overlap among common diseases that share risk alleles, as well as between Mendelian diseases and common diseases linked by genomic location. The annotations, as well as the HPO itself, are freely available. PMID:26119816

  2. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635

  3. Identification of SSR and RAPD markers linked to a resistance allele for angular leaf spot in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris line ESAL 550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Ferreira da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify RAPD and SSR markers associated with a resistant allele for angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola from the line 'ESAL 550', derived from the Andean 'Jalo EEP 558' cultivar, to assist selection of resistant genotypes. The resistant line 'ESAL 550' and the susceptible cultivar 'Carioca MG' were crossed to generate F1 and F2 populations. One hundred and twenty F2:3 families were evaluated. The DNA of the 12 most resistant families was bulked and the same was done with the DNA of the 10 most susceptible, generating two contrasting bulks. One RAPD and one SSR marker was found to be linked in coupling phase to the resistant allele. The SSR marker was amplified by the primer PV-atct001(282C, and its distance from the resistant allele was 7.6 cM. This is the most useful marker for indirect selection of resistant plants in segregating populations. The RAPD marker was amplified by the primer OPP07(857C linked in coupling phase to the resistant allele, and distant 24.4 cM. Therefore, this RAPD marker is not so useful in assisting selection because it is too far from the resistant allele.

  4. Worldwide distribution of the MYH9 kidney disease susceptibility alleles and haplotypes: evidence of historical selection in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available MYH9 was recently identified as renal susceptibility gene (OR 3-8, p or = 60% than in European Americans (< 4%, revealing a genetic basis for a major health disparity. The population distributions of MYH9 risk alleles and the E-1 risk haplotype and the demographic and selective forces acting on the MYH9 region are not well explored. We reconstructed MYH9 haplotypes from 4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning introns 12-23 using available data from HapMap Phase II, and by genotyping 938 DNAs from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP. The E-1 risk haplotype followed a cline, being most frequent within sub-Saharan African populations (range 50-80%, less frequent in populations from the Middle East (9-27% and Europe (0-9%, and rare or absent in Asia, the Americas, and Oceania. The fixation indexes (F(ST for pairwise comparisons between the risk haplotypes for continental populations were calculated for MYH9 haplotypes; F(ST ranged from 0.27-0.40 for Africa compared to other continental populations, possibly due to selection. Uniquely in Africa, the Yoruba population showed high frequency extended haplotype length around the core risk allele (C compared to the alternative allele (T at the same locus (rs4821481, iHs = 2.67, as well as high population differentiation (F(ST(CEU vs. YRI = 0.51 in HapMap Phase II data, also observable only in the Yoruba population from HGDP (F(ST = 0.49, pointing to an instance of recent selection in the genomic region. The population-specific divergence in MYH9 risk allele frequencies among the world's populations may prove important in risk assessment and public health policies to mitigate the burden of kidney disease in vulnerable populations.

  5. Consequences for diversity when animals are prioritized for conservation of the whole genome or of one specific allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    When animals are selected for one specific allele, for example for inclusion in a gene bank, this may result in the loss of diversity in other parts of the genome. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of losing diversity across the genome when targeting a single allele for conservation

  6. Risk factors for common cancers among patients at Kamuzu Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for different cancers in Malawi. This study aimed to assess risk factors for and epidemiologic patterns of common cancers among patients treated at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) in Lilongwe, and to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in ...

  7. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Konrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array

  8. Intake of wine, beer, and spirits and the risk of clinical common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takkouche, Bahi; Regueira-Méndez, Carlos; García-Closas, Reina; Figueiras, Adolfo; Gestal-Otero, Juan J; Hernán, Miguel A

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether intakes of wine, beer, spirits, and total alcohol are associated with the risk of common cold, in 1998-1999 the authors analyzed data from a cohort study carried out in a population of 4,272 faculty and staff of five Spanish universities. Usual alcohol intake was assessed at baseline by means of a standardized frequency questionnaire that was validated in a random sample of the population. The authors detected 1,353 cases of common cold. Total alcohol intake and beer and spirits consumption were not related to the occurrence of common cold, whereas consumption of wine was inversely associated with the risk of common cold. When drinkers of >14 glasses of wine per week were compared with teetotalers, the relative risk was 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.8) after adjustment for age, sex, and faculty/staff status. The association was stronger for red wine. These results remained unaltered after adjustment for total alcohol intake and for other potential risk factors for common cold. Findings suggest that wine intake, especially red wine, may have a protective effect against common cold. Beer, spirits, and total alcohol intakes do not seem to affect the incidence of common cold.

  9. Population based allele frequencies of disease associated polymorphisms in the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Deanna S; Ivacic, Lynn C; Stefanski, Elisha L; McCarty, Catherine A

    2010-06-17

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the frequency of disease associated polymorphisms in populations and population attributable risk for many populations remains unknown. Factors that could affect the association of the allele with disease, either positively or negatively, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, may not be possible to determine without population based allele frequencies.Here we used a panel of 51 polymorphisms previously associated with at least one disease and determined the allele frequencies within the entire Personalized Medicine Research Project population based cohort. We compared these allele frequencies to those in dbSNP and other data sources stratified by race. Differences in allele frequencies between self reported race, region of origin, and sex were determined. There were 19544 individuals who self reported a single racial category, 19027 or (97.4%) self reported white Caucasian, and 11205 (57.3%) individuals were female. Of the 11,208 (57%) individuals with an identifiable region of origin 8337 or (74.4%) were German.41 polymorphisms were significantly different between self reported race at the 0.05 level. Stratification of our Caucasian population by self reported region of origin revealed 19 polymorphisms that were significantly different (p = 0.05) between individuals of different origins. Further stratification of the population by gender revealed few significant differences in allele frequencies between the genders. This represents one of the largest population based allele frequency studies to date. Stratification by self reported race and region of origin revealed wide differences in allele frequencies not only by race but also by region of origin within a single racial group. We report allele frequencies for our Asian/Hmong and American Indian populations; these two minority groups are not typically selected for population allele frequency detection. Population wide allele frequencies are important for the design and

  10. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per

    2015-01-01

    the possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility...... of RNA sequencing. The visualization features can reveal notable, non-trivial allelic imbalance behavior over specific regions, such as exons. Conclusions: The software provides a complete framework to perform allelic imbalance analyses of aligned RNA sequencing data, from detection to visualization...

  11. HLA-DQBl*0402 alleles polymorphisms detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hartono, Adnan, Zainal Arifin

    2017-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 gene polymorphisms may associated with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients. The HLA-DQB1*0402 in HIV-1-positive patients could be considered risk factors for developing neurological opportunistic infections, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis. However, the HLA-DQB1*0402 gene polymorphisms status in the Javanese HIV patients is unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of HLA-DQB*0402 alleles polymorphisms in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status. Since 2009 our research group performing a molecular epidemiology of blood borne viruses in Central Java Indonesia, by collecting the epidemiological and clinical data from the high risk communities. All blood samples were screened for blood borne pathogens by serological and molecular assays including for HIV and Toxoplasma gondii. The genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood samples. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique. The genotypes were defined according to generated fragment patterns in the agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. All of the samples were tested at least in duplicate. HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected in 20.8% (16/77) patients and not detected in all HIV positive samples with negative anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status (n= 200). The HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles polymorphisms were detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. The polymorphisms found may have association with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients.

  12. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common

  13. Estimated allele substitution effects underlying genomic evaluation models depend on the scaling of allele counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Aniek C.; Hayes, Ben J.; Calus, Mario P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genomic evaluation is used to predict direct genomic values (DGV) for selection candidates in breeding programs, but also to estimate allele substitution effects (ASE) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Scaling of allele counts influences the estimated ASE, because scaling of

  14. Common variants in the PARL and PINK1 genes increase the risk to leprosy in Han Chinese from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Feng, Jia-Qi; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Xiao-An; Yu, Xiu-Feng; Long, Heng; Li, Yu-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-11-23

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable pathogen with massive genomic decay and dependence on host metabolism. We hypothesized that mitochondrial genes PARL and PINK1 would confer risk to leprosy. Thirteen tag SNPs of PARL and PINK1 were analyzed in 3620 individuals with or without leprosy from China. We also sequenced the entire exons of PARL, PINK1 and PARK2 in 80 patients with a family history of leprosy by using the next generation sequencing technology (NGS). We found that PARL SNP rs12631031 conferred a risk to leprosy (P adjusted  = 0.019) and multibacillary leprosy (MB, P adjusted  = 0.020) at the allelic level. rs12631031 and rs7653061 in PARL were associated with leprosy and MB (dominant model, P adjusted  leprosy at the genotypic level (P adjusted  = 0.004). We confirmed that common variants in PARL and PINK1 were associated with leprosy in patients underwent NGS. Furthermore, PARL and PINK1 could physically interact with each other and were involved in the highly connected network formed by reported leprosy susceptibility genes. Together, our results showed that PARL and PINK1 genetic variants are associated with leprosy.

  15. Common Genetic Variants Found in HLA and KIR Immune Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The common variant - common disease hypothesis was proposed to explain diseases with strong inheritance. This model suggests that a genetic disease is the result of the combination of several common genetic variants. Common genetic variants are described as a 5% frequency differential between diseased versus matched control populations. This theory was recently supported by an epidemiology paper stating that about 50% of genetic risk for autism resides in common variants. However, rare variants, rather than common variants, have been found in numerous genome wide genetic studies and many have concluded that the common variant—common disease hypothesis is incorrect. One interpretation is that rare variants are major contributors to genetic diseases and autism involves the interaction of many rare variants, especially in the brain. It is obvious there is much yet to be learned about autism genetics.Evidence has been mounting over the years indicating immune involvement in autism, particularly the HLA genes on chromosome 6 and KIR genes on chromosome 19. These two large multigene complexes have important immune functions and have been shown to interact to eliminate unwanted virally infected and malignant cells. HLA proteins have important functions in antigen presentation in adaptive immunity and specific epitopes on HLA class I proteins act as cognate ligands for KIR receptors in innate immunity. Data suggests that HLA alleles and KIR activating genes/haplotypes are common variants in different autism populations. For example, class I allele (HLA-A2 and HLA-G 14bp-indel frequencies are significantly increased by more than 5% over control populations (Table2. The HLA-DR4 Class II and shared epitope frequencies are significantly above the control populations (Table 2. Three activating KIR genes: 3DS1, 2DS1 and 2DS2 have increased frequencies of 15%, 22% and 14% in autism populations, respectively. There is a 6% increase in total activating KIR

  16. Association of primary biliary cirrhosis with the allele HLA-DPB1*0301 in a German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, J G; Roschmann, E; Maier, K P; Volk, B A

    1995-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II alleles at the HLA-DPB1 locus were investigated in 32 German Caucasoid patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and compared with those from 47 normal control patients using molecular genotyping techniques. The second exon of the HLA-DPB1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridized with 25 sequence-specific oligonucleotides (SSOs) to assign the HLA-DPB1 alleles on the basis of known sequence variations, according to the protocols of the Eleventh International Histocompatibility Workshop. A strong association of PBC was found with the allele HLA-DPB1*0301. The allele HLA DPB1*0301 was present in 50% (16 of 32) of the patients with PBC compared with 13% (6 of 47) of normal controls (P corrected < .015), whereas the other HLA-DPB1 alleles showed no significant differences in both groups. The relative risk (RR) estimate for the allele HLA-DPB1*0301 was 6.8 (95% confidence limits: 2.27 to 20.57). In summary, this study clearly demonstrates an association of PBC with the HLA-DPB1*0301 allele in German Caucasoids and may add new data to the immunogenetic background of PBC, suggesting a contribution of the HLA-DPB1 gene to the genetic susceptibility of the disease.

  17. Targeted In Situ Gene Correction of Dysfunctional APOE Alleles to Produce Atheroprotective Plasma ApoE3 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Papaioannou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading worldwide cause of death. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE is a 34-kDa circulating glycoprotein, secreted by the liver and macrophages with pleiotropic antiatherogenic functions and hence a candidate to treat hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. Here, we describe atheroprotective properties of ApoE, though also potential proatherogenic actions, and the prevalence of dysfunctional isoforms, outline conventional gene transfer strategies, and then focus on gene correction therapeutics that can repair defective APOE alleles. In particular, we discuss the possibility and potential benefit of applying in combination two technical advances to repair aberrant APOE genes: (i an engineered endonuclease to introduce a double-strand break (DSB in exon 4, which contains the common, but dysfunctional, ε2 and ε4 alleles; (ii an efficient and selectable template for homologous recombination (HR repair, namely, an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector, which harbours wild-type APOE sequence. This technology is applicable ex vivo, for example to target haematopoietic or induced pluripotent stem cells, and also for in vivo hepatic gene targeting. It is to be hoped that such emerging technology will eventually translate to patient therapy to reduce CVD risk.

  18. The association between two common polymorphisms in MicroRNAs and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs participate in human carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the miRNAs may influence the function of mature miRNAs and then affect the processing of carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that two common SNPs rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs3746444 in miR-499 are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, published results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To acquire a more precise effect of the association between these polymorphisms and HCC risk, we performed this meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of SNPs rs2910164 and/or rs3746444 with susceptibility to HCC in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for the period up to Sep 10th, 2012. A total of 6 studies were identified with 2071 cases and 2350 controls for miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, 667 cases and 1006 controls for miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism. It was found that neither allele frequency nor genotype distribution of the two polymorphisms was associated with risk of HCC in all genetic models. Similarly, subgroup analysis in Asian population showed no associations between the two SNPs and the susceptibility to HCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This meta-analysis suggests that miR-146a rs2910164 and miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphisms may not be associated with the risk of HCC, especially for Asian population. However, well-designed studies with larger sample size and more detailed data are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  19. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Bustinza, Gisela Barbany; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J. J. P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; van Os, T. A.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly

  20. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...

  1. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M.H.; Mai, P.L.; Andrulis, I.L.; Thomassen, M.; Gerdes, A.M.; Caligo, M.A.; Friedman, E.; Laitman, Y.; Kaufman, B.; Paluch, S.S.; Borg, A.; Karlsson, P.; Askmalm, M.S.; Bustinza, G.B.; Nathanson, K.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Benitez, J.; Hamann, U.; Rookus, M.A.; Ouweland, A.M. van den; Ausems, M.G.; Aalfs, C.M.; Asperen, C.J. van; Devilee, P.; Gille, H.J.; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Evans, D.G.; Eeles, R.; Izatt, L.; Adlard, J.; Paterson, J.; Eason, J.; Godwin, A.K.; Remon, M.A.; Moncoutier, V.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Lasset, C.; Giraud, S.; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Sobol, H.; Eisinger, F.; Bressac de Paillerets, B.; Caron, O.; Delnatte, C.; Goldgar, D.; Miron, A.; Ozcelik, H.; Buys, S.; Southey, M.C.; Terry, M.B.; Singer, C.F.; Dressler, A.C.; Tea, M.K.; Hansen, T.V.; Johannsson, O.; Piedmonte, M.; Rodriguez, G.C.; Basil, J.B.; Blank, S.; Toland, A.E.; Montagna, M.; Isaacs, C.; Blanco, I.; Gayther, S.A.; Moysich, K.B.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Ditsch, N.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Sutter, C.; Gadzicki, D.; Fiebig, B.; Caldes, T.; Laframboise, R.; Nevanlinna, H.; Chen, X.; Beesley, J.; Spurdle, A.B.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Couch, F.J.; Wang, X.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Bernard, L.; Radice, P.; Easton, D.F.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly

  2. Parkinson’s disease and low frequency alleles found together throughout LRRK2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Washecka, Nicole; Nath, Priti; Singleton, Andrew B.; Corder, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations within LRRK2, most notably p.G2019S, cause Parkinson’s disease (PD) in rare monogenic families, and sporadic occurrences in diverse populations. We investigated variation throughout LRRK2 (84 SNPs; genotype or diplotype found for 49 LD blocks) for 275 cases (European ancestry, onset at age 60 or older) and 275 neurologically healthy control subjects (NINDS Neurogenetics Repository). Three grade-of-membership groups, i.e. genetic risk sets, were identified that exactly matched many subjects (cases: 46, 4, 137; controls: 0, 178, 0), and distinguished 94% of the subjects (i.e. > 50% likeness to one set). Set I, affected, carried certain low frequency alleles located in multiple functional domains. Set II was unaffected. Set III, also affected, resembled II except for slightly elevated frequencies of minor alleles not defining set I. We conclude that certain low frequency alleles distributed throughout LRRK2 are a genetic background to a third of cases, defining a distinct subset. PMID:19489756

  3. Sensory Gating and Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene Allelic Variants in Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura F.; Leonard, Sherry; Hall, Mei-Hua; Tregellas, Jason R.; Freedman, Robert; Olincy, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide allelic variants in the promoter region of the chromosome 15 alpha-7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) are associated with both schizophrenia and the P50 auditory evoked potential sensory gating deficit. The purpose of this study was to determine if CHRNA7 promoter allelic variants are also associated with abnormal P50 ratios in persons with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Methods P50 auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a paired stimulus paradigm in 17 subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The P50 test to conditioning ratio was used as the measure of sensory gating. Mutation screening of the CHRNA7 promoter region was performed on the subjects’ DNA samples. Comparisons to previously obtained data from persons with schizophrenia and controls were made. Results Subjects with schizophrenia, regardless of allele status, had an abnormal mean P50 ratio. Subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type and a variant allele had an abnormal mean P50 ratio, whereas those schizoaffective subjects with the common alleles had a normal mean P50 ratio. Normal control subjects had a normal mean ratio, but controls with variant alleles had higher P50 ratios. Conclusions In persons with bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, CHRNA7 promoter region allelic variants are linked to the capacity to inhibit the P50 auditory evoked potential and thus are associated with a type of illness genetically and biologically more similar to schizophrenia. PMID:17192894

  4. Association of the C47T Polymorphism in SOD2 with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in Carriers of the APOEε4 Allele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gamarra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important part in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Recent evidence shows that polymorphisms in the SOD2 gene affect the elimination of the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in mitochondria. The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional rs4880 SNP in the SOD2 gene is a risk factor associated with aMCI and sporadic AD. 216 subjects with aMCI, 355 with AD, and 245 controls have been studied. The SNP rs4880 of the SOD2 gene was genotyped by RT-PCR and the APOE genotype was determined by PCR and RFLPs. Different multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine the risk levels for aMCI and AD. Although the T allele of the SOD2 rs4880 SNP gene (rs4880-T is not an independent risk for aMCI or AD, this allele increases the risk to aMCI patients carrying at least one APOEε4 allele. Moreover, rs4880-T allele and APOEε4 allele combination has been found to produce an increased risk for AD compared to aMCI reference patients. These results suggest that APOEε4 and rs4880-T genotype may be a risk for aMCI and a predictor of progression from aMCI to AD.

  5. Quantifying the underestimation of relative risks from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Spencer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of associated loci across many common diseases. Most risk variants identified by GWAS will merely be tags for as-yet-unknown causal variants. It is therefore possible that identification of the causal variant, by fine mapping, will identify alleles with larger effects on genetic risk than those currently estimated from GWAS replication studies. We show that under plausible assumptions, whilst the majority of the per-allele relative risks (RR estimated from GWAS data will be close to the true risk at the causal variant, some could be considerable underestimates. For example, for an estimated RR in the range 1.2-1.3, there is approximately a 38% chance that it exceeds 1.4 and a 10% chance that it is over 2. We show how these probabilities can vary depending on the true effects associated with low-frequency variants and on the minor allele frequency (MAF of the most associated SNP. We investigate the consequences of the underestimation of effect sizes for predictions of an individual's disease risk and interpret our results for the design of fine mapping experiments. Although these effects mean that the amount of heritability explained by known GWAS loci is expected to be larger than current projections, this increase is likely to explain a relatively small amount of the so-called "missing" heritability.

  6. Parasites and parallel divergence of the number of individual MHC alleles between sympatric three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus morphs in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsopoulou, M E; Pálsson, S; Ólafsdóttir, G Á

    2012-10-01

    Two pairs of sympatric three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus morphs and two single morph populations inhabiting mud and lava or rocky benthic habitats in four Icelandic lakes were screened for parasites and genotyped for MHC class IIB diversity. Parasitic infection differed consistently between G. aculeatus from different benthic habitats. Gasterosteus aculeatus from the lava or rocky habitats were more heavily infected in all lakes. A parallel pattern was also found in individual MHC allelic variation with lava G. aculeatus morphs exhibiting lower levels of variation than the mud morphs. Evidence for selective divergence in MHC allele number is ambiguous but supported by two findings in addition to the parallel pattern observed. MHC allele diversity was not consistent with diversity reported at neutral markers (microsatellites) and in Þingvallavatn the most common number of alleles in each morph was associated with lower infection levels. In the Þingvallavatn lava morph, lower infection levels by the two most common parasites, Schistocephalus solidus and Diplostomum baeri, were associated with different MHC allele numbers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Comparison of allele frequency for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ between patients with ECC and caries-free children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagherian A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The etiology of ECC is multifactorial and both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic variations in the hosts may contribute to changes in the risk for dental caries. Genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA have recently been suggested as a predisposing factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to look for an association between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 with ECC for developing new strategies for the diagnosis as well as the prevention of the disease. Design: In this study, we extracted the genomic DNAs from whole blood samples of 44 patients with ECC and 35 caries-free children by the salting-out method. We amplified the genomic DNA by PCR-SSP and then HLA-typing was performed for all alleles. Results: The results revealed a significant increase in the frequency of HLA-DRB1FNx0104 in the patient group (P = 0.019. The odds ratio for this allele was detected to be 10. The frequency of HLA-DQB1 alleles was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: The above results suggest that HLA-DRB1FNx0104 is associated with the susceptibility to ECC. Thus HLA-DRB1FNx0104 detection as a molecular marker for early diagnosis of ECC may be recommended.

  8. Selection on alleles affecting human longevity and late-life disease: the example of apolipoprotein E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Drenos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that genes affecting health in old age, such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, are beyond the reach of natural selection. We show in a simulation study based on known genetic (apolipoprotein E and non-genetic risk factors (gender, diet, smoking, alcohol, exercise that, because there is a statistical distribution of ages at which these genes exert their influence on morbidity and mortality, the effects of selection are in fact non-negligible. A gradual increase with each generation of the epsilon2 and epsilon3 alleles of the gene at the expense of the epsilon4 allele was predicted from the model. The epsilon2 allele frequency was found to increase slightly more rapidly than that for epsilon3, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two. Our result may explain the recent evolutionary history of the epsilon 2, 3 and 4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene and has wider relevance for genes affecting human longevity.

  9. Enhancement of allele discrimination by introduction of nucleotide mismatches into siRNA in allele-specific gene silencing by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi is therapeutically useful for specifically inhibiting the expression of disease-associated alleles without suppressing the expression of corresponding wild-type alleles. To realize such allele-specific RNAi (ASP-RNAi, the design and assessment of small interfering RNA (siRNA duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi is vital; however, it is also difficult. In a previous study, we developed an assay system to assess ASP-RNAi with mutant and wild-type reporter alleles encoding the Photinus and Renilla luciferase genes. In line with experiments using the system, we realized that it is necessary and important to enhance allele discrimination between mutant and corresponding wild-type alleles. Here, we describe the improvement of ASP-RNAi against mutant alleles carrying single nucleotide variations by introducing base substitutions into siRNA sequences, where original variations are present in the central position. Artificially mismatched siRNAs or short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs against mutant alleles of the human Prion Protein (PRNP gene, which appear to be associated with susceptibility to prion diseases, were examined using this assessment system. The data indicates that introduction of a one-base mismatch into the siRNAs and shRNAs was able to enhance discrimination between the mutant and wild-type alleles. Interestingly, the introduced mismatches that conferred marked improvement in ASP-RNAi, appeared to be largely present in the guide siRNA elements, corresponding to the 'seed region' of microRNAs. Due to the essential role of the 'seed region' of microRNAs in their association with target RNAs, it is conceivable that disruption of the base-pairing interactions in the corresponding seed region, as well as the central position (involved in cleavage of target RNAs, of guide siRNA elements could influence allele discrimination. In addition, we also suggest that nucleotide mismatches at the 3'-ends of sense

  10. Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B

    2017-01-01

    1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast...... and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most...... significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10(-6)). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1...

  11. Apolipoprotein B levels, APOB alleles, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    capturing the entire variation in APOB cannot be identified, and thus most polymorphisms must be evaluated separately in association studies; (3) APOB mutations and polymorphisms are associated with a range of apolipoprotein B and LDL cholesterol levels, although the magnitude of effect sizes of common...... for the E4154K polymorphism that possibly predicts a reduction in risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke, common APOB polymorphisms with modest effect sizes on lipid levels do not predict risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic cerebrovascular disease...

  12. Inherited variations in the SOD and GPX gene families and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Kutikhin, Anton G

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidant defence enzymes are essential protectors of living organisms against oxidative stress. These enzymes are involved in the detoxification and decomposition of harmful chemical compounds called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are, first and foremost, a source of intracellular oxidative stress. ROS directly promote the oxidative damage of genes resulting in aberrant regulation of many vital cell processes. As a consequence, the presence of ROS can lead to genomic instability, deregulation of transcription, induction of mitogenic signal transduction pathways and replication errors, all of which may increase the risk of cancer development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant defence genes may significantly modify the functional activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for particular cancer types. In the future, these risk alleles may be utilized as genomic markers of cancer predisposition to allow for early prevention measures among carriers of these alleles. The review is devoted to common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) gene families and their impact on carcinogenesis. The predictive significance of several polymorphisms was determined, and these polymorphisms were recommended for further in-depth research.

  13. A common 16p11.2 inversion underlies the joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan R; Cáceres, Alejandro; Esko, Tonu; Cuscó, Ivon; Puig, Marta; Esnaola, Mikel; Reina, Judith; Siroux, Valerie; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Nadif, Rachel; Reinmaa, Eva; Milani, Lili; Bustamante, Mariona; Jarvis, Deborah; Antó, Josep M; Sunyer, Jordi; Demenais, Florence; Kogevinas, Manolis; Metspalu, Andres; Cáceres, Mario; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-03-06

    The prevalence of asthma and obesity is increasing worldwide, and obesity is a well-documented risk factor for asthma. The mechanisms underlying this association and parallel time trends remain largely unknown but genetic factors may be involved. Here, we report on a common ~0.45 Mb genomic inversion at 16p11.2 that can be accurately genotyped via SNP array data. We show that the inversion allele protects against the joint occurrence of asthma and obesity in five large independent studies (combined sample size of 317 cases and 543 controls drawn from a total of 5,809 samples; combined OR = 0.48, p = 5.5 × 10(-6)). Allele frequencies show remarkable worldwide population stratification, ranging from 10% in East Africa to 49% in Northern Europe, consistent with discordant and extreme genetic drifts or adaptive selections after human migration out of Africa. Inversion alleles strongly correlate with expression levels of neighboring genes, especially TUFM (p = 3.0 × 10(-40)) that encodes a mitochondrial protein regulator of energy balance and inhibitor of type 1 interferon, and other candidates for asthma (IL27) and obesity (APOB48R and SH2B1). Therefore, by affecting gene expression, the ~0.45 Mb 16p11.2 inversion provides a genetic basis for the joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity, with a population attributable risk of 39.7%. Differential mitochondrial function and basal energy balance of inversion alleles might also underlie the potential selection signature that led to their uneven distribution in world populations. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The common risk factor approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, A; Watt, R G

    2000-12-01

    Conventional oral health education is not effective nor efficient. Many oral health programmes are developed and implemented in isolation from other health programmes. This often leads, at best to a duplication of effort, or worse, conflicting messages being delivered to the public. In addition, oral health programmes tend to concentrate on individual behaviour change and largely ignore the influence of socio-political factors as the key determinants of health. Based upon the general principles of health promotion this paper presents a rationale for an alternative approach for oral health policy. The common risk factor approach addresses risk factors common to many chronic conditions within the context of the wider socio-environmental milieu. Oral health is determined by diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use, stress and trauma. As these causes are common to a number of other chronic diseases, adopting a collaborative approach is more rational than one that is disease specific. The common risk factor approach can be implemented in a variety of ways. Food policy development and the Health Promoting Schools initiative are used as examples of effective ways of promoting oral health.

  15. Genomic structural variation-mediated allelic suppression causes hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rongxin; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xupeng; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiucai; Xie, Xianrong; Zhu, Qinlong; Tang, Huiwu; Li, Qing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-03

    Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter. In Sc-j/Sc-i hybrids, the high-expression of Sc-i in sporophytic cells causes suppression of Sc-j expression in pollen and selective abortion of Sc-j-pollen, leading to transmission ratio distortion. Knocking out one or two of the three Sc-i copies by CRISPR/Cas9 rescues Sc-j expression and male fertility. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent allelic suppression as a mechanism of hybrid incompatibility, and provide an effective approach to overcome the reproductive barrier for hybrid breeding.

  16. AlleleCoder: a PERL script for coding codominant polymorphism data for PCA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A useful biological interpretation of diploid heterozygotes is in terms of the dose of the common allele (0, 1 or 2 copies). We have developed a PERL script that converts FASTA files into coded spreadsheets suitable for Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In combination with R and R Commander, two- ...

  17. Lipoprotein(a) and HIV: Allele-Specific Apolipoprotein(a) Levels Predict Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chin-Shang; Kaplan, Robert; Lazar, Jason; Merenstein, Dan; Karim, Roksana; Aouizerat, Brad; Cohen, Mardge; Butler, Kenneth; Pahwa, Savita; Ofotokun, Igho; Adimora, Adaora A; Golub, Elizabeth; Berglund, Lars

    2017-05-01

    In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study). Linear regression analyses with and without adjustments were used. The cohort was young (mean age, ≈31 years), with the majority being Blacks (≈70%). The prevalence of a small size apo(a) (≤22 Kringle repeats) or a high Lp(a) level (≥30 mg/dL) was similar by HIV status. Total plasma Lp(a) level ( P =0.029) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.022) were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in the HIV-infected women only. After accounting for confounders (age, race, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, hepatitis C virus coinfection, menopause, plasma lipids, treatment status, CD4 + T cell count, and HIV/RNA viral load), the association remained significant for both Lp(a) ( P =0.035) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.010) in the HIV-infected women. Notably, none of the other lipids/lipoproteins was associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels predict carotid artery intima-media thickness in HIV-infected young women. Further research is needed to identify underlying mechanisms of an increased Lp(a) atherogenicity in HIV infection. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Human minisatellite alleles detectable only after PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that a proportion of alleles at two human minisatellite loci is undetected by standard Southern blot hybridization. In each case the missing allele(s) can be identified after PCR amplification and correspond to tandem arrays too short to detect by hybridization. At one locus, there is only one undetected allele (population frequency 0.3), which contains just three repeat units. At the second locus, there are at least five undetected alleles (total population frequency 0.9) containing 60-120 repeats; they are not detected because these tandem repeats give very poor signals when used as a probe in standard Southern blot hybridization, and also cross-hybridize with other sequences in the genome. Under these circumstances only signals from the longest tandemly repeated alleles are detectable above the nonspecific background. The structures of these loci have been compared in human and primate DNA, and at one locus the short human allele containing three repeat units is shown to be an intermediate state in the expansion of a monomeric precursor allele in primates to high copy number in the longer human arrays. We discuss the implications of such loci for studies of human populations, minisatellite isolation by cloning, and the evolution of highly variable tandem arrays.

  19. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  20. ATM, radiation, and the risk of second primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Concannon, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with regard to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking. This review considers these questions in the context of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Heterozygous carriers of loss of function mutations in ATM that are A-T causing, are at increased risk of breast cancer. However, examination of a range of genetic variants, both rare and common, across multiple cancers, suggests that ATM may have additional effects on cancer risk that are allele-dependent. In the case of CBC, selected common alleles at ATM are associated with a reduced incidence of CBC, while other rare and predicted deleterious variants may act jointly with radiation exposure to increase risk. Further studies that characterize germline and somatic ATM mutations in breast cancer and relate the detected genetic changes to functional outcomes, particularly with regard to radiation responses, are needed to gain a complete picture of the complex relationship between ATM, radiation and breast cancer.

  1. Dextromethorphan Addiction Mediated Through the NMDA System: Common Pathways With Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A Kenison; Hsieh, Chenen; Crapanzano, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Dextromethorphan, an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug of the morphinan class with sedative and dissociative properties found in cough syrup and other over-the-counter products, is also a substance of abuse, seen primarily in young adults all over the world. A case of dextromethorphan use disorder is presented in a 45-year-old women. Her repeated attempts at abstinence were unsuccessful secondary to continued intense cravings. Treatment with topiramate resulted in complete resolution of her cravings. Topiramate was chosen empirically because of a common action with dextromethorphan in the NMDA system. Genetic testing was obtained and the patient was found to be a carrier of the GRIK1 rs2832407(C:C) allele. The (C:C) allele has been associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorder and a treatment response of patients with heavy drinking to topiramate. This case provides an opportunity to discuss personalized medicine (treatment options aided by the use of genetic testing) and the possible shared genetic susceptibility for dependence in 2 substances of abuse.

  2. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D. G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M. H.; Mai, P. L.; Andrulis, I. L.; Thomassen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA...

  3. ACE gene in pregnancy complications: Insights into future vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Sticchi, Elena; Rossi, Lorenza; Cellai, Anna Paola; Rogolino, Angela; Abbate, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    A history of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPCs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, possibly related to the persistence of endothelial dysfunction. We performed this study in order to search for a common genetic background shared by women with a history of PMPC and vascular disorders, due to their common pathophysiologic pathway of endothelial dysfunction. We analyzed the prevalence of seven polymorphisms in ACE, AGTR1, AGT, and eNOS genes, endothelial-function related, in 290 women with a history of premature cardiovascular events (CVDs), and in 367 women with a history of PMPC (preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth (SB), and small for gestational age (SGA)), compared with 300 healthy women (HW) who delivered after uneventful pregnancy (HW). ACE D allele frequency was similar between women with history of CVD and PMPC, and significantly higher than that observed in HW [OR (95% CI) 1.91, p = 0.002, and OR (95% CI) 2.18, p ACE-240T or eNOS-786C allele, a two-fold increase in SB susceptibility was evidenced (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005, respectively). Women with a history of SB and premature CVD exhibited a significantly higher unfavorable allelic burden ≥ 3 in comparison to that observed in HW (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Our findings demonstrate a common genetic background shared by women with a history of vascular disorders and PMPCs; pregnancy may be considered a window to future cardiovascular risk; therefore, "non-classic" genetic biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction might allow one to identify women who could have a greater benefit for an early cardiovascular screening and prevention.

  4. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1998-01-01

    , alleles act codominantly in both pollen and style, in the SSIdom model, alleles form a dominance hierarchy, and in SSIdomcod, alleles are codominant in the style and show a dominance hierarchy in the pollen. Coalescence times of alleles rarely differ more than threefold from those under gametophytic self...

  5. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  6. Identification and distribution of three serologically undetected alleles of HLA-DR by oligonucleotide x DNA typing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiercy, J.M.; Gorski, J.; Jeannet, M.; Mach, B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the molecular biology of human major histocompatibility complex class II genes (HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR) have shown that the genetic complexity and allelic polymorphism are greater than expected. In the case of HLA-DR, three DR β-chain loci have been identified and linked, two of which (DR βI and DR βIII, now assigned names HLA-DR1B and HLA-DR3B) are functional. The authors have shown that the HLA micropolymorphism detected at the DNA sequence level can easily be analyzed by hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides (HLA oligotyping). In the case of the HLA DRw52 supertypic specificity, which includes the DR3, DR5, DRw6, and DRw8 haplotypes, three alleles, referred to as DRw52a, DRw52b, and DRw52c, have recently been identified at the HLA-DR3B locus by DNA sequencing. Hybridization with locus- and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes (designated 52a, 52b, and 52c) has been performed on DNA from normal individuals forming a panel of 82 haplotypes to establish the distribution of these three alleles. Individuals of the DR3 haplotype had either the DRw52a or DRw52b allele, and individuals of extended haplotype HLA-A1,B8,DR3 had only the DRw52a allele. DR5 individuals all had the DRw52b allele, while individuals of DRw6 haplotype had the DRw52a, -52b, or -52c allele. None of these three alleles are found in DRw8 individuals. Analysis of this micropolymorphism, undetectable by common typing procedures, is therefore now operational for more accurate HLA matching for transplantation and for improving correlations between HLA and disease susceptibility

  7. Association between allelic variants of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene and autoimmune diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Carbonell, Cristina; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier

    2018-05-01

    The human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) is considered to play a role in the differences and sensitivities of the glucocorticoid response in individuals with autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to examine by means of a systematic review previous findings regarding allelic variants of NR3C1 in relation to the risk of developing systemic autoimmune diseases. Studies that analysed the genotype distribution of NR3C1 allelic variants among patients with systemic autoimmune diseases were retrieved. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random effects model. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. In addition, sub-analysis by ethnicity, sensitivity analysis and tests for heterogeneity of the results were performed. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. We found no evidence that the analysed NR3C1 polymorphisms, rs6198, rs56149945, and rs6189/rs6190, modulate the risk of developing a systemic autoimmune disease. Nonetheless, a protective role for the minor allele of rs41423247 was found among Caucasians (OR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.92; P=0.004). A subgroup analysis according to underlying diseases revealed no significant association either for Behçet's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, while correlations between NR3C1 polymorphisms and disease activity or response to glucocorticoids could not be evaluated due to insufficient data. There is no clear evidence that the analysed NR3C1 allelic variants confer a risk for developing systemic autoimmune diseases although the minor G allele of rs41423247 may be protective among Caucasians. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Common variants of the TCF7L2 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK-resident South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have implicated variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 gene in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in several different populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of this gene are also risk factors for type 2 diabetes development in a UK-resident South Asian cohort of Punjabi ancestry. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF7L2 (rs7901695, rs7903146, rs11196205 and rs12255372 in 831 subjects with diabetes and 437 control subjects. Results The minor allele of each variant was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes; the greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146, with an allelic odds ratio (OR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11 – 1.56, p = 1.96 × 10-3. For each variant, disease risk associated with homozygosity for the minor allele was greater than that for heterozygotes, with the exception of rs12255372. To determine the effect on the observed associations of including young control subjects in our data set, we reanalysed the data using subsets of the control group defined by different minimum age thresholds. Increasing the minimum age of our control subjects resulted in a corresponding increase in OR for all variants of the gene (p ≤ 1.04 × 10-7. Conclusion Our results support recent findings that TCF7L2 is an important genetic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups.

  9. ADH1B*2 allele is protective against alcoholism but not chronic liver disease in the Hungarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Reka; Pocsai, Zsuzsa; Fiatal, Szilvia; Szeles, Gyorgy; Kardos, Laszlo; Petrovski, Beata; McKee, Martin; Adany, Roza

    2010-05-01

    Standardized death rates from chronic liver diseases (CLDs) in Hungary are much higher than the European Union average. Carrying the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B 48His allele (rs1229984 or ADH1B*2) could decrease the risk of alcoholism, but with persistent drinking may confer a greater risk of CLDs. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of this polymorphism in the Hungarian population and its association with alcohol consumption and with CLDs. A total of 278 cases with diagnosed CLDs and 752 controls without any alterations in liver function, all males aged 45-64, were screened for ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism. ADH1B*2 allele frequencies in controls and cases were 8.31% and 4.50%, respectively (chi(2) = 9.2; P = 0.01). Carrying the ADH1B*2 allele was associated with significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for drinking frequency (OR = 0.63; P = 0.003), the number of positive answers on CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener) assessment (OR = 0.58; P = 0.005) and a positive CAGE status (OR = 0.55; P = 0.007). There was a significant association between ADH1B*2 and CLDs (OR = 0.50; P = 0.003), but it disappeared after adjusting for CAGE status and scores (OR = 0.67 P = 0.134; OR = 0.67 P = 0.148, respectively) and weakened after adjusting for drinking frequency (OR = 0.61; P = 0.045). Among heavy drinkers the presence of ADH1B*2 did not increase the risk of cirrhosis but there was a significant interaction between genotype and CAGE status (P = 0.003, P = 0.042), with ADH1B*2 conferring reduced risk of CLDs in CAGE negatives. In Hungarians, the ADH1B 48His allele reduces the risk of alcoholism, but not the risk of chronic liver disease among heavy drinkers.

  10. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina

    2014-01-01

    cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND.......6 × 10(-6)) in the FHS cohorts. Major human diseases including CVD, ND, and cancer, whose risks can be sensitive to the e4 allele, do not mediate the association of this allele with lifespan in large FHS samples. Non-skin cancer non-additively increases mortality of the FHS women with moderate lifespans...... by 150% (p = 5.3 × 10(-8)) compared to the non-carriers. This risk explains the 4.2 year shorter life expectancy of the e4 carriers compared to the non-carriers in this sample. The analyses suggest the existence of age- and gender-sensitive systemic mechanisms linking the e4 allele to lifespan which can...

  11. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and number needed to treat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    In the previous article in this series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we looked at the difference between risk and odds. Risk, which refers to the probability of occurrence of an event or outcome, can be defined in absolute or relative terms. Understanding what these measures represent is essential for the accurate interpretation of study results. PMID:26952180

  12. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shyh-Yuh, Liou; Sawamoto, Taiji; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suematsu, Koji; Shinagawa, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago.

  13. Positive Selection of Deleterious Alleles through Interaction with a Sex-Ratio Suppressor Gene in African Buffalo: A Plausible New Mechanism for a High Frequency Anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van W.F.; Greyling, B.J.; Getz, W.M.; Helden, P.D.; Zwaan, B.J.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

  14. Positive Selection of Deleterious Alleles through Interaction with a Sex-Ratio Suppressor Gene in African Buffalo: A Plausible New Mechanism for a High Frequency Anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van W.F.; Greyling, B.J.; Getz, W.M.; Helden, van P.D.; Zwaan, B.J.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Although generally rare, deleterious alleles can become common through genetic drift, hitchhiking or reductions in selective constraints. Here we present a possible new mechanism that explains the attainment of high frequencies of deleterious alleles in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

  15. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs650495...

  16. Ankyrin-1 Gene Exhibits Allelic Heterogeneity in Conferring Protection Against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ming Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Allelic heterogeneity is a common phenomenon where a gene exhibits a different phenotype depending on the nature of its genetic mutations. In the context of genes affecting malaria susceptibility, it allowed us to explore and understand the intricate host–parasite interactions during malaria infections. In this study, we described a gene encoding erythrocytic ankyrin-1 (Ank-1 which exhibits allelic-dependent heterogeneous phenotypes during malaria infections. We conducted an ENU mutagenesis screen on mice and identified two Ank-1 mutations, one resulting in an amino acid substitution (MRI95845, and the other a truncated Ank-1 protein (MRI96570. Both mutations caused hereditary spherocytosis-like phenotypes and confer differing protection against Plasmodium chabaudi infections. Upon further examination, the Ank-1(MRI96570 mutation was found to inhibit intraerythrocytic parasite maturation, whereas Ank-1(MRI95845 caused increased bystander erythrocyte clearance during infection. This is the first description of allelic heterogeneity in ankyrin-1 from the direct comparison between two Ank-1 mutations. Despite the lack of direct evidence from population studies, this data further supported the protective roles of ankyrin-1 mutations in conferring malaria protection. This study also emphasized the importance of such phenomena in achieving a better understanding of host–parasite interactions, which could be the basis of future studies.

  17. Association between Two Common Missense Substitutions, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile, in MC3R Gene and Childhood Obesity: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Charita; Yu, Tsung; Strong, Carol; Tsai, Meng-Che

    2018-04-24

    Two common missense variants in the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) gene, Thr6Lys (T6K) and Val81Ile (V81I), are presumably correlated with pediatric obesity. This meta-analysis aimed to examine and synthesize evidence on the association between these two common MC3R polymorphisms and the development of childhood obesity. A combination of words relevant to the research question was searched on PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane database. Results were restricted to human studies, specifically child and adolescent populations. Articles were excluded based on accessibility of full online texts and availability of pertinent data. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model to determine the association of the polymorphisms with obesity. Searches on the databases using the keywords identified 65 potentially relevant reports. Among them, 32 studies were excluded due to irrelevance, and 28 studies excluded due to lack of access, insufficient data, and investigation of other variants. A final set of five studies included in this meta-analysis found that the risk of overweight/obesity increased by 46.1% per K allele and 21.7% per I allele. Only homozygous genotypes for T6K were associated with a 3.10-fold (95% CI: 1.29-7.43) increased risk of overweight/obesity in children. Data were insufficient to examine if homozygosity for both rare alleles further increases risk. Our results supported a recessive inheritance model for MC3R gene as a potential cause of childhood obesity. High clinical heterogeneity existed among studies and thus requires more research of larger participation for future integration of data.

  18. Genome-wide association study in discordant sibships identifies multiple inherited susceptibility alleles linked to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Antonella; Falvella, Felicia S; Frullanti, Elisa; Spinola, Monica; Incarbone, Matteo; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Conti, Barbara; Pastorino, Ugo; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed a series of young (median age = 52 years) non-smoker lung cancer patients and their unaffected siblings as controls, using a genome-wide 620 901 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis and a case-control DNA pooling approach. We identified 82 putatively associated SNPs that were retested by individual genotyping followed by use of the sib transmission disequilibrium test, pointing to 36 SNPs associated with lung cancer risk in the discordant sibs series. Analysis of these 36 SNPs in a polygenic model characterized by additive and interchangeable effects of rare alleles revealed a highly statistically significant dosage-dependent association between risk allele carrier status and proportion of cancer cases. Replication of the same 36 SNPs in a population-based series confirmed the association with lung cancer for three SNPs, suggesting that phenocopies and genetic heterogeneity can play a major role in the complex genetics of lung cancer risk in the general population.

  19. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  20. HLA-DQ genetic risk gradient for type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-León, M E; Ruiz-Dyck, K M; Calderón de la Barca, A M

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) are the 2 most common autoimmune childhood diseases that share their HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genetic origin. There has currently been an increase in both diseases worldwide. In children from the low-population State of Sonora (15 inhabitants/km(2)) in north-western Mexico, there is no information on their genetic risk or the distribution of the related alleles in the general population. To compare the HLA-DQ allele frequency in a representative sample of newborns from Sonora with that of T1D and CD patients to determine the risk gradient, and to identify the presence of celiac autoimmunity in the T1D group. The study included 397 Sonoran newborns, with 44 cases of T1D, and 25 CD cases. The CD and T1D cases were clinically diagnosed by specialists at the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora, and the autoantibodies were determined by ELISA. Whole blood was collected, gDNA was extracted, and HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 were typed by PCR-SSP. The risk gradient was calculated by comparing the allele frequencies of the cases with those of the newborns. The Sonoran HLA-DQ risk heterodimer proportion was 16.1% for HLA-DQ2 and 13.6% for HLA-DQ8, with an HLA-DQ2:HLA-DQ8 ratio of 1.2:1. The DQ8/DQ2 genotype represented a 1:14 risk for T1D, whereas the DQ8/DQB1*0201 combination showed a 1:6 risk for CD. The prevalence of CD autoimmunity in T1D children was 7%. The Sonoran population has a distinctive HLA-DQ allele distribution due to its ancestry. The HLA-DQ8 combinations with DQ2 or one of its alleles conferred the highest risk for both diseases, and T1D and CD frequently appear together. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to mixed connective tissue disease in Polish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Gorycka, A; Stypińska, B; Olesińska, M; Felis-Giemza, A; Mańczak, M; Czuszynska, Z; Zdrojewski, Z; Wojciechowicz, J; Jurkowska, M

    2016-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease, originally defined as a connective tissue inflammatory syndrome with overlapping features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), characterized by the presence of antibodies against components of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1snRNP). The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of (high-resolution-typed) DRB1 alleles in a cohort of Polish patients with MCTD (n = 103). Identification of the variants potentially associated with risk and protection was carried out by comparison with the DKMS Polish Bone Marrow Donor Registry (41306 alleles). DRB1*15:01 (odds ratio (OR): 6.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-8.06), DRB1*04 (OR: 3.69; 95% CI 2.69-5.01) and *09:01 (OR: 8.12; 95% CI 2.15-21.75) were identified as risk alleles for MCTD, while HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele was found to be protective (OR: 0.50; 95% CI 0.28-0.83). The carrier frequency of the DRB1*01 was higher in MCTD patients compared with controls, although the differences were not statistically significant. Our results confirm the modulating influence of HLA-DRB1 genotypes on development of connective tissue diseases such as MCTD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. HPV has left the building – the absence of detectable HPV DNA and the presence of r allele/s for the P72R polymorphism in the TP53 gene may call for more aggressive therapeutic approach in HPV-associated tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Rumena; Chelenkova, Pavlina; Yemendzhiev, Husein; Tsekov, Iliya; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Chakarov, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    HPV infection is a major pathogenetic factor in cervical carcinoma as well as in many of the squamous cancers of head and neck and other epithelial cancers. Persistence of HPV DNA detectable by routine methods is considered to be a risk factor for advanced CIN and, in patients treated by surgery or non-surgical treatment modalities (radiotherapy, chemotherapy), HPV persistence is believed to be associated with increased risk for local recurrence. In terms of survival, however, it has been repeatedly proven that patients with cervical cancer and other HPV-associated cancers with detectable HPV DNA tend to have better outcomes than patients with HPV-negative tumours. The P72R polymorphism in the human TP53 gene has been contemplated as an independent phenotype modifier in cancers, especially the R allele which has been shown to confer higher pro-apoptotic properties to the resultant p53 protein. It has been demonstrated, however, that RR homozygotes were much more common in study groups with HPV-associated tumours than the other two genotypes and that the P allele in P/R heterozygotes was preferentially lost while the R allele was preferentially retained and mutated. It is possible that HPV-dependent carcinogenesis strictly relies on the presence of HPV and the expression of the E6 and E7 onco proteins only in the initial phases of transformation of infected cells (e.g. CIN). It may be associated with activation of latent HPV that would create a background of decreased control over the integrity of the genome of the host cell. The process can develop further by mechanisms independent of the presence of HPV and if the virus clears at some later point, that would not halt the already ongoing neoplastic transformation. Absence of HPV DNA in cervical tumours, whether before or after treatment, is not a reason to decrease vigilant monitoring and rule out the need for further treatment, as it may be quite possible that the TP53 gene of the infected cells has already been

  3. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 an...

  4. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Beniez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E. P.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Leone, Melanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M.; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Singer, Christian; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v O.; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schoenuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gill, Mona; Collins, Lucine; Gokgoz, Nalan; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; H, F. B. L.; Verhoef, Senno; Pijpe, Anouk; van 't Veer, Laura; van Leeuwen, Flora; R, M. A.; C, J. M.; van den Ouweland, Ans; Kriege, Mieke; Schutte, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob; van Asperen, Christi; W, J.; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; L, M. J.; Ausems, Margreet; v d L, R.; A, C. M.; van Os, Theo; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Gille, Hans; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; Blok, Rien; P, S.; C, M.; O, C.; F, D.; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; C, T.; McKeown, Carole; Burgess, Lucy; Donaldson, Alan; Paterson, Joan; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; D, R.; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; I, L.; Pichert, Gabriella; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; C, C.; Bishop, Tim; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; E, D. G.; L, F.; Holt, Felicity; Male, Alison; Robinson, Anne; Gardiner, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Walker, Lisa; Durell, Sarah; Eeles, Ros; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Mitra, Anita; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; H, S.; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Crawford, Gillian; Tyler, Emma; McBride, Donna; Lucassen, Anneke; S, O. M.; Barjhoux, Laure; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; S-L, D.; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; B-d-P, B.; R, A.; Byrde, Veronque; Capoulade, Corinne; L, G. M.; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valeri; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Eisinger, Francos; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joelle; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Daniel; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; L, M.; S, N.; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Helene; Rebischung, Christine; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; P, F.; Frena, Marc; Lynch, Henry T.; G, A. K.; S, R. K.; S, J.; Durocher, Francine; Laframboise, Rachel; Plante, Marie; Bridge, Peter; Parboosingh, Jilian; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Lesperance, Bernard; S, C. I.; F, L.; Eva, Machakova; Miroslava, Lukesova; de Paepe, Anne; Poppe, Bruce; K, P.; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Ake; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Hakan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernstrom, Helena; H, K.; Henrisson, Karin; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Liljegren, Annelie; B-B, G.; R, J.; A, A.

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and

  5. ALEA: a toolbox for allele-specific epigenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesy, Hamid; Möller, Torsten; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Cheng, Jeffrey B; Costello, Joseph F; Lorincz, Matthew C; Karimi, Mohammad M; Jones, Steven J M

    2014-04-15

    The assessment of expression and epigenomic status using sequencing based methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify and correlate allelic differences with epigenomic status. We present ALEA, a computational toolbox for allele-specific epigenomics analysis, which incorporates allelic variation data within existing resources, allowing for the identification of significant associations between epigenetic modifications and specific allelic variants in human and mouse cells. ALEA provides a customizable pipeline of command line tools for allele-specific analysis of next-generation sequencing data (ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, etc.) that takes the raw sequencing data and produces separate allelic tracks ready to be viewed on genome browsers. The pipeline has been validated using human and hybrid mouse ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data. The package, test data and usage instructions are available online at http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/alea CONTACT: : mkarimi1@interchange.ubc.ca or sjones@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Database for the ampC alleles in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Karah

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a troublesome opportunistic pathogen with a high capacity for clonal dissemination. We announce the establishment of a database for the ampC locus in A. baumannii, in which novel ampC alleles are differentiated based on the occurrence of ≥ 1 nucleotide change, regardless of whether it is silent or missense. The database is openly accessible at the pubmlst platform for A. baumannii (http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/. Forty-eight distinctive alleles of the ampC locus have so far been identified and deposited in the database. Isolates from clonal complex 1 (CC1, according to the Pasteur multilocus sequence typing scheme, had a variety of the ampC locus alleles, including alleles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, and 18. On the other hand, isolates from CC2 had the ampC alleles 2, 3, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, and 46. Allele 3 was characteristic for sequence types ST3 or ST32. The ampC alleles 10, 16, and 25 were characteristic for CC10, ST16, and CC25, respectively. Our study points out that novel gene databases, in which alleles are numbered based on differences in their nucleotide identities, should replace traditional records that use amino acid substitutions to define new alleles.

  7. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Taane G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%. Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes

  8. Polymorphisms in steroid hormone biosynthesis genes and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Lori C; Blackston, Christie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Gao, Dao Li; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Chen, Chu

    2008-05-01

    Common variants in genes encoding for key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis may alter sex steroid hormone levels, thereby influencing susceptibility to breast carcinoma and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined genotypes of the CYP11A1 pentanucleotide [(TAAAA)n] repeat (D15S520), CYP17A1 rs743572, and HSD17B1 rs605059 polymorphisms in relation to the risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions, comparing 615 women with breast cancer and 467 women with fibrocystic breast conditions separately with 879 women without clinical breast disease. We also evaluated whether these relationships differed by the presence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium or fibrocystic lesions, menopausal status, or body mass index. Only CYP11A1 genotype was related to breast cancer risk, with women homozygous for the 4-repeat allele, relative to those homozygous for the 6-repeat allele, at reduced risk (age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.91). There was some suggestion of a stronger inverse association for breast cancer with evidence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium than for breast cancer without extratumoral proliferation. Breast cancer risk associated with CYP11A1 genotype did not differ by menopausal status or body mass index level. No associations between CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and HSD17B1 genotypes and risk of fibrocystic breast conditions were observed. Our findings support the possibility that common allelic variation at the CYP11A1 D15S520 locus alters breast cancer risk in Chinese women.

  9. 8q24 allelic imbalance and MYC gene copy number in primary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Liu, W; Roberts, W; Hooker, S; Fedor, H; DeMarzo, A; Isaacs, W; Kittles, R A

    2010-09-01

    Four independent regions within 8q24 near the MYC gene are associated with risk for prostate cancer (Pca). Here, we investigated allelic imbalance (AI) at 8q24 risk variants and MYC gene DNA copy number (CN) in 27 primary Pcas. Heterozygotes were observed in 24 of 27 patients at one or more 8q24 markers and 27% of the loci exhibited AI in tumor DNA. The 8q24 risk alleles were preferentially favored in the tumors. Increased MYC gene CN was observed in 33% of tumors, and the co-existence of increased MYC gene CN with AI at risk loci was observed in 86% (P<0.004 exact binomial test) of the informative tumors. No AI was observed in tumors, which did not reveal increased MYC gene CN. Higher Gleason score was associated with tumors exhibiting AI (P=0.04) and also with increased MYC gene CN (P=0.02). Our results suggest that AI at 8q24 and increased MYC gene CN may both be related to high Gleason score in Pca. Our findings also suggest that these two somatic alterations may be due to the same preferential chromosomal duplication event during prostate tumorigenesis.

  10. Association between diabetes type 1 and DQB1 alleles in a case-control study conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbacas, Adriana; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Javiel, Gerardo; Pisciottano, Carmen; Grignola, Rosario; Jorge, Ana María; Gallino, Juan Pablo; Gasagoite, Jackeline; Cardoso, Horacio

    2003-03-31

    We studied HLA DQB1 allele frequencies and the relative risk (RR) of various genotypes in 72 type 1 diabetic patients and 40 control individuals in Uruguay. This is a tri-racial (Caucasian, Black and Indo-American) mixed population. The products of the polymerase chain reaction amplifications were hybridized with oligonucleotides by allele-specific oligonucleotide reverse or dot blot methods. Significant differences between these two groups were observed only for allele DQB1*0302 (35%, RR = 7.34, P<0.001). The frequency of the alleles carrying a non-aspartic acid residue at position 57 was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (85 vs 53%, P<0.001). In contrast, the frequency of Asp alleles was negatively associated with type 1 diabetes (RR = 0.20, P<0.001). The genotype DQB1*0302/DQB1*0201 (33%, RR = 5.41, P<0.05) was positively associated with this disease. The genotype frequencies associated with type 1 diabetes in our population were significantly different from what is known for Caucasian and Black populations as well as compared with another admixed population, from Chile.

  11. A common variation of the PTEN gene is associated with peripheral insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Hansen, L; Ribel-Madsen, R; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: The minor G allele of PTEN rs11202614 was associated with elevated fasting plasma insulin levels and a decreased peripheral glucose disposal rate, but not with the hepatic insulin resistance index or insulin secretion measured as the first-phase insulin response and disposition index. The single...... nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with either PI3K or Akt activities. CONCLUSION: A common PTEN variation is associated with peripheral insulin resistance and subsequent risk of developing T2D. However, the association with insulin resistance is not explained by decreased proximal insulin signalling......AIM: Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) reduces insulin sensitivity by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (Akt) pathway. This study investigated how a common single nucleotide polymorphism near PTEN, previously associated...

  12. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/HCO3 co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allele is associated with increased SLC4A7 expression level, NBCn1 availability and function as reflected in elevated...

  13. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Kate; Ren, Meixia; Zhang, Ruoxin; Tucker, Arthur; Aalkj?r, Christian; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between variation at the SLC4A7 locus and blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes the electroneutral Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transporter NBCn1 which regulates intracellular pH (pH i ). We conducted a functional study of variants at this locus in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allel...

  14. Class II HLA interactions modulate genetic risk for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilthey, Alexander T; Xifara, Dionysia K; Ban, Maria; Shah, Tejas S; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Alfredsson, Lars; Anderson, Carl A; Attfield, Katherine E; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barrett, Jeffrey; Binder, Thomas M C; Booth, David; Buck, Dorothea; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cotsapas, Chris; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Dendrou, Calliope A; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Fugger, Lars; Goris, An; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hillert, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Leslie, Stephen; Lill, Christina M; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Spurkland, Anne; Taylor, Bruce; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zipp, Frauke; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Spencer, Chris C A; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Harbo, Hanne F; Hauser, Stephen L; De Jager, Philip L; Compston, Alastair; McCauley, Jacob L; Sawcer, Stephen; McVean, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Association studies have greatly refined the understanding of how variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes influences risk of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent to which major effects are modulated by interactions is poorly characterized. We analyzed high-density SNP data on 17,465 cases and 30,385 controls from 11 cohorts of European ancestry, in combination with imputation of classical HLA alleles, to build a high-resolution map of HLA genetic risk and assess the evidence for interactions involving classical HLA alleles. Among new and previously identified class II risk alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*13:03, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*08:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:02) and class I protective alleles (HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*44:02, HLA-B*38:01 and HLA-B*55:01), we find evidence for two interactions involving pairs of class II alleles: HLA-DQA1*01:01–HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01–HLA-DQB1*03:02. We find no evidence for interactions between classical HLA alleles and non-HLA risk-associated variants and estimate a minimal effect of polygenic epistasis in modulating major risk alleles. PMID:26343388

  15. Genome-wide meta-analysis of common variant differences between men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraska, Vesna; Jerončić, Ana; Colonna, Vincenza; Southam, Lorraine; Nyholt, Dale R.; William Rayner, Nigel; Perry, John R.B.; Toniolo, Daniela; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbalic, Maja; Barroso, Inês; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Biffar, Reiner; Boomsma, Dorret; Campbell, Harry; Corre, Tanguy; Erdmann, Jeanette; Esko, Tõnu; Fischer, Krista; Franceschini, Nora; Frayling, Timothy M.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heid, Iris M.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hua Zhao, Jing; Jackson, Anne U.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Klopp, Norman; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lagou, Vasiliki; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemire, Mathieu; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Loley, Christina; Luan, Jian'an; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Navis, Gerjan; Newnham, John; Nieminen, Markku S.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Peters, Annette; Pirastu, Nicola; Polašek, Ozren; Rehnström, Karola; Ripatti, Samuli; Ritchie, Graham R.S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Samani, Nilesh J.; Shin, So-Youn; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Johannes H.; Soranzo, Nicole; Stolk, Lisette; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Tönjes, Anke; Traglia, Michela; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valsesia, Armand; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Viikari, Jorma; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Waeber, Gerard; Warrington, Nicole M.; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Alan F.; Zanke, Brent W.; Zgaga, Lina; Boehnke, Michael; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; de Geus, Eco; Demerath, Ellen W.; den Heijer, Martin; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hudson, Thomas J.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kogevinas, Manolis; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Spector, Tim D.; Stumvoll, Michael; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulivi, Sheila; van der Harst, Pim; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Xue, Yali; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    The male-to-female sex ratio at birth is constant across world populations with an average of 1.06 (106 male to 100 female live births) for populations of European descent. The sex ratio is considered to be affected by numerous biological and environmental factors and to have a heritable component. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of common allele modest effects at autosomal and chromosome X variants that could explain the observed sex ratio at birth. We conducted a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis across 51 studies, comprising overall 114 863 individuals (61 094 women and 53 769 men) of European ancestry and 2 623 828 common (minor allele frequency >0.05) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Allele frequencies were compared between men and women for directly-typed and imputed variants within each study. Forward-time simulations for unlinked, neutral, autosomal, common loci were performed under the demographic model for European populations with a fixed sex ratio and a random mating scheme to assess the probability of detecting significant allele frequency differences. We do not detect any genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10−8) common SNP differences between men and women in this well-powered meta-analysis. The simulated data provided results entirely consistent with these findings. This large-scale investigation across ∼115 000 individuals shows no detectable contribution from common genetic variants to the observed skew in the sex ratio. The absence of sex-specific differences is useful in guiding genetic association study design, for example when using mixed controls for sex-biased traits. PMID:22843499

  16. Procedures for identifying S-allele genotypes of Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D H

    1979-11-01

    Procedures are described for efficient selection of: (1) homozygous and heterozygous S-allele genotypes; (2) homozygous inbreds with the strong self- and sib-incompatibility required for effective seed production of single-cross F1 hybrids; (3) heterozygous genotypes with the high self- and sib-incompatibility required for effective seed production of 3- and 4-way hybrids.From reciprocal crosses between two first generation inbred (I1) plants there are three potential results: both crosses are incompatible; one is incompatible and the other compatible; and both are compatible. Incompatibility of both crosses is useful information only when combined with data from other reciprocal crosses. Each compatible cross, depending on whether its reciprocal is incompatible or compatible, dictates alternative reasoning and additional reciprocal crosses for efficiently and simultaneously identifying: (A) the S-allele genotype of all individual I1 plants, and (B) the expressions of dominance or codominance in pollen and stigma (sexual organs) of an S-allele heterozygous genotype. Reciprocal crosses provide the only efficient means of identifying S-allele genotypes and also the sexual-organ x S-allele-interaction types.Fluorescent microscope assay of pollen tube penetration into the style facilitates quantitation within 24-48 hours of incompatibility and compatibility of the reciprocal crosses. A procedure for quantitating the reciprocal difference is described that maximizes informational content of the data about interactions between S alleles in pollen and stigma of the S-allele-heterozygous genotype.Use of the non-inbred Io generation parent as a 'known' heterozygous S-allele genotype in crosses with its first generation selfed (I1) progeny usually reduces at least 7 fold the effort required for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3, compared to the method of making reciprocal crosses only among I1 plants.Identifying the heterozygous and both homozygous S-allele genotypes during

  17. PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a prospective study of Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Majken K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ plays a key role in the regulation of the energy balance, adipocyte differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. The aim was to investigate if the polymorphism PPARγ2 Pro12Ala, which encodes a less efficient transcription factor, was associated with risk of acute coronary disease and if there were interactions between this polymorphism and factors that modify PPARγ activity, such as alcohol intake, smoking, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine. Methods A case-cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested within the population-based prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health of 57,053 individuals. Results Homozygous male variant allele carriers of PPARγ2 Pro12Ala were at higher risk of ACS (HR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.00–4.48 than homozygous carriers of the Pro-allele. Among men, there was a statistically significant interaction between genotypes and alcohol intake such that homozygous variant allele carriers with a low alcohol intake were at higher risk of ACS (HR = 25.3, CI: 16.5–38.7 compared to homozygous common allele carriers (p for interaction Conclusion In the present study, there were no consistent associations between PPARγ Pro12Ala and risk of ACS, and no consistent interaction with alcohol, BMI, NSAID or smoking in relation to ACS.

  18. Selected vitamin D metabolic gene variants and risk for autism spectrum disorder in the CHARGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hansen, Robin L; Hartiala, Jaana; Allayee, Hooman; Sconberg, Jaime L; Schmidt, Linda C; Volk, Heather E; Tassone, Flora

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D is essential for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and common, functional polymorphisms in vitamin D pathways. Children aged 24-60 months enrolled from 2003 to 2009 in the population-based CHARGE case-control study were evaluated clinically and confirmed to have ASD (n=474) or typical development (TD, n=281). Maternal, paternal, and child DNA samples for 384 (81%) families of children with ASD and 234 (83%) families of TD children were genotyped for: TaqI, BsmI, FokI, and Cdx2 in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, and CYP27B1 rs4646536, GC rs4588, and CYP2R1 rs10741657. Case-control logistic regression, family-based log-linear, and hybrid log-linear analyses were conducted to produce risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each allelic variant. Paternal VDR TaqI homozygous variant genotype was significantly associated with ASD in case-control analysis (odds ratio [OR] [CI]: 6.3 [1.9-20.7]) and there was a trend towards increased risk associated with VDR BsmI (OR [CI]: 4.7 [1.6-13.4]). Log-linear triad analyses detected parental imprinting, with greater effects of paternally-derived VDR alleles. Child GC AA-genotype/A-allele was associated with ASD in log-linear and ETDT analyses. A significant association between decreased ASD risk and child CYP2R1 AA-genotype was found in hybrid log-linear analysis. There were limitations of low statistical power for less common alleles due to missing paternal genotypes. This study provides preliminary evidence that paternal and child vitamin D metabolism could play a role in the etiology of ASD; further research in larger study populations is warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. LHD1, an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, controls late heading date in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaodong; Ding, Younian; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Zhu, Zuofeng; Sun, Xianyou; Sun, Xuewen; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2012-10-01

    Flowering at suitable time is very important for plants to adapt to complicated environments and produce their seeds successfully for reproduction. In rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) photoperiod regulation is one of the important factors for controlling heading date. Common wild rice, the ancestor of cultivated rice, exhibits a late heading date and a more sensitive photoperiodic response than cultivated rice. Here, through map-based cloning, we identified a major quantitative trait loci (QTL) LHD1 (Late Heading Date 1), an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, which controls the late heading date of wild rice and encodes a putative HAP3/NF-YB/CBF-A subunit of the CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor. Sequence analysis revealed that several variants in the coding region of LHD1 were correlated with a late heading date, and a further complementary study successfully rescued the phenotype. These results suggest that a functional site for LHD1 could be among those variants present in the coding region. We also found that LHD1 could down-regulate the expression of several floral transition activators such as Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under long-day conditions, but not under short-day conditions. This indicates that LHD1 may delay flowering by repressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under long-day conditions. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. HLA Dr beta 1 alleles in Pakistani patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqi, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 alleles in rheumatoid arthritis in Pakistani patients. Study Design: Cross sectional / analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Rheumatology departments of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: HLA DR beta 1 genotyping of one hundred Pakistani patients, diagnosed as having RA as per American College of Rheumatology revised criteria 1987, was done. HLA DR beta 1 genotyping was carried out at allele group level (DR beta 1*01-DR beta 1*16) by sequence specific primers in RA patients. Comparison of HLA DR beta 1 allele frequencies between patients and control groups was made using Pearson's chi-square test to find possible association of HLA DR?1 alleles with RA in Pakistani rheumatoid patients. Results: HLA DR beta 1*04 was expressed with significantly increased frequency in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p <0.05). HLA DR?1*11 was expressed statistically significantly more in control group as compared to rheumatoid patients indicating a possible protective effect. There was no statistically significant difference observed in frequencies of HLA DR beta 1 allele *01, DR beta 1 allele *03, DR beta 1 allele *07, DR beta 1 allele *08, DR beta 1 allele *09, DR beta 1 allele *10, DR beta 1 allele *12, DR beta 1 allele *13, DR beta 1 allele *14, DR?1 allele *15 and DR beta 1 allele *16 between patients and control groups. Conclusion: The identification of susceptible HLA DR beta 1 alleles in Pakistani RA patients may help physicians to make early decisions regarding initiation of early intensive therapy with disease modifying anti rheumatic medicines and biological agents decreasing disability in RA patients. (author)

  1. DNA-polymorphisms and plasma levels of vascular disease risk factors in Greenland Inuit--is there a relation with the low risk of cardiovascular disease in the Inuit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maat, M de; Bladbjerg, E-M; Johansen, L G

    1999-01-01

    Greenland Inuit are a population with a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we stated that frequencies of potentially high risk alleles of the apolipoproteins, fibrinogen, factor V, glycoprotein IIIa and factor VII (FVII) genes have different allele frequencies in the Inuit when compared...... and CVD risk in Caucasian populations, but for other measures this was not the case (allele frequencies of the PAI-1 polymorphism, and plasma levels of fibrinogen, FVII and t-PA). In conclusion there are clear differences in genetic background and plasma levels of risk factors in Greenland Inuit compared......, aged 30-34 gamma. In addition, we compared the plasma levels of these factors and those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-Dimer in Inuit and in Danes, comparable for age and gender. Frequencies (f) were assessed of the alleles that are known as the potential high risk alleles in Caucasians...

  2. Common variation in the ABO glycosyltransferase is associated with susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew E; Griffiths, Michael J; Auburn, Sarah; Diakite, Mahamadou; Forton, Julian T; Green, Angela; Richardson, Anna; Wilson, Jonathan; Jallow, Muminatou; Sisay-Joof, Fatou; Pinder, Margaret; Peshu, Norbert; Williams, Thomas N; Marsh, Kevin; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2008-02-15

    There is growing epidemiological and molecular evidence that ABO blood group affects host susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum infection. The high frequency of common ABO alleles means that even modest differences in susceptibility could have a significant impact on the health of people living in malaria endemic regions. We performed an association study, the first to utilize key molecular genetic variation underlying the ABO system, genotyping >9000 individuals across three African populations. Using population- and family-based tests, we demonstrated that alleles producing functional ABO enzymes are associated with greater risk of severe malaria phenotypes (particularly malarial anemia) in comparison with the frameshift deletion underlying blood group O: case-control allelic odds ratio (OR), 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.32; P = 0.0003; family-studies allelic OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.32; P = 0.001; pooled across all studies allelic OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.26; P = 2 x 10(-7). We found suggestive evidence of a parent-of-origin effect at the ABO locus by analyzing the family trios. Non-O haplotypes inherited from mothers, but not fathers, are significantly associated with severe malaria (likelihood ratio test of Weinberg, P = 0.046). Finally, we used HapMap data to demonstrate a region of low F(ST) (-0.001) between the three main HapMap population groups across the ABO locus, an outlier in the empirical distribution of F(ST) across chromosome 9 (approximately 99.5-99.9th centile). This low F(ST) region may be a signal of long-standing balancing selection at the ABO locus, caused by multiple infectious pathogens including P. falciparum.

  3. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  4. ACTN3 allele frequency in humans covaries with global latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Friedlander

    Full Text Available A premature stop codon in ACTN3 resulting in α-actinin-3 deficiency (the ACTN3 577XX genotype is common in humans and reduces strength, muscle mass, and fast-twitch fiber diameter, but increases the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle. Linkage disequilibrium data suggest that the ACTN3 R577X allele has undergone positive selection during human evolution. The allele has been hypothesized to be adaptive in environments with scarce resources where efficient muscle metabolism would be selected. Here we test this hypothesis by using recently developed comparative methods that account for evolutionary relatedness and gene flow among populations. We find evidence that the ACTN3 577XX genotype evolved in association with the global latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that environmental variables related to latitudinal variation, such as species richness and mean annual temperature, may have influenced the adaptive evolution of ACTN3 577XX during recent human history.

  5. HLA-DR alleles among Pakistani patients of coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether certain DR alleles might also contribute to the genetic susceptibility among Coeliac disease patients in Pakistan. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from October 2011 to January 2012, and analysed 25 children diagnosed to have coeliac disease as per the criteria set by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, which included histopathological alterations in duodenal biopsies, clinical response to gluten withdrawal, and presence of anti-endomyseal antibodies. Patients were compared with a group of 150 healthy subjects. Dioxyribonucleic acid was extracted from peripheral blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.K3. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 typing was carried out on allele level (DRB1*01 - DRB1*16) using sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Phenotype frequency of various alleles among the patient group and the control group was calculated by direct counting, and significance of their association was determined by Fisher Exact Test. Results: A total of 11 (44%) female paediatric coeliac patients in age range 1-9 (mean 7.2+-4.8 years) and 14 (56%) male paediatric patients in the age range 6-14 (mean 8.6+-5.1 years) were genotyped for HLA-DRB1 loci. A statistically significant positive association of the disease with HLA-DRB1*03 (n=23; 92% versus n=31; 21% in controls, p <0.01) was observed. Conclusion: HLA-DRB1*03 is associated with increased risk of developing coeliac disease. (author)

  6. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop-out...... of true alleles is possible. As part of the validation of the IrisPlex assay in our ISO17025 accredited, forensic genetic laboratory, we estimated the probability of drop-out of specific SNP alleles using 29 and 30 PCR cycles and 25, 50 and 100 Single Base Extension (SBE) cycles. We observed no drop-out...... when the amount of DNA was greater than 125 pg for 29 cycles of PCR and greater than 62 pg for 30 cycles of PCR. With the use of a logistic regression model, we estimated the allele specific probability of drop-out in heterozygote systems based on the signal strength of the observed allele...

  7. A Polymorphic Enhancer near GREM1 Influences Bowel Cancer Risk through Differential CDX2 and TCF7L2 Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Lewis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare germline duplication upstream of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist GREM1 causes a Mendelian-dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC. The underlying disease mechanism is strong, ectopic GREM1 overexpression in the intestinal epithelium. Here, we confirm that a common GREM1 polymorphism, rs16969681, is also associated with CRC susceptibility, conferring ∼20% differential risk in the general population. We hypothesized the underlying cause to be moderate differences in GREM1 expression. We showed that rs16969681 lies in a region of active chromatin with allele- and tissue-specific enhancer activity. The CRC high-risk allele was associated with stronger gene expression, and higher Grem1 mRNA levels increased the intestinal tumor burden in ApcMin mice. The intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2 and Wnt effector TCF7L2 bound near rs16969681, with significantly higher affinity for the risk allele, and CDX2 overexpression in CDX2/GREM1-negative cells caused re-expression of GREM1. rs16969681 influences CRC risk through effects on Wnt-driven GREM1 expression in colorectal tumors.

  8. Quantitative threefold allele-specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR) for highly sensitive JAK2 V617F mutant allele detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapparoli, Giada V; Jorissen, Robert N; Hewitt, Chelsee A; McBean, Michelle; Westerman, David A; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation is the most frequent somatic change in myeloproliferative neoplasms, making it an important tumour-specific marker for diagnostic purposes and for the detection of minimal residual disease. Sensitive quantitative assays are required for both applications, particularly for the monitoring of minimal residual disease, which requires not only high sensitivity but also very high specificity. We developed a highly sensitive probe-free quantitative mutant-allele detection method, Quantitative Threefold Allele-Specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR), that is performed in a closed-tube system, thus eliminating the manipulation of PCR products. QuantTAS-PCR uses a threefold approach to ensure allele-specific amplification of the mutant sequence: (i) a mutant allele-specific primer, (ii) a 3′dideoxy blocker to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template and (iii) a PCR specificity enhancer, also to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. Mutant alleles were quantified relative to exon 9 of JAK2. We showed that the addition of the 3′dideoxy blocker suppressed but did not eliminate false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. However, the addition of the PCR specificity enhancer near eliminated false-positive amplification from the wild-type allele. Further discrimination between true and false positives was enabled by using the quantification cycle (Cq) value of a single mutant template as a cut-off point, thus enabling robust distinction between true and false positives. As 10,000 JAK2 templates were used per replicate, the assay had a sensitivity of 1/10 -4 per replicate. Greater sensitivity could be reached by increasing the number of replicates analysed. Variation in replicates when low mutant-allele templates were present necessitated the use of a statistics-based approach to estimate the load of mutant JAK2 copies. QuanTAS-PCR showed comparable quantitative results when validated against a

  9. Contributions of vitamin D response elements and HLA promoters to multiple sclerosis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David; Castley, Alison; Tschochner, Monika; James, Ian; Qiu, Wei; Sayer, David; Christiansen, Frank T; Witt, Campbell; Mastaglia, Frank; Carroll, William; Kermode, Allan

    2012-08-07

    The identification of a vitamin D-responsive (VDRE) motif within the HLA-DRB1*15:01 promoter region provides an attractive explanation for the combined effects of HLA-DR inheritance and vitamin D exposure on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We therefore sought to incorporate HLA-DRB1 promoter variation, including the VDRE motif, in an assessment of HLA-DRB1-associated MS risk. We utilized 32 homozygous HLA cell lines (covering 17 DRB1 alleles) and 53 heterozygote MS samples (20 DRB1 alleles) for HLA-DRB1 promoter sequencing. The influence of HLA-DRB1 variation on MS risk was then assessed among 466 MS cases and 498 controls. The majority of HLA*DRB1 alleles (including HLA-DRB1*15:01) express the functional VDRE motif, apart from HLA-DRB1*04, *07, and *09 alleles that comprise the HLA-DR53 serologic group. Allele-specific variation within functional X-box and Y-box motifs was also associated with serologically defined HLA-DR haplotypes. Incorporating these results in an analysis of MS risk, we identified a strong protective effect of HLA-DRB1*04, *07, and *09 (DR53) alleles (p = 10(-12)) and elevated risk associated with DRB1*15 and *16 (DR51) and *08 (DR8) alleles (p < 10(-18)). HLA-DRB1 groups corresponding to serologic HLA-DR profiles as well as promoter polymorphism haplotypes effectively stratified MS risk over an 11-fold range, suggesting functional relationships between risk-modifying HLA-DRB1 alleles. An independent contribution of VDRE motif variation to increase MS risk was not discernible, although vitamin D-dependent regulation of HLA-DR expression may still play an important role given that HLA-DRB1*04/*07/*09 (DR53) alleles that express the "nonresponsive" VDRE motif were associated with significantly reduced risk of MS.

  10. Allelic variations in the CYBA gene of NADPH oxidase and risk of kidney complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patente, Thiago A; Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Driss, Fathi; Sanchez, Manuel; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system is an important source of reactive oxygen species in hyperglycemic conditions in the kidney. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a marker of oxidative stress, is increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated associations of variants in the CYBA gene, encoding the regulatory subunit p22(phox) of NADPH oxidase, with diabetic nephropathy and plasma AOPP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in type 1 diabetic patients. Seven SNPs in the CYBA region were analyzed in 1357 Caucasian subjects with type 1 diabetes from the SURGENE (n=340), GENEDIAB (n=444), and GENESIS (n=573) cohorts. Duration of follow-up was 10, 9, and 6 years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) for incidence and prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The major G-allele of rs9932581 was associated with the incidence of renal events defined as new cases of microalbuminuria or the progression to a more severe stage of nephropathy during follow-up (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.18, P=0.003) in SURGENE. The same allele was associated with established/advanced nephropathy (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, P=0.0001) and with the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.30-3.24, P=0.001) in GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled studies. The risk allele was also associated with higher plasma AOPP concentration in subsets of SURGENE and GENEDIAB, with higher plasma MPO concentration in a subset of GENEDIAB, and with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the three cohorts. In conclusion, a functional variant in the promoter of the CYBA gene was associated with lower eGFR and with prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy and ESRD in type 1 diabetic patients. These results are consistent with

  11. Frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen system in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Cassia Salvadori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HLA allele identification is used in bone marrow transplant programs as HLA compatibility between the donor and recipient may prevent graft rejection. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the HLA system in the region of Bauru and compare these with the frequencies found in other regions of the country. Methods: HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele frequencies and haplotypes were analyzed in a sample of 3542 volunteer donors at the National Registry of Voluntary Bone Marrow Donors (REDOME in Bauru. HLA low resolution typing was performed using reverse line blot with the Dynal Reli(tm SSO-HLA Typing Kit and automated Dynal AutoReli(tm48 device (Invitrogen, USA. Results: Twenty, 36, and 13 HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele groups, respectively, were identified. The most common alleles for each locus were HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, and HLA-DRB1*07. The most frequent haplotype was A*01-B*08-DRB1*03. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared to other regions in Brazil and the similarities and differences among populations are shown. Conclusion: The knowledge of the immunogenic profile of a population contributes to the comprehension of the historical and anthropological aspects of different regions. Moreover, this helps to find suitable donors quickly, thereby shortening waiting lists for transplants and thus increasing survival rates among recipients.

  12. Whole-genome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia indicates multiple genetic risk factors for schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Tang; Fan He; Fengyu Zhang; Yin Yao Shugart; Chunyu Liu; Yanqing Tang; Raymond C.K.Chan; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yong-Gang Yao; Xiaogang Chen; Yu Fan; Hong Li; Qun Xiang; Deng-Feng Zhang; Zongchang Li; Ying He; Yanhui Liao; Ya Wang

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a high heritability,but its genetic architecture is still elusive.We implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 8 families with monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia to assess potential association of de novo mutations (DNMs) or inherited variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia.Eight non-synonymous DNMs (including one splicing site) were identified and shared by twins,which were either located in previously reported schizophrenia risk genes (p.V24689I mutation in TTN,p.S2506T mutation in GCN1L1,IVS3+1G > T in DOCK1) or had a benign to damaging effect according to in silico prediction analysis.By searching the inherited rare damaging or loss-of-function (LOF) variants and common susceptible alleles from three classes of schizophrenia candidate genes,we were able to distill genetic alterations in several schizophrenia risk genes,including GAD1,PLXNA2,RELN and FEZ1.Four inherited copy number variations (CNVs;including a large deletion at 16p13.11) implicated for schizophrenia were identified in four families,respectively.Most of families carried both missense DNMs and inherited risk variants,which might suggest that DNMs,inherited rare damaging variants and common risk alleles together conferred to schizophrenia susceptibility.Our results support that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of multiple genetic factors,with each DNM/variant showing a relatively small effect size.

  13. Discovery of new risk loci for IgA nephropathy implicates genes involved in immunity against intestinal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Scolari, Francesco; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Choi, Murim; Verbitsky, Miguel; Fasel, David; Lata, Sneh; Prakash, Sindhuri; Shapiro, Samantha; Fischman, Clara; Snyder, Holly J.; Appel, Gerald; Izzi, Claudia; Viola, Battista Fabio; Dallera, Nadia; Vecchio, Lucia Del; Barlassina, Cristina; Salvi, Erika; Bertinetto, Francesca Eleonora; Amoroso, Antonio; Savoldi, Silvana; Rocchietti, Marcella; Amore, Alessandro; Peruzzi, Licia; Coppo, Rosanna; Salvadori, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Magistroni, Riccardo; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Caridi, Gianluca; Bodria, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Allegri, Landino; Delsante, Marco; Maiorana, Mariarosa; Magnano, Andrea; Frasca, Giovanni; Boer, Emanuela; Boscutti, Giuliano; Ponticelli, Claudio; Mignani, Renzo; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Di Landro, Domenico; Santoro, Domenico; Pani, Antonello; Polci, Rosaria; Feriozzi, Sandro; Chicca, Silvana; Galliani, Marco; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Zamboli, Pasquale; Maixnerová, Dita; Tesar, Vladimir; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Floege, Jürgen; Kovacs, Tibor; Nagy, Judit; Mucha, Krzysztof; Pączek, Leszek; Zaniew, Marcin; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Gale, Daniel; Barratt, Jonathan; Thibaudin, Lise; Berthoux, Francois; Canaud, Guillaume; Boland, Anne; Metzger, Marie; Panzer, Ulf; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Goto, Shin; Narita, Ichiei; Caliskan, Yasar; Xie, Jingyuan; Hou, Ping; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Wyatt, Robert J.; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.; Feehally, John; Stengel, Benedicte; Cusi, Daniele; Lifton, Richard P.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, with discovery and follow-up in 20,612 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We identified six novel genome-wide significant associations, four in ITGAM-ITGAX, VAV3 and CARD9 and two new independent signals at HLA-DQB1 and DEFA. We replicated the nine previously reported signals, including known SNPs in the HLA-DQB1 and DEFA loci. The cumulative burden of risk alleles is strongly associated with age at disease onset. Most loci are either directly associated with risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and response to mucosal pathogens. The geo-spatial distribution of risk alleles is highly suggestive of multi-locus adaptation and the genetic risk correlates strongly with variation in local pathogens, particularly helminth diversity, suggesting a possible role for host-intestinal pathogen interactions in shaping the genetic landscape of IgAN. PMID:25305756

  14. MICA diversity and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Gelmini, Geórgia Fernanda; da Silva, José Samuel; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2017-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located centromerically to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B. The short distance between these loci in the MHC indicates the presence of linkage disequilibrium (LD). Similarly to the HLA, the MICA is highly polymorphic, and this polymorphism has not been well documented in different populations. In this study, we estimated the allelic frequencies of MICA and the linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in 346 renal-transplant candidates in southern Brazil. MICA and HLA were typed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method (PCR-SSO), combined with the Luminex technology. A total of 19 MICA allele groups were identified. The most frequent allele groups were MICA*008 (21.6%), MICA*002 (17.0%) and MICA*004 (14.8%). The most common haplotypes were MICA*009-B*51 (7.8%), MICA*004-B*44 (6.06%) and MICA*002-B*35 (5.63%). As expected from the proximity of the MICA and HLA-B loci, most haplotypes showed strong LD. Renal patients and healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil showed statistically significant differences in their MICA polymorphisms. The MICA*027 allele group was more frequent in renal patients (Pc = 0.018, OR: 3.421, 95% CI: 1.516-7.722), while the MICA*019 allele group was more frequent in healthy subjects (Pc = 0.001, OR: 0.027, 95% CI: 0.002-0.469). This study provided information on the distribution of MICA polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles in Brazilian renal-transplant candidates. This information should help to determine the mechanisms of susceptibility to different diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in allograft rejection associated with MICA polymorphisms in a Brazilian population.

  15. Detecting slow introgression of invasive alleles in an extensively restocked game bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eSanchez-Donoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interbreeding of two species in the wild implies introgression of alleles from one species into the other only when admixed individuals survive and successfully backcross with the parental species. Consequently, estimating the proportion of first generation hybrids in a population may not inform about the evolutionary impact of hybridization. Samples obtained over a long time span may offer a more accurate view of the spreading of introgressed alleles in a species’ gene pool. Common quail (Coturnix coturnix populations in Europe have been restocked extensively with farm quails of hybrid origin (crosses with Japanese quails, C. japonica. We genetically monitored a common quail population over 15 years to investigate whether genetic introgression is occurring and used simulations to investigate our power to detect it. Our results revealed that some introgression has occurred, but we did not observe a significant increase over time in the proportion of admixed individuals. However, simulations showed that the degree of admixture may be larger than anticipated due to the limited power of analyses over a short time span, and that observed data was compatible with a low rate of introgression, probably resulting from reduced fitness of admixed individuals. Simulations predicted this could result in extensive admixture in the near future.

  16. A Maximum-Likelihood Method to Correct for Allelic Dropout in Microsatellite Data with No Replicate Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Schroeder, Kari B.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Allelic dropout is a commonly observed source of missing data in microsatellite genotypes, in which one or both allelic copies at a locus fail to be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Especially for samples with poor DNA quality, this problem causes a downward bias in estimates of observed heterozygosity and an upward bias in estimates of inbreeding, owing to mistaken classifications of heterozygotes as homozygotes when one of the two copies drops out. One general approach for avoiding allelic dropout involves repeated genotyping of homozygous loci to minimize the effects of experimental error. Existing computational alternatives often require replicate genotyping as well. These approaches, however, are costly and are suitable only when enough DNA is available for repeated genotyping. In this study, we propose a maximum-likelihood approach together with an expectation-maximization algorithm to jointly estimate allelic dropout rates and allele frequencies when only one set of nonreplicated genotypes is available. Our method considers estimates of allelic dropout caused by both sample-specific factors and locus-specific factors, and it allows for deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium owing to inbreeding. Using the estimated parameters, we correct the bias in the estimation of observed heterozygosity through the use of multiple imputations of alleles in cases where dropout might have occurred. With simulated data, we show that our method can (1) effectively reproduce patterns of missing data and heterozygosity observed in real data; (2) correctly estimate model parameters, including sample-specific dropout rates, locus-specific dropout rates, and the inbreeding coefficient; and (3) successfully correct the downward bias in estimating the observed heterozygosity. We find that our method is fairly robust to violations of model assumptions caused by population structure and by genotyping errors from sources other than allelic dropout. Because the data sets

  17. ZNF804A variants confer risk for heroin addiction and affect decision making and gray matter volume in heroin abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Li-Yan; Wang, Gui-Bin; Yue, Wei-Hua; He, Yong; Shu, Ni; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Fan; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Wang, Hui-Min; Kosten, Thomas R; Feng, Jia-Jia; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yu-De; Liu, Shu-Xue; Deng, Gui-Fa; Diao, Gan-Huan; Tan, Yun-Long; Han, Hong-Bin; Lin, Lu; Shi, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction shares common neurobiological pathways and risk genes with other psychiatric diseases, including psychosis. One of the commonly identified risk genes associated with broad psychosis has been ZNF804A. We sought to test whether psychosis risk variants in ZNF804A increase the risk of heroin addiction by modulating neurocognitive performance and gray matter volume (GMV) in heroin addiction. Using case-control genetic analysis, we compared the distribution of ZNF804A variants (genotype and haplotype) in 1035 heroin abusers and 2887 healthy subjects. We also compared neurocognitive performance (impulsivity, global cognitive ability and decision-making ability) in 224 subjects and GMV in 154 subjects based on the ZNF804A variants. We found significant differences in the distribution of ZNF804A intronic variants (rs1344706 and rs7597593) allele and haplotype frequencies between the heroin and control groups. Decision-making impairment was worse in heroin abusers who carried the ZNF804A risk allele and haplotype. Subjects who carried more risk alleles and haplotypes of ZNF804A had greater GMV in the bilateral insular cortex, right temporal cortex and superior parietal cortex. The interaction between heroin addiction and ZNF804A variants affected GMV in the left sensorimotor cortex. Our findings revealed several ZNF804A variants that were significantly associated with the risk of heroin addiction, and these variants affected decision making and GMV in heroin abusers compared with controls. The precise neural mechanisms that underlie these associations are unknown, which requires future investigations of the effects of ZNF804A on both dopamine neurotransmission and the relative increases in the volume of various brain areas. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Multimer Formation Explains Allelic Suppression of PRDM9 Recombination Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher L; Petkova, Pavlina; Walker, Michael; Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Petkov, Petko M; Paigen, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Genetic recombination during meiosis functions to increase genetic diversity, promotes elimination of deleterious alleles, and helps assure proper segregation of chromatids. Mammalian recombination events are concentrated at specialized sites, termed hotspots, whose locations are determined by PRDM9, a zinc finger DNA-binding histone methyltransferase. Prdm9 is highly polymorphic with most alleles activating their own set of hotspots. In populations exhibiting high frequencies of heterozygosity, questions remain about the influences different alleles have in heterozygous individuals where the two variant forms of PRDM9 typically do not activate equivalent populations of hotspots. We now find that, in addition to activating its own hotspots, the presence of one Prdm9 allele can modify the activity of hotspots activated by the other allele. PRDM9 function is also dosage sensitive; Prdm9+/- heterozygous null mice have reduced numbers and less active hotspots and increased numbers of aberrant germ cells. In mice carrying two Prdm9 alleles, there is allelic competition; the stronger Prdm9 allele can partially or entirely suppress chromatin modification and recombination at hotspots of the weaker allele. In cell cultures, PRDM9 protein variants form functional heteromeric complexes which can bind hotspots sequences. When a heteromeric complex binds at a hotspot of one PRDM9 variant, the other PRDM9 variant, which would otherwise not bind, can still methylate hotspot nucleosomes. We propose that in heterozygous individuals the underlying molecular mechanism of allelic suppression results from formation of PRDM9 heteromers, where the DNA binding activity of one protein variant dominantly directs recombination initiation towards its own hotspots, effectively titrating down recombination by the other protein variant. In natural populations with many heterozygous individuals, allelic competition will influence the recombination landscape.

  19. Natural host genetic resistance to lentiviral CNS disease: a neuroprotective MHC class I allele in SIV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Mankowski

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection frequently causes neurologic disease even with anti-retroviral treatment. Although associations between MHC class I alleles and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS have been reported, the role MHC class I alleles play in restricting development of HIV-induced organ-specific diseases, including neurologic disease, has not been characterized. This study examined the relationship between expression of the MHC class I allele Mane-A*10 and development of lentiviral-induced central nervous system (CNS disease using a well-characterized simian immunodeficiency (SIV/pigtailed macaque model. The risk of developing CNS disease (SIV encephalitis was 2.5 times higher for animals that did not express the MHC class I allele Mane-A*10 (P = 0.002; RR = 2.5. Animals expressing the Mane-A*10 allele had significantly lower amounts of activated macrophages, SIV RNA, and neuronal dysfunction in the CNS than Mane-A*10 negative animals (P<0.001. Mane-A*10 positive animals with the highest CNS viral burdens contained SIV gag escape mutants at the Mane-A*10-restricted KP9 epitope in the CNS whereas wild type KP9 sequences dominated in the brain of Mane-A*10 negative animals with comparable CNS viral burdens. These concordant findings demonstrate that particular MHC class I alleles play major neuroprotective roles in lentiviral-induced CNS disease.

  20. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  1. [nursing Diagnoses And Most Common Collaboration Problems In High-risk Pregnancy].

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the demographic profile, obstetric and clinical diagnoses, nursing diagnosis and most common collaboration problem among pregnant women subject to high-risk at a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a form based on Gordon's Functional Health Patterns. Nursing diagnoses were determined on the basis of the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) taxonomy. The nursing diagnoses found in 50% or more of the pregnant women were: risk for ...

  2. ABO alleles are linked with haplotypes of an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element in intron 1 with a few exceptions attributable to genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Sano, R; Takahashi, Y; Watanabe, K; Kubo, R; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, K; Takeshita, H; Kominato, Y

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigation of transcriptional regulation of the ABO genes has identified a candidate erythroid cell-specific regulatory element, named the +5·8-kb site, in the first intron of ABO. Six haplotypes of the site have been reported previously. The present genetic population study demonstrated that each haplotype was mostly linked with specific ABO alleles with a few exceptions, possibly as a result of hybrid formation between common ABO alleles. Thus, investigation of these haplotypes could provide a clue to further elucidation of ABO alleles. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. A new electrophoresis technique to separate microsatellite alleles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new electrophoresis technique to separate microsatellite alleles* ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... with the CEQTM 8000 Genetic Analysis System and ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer easily separated products and determined allelic size, ...

  4. Directional Positive Selection on an Allele of Arbitrary Dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Teshima, Kosuke M.; Przeworski, Molly

    2006-01-01

    Most models of positive directional selection assume codominance of the beneficial allele. We examine the importance of this assumption by implementing a coalescent model of positive directional selection with arbitrary dominance. We find that, for a given mean fixation time, a beneficial allele has a much weaker effect on diversity at linked neutral sites when the allele is recessive.

  5. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the co-occurrence of the common NCD risk factors, particularly in an urban slum setting in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of the four common NCDs risk factors among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. This analysis was based on the data collected as part of a cross-sectional survey to assess linkages among socio-economic status, perceived personal risk, and risk factors for cardiovascular and NCDs in a population of slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2008-2009. A total of 5,190 study subjects were included in the analysis. After selecting relevant variables for common NCD risk factors, we computed the prevalence of all possible combinations of the four common NCD risk factors. The analysis was disaggregated by relevant background variables. The weighted prevalences of unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, and tobacco use were found to be 57.2, 14.4, 10.1, and 12.4%, respectively. Nearly 72% of the study participants had at least one of the four NCD risk factors. About 52% of the study population had any one of the four NCD risk factors. About one-fifth (19.8%) had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Close to one in six individuals (17.6%) had two NCD risk factors, while only 2.2% had three or four NCD risk factors. One out of five of people in the urban slum settings of Nairobi had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Both comprehensive and differentiated approaches are needed for effective NCD prevention and control in these settings.

  6. Transporter TAP1-637G and Immunoproteasome PSMB9-60H Variants Influence the Risk of Developing Vitiligo in the Saudi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhawary, Nasser Attia; Bogari, Neda; Jiffri, Essam Hussien; Rashad, Mona; Fatani, Abdulhamid; Tayeb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether TAP1-rs1135216 (p.637D>G) and PSMB9-rs17587 (p.60R>H) were significantly associated with the risk and severity of vitiligo among Saudi patients. One hundred seventy-two subjects were genotyped for the TAP1-rs1135216 and PSMB9-rs17587 variants using endonuclease digestions of amplified genomic DNA. The TAP1-rs1135216 and PSMB9-rs17587 mutant alleles were strongly associated with vitiligo, with odds ratios showing five fold and two fold risks (P Vitiligo vulgaris was the most common type of disease, associated with the DG (55%) and GG (46%) genotypes for rs1135216 and with the RH genotype (59%) for rs17587. The heterozygous 637DG and 60RH genotypes were each linked with active phenotypes in 64% of cases. In conclusion, the TAP1-rs1135216 and PSMB9-rs17587 variants are significantly associated with vitiligo, and even one copy of these mutant alleles can influence the risk among Saudis. Vitiligo vulgaris is associated with genotypes containing the mutant G and H alleles. PMID:25548428

  7. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  8. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantú de León, David; Yu, Neng; Yunis, Edmond J; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Villavicencio, Verónica; Carranca, Alejandro García; Betancourt, Alejandro Mohar; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; López-Tello, Alberto; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Barquera, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP) of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031). HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670). DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001). Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the first study in Mexican population where high resolutions HLA

  9. Common variant in MTNR1B associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired early insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, Valeriya; Nagorny, Cecilia L F; Erdos, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have shown that variation in MTNR1B (melatonin receptor 1B) is associated with insulin and glucose concentrations. Here we show that the risk genotype of this SNP predicts future type 2 diabetes (T2D) in two large prospective studies. Specifically, the risk genotype...... was associated with impairment of early insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose and with faster deterioration of insulin secretion over time. We also show that the MTNR1B mRNA is expressed in human islets, and immunocytochemistry confirms that it is primarily localized in beta cells in islets....... Nondiabetic individuals carrying the risk allele and individuals with T2D showed increased expression of the receptor in islets. Insulin release from clonal beta cells in response to glucose was inhibited in the presence of melatonin. These data suggest that the circulating hormone melatonin, which...

  10. Erasure and reestablishment of random allelic expression imbalance after epigenetic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Aaron Richard; Uwanogho, Dafe Aghogho; Cocks, Graham; Perfect, Leo William; Dempster, Emma; Mill, Jonathan; Price, Jack

    2016-10-01

    Clonal level random allelic expression imbalance and random monoallelic expression provides cellular heterogeneity within tissues by modulating allelic dosage. Although such expression patterns have been observed in multiple cell types, little is known about when in development these stochastic allelic choices are made. We examine allelic expression patterns in human neural progenitor cells before and after epigenetic reprogramming to induced pluripotency, observing that loci previously characterized by random allelic expression imbalance (0.63% of expressed genes) are generally reset to a biallelic state in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We subsequently neuralized the iPSCs and profiled isolated clonal neural stem cells, observing that significant random allelic expression imbalance is reestablished at 0.65% of expressed genes, including novel loci not found to show allelic expression imbalance in the original parental neural progenitor cells. Allelic expression imbalance was associated with altered DNA methylation across promoter regulatory regions, with clones characterized by skewed allelic expression being hypermethylated compared to their biallelic sister clones. Our results suggest that random allelic expression imbalance is established during lineage commitment and is associated with increased DNA methylation at the gene promoter. © 2016 Jeffries et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Allele-specific gene expression in a wild nonhuman primate population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J.; Akinyi, M. Y.; Mutura, S.; Altmann, J.; Wray, G. A.; Alberts, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations hold enormous potential for evolutionary genetic studies, especially when phenotypic, genetic and environmental data are all available on the same individuals. However, untangling the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations remains a major challenge. Here, we describe results of an investigation of one class of phenotype, allele-specific gene expression (ASGE), in the well-studied natural population of baboons of the Amboseli basin, Kenya. ASGE measurements identify cases in which one allele of a gene is overexpressed relative to the alternative allele of the same gene, within individuals, thus providing a control for background genetic and environmental effects. Here, we characterize the incidence of ASGE in the Amboseli baboon population, focusing on the genetic and environmental contributions to ASGE in a set of eleven genes involved in immunity and defence. Within this set, we identify evidence for common ASGE in four genes. We also present examples of two relationships between cis-regulatory genetic variants and the ASGE phenotype. Finally, we identify one case in which this relationship is influenced by a novel gene-environment interaction. Specifically, the dominance rank of an individual’s mother during its early life (an aspect of that individual’s social environment) influences the expression of the gene CCL5 via an interaction with cis-regulatory genetic variation. These results illustrate how environmental and ecological data can be integrated into evolutionary genetic studies of functional variation in natural populations. They also highlight the potential importance of early life environmental variation in shaping the genetic architecture of complex traits in wild mammals. PMID:21226779

  12. TGFbeta1 (Leu10Pro), p53 (Arg72Pro) can predict for increased risk for breast cancer in south Indian women and TGFbeta1 Pro (Leu10Pro) allele predicts response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samson, Mani; Rama, Ranganathan; Sridevi, Veluswami; Mahji, Urmila; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Nancy, Nirmala K

    2008-11-01

    The breast cancer incidence has been increasing in the south Indian women. A case (n=250)-control (n=500) study was undertaken to investigate the role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP's) in GSTM1 (Present/Null); GSTP1 (Ile105Val), p53 (Arg72Pro), TGFbeta1 (Leu10Pro), c-erbB2 (Ile655Val), and GSTT1 (Null/Present) in breast cancer. In addition, the value of the SNP's in predicting primary tumor's pathologic response following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was assessed. Genotyping was done using PCR (GSTM1, GSTT1), Taqman Allelic discrimination assay (GSTP1, c-erbB2) and PCR-CTPP (p53 and TGFbeta1). None of the gene SNP's studied were associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the breast cancer. However, combined analysis of the SNP's showed that p53 (Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro) with TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro and Leu/Pro) were associated with greater than 2 fold increased risk for breast cancer in Univariate (P=0.01) and Multivariate (P=0.003) analysis. There was no statistically significant association for the GST family members with the breast cancer risk. TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro) allele was found to predict complete pathologic response in the primary tumour following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (OR=6.53 and 10.53 in Univariate and Multivariate analysis respectively) (P=0.004) and was independent of stage. This study suggests that SNP's can help predict breast cancer risk in south Indian women and that TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro) allele is associated with a better pCR in the primary tumour.

  13. Virulence attributes and hyphal growth of C. neoformans are quantitative traits and the MATalpha allele enhances filamentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal human pathogen with a bipolar mating system. It undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to hyphal filamentous growth during mating and monokaryotic fruiting. The traditional sexual cycle that leads to the production of infectious basidiospores involves cells of both alpha and a mating type. Monokaryotic fruiting is a modified form of sexual reproduction that involves cells of the same mating type, most commonly alpha, which is the predominant mating type in both the environment and clinical isolates. However, some a isolates can also undergo monokaryotic fruiting. To determine whether mating type and other genetic loci contribute to the differences in fruiting observed between alpha and a cells, we applied quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping to an inbred population of F2 progeny. We discovered that variation in hyphal length produced during fruiting is a quantitative trait resulting from the combined effects of multiple genetic loci, including the mating type (MAT locus. Importantly, the alpha allele of the MAT locus enhanced hyphal growth compared with the a allele. Other virulence traits, including melanization and growth at 39 degrees C, also are quantitative traits that share a common QTL with hyphal growth. The Mac1 transcription factor, encoded in this common QTL, regulates copper homeostasis. MAC1 allelic differences contribute to phenotypic variation, and mac1Delta mutants exhibit defects in filamentation, melanin production, and high temperature growth. Further characterization of these QTL regions will reveal additional quantitative trait genes controlling biological processes central to fungal development and pathogenicity.

  14. Detection of MPL mutations by a novel allele-specific PCR-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Larissa V; Weigelin, Helmut C; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Betz, Bryan L

    2013-11-01

    MPL mutation testing is recommended in patients with suspected primary myelofibrosis or essential thrombocythemia who lack the JAK2 V617F mutation. MPL mutations can occur at allelic levels below 15%, which may escape detection by commonly used mutation screening methods such as Sanger sequencing. We developed a novel multiplexed allele-specific PCR assay capable of detecting most recurrent MPL exon 10 mutations associated with primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia (W515L, W515K, W515A, and S505N) down to a sensitivity of 2.5% mutant allele. Test results were reviewed from 15 reference cases and 1380 consecutive specimens referred to our laboratory for testing. Assay performance was compared to Sanger sequencing across a series of 58 specimens with MPL mutations. Positive cases consisted of 45 with W515L, 6 with S505N, 5 with W515K, 1 with W515A, and 1 with both W515L and S505N. Seven cases had mutations below 5% that were undetected by Sanger sequencing. Ten additional cases had mutation levels between 5% and 15% that were not consistently detected by sequencing. All results were easily interpreted in the allele-specific test. This assay offers a sensitive and reliable solution for MPL mutation testing. Sanger sequencing appears insufficiently sensitive for robust MPL mutation detection. Our data also suggest the relative frequency of S505N mutations may be underestimated, highlighting the necessity for inclusion of this mutation in MPL test platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    from only 10-15% in southern Europe to 40-50% in the north. The gradient may be a trace of the demic expansion of agriculture that began about 10,000 years ago, but it may also reflect the possibility that APOE*4 carriers are less likely to develop vitamin D deficiency. The common APOE polymorphism......Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  16. Beta2-adrenergic receptor allele frequencies in the Quechua, a high altitude native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Monsalve, M V; Devine, D V; Hochachka, P W

    2000-03-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor is involved in the control of numerous physiological processes and, as the primary catecholamine receptor in the lungs, is of particular importance in the regulation of pulmonary function. There are several polymorphic loci in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene that have alleles that alter receptor function, including two (A/G46, G/C79) that increase agonist sensitivity. As such a phenotype may increase vaso and bronchial dilation, thereby facilitating air and blood flow through the lungs, we hypothesized that selection may have favoured these alleles in high altitude populations as part of an adaptive strategy to deal with the hypoxic conditions characteristic of such environments. We tested this hypothesis by determining the allele frequencies for these two polymorphisms, as well one additional missense mutation (C/T491) and two silent mutations (G/A252 and C/A523) in 63 Quechua speaking natives from communities located between 3200 and 4200 m on the Peruvian altiplano. These frequencies were compared with those of two lowland populations, one native American (Na-Dene from the west coast of Canada) and one Caucasian of Western European descent. The Quechua manifest many of the pulmonary characteristics of high altitude populations and differences in allele frequencies between the Quechua and lowlanders could be indicative of a selective advantage conferred by certain genotypes in high altitude environments. Allele frequencies varied between populations at some loci and patterns of linkage disequilibrium differed between the old-world and new-world samples; however, as these populations are not closely related, significant variation would be expected due to stochastic effects alone. Neither of the alleles associated with increased receptor sensitivity (A46, G79) was significantly over-represented in the Quechua compared with either lowland group. The Quechua were monomorphic for the C allele at base 79. This variant has been

  17. The common rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with obesity risk in children and adolescents of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindpaintner Klaus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes have confirmed that a common variant, rs9939609, in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene region is associated with body mass index (BMI in European children and adults. A significant association of the same risk allele has been described in Asian adult populations, but the results are conflicting. In addition, no replication studies have been conducted in children and adolescents of Asian ancestry. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 3503 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age in Beijing, China, including 1229 obese and 2274 non-obese subjects. We investigated the association of rs9939609 with BMI and the risk of obesity. In addition, we tested the association of rs9939609 with weight, height, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, fat mass percentage, birth weight, blood pressure and related metabolic traits. Results We found significant associations of rs9939609 variant with weight, BMI, BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass percentage in children and adolescents (p for trend = 3.29 × 10-5, 1.39 × 10-6, 3.76 × 10-6, 2.26 × 10-5, 1.94 × 10-5, and 9.75 × 10-5, respectively. No significant associations were detected with height, birth weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and related metabolic traits such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose (all p > 0.05. Each additional copy of the rs9939609 A allele was associated with a BMI increase of 0.79 [95% Confidence interval (CI 0.47 to 1.10] kg/m2, equivalent to 0.25 (95%CI 0.14 to 0.35 BMI-SDS units. This rs9939609 variant is significantly associated with the risk of obesity under an additive model [Odds ratio (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50] after adjusting for age and gender. Moreover, an interaction between the FTO rs9939609

  18. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  19. Simultaneous SNP identification and assessment of allele-specific bias from ChIP-seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Yunyun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with many aspects of human development and disease, and many non-coding SNPs associated with disease risk are presumed to affect gene regulation. We have previously shown that SNPs within transcription factor binding sites can affect transcription factor binding in an allele-specific and heritable manner. However, such analysis has relied on prior whole-genome genotypes provided by large external projects such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. This requirement limits the study of allele-specific effects of SNPs in primary patient samples from diseases of interest, where complete genotypes are not readily available. Results In this study, we show that we are able to identify SNPs de novo and accurately from ChIP-seq data generated in the ENCODE Project. Our de novo identified SNPs from ChIP-seq data are highly concordant with published genotypes. Independent experimental verification of more than 100 sites estimates our false discovery rate at less than 5%. Analysis of transcription factor binding at de novo identified SNPs revealed widespread heritable allele-specific binding, confirming previous observations. SNPs identified from ChIP-seq datasets were significantly enriched for disease-associated variants, and we identified dozens of allele-specific binding events in non-coding regions that could distinguish between disease and normal haplotypes. Conclusions Our approach combines SNP discovery, genotyping and allele-specific analysis, but is selectively focused on functional regulatory elements occupied by transcription factors or epigenetic marks, and will therefore be valuable for identifying the functional regulatory consequences of non-coding SNPs in primary disease samples.

  20. Severe complications in a child with achondroplasia and two FGFR3 mutations on the same allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rump, P; Letteboer, TGW; Gille, JJP; Torringa, MJL; Baerts, W; van Gestel, JPJ; Verheij, JBGM; van Essen, AJ

    2006-01-01

    We describe a unique case of achondroplasia with associated complications, including severe respiratory problems. Molecular analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) gene in this patient showed the common p.G380R mutation and a second novel p.L377R Mutation. An allele-specific

  1. HLA-A AND HLA-B ALLELES ASSOCIATED IN PSORIASIS PATIENTS FROM MUMBAI, WESTERN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Shankarkumar; Pawar, Aruna; Mitra, R; Khuperkar, D; Devaraj, J P; Ghosh, K; Khopkar, U

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis, a common autoimmune disorder characterized by T cell-mediated keratinocyte hyperproliferation, is known to be associated with the presence of certain specific Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles. Aim: To evaluate distribution of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles and hence identify the susceptible allele of psoriasis from patients in Western India. Materials and Methods: The study design included 84 psoriasis patients and 291 normal individuals as controls from same geographical region. HLA-A and HLA-B typing was done using Serology typing. Standard statistical analysis was followed to identify the odds ratio (OR), allele frequencies, and significant P value using Graphpad software. Results: The study revealed significant increase in frequencies of HLA-A2 (OR-3.976, P<0.0001), B8 (OR-5.647, P<0.0001), B17 (OR-5.452, P<0.0001), and B44 (OR-50.460, P<0.0001), when compared with controls. Furthermore, the frequencies of HLA-A28 (OR-0.074, P=0.0024), B5 (OR-0.059, P<0.0001), B12 (OR-0.051, P=0.0002), and B15 (OR-0.237, P=0.0230) were significantly decreased in psoriasis patients. Conclusion: This study shows the strong association of HLA-A2, B8, and B17 antigens with psoriasis conferring susceptibility to psoriasis patients from Western India, while the antigens HLA-A28, B5, and B12 show strong negative association with the disease. PMID:22121262

  2. Prevalence of carriers of premutation-size alleles of the FMR1 gene-and implications for the population genetics of the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, F.; Rouillard, P.; Morel, M.L. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the second leading cause of mental retardation after Down syndrome. Fragile X premutations are not associated with any clinical phenotype but are at high risk of expanding to full mutations causing the disease when they are transmitted by a carrier woman. There is no reliable estimate of the prevalence of women who are carriers of fragile X premutations. We have screened 10,624 unselected women by Southern blot for the presence of FMR1 premutation alleles and have confirmed their size by PCR analysis. We found 41 carriers of alleles with 55-101 CGG repeats, a prevalence of 1/259 women (95% confidence interval 1/373-1/198). Thirty percent of these alleles carry an inferred haplotype that corresponds to the most frequent haplotype found in fragile X males and may indeed constitute premutations associated with a significant risk of expansion on transmission by carrier women. We identified another inferred haplotype that is rare in both normal and fragile X chromosomes but that is present on 13 (57%) of 23 chromosomes carrying FMR1 alleles with 53-64 CGG repeats. This suggests either (1) that this haplotype may be stable or (2) that the associated premutation-size alleles have not yet reached equilibrium in this population and that the incidence of fragile X syndrome may increase in the future. 42 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Functional Analysis of the Coronary Heart Disease Risk Locus on Chromosome 21q22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Beaney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The coronary heart disease (CHD risk locus on 21q22 (lead SNP rs9982601 lies within a “gene desert.” The aim of this study was to assess if this locus is associated with CHD risk factors and to identify the functional variant(s and gene(s involved. Methods. A phenome scan was performed with UCLEB Consortium data. Allele-specific protein binding was studied using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Dual-reporter luciferase assays were used to assess the impact of genetic variation on expression. Expression quantitative trait analysis was performed with Advanced Study of Aortic Pathology (ASAP and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx consortium data. Results. A suggestive association between QT interval and the locus was observed (rs9982601  p=0.04. One variant at the locus, rs28451064, showed allele-specific protein binding and its minor allele showed 12% higher luciferase expression (p = 4.82 × 10−3 compared to the common allele. The minor allele of rs9982601 was associated with higher expression of the closest upstream genes (SLC5A3 1.30-fold increase p = 3.98 × 10−5; MRPS6 1.15-fold increase p = 9.60 × 10−4 in aortic intima media in ASAP. Both rs9982601 and rs28451064 showed a suggestive association with MRPS6 expression in relevant tissues in the GTEx data. Conclusions. A candidate functional variant, rs28451064, was identified. Future work should focus on identifying the pathway(s involved.

  4. STAT4 gene polymorphism and risk of chronic hepatitis B-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangqian; Jiang, Kai; Liang, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    STAT4 is a latent cytosolic factor that encodes a transcription factor transmitting signals stimulated by cytokines. Previous studies with different study designs in diverse ethnic populations have assessed the influence of STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism on HBV-induced HCC risk. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects in a larger sample. The individual reports published up to Dec. 30, 2013 were systematically identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases. To combine the OR and corresponding 95% CI, we used the fixed effects model during meta-analysis. Based on eight independent populations with a total of 5,719 cases and 6,525 controls, we found a slightly reduced risk of HBV-induced HCC in individuals with the minor T allele compared with individuals with the common G allele (T versus G: OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.82-0.91, P(Het) = 0.974). Similar reductions were also indicated in all subgroups. The combined data indicate that STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism may be associated with significantly reduced risk of HBV-induced HCC in Asian.

  5. A genetic risk score combining ten psoriasis risk loci improves disease prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyan Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease affecting 2-3% of Caucasians. Recent genetic association studies have identified multiple psoriasis risk loci; however, most of these loci contribute only modestly to disease risk. In this study, we investigated whether a genetic risk score (GRS combining multiple loci could improve psoriasis prediction. Two approaches were used: a simple risk alleles count (cGRS and a weighted (wGRS approach. Ten psoriasis risk SNPs were genotyped in 2815 case-control samples and 858 family samples. We found that the total number of risk alleles in the cases was significantly higher than in controls, mean 13.16 (SD 1.7 versus 12.09 (SD 1.8, p = 4.577×10(-40. The wGRS captured considerably more risk than any SNP considered alone, with a psoriasis OR for high-low wGRS quartiles of 10.55 (95% CI 7.63-14.57, p = 2.010×10(-65. To compare the discriminatory ability of the GRS models, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC. The AUC for wGRS was significantly greater than for cGRS (72.0% versus 66.5%, p = 2.13×10(-8. Additionally, the AUC for HLA-C alone (rs10484554 was equivalent to the AUC for all nine other risk loci combined (66.2% versus 63.8%, p = 0.18, highlighting the dominance of HLA-C as a risk locus. Logistic regression revealed that the wGRS was significantly associated with two subphenotypes of psoriasis, age of onset (p = 4.91×10(-6 and family history (p = 0.020. Using a liability threshold model, we estimated that the 10 risk loci account for only 11.6% of the genetic variance in psoriasis. In summary, we found that a GRS combining 10 psoriasis risk loci captured significantly more risk than any individual SNP and was associated with early onset of disease and a positive family history. Notably, only a small fraction of psoriasis heritability is captured by the common risk variants identified to date.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium between an allele at the dopamine D4 receptor locus and Tourette syndrome, by the transmission-disequilibrium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grice, D.E.; Gelernter, J. [Veterans Administration Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Leckman, J.F.; Pauls, D.L. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic multiple tics. We used the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) method to test for linkage disequilibrium between a specific allele (the seven-repeat allele (DRD4*7R) of the exon 3 VNTR polymorphic site) at the D4 dopamine receptor locus (DRD4) and expression of chronic multiple tics and TS. This particular allele had been shown in functional studies to have different binding properties compared with the other common alleles in this DRD4 polymorphic system. We studied 64 family trios (consisting of an affected person and two parents, at least one heterozygous for DRD4*7R), including 12 nuclear family trios and 52 trios from four large TS kindreds. The DRD4*7R allele was transmitted significantly more frequently than expected ({chi}{sup 2}{sub TDT} ranging from 8.47 [P < .004] to 10.80 [P = .001], depending on breadth of disease definition and inclusion or exclusion of inferred genotypes). Confirmation of this finding will depend on either replication in other samples or the identification of a transmitted functional mutation within this sample. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Iversen, Edwin S; Tyrer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association......, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10(-8)). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r (2) = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10(-8)). These data suggest...... that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene....

  8. Risk modification of colorectal cancer susceptibility by interleukin-8 -251T>A polymorphism in Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mohd Aminudin; Shahpudin, Siti Nurfatimah Mohd; Aziz, Ahmad Aizat Abdul; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-06-07

    To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies and associated risk of interleukin (IL)-8 -251T>A polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility risk. Peripheral blood samples of 255 normal controls and 255 clinically and histopathologically confirmed CRC patients were genotyped for IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The relative association of variant allele and genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk was determined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs). Corresponding χ² tests on the CRC patients and controls were carried out and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using Fisher's exact test. The allele frequencies and its risk association were calculated using FAMHAP, haplotype association analysis software. On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of patients and controls, the homozygous variant AA was significantly higher in CRC patients (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Investigation on the association of the polymorphic genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk, showed that the homozygous variant IL-8 -251AA had a significantly increased risk with OR 3.600 (95% CI: 1.550-8.481, P = 0.001). In the case of allele frequencies, variant allele A of IL-8 -251 showed a significantly increased risk of CRC predisposition with OR 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03-1.69, P = 0.003). Variant allele and genotype of IL-8 (-251T>A) was significantly associated with CRC susceptibility risk and could be considered as a high-risk variant for CRC predisposition.

  9. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  10. Whole-genome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia indicates multiple genetic risk factors for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinsong; Fan, Yu; Li, Hong; Xiang, Qun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Zongchang; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Wang, Ya; He, Fan; Zhang, Fengyu; Shugart, Yin Yao; Liu, Chunyu; Tang, Yanqing; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Yao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-06-20

    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a high heritability, but its genetic architecture is still elusive. We implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 8 families with monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia to assess potential association of de novo mutations (DNMs) or inherited variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Eight non-synonymous DNMs (including one splicing site) were identified and shared by twins, which were either located in previously reported schizophrenia risk genes (p.V24689I mutation in TTN, p.S2506T mutation in GCN1L1, IVS3+1G > T in DOCK1) or had a benign to damaging effect according to in silico prediction analysis. By searching the inherited rare damaging or loss-of-function (LOF) variants and common susceptible alleles from three classes of schizophrenia candidate genes, we were able to distill genetic alterations in several schizophrenia risk genes, including GAD1, PLXNA2, RELN and FEZ1. Four inherited copy number variations (CNVs; including a large deletion at 16p13.11) implicated for schizophrenia were identified in four families, respectively. Most of families carried both missense DNMs and inherited risk variants, which might suggest that DNMs, inherited rare damaging variants and common risk alleles together conferred to schizophrenia susceptibility. Our results support that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of multiple genetic factors, with each DNM/variant showing a relatively small effect size. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. All rights reserved.

  11. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrenson, K.; Iversen, E.S.; Tyrer, J.; Weber, R.P.; Concannon, P.; Hazelett, D.J.; Li, Q.; Marks, J.R.; Berchuck, A.; Lee, J.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Anton-Culver, H.; Antonenkova, N.; Bandera, E.V.; Bean, Y.; Beckmann, M.W.; Bisogna, M.; Bjorge, L.; Bogdanova, N.; Brinton, L.A.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Bruinsma, F.; Butzow, R.; Campbell, I.G.; Carty, K.; Chang-Claude, J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Chen, A; Chen, Z.; Cook, L.S.; Cramer, D.W; Cunningham, J.M.; Cybulski, C.; Plisiecka-Halasa, J.; Dennis, J.; Dicks, E.; Doherty, J.A.; Dork, T.; Bois, A. du; Eccles, D.; Easton, D.T.; Edwards, R.P.; Eilber, U.; Ekici, A.B.; Fasching, P.A.; Fridley, B.L.; Gao, Y.T.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Giles, G.G.; Glasspool, R.; Goode, E.L.; Goodman, M.T.; Gronwald, J.; Harter, P.; Hasmad, H.N.; Hein, A.; Heitz, F.; Hildebrandt, M.A.T.; Hillemanns, P.; Hogdall, E.; Hogdall, C.; Hosono, S.; Jakubowska, A.; Paul, J.; Jensen, A.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kjaer, S.K.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kellar, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Krakstad, C.; Lambrechts, D.; Lambrechts, S.; Le, N.D.; Lee, A.W.; Cannioto, R.; Leminen, A.; Lester, J.; Levine, D.A.; Liang, D.; Lissowska, J.; Lu, K.; Lubinski, J.; Lundvall, L.; Massuger, L.F.; Matsuo, K.; McGuire, V.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Nevanlinna, H.; McNeish, I.; Menon, U.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.B.; Narod, S.A.; Nedergaard, L.; Ness, R.B.; Azmi, M.A. Noor; Odunsi, K.; Olson, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair

  12. Haplotype analysis and a novel allele-sharing method refines a chromosome 4p locus linked to bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lee, Andrew J; Underwood, Sarah; Thomson, Pippa A; Morris, Stewart W; Torrance, Helen S; Anderson, Susan M; Adams, Richard R; Navarro, Pau; Christoforou, Andrea; Houlihan, Lorna M; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla; Owen, Michael J; Asherson, Philip; Muir, Walter J; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Wray, Naomi R; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2007-03-15

    Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are common conditions. Their causes are unknown, but they include a substantial genetic component. Previously, we described significant linkage of BPAD to a chromosome 4p locus within a large pedigree (F22). Others subsequently have found evidence for linkage of BPAD and SCZ to this region. We constructed high-resolution haplotypes for four linked families, calculated logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores, and developed a novel method to assess the extent of allele sharing within genes between the families. We describe an increase in the F22 LOD score for this region. Definition and comparison of the linked haplotypes allowed us to prioritize two subregions of 3.8 and 4.4 Mb. Analysis of the extent of allele sharing within these subregions identified 200 kb that shows increased allele sharing between families. Linkage of BPAD to chromosome 4p has been strengthened. Haplotype analysis in the additional linked families refined the 20-Mb linkage region. Development of a novel allele-sharing method allowed us to bridge the gap between conventional linkage and association studies. Description of a 200-kb region of increased allele sharing prioritizes this region, which contains two functional candidate genes for BPAD, SLC2A9, and WDR1, for subsequent studies.

  13. Origin of allelic diversity in antirrhinum S locus RNases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Carpenter, R; Dickinson, H G; Coen, E S

    1996-01-01

    In many plant species, self-incompatibility (SI) is genetically controlled by a single multiallelic S locus. Previous analysis of S alleles in the Solanaceae, in which S locus ribonucleases (S RNases) are responsible for stylar expression of SI, has demonstrated that allelic diversity predated speciation within this family. To understand how allelic diversity has evolved, we investigated the molecular basis of gametophytic SI in Antirrhinum, a member of the Scrophulariaceae, which is closely related to the Solanaceae. We have characterized three Antirrhinum cDNAs encoding polypeptides homologous to S RNases and shown that they are encoded by genes at the S locus. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Antirrhinum S RNase are primarily expressed in the stylar transmitting tissue. This expression is consistent with their proposed role in arresting the growth of self-pollen tubes. S alleles from the Scrophulariaceae form a separate group from those of the Solanaceae, indicating that new S alleles have been generated since these families separated (approximately 40 million years). We propose that the recruitment of an ancestral RNase gene into SI occurred during an early stage of angiosperm evolution and that, since that time, new alleles subsequently have arisen at a low rate. PMID:8672882

  14. Association between CFL1 gene polymorphisms and spina bifida risk in a California population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammer Edward J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CFL1 encodes human non-muscle cofilin (n-cofilin, which is an actin-depolymerizing factor and is essential in cytokinesis, endocytosis, and in the development of all embryonic tissues. Cfl1 knockout mice exhibit failure of neural tube closure at E10.5 and die in utero. We hypothesized that genetic variation within the human CFL1 gene may alter the protein's function and result in defective actin depolymerizing and cellular activity during neural tube closure. Such alterations may be associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs. Methods Having re-sequenced the human CFL1 gene and identified five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in our target population, we investigated whether there existed a possible association between the genetic variations of the CFL1 gene and risk of spina bifida. Samples were obtained from a large population-based case-control study in California. Allele association, genotype association and haplotype association were evaluated in two different ethnicity groups, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic white. Results Homozygosity for the minor alleles of the SNPs studied (rs652021, rs665306, rs667555, rs4621 and rs11227332 appeared to produce an increased risk for spina bifida. Subjects with the haplotype composed of all minor alleles (CCGGT appeared to have increased spina bifida risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9~2.9, however, this finding is not statistically significant likely due to limited sample size. Conclusion The sequence variation of human CFL1 gene is a genetic modifier for spina bifida risk in this California population.

  15. The NFKB1 ATTG ins/del polymorphism and risk of coronary heart disease in three independent populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Jensen, Majken K.; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    AimInflammation is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). A common deletion-allele in the promoter region of NFKB1 results in lower protein levels of the NF-κB p50 subunit. Recent evidence suggests that the NF-κB p50 dimer has anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate...... the association of the functional ATTG NFKB1 insertion/deletion variant with risk of CHD in three independent prospective studies of generally healthy men and women. Methods and resultsThe NFKB1 ins/del polymorphism was genotyped in studies of CHD nested within the Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) study, the Health...... Professionals Follow-up (HPFS) and the Nurses’ Health (NHS) studies, totaling 1008, 428 and 439 cases, respectively. The minor allele frequency in the combined sample was 0.38 among controls. In a pooled analysis, the relative risk (RR) among heterozygous men and women was 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07–1.40), compared...

  16. Common Variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 Genes Confer Disease Susceptibility in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Giri

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS identified association with variants in X-linked CLDN2 and MORC4, and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci with chronic pancreatitis (CP in North American patients of European ancestry. We selected 9 variants from the reported GWAS and replicated the association with CP in Indian patients by genotyping 1807 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 519 patients with CP and 1288 controls. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 83.62% and alcoholic in 16.38% of 519 patients. Our study confirmed a significant association of 2 variants in CLDN2 gene (rs4409525-OR 1.71, P = 1.38 x 10-09; rs12008279-OR 1.56, P = 1.53 x 10-04 and 2 variants in MORC4 gene (rs12688220-OR 1.72, P = 9.20 x 10-09; rs6622126-OR 1.75, P = 4.04x10-05 in Indian patients with CP. We also found significant association at PRSS1-PRSS2 locus (OR 0.60; P = 9.92 x 10-06 and SAMD12-TNFRSF11B (OR 0.49, 95% CI [0.31-0.78], P = 0.0027. A variant in the gene MORC4 (rs12688220 showed significant interaction with alcohol (OR for homozygous and heterozygous risk allele -14.62 and 1.51 respectively, P = 0.0068 suggesting gene-environment interaction. A combined analysis of the genes CLDN2 and MORC4 based on an effective risk allele score revealed a higher percentage of individuals homozygous for the risk allele in CP cases with 5.09 fold enhanced risk in individuals with 7 or more effective risk alleles compared with individuals with 3 or less risk alleles (P = 1.88 x 10-14. Genetic variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes were associated with CP in Indian patients.

  17. Identification of common variants influencing risk of the tauopathy progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Günter U; Melhem, Nadine M; Dickson, Dennis W; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Wang, Li-San; Klei, Lambertus; Rademakers, Rosa; de Silva, Rohan; Litvan, Irene; Riley, David E; van Swieten, John C; Heutink, Peter; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J; Vandrovcova, Jana; Hurtig, Howard I; Gross, Rachel G; Maetzler, Walter; Goldwurm, Stefano; Tolosa, Eduardo; Borroni, Barbara; Pastor, Pau; Cantwell, Laura B; Han, Mi Ryung; Dillman, Allissa; van der Brug, Marcel P; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Farrer, Matthew J; Yu, Chang-En; Golbe, Lawrence I; Revesz, Tamas; Hardy, John; Lees, Andrew J; Devlin, Bernie; Hakonarson, Hakon; Müller, Ulrich; Schellenberg, Gerard D

    2011-06-19

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder with prominent tau neuropathology. Brain diseases with abnormal tau deposits are called tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease. Environmental causes of tauopathies include repetitive head trauma associated with some sports. To identify common genetic variation contributing to risk for tauopathies, we carried out a genome-wide association study of 1,114 individuals with PSP (cases) and 3,247 controls (stage 1) followed by a second stage in which we genotyped 1,051 cases and 3,560 controls for the stage 1 SNPs that yielded P ≤ 10(-3). We found significant previously unidentified signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) associated with PSP risk at STX6, EIF2AK3 and MOBP. We confirmed two independent variants in MAPT affecting risk for PSP, one of which influences MAPT brain expression. The genes implicated encode proteins for vesicle-membrane fusion at the Golgi-endosomal interface, for the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response and for a myelin structural component.

  18. The common P446L polymorphism in GCKR inversely modulates fasting glucose and triglyceride levels and reduces type 2 diabetes risk in the DESIR prospective general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxillaire, Martine; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Dechaume, Aurélie; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Hepatic glucokinase (GCK) is a key regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver, where its activity is competitively modulated, with respect to glucose, by binding to glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes identified GCKR as a potential locus for modulating triglyceride levels. We evaluated, in a general French population, the contribution of the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism to quantitative metabolic parameters and to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia risk. Genotype effects of rs1260326 were studied in 4,833 participants from the prospective DESIR (Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome) cohort both at inclusion and using the measurements at follow-up. The minor T-allele of rs1260326 was strongly associated with lower fasting glucose (-1.43% per T-allele; P = 8 x 10(-13)) and fasting insulin levels (-4.23%; P = 3 x 10(-7)), lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (-5.69%; P = 1 x 10(-8)), and, conversely, higher triglyceride levels (3.41%; P = 1 x 10(-4)) during the 9-year study. These effects relate to a lower risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratio [OR] 0.79 [95% CI 0.70-0.88]; P = 4 x 10(-5)) and of incident cases during the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [0.74-0.95]; P = 0.005). Moreover, an additive effect of GCKR rs1260326(T) and GCK (-30G) alleles conferred lower fasting glycemia (P = 1 x 10(-13)), insulinemia (P = 5 x 10(-6)), and hyperglycemia risk (P = 1 x 10(-6)). GCKR-L446 carriers are protected against type 2 diabetes despite higher triglyceride levels and risk of dyslipidemia, which suggests a potential molecular mechanism by which these two components of the metabolic syndrome can be dissociated.

  19. Increased Parenchymal Damage and Steatohepatitis in Caucasian Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients with Common IL1B and IL6 Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James E.; Handa, Priya; Aouizerat, Bradley; Wilson, Laura; Vemulakonda, L Akhila; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histologic features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. Methods 604 adult (≥18 yrs) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between genotype and a definitive diagnosis and advanced histological features of NASH after controlling for the following variables selected a priori: age, sex, diabetes, obesity and HOMA-IR level. Results The IL6 rs10499563 C allele was independently associated with the presence of definitive NASH, and increased ballooning and Mallory bodies. The IL1B rs1143634 TT genotype was associated with advanced fibrosis and increased Mallory bodies. The IL6 rs1800795 C allele was associated with increased risk for severe steatosis, >66% but also decreased risk for advanced fibrosis and lobular inflammation and Mallory body formation. Conclusions These results suggest that common variants in the IL6 and IL1B genes may increase susceptibility for NASH and confer a higher risk of hepatic parenchymal damage including increased ballooning, increased Mallory bodies, and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. In contrast, the IL6 rs1800795 C allele may confer a higher risk for steatosis, but less parenchymal damage. Our findings support the development of therapeutics aimed at IL-1β and IL-6 suppression. PMID:27730688

  20. Structural Analysis of Insulin Minisatellite Alleles Reveals Unusually Large Differences in Diversity between Africans and Non-Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, John D. H.; Jeffreys, Alec J.

    2002-01-01

    The insulin minisatellite (INS VNTR) associates with susceptibility to a variety of diseases. We have developed a high-resolution system for analyzing variant repeat distributions applicable to all known minisatellite alleles, irrespective of size, which allows lineages of related alleles to be identified. This system has previously revealed extremely low structural diversity in the minisatellite among northern Europeans from the United Kingdom, with all alleles belonging to one of only three highly diverged lineages called “I,” “IIIA,” and “IIIB.” To explore the origins of this remarkably limited lineage diversity, we have characterized an additional 780 alleles from three non-African and three African populations. In total, 22 highly diverged lineages were identified, with structural intermediates absent from extant populations, suggesting a bottleneck within the ancestry of all humans. The difference between levels of diversity in Africans and non-Africans is unusually large, with all 22 lineages identified in Africa compared with only three lineages seen not only in the United Kingdom but also in the other non-African populations. We also find evidence for overrepresentation of lineage I chromosomes in non-Africans. These data are consistent with a common out-of-Africa origin and an unusually tight bottleneck within the ancestry of all non-African populations, possibly combined with differential and positive selection for lineage I alleles in non-Africans. The important implications of these data for future disease-association studies are discussed. PMID:12404181

  1. Common genetic variants associated with disease from genome-wide association studies are mutually exclusive in prostate cancer and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Gisela; Goh, Chee L; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch-Garcia, Sara; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Muir, Kenneth R; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Easton, Douglas F; Eyre, Steve; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2013-06-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The link between inflammation and cancer has long been reported and inflammation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including prostate cancer (PrCa). Over the last 5 years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported numerous susceptibility loci that predispose individuals to many different traits. The present study aims to ascertain if there are common genetic risk profiles that might predispose individuals to both PrCa and the autoimmune inflammatory condition, rheumatoid arthritis. These results could have potential public heath impact in terms of screening and chemoprevention. To investigate if potential common pathways exist for the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease and prostate cancer (PrCa). To ascertain if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as being associated with susceptibility to PrCa are also associated with susceptibility to the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The original Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) UK RA GWAS study was expanded to include a total of 3221 cases and 5272 controls. In all, 37 germline autosomal SNPs at genome-wide significance associated with PrCa risk were identified from a UK/Australian PrCa GWAS. Allele frequencies were compared for these 37 SNPs between RA cases and controls using a chi-squared trend test and corrected for multiple testing (Bonferroni). In all, 33 SNPs were able to be analysed in the RA dataset. Proxies could not be located for the SNPs in 3q26, 5p15 and for two SNPs in 17q12. After applying a Bonferroni correction for the number of SNPs tested, the SNP mapping to CCHCR1 (rs130067) retained statistically significant evidence for association (P = 6 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.24); this has also been associated with psoriasis. However, further analyses showed that the association of this allele was due to

  2. The allelic distribution of -308 Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer and control women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govan, Vandana A; Constant, Debbie; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is due to infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Although the incidence of genital HPV infection in various population groups is high, most of these regress without intervention. Investigating genetic host factors and cellular immune responses, particularly cytokines, could help to understand the association between genital HPV infection and carcinogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine plays an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and has the ability to induce the regression of human tumors. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the allelic distribution of -308 TNF-α gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer compared to control women. Included in our study were women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 244) and hospital-based controls (n = 228). All patients and controls were from mixed race and black population groups in South Africa. The detection of a bi-allelic -308 (A/G) polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-α was investigated using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both patients and controls into two South African ethnic population groups. In this study we observed no association between the distribution of -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of developing cervical cancer even after combining the data from the two ethnic populations (X 2 = 2.26). In addition, using the chi-squared test we found no significant association between the known risk factors for cervical cancer and the allele distribution of -308 TNF-α. However, the frequency of the rare high-producing allele -308A of TNF-α was significantly lower in the South African population when compared to Caucasians and Chinese population groups. We demonstrated no association between -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer among two

  3. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER......'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk....

  4. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the

  5. Allele and genotype frequencies of -β lactoglobulin gene in Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Blood samples were supplied from 80 Najdi cattle and 80 buffalo from different cities of Khouzestan province. ... The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both. Najdi cattle and buffalo. .... that of the B allele in both groups of animals studied. Expected heterozygosity ...

  6. The type 2 diabetes associated minor allele of rs2237895 KCNQ1 associates with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Holmkvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the potassium channel, voltage-gated, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1 have recently been reported to associate with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the putative impact of these KCNQ1 polymorphisms (rs2283228, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897 on estimates of glucose stimulated insulin release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes were examined for associations with serum insulin levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in a population-based sample of 6,039 middle-aged and treatment-naïve individuals. Insulin release indices estimated from the OGTT and the interplay between insulin sensitivity and insulin release were investigated using linear regression and Hotelling T2 analyses. Applying an additive genetic model the minor C-allele of rs2237895 was associated with reduced serum insulin levels 30 min (mean+/-SD: (CC 277+/-160 vs. (AC 280+/-164 vs. (AA 299+/-200 pmol/l, p = 0.008 after an oral glucose load, insulinogenic index (29.6+/-17.4 vs. 30.2+/-18.7vs. 32.2+/-22.1, p = 0.007, incremental area under the insulin curve (20,477+/-12,491 vs. 20,503+/-12,386 vs. 21,810+/-14,685, p = 0.02 among the 4,568 individuals who were glucose tolerant. Adjustment for the degree of insulin sensitivity had no effect on the measures of reduced insulin release. The rs2237895 genotype had a similar impact in the total sample of treatment-naïve individuals. No association with measures of insulin release were identified for the less common diabetes risk alleles of rs2237892, rs2237897, or rs2283228. CONCLUSION: The minor C-allele of rs2237895 of KCNQ1, which has a prevalence of about 42% among Caucasians was associated with reduced measures of insulin release following an oral glucose load suggesting that the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, previously reported for this variant, likely is mediated through an impaired beta cell function.

  7. Clinical utility of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism for breast cancer risk prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Mohammad Naushad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the issues in translating the laboratory derived data obtained during discovery phase of research to a clinical setting using a breast cancer model. Laboratory-based risk assessment indi-cated that a family history of breast cancer, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1 G80A, thymidylate synthase (TYMS 5’-UTR 28bp tandem repeat, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and catecholamine-O-methyl transferase (COMT genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolic pathway increase the risk for breast cancer. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII C1561T and cytosolic serine hydroxymethyl transferase (cSHMT C1420T polymorphisms were found to decrease breast cancer risk. In order to test the clinical validity of this information in the risk prediction of breast cancer, data was stratified based on number of protective alleles into four categories and in each category sensitivity and 1-specificity values were obtained based on the distribution of number of risk alleles in cases and controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted and the area under ROC curve (C was used as a measure of discriminatory ability between cases and controls. In subjects without any protective allele, aberrations in one-carbon metabolism showed perfect prediction (C=0.93 while the predictability was lost in subjects with one protective allele (C=0.60. However, predictability increased steadily with increasing number of protective alleles (C=0.63 for 2 protective alleles and C=0.71 for 3 protective alleles. The cut-off point for discrimination was >4 alleles in all predictable combinations. Models of this kind can serve as valuable tools in translational re-search, especially in identifying high-risk individuals and reducing the disease risk either by life style modification or by medical intervention.

  8. siRNA-mediated Allele-specific Silencing of a COL6A3 Mutation in a Cellular Model of Dominant Ullrich Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bolduc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD is a severe disorder of early childhood onset for which currently there is no effective treatment. UCMD commonly is caused by dominant-negative mutations in the genes coding for collagen type VI, a major microfibrillar component of the extracellular matrix surrounding the muscle fibers. To explore RNA interference (RNAi as a potential therapy for UCMD, we designed a series of small interfering RNA (siRNA oligos that specifically target the most common mutations resulting in skipping of exon 16 in the COL6A3 gene and tested them in UCMD-derived dermal fibroblasts. Transcript analysis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that two of these siRNAs were the most allele-specific, i.e., they efficiently knocked down the expression from the mutant allele, without affecting the normal allele. In HEK293T cells, these siRNAs selectively suppressed protein expression from a reporter construct carrying the mutation, with no or minimal suppression of the wild-type (WT construct, suggesting that collagen VI protein levels are as also reduced in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we found that treating UCMD fibroblasts with these siRNAs considerably improved the quantity and quality of the collagen VI matrix, as assessed by confocal microscopy. Our current study establishes RNAi as a promising molecular approach for treating dominant COL6-related dystrophies.

  9. Apolipoprotein E e4 allele does not increase the risk of early postoperative delirium after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Fernando José; Fernandes, Vera; Botelho, Miguela; Santos, Patricia; Santos, Alice; Machado, J C; Barros, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A relationship between patients with a genetic predisposition to and those who develop postoperative delirium has not been yet determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (APOE4) and delirium after major surgery. METHODS: Of 230 intensive care patients admitted to the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) over a period of 3 months, 173 were enrolled in the study. Patients' demographics and intra- and postoperative data were collected. Patients were followed for the development of delirium using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, and DNA was obtained at PACU admission to determine apolipoprotein E genotype. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of patients developed delirium after surgery. Twenty-four patients had one copy of APOE4. The presence of APOE4 was not associated with an increased risk of early postoperative delirium (4% vs. 17%; P = 0.088). The presence of APOE4 was not associated with differences in any studied variables. Multivariate analysis identified age [odds ratio (OR) 9.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-43.0, P = 0.004 for age ≥65 years), congestive heart disease (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.0-19.3, P = 0.002), and emergency surgery (OR 59.7, 95% CI 6.7-530.5, P < 0.001) as independent predictors for development of delirium. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) and The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) were significantly higher in patients with delirium (P < 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Hospital mortality rates of these patients was higher and they had a longer median PACU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Apolipoprotein e4 carrier status was not associated with an increased risk for early postoperative delirium. Age, congestive heart failure, and emergency surgery were independent risk factors for the development of delirium after major surgery.

  10. S-allele diversity in Sorbus aucuparia and Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae: Maloideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspé, O; Kohn, J R

    2002-06-01

    RT-PCR was used to obtain the first estimates from natural populations of allelic diversity at the RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in the Rosaceae. A total of 20 alleles were retrieved from 20 Sorbus aucuparia individuals, whereas 17 alleles were found in 13 Crataegus monogyna samples. Estimates of population-level allele numbers fall within the range observed in the Solanaceae, the only other family with RNase-based incompatibility for which estimates are available. The nucleotide diversity of S-allele sequences was found to be much lower in the two Rosaceae species as compared with the Solanaceae. This was not due to a lower sequence divergence among most closely related alleles. Rather, it is the depth of the entire genealogy that differs markedly in the two families, with Rosaceae S-alleles exhibiting more recent apparent coalescence. We also investigated patterns of selection at the molecular level by comparing nucleotide diversity at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. Stabilizing selection was inferred for the 5' region of the molecule, while evidence of diversifying selection was present elsewhere.

  11. Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekar, Aswin; Bialas, Allison R; de Rivera, Heather

    2016-01-01

    to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia...

  12. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, R.; Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common...

  13. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common

  14. Association mapping and favourable QTL alleles for fibre quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Guang Dong

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 allele loci, and 403 ... identified as containing favourable allele loci related to fibre quality traits. The identified .... environment. Field management followed respective local practices.

  15. Increased parenchymal damage and steatohepatitis in Caucasian non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients with common IL1B and IL6 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J E; Handa, P; Aouizerat, B; Wilson, L; Vemulakonda, L A; Yeh, M M; Kowdley, K V

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histological features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. A total of 604 adult (≥18 years) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between genotype and a definitive diagnosis and advanced histological features of NASH after controlling for the following variables selected a priori: age, sex, diabetes, obesity and HOMA-IR level. The IL6 rs10499563 C allele was independently associated with the presence of definitive NASH, and increased ballooning and Mallory bodies. The IL1B rs1143634 TT genotype was associated with advanced fibrosis and increased Mallory bodies. The IL6 rs1800795 C allele was associated with not only increased risk for severe steatosis, >66% but also decreased risk for advanced fibrosis and lobular inflammation and Mallory body formation. These results suggest that common variants in the IL6 and IL1B genes may increase susceptibility for NASH and confer a higher risk of hepatic parenchymal damage including increased ballooning, increased Mallory bodies, and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. In contrast, the IL6 rs1800795 C allele may confer a higher risk for steatosis, but less parenchymal damage. Our findings support the development of therapeutics aimed at IL-1β and IL-6 suppression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival: evidence from the Long Life Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina; Arbeeva, Liubov; Wu, Deqing; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Christensen, Kaare; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2016-11-01

    The apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a classic example of a gene exhibiting pleiotropism. We examine potential pleiotropic associations of the apoE2 allele in three biodemographic cohorts of long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses from the Long Life Family Study, and intermediate mechanisms, which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis detected favorable associations of the ε2 allele with lower LDL-C levels, lower risks of HD, and better survival. The ε2 allele was associated with LDL-C in each gender and biodemographic cohort, including long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses, resulting in highly significant association in the entire sample (β = -7.1, p = 6.6 × 10 -44 ). This allele was significantly associated with HD in long-living individuals and offspring (relative risk [RR] = 0.60, p = 3.1 × 10 -6 ) but this association was not mediated by LDL-C. The protective effect on survival was specific for long-living women but it was not explained by LDL-C and HD in the adjusted model (RR = 0.70, p = 2.1 × 10 -2 ). These results show that ε2 allele may favorably influence LDL-C, HD, and survival through three mechanisms. Two of them (HD- and survival-related) are pronounced in the long-living parents and their offspring; the survival-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care and personalized medicine.

  17. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). Methods To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). Conclusions The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22348646

  18. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  19. Allele Frequency - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd 39 SNPs are assayed in three (POP_*) and two (RIKEN_japanese_*) panels, respectively. Derived from Flat f... assay (JBIC-allele and RIKEN_japanese_*), TaqMan assay (RIKEN-allele) or direct sequencing / allelic discri...unteers under informed consent RIKEN_japanese_normal_weight - 711 unrelated japanese normal weight volunteer...s ( body mass index RIKEN_japanese_obese - 796 unrelated japanese obese patients

  20. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  1. Allelic Imbalance Is a Prevalent and Tissue-Specific Feature of the Mouse Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Stefan F.; Colognori, David; Beliveau, Brian J.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Payer, Bernhard; Yildirim, Eda; Wu, Chao-ting; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, several classes of monoallelic genes have been identified, including those subject to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and random monoallelic expression (RMAE). However, the extent to which these epigenetic phenomena are influenced by underlying genetic variation is unknown. Here we perform a systematic classification of allelic imbalance in mouse hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses of divergent strains. We observe that deviation from balanced biallelic expression is common, occurring in ∼20% of the mouse transcriptome in a given tissue. Allelic imbalance attributed to genotypic variation is by far the most prevalent class and typically is tissue-specific. However, some genotype-based imbalance is maintained across tissues and is associated with greater genetic variation, especially in 5′ and 3′ termini of transcripts. We further identify novel random monoallelic and imprinted genes and find that genotype can modify penetrance of parental origin even in the setting of large imprinted regions. Examination of nascent transcripts in single cells from inbred parental strains reveals that genes showing genotype-based imbalance in hybrids can also exhibit monoallelic expression in isogenic backgrounds. This surprising observation may suggest a competition between alleles and/or reflect the combined impact of cis- and trans-acting variation on expression of a given gene. Our findings provide novel insights into gene regulation and may be relevant to human genetic variation and disease. PMID:25858912

  2. HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with polymyalgia rheumatica in northern Italy: correlation with disease severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, C.; Boiardi, L.; Mantovani, V.; Ranzi, A.; Cantini, F.; Olivieri, I.; Bragliani, M.; Collina, E.; Macchioni, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in a Mediterranean country and to explore the role of HLA-DRB1 genes in determining disease severity.
METHODS—A five year prospective follow up study of 92 consecutive PMR patients diagnosed by the secondary referral centre of rheumatology of Reggio Emilia, Italy was conducted. HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined in the 92 patients, in 29 DR4 positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and in 148 controls from the same geographical area by polymerase chain reaction amplification and oligonucleotide hybridisation.
RESULTS—No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 types and in the expression of HLA-DRB 70-74 shared motif between PMR and controls. The frequency of the patients with double dose of epitope was low and not significantly different in PMR and in controls. No significant differences in the distribution of HLA-DR4 subtypes were observed between DR4+ PMR, DR+ RA, and DR4+ controls. Results of the univariate analysis indicated that an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at diagnosis > 72 mm 1st h, the presence of HLA-DR1, DR10, rheumatoid epitope, and the type of rheumatoid epitope were significant risk factors associated with relapse/recurrence. Cox proportional hazards modelling identified two variables that independently increased the risk of relapse/recurrence: ESR at diagnosis > 72 mm 1st h (RR=1.5) and type 2 (encoded by a non-DR4 allele) rheumatoid epitope (RR=2.7).
CONCLUSION—These data from a Mediterranean country showed no association of rheumatoid epitope with PMR in northern Italian patients. A high ESR at diagnosis and the presence of rheumatoid epitope encoded by a non-DR4 allele are independent valuable markers of disease severity.

 PMID:10225816

  3. Persistent HPV16/18 infection in Indian women with the A-allele (rs6457617) of HLA-DQB1 and T-allele (rs16944) of IL-1β -511 is associated with development of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sankhadeep; Chakraborty, Chandraditya; Mandal, Ranajit Kumar; Basu, Partha; Biswas, Jaydip; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 infection and polymorphisms in the HLA-DQB1 (rs6457617) and IL-1β -511 (rs16944) loci with the development of uterine cervical cancer (CaCx). The distribution of HLA-DQB1 G > A and IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphisms was determined in HPV-negative cervical swabs from normal women (N = 111) and compared with cervical swabs of HPV-cleared normal women (once HPV infected followed by natural clearance of the infection, N = 86), HPV16/18-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, N = 41) and CaCx biopsies (N = 107). The A-allele containing genotypes (i.e. G/A and A/A) of HLA-DQB1 was significantly associated with CaCx compared with HPV-negative [OR = 2.56(1.42-4.62), p = 0.001] or HPV-cleared [OR = 2.07(1.12-3.87), p = 0.01] normal women, whereas the T-allele containing genotypes (i.e. C/T and T/T) of IL-1β showed increased risk of CIN [OR = 3.68(0.97-16.35), p = 0.03; OR = 3.59(0.92-16.38), p = 0.03] and CaCx development [OR = 2.03(1.03-5.2), p = 0.02; OR = 2.25(0.96-5.31), p = 0.04] compared with HPV-negative or HPV-cleared normal women. Considering these two loci together, it was evident that the T- and A-alleles rendered significantly increased susceptibility for development of CIN and CaCx compared with HPV-negative and HPV-cleared normal women. Moreover, the T-allele of IL-1β showed increased susceptibility for CIN [OR = 3.62(0.85-17.95), p = 0.04] and CaCx [OR = 2.39(0.91-6.37), p = 0.05] development compared with the HPV-cleared women, even in the presence of the HLA-DQB1 G-allele. Thus, our data suggest that persistent HPV16/18 infection in the cervix due to the presence of the HLA-DQB1 A-allele and chronic inflammation due to the presence of the IL-1β -511 T-allele might predispose women to CaCx development.

  4. Polymorphisms in the TNFA and IL6 genes represent risk factors for autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Durães

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD comprises diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, both characterized by reactivity to autoantigens causing, respectively, inflammatory destruction and autoimmune stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. AITD is the most common thyroid disease and the leading form of autoimmune disease in women. Cytokines are key regulators of the immune and inflammatory responses; therefore, genetic variants at cytokine-encoding genes are potential risk factors for AITD.Polymorphisms in the IL6-174 G/C (rs1800795, TNFA-308 G/A (rs1800629, IL1B-511 C/T (rs16944, and IFNGR1-56 T/C (rs2234711 genes were assessed in a case-control study comprising 420 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, 111 Graves' disease patients and 735 unrelated controls from Portugal. Genetic variants were discriminated by real-time PCR using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.A significant association was found between the allele A in TNFA-308 G/A and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, both in the dominant (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.37-2.43, p-value = 4.4×10(-5 and log-additive (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.28-2.10, p-value = 8.2×10(-5 models. The allele C in IL6-174 G/C is also associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, however, only retained significance after multiple testing correction in the log-additive model (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.06-1.54, p-value = 8.9×10(-3. The group with Graves' disease also registered a higher frequency of the allele A in TNFA-308 G/A compared with controls both in the dominant (OR = 1.85, CI = 1.19-2.87, p-value = 7.0×10(-3 and log-additive (OR = 1.69, CI = 1.17-2.44, p-value = 6.6×10(-3 models. The risk for Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease increases with the number of risk alleles (OR for two risk alleles is, respectively, 2.27 and 2.59.This study reports significant associations of genetic variants in TNFA and IL6 with the risk for AITD, highlighting the

  5. CYP3A4 allelic variants with amino acid substitutions in exons 7 and 12: evidence for an allelic variant with altered catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, F; Sapone, A; Elizondo, G; Stocker, P; Miller, V P; Zheng, W; Raunio, H; Crespi, C L; Gonzalez, F J

    2000-01-01

    To determine the existence of mutant and variant CgammaP3A4 alleles in three racial groups and to assess functions of the variant alleles by complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) expression. A bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the complete CgammaP3A4 gene was isolated and the exons and surrounding introns were directly sequenced to develop primers to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify and sequence the gene from lymphocyte DNA. DNA samples from Chinese, black, and white subjects were screened. Mutating the affected amino acid in the wild-type cDNA and expressing the variant enzyme with use of the baculovirus system was used to functionally evaluate the variant allele having a missense mutation. To investigate the existence of mutant and variant CgammaP3A4 alleles in humans, all 13 exons and the 5'-flanking region of the human CgammaP3A4 gene in three racial groups were sequenced and four alleles were identified. An A-->G point mutation in the 5'-flanking region of the human CgammaP3A4 gene, designated CgammaP3A4*1B, was found in the three different racial groups. The frequency of this allele in a white population was 4.2%, whereas it was 66.7% in black subjects. The CgammaP3A4*1B allele was not found in Chinese subjects. A second variant allele, designated CgammaP3A4*2, having a Ser222Pro change, was found at a frequency of 2.7% in the white population and was absent in the black subjects and Chinese subjects analyzed. Baculovirus-directed cDNA expression revealed that the CYP3A4*2 P450 had a lower intrinsic clearance for the CYP3A4 substrate nifedipine compared with the wild-type enzyme but was not significantly different from the wild-type enzyme for testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. Another rare allele, designated CgammaP3A4*3, was found in a single Chinese subject who had a Met445Thr change in the conserved heme-binding region of the P450. These are the first examples of potential function polymorphisms resulting from missense mutations in

  6. Beneficial role of D allele in controlling ACE levels: a study among Brahmins of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shobha; Sharma, Nidhi; Thakur, Sunil; Mondal, Prakash R; Saraswathy, Kallur N

    2016-06-01

    India being a country with vast diversity is expected to have different dietary and life style patterns which in turn may lead to population-specific environmental risk factors. Further, the interaction of these risk factors with the genetic makeup of population makes it either susceptible or resistant to cardiovascular disease. One such candidate gene is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) for various cardiovascular mechanisms. ACE is the key enzyme of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system pathway which maintains homeostasis blood pressure in the body and any variation in the levels is reported to be associated with various complex diseases. The DD genotype is found to increase ACE levels, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases and decrease in ACE levels are associated with kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE levels among Brahmins of National Capital Region (NCR) north India, with respect to age and sex ratio distribution. In this study, 136 subjects of which 50 males and 86 females, who were unrelated up to first cousin, aged 25 to70 years were studied. ACE gene was found to be polymorphic with high frequency of heterozygote (ID) followed by II and DD genotypes. The studied population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to ACE I/D polymorphism (P = 0.55). I allele frequency was found to be higher (0.560) than the D allele (0.44). The median level of ACE was found to be 65.96 ng/mL (48.12-86.24) which is towards lower side of the normal range. ACE levels were found to be increased among individual having either of the homozygotes that is II or DD and higher frequency of heterozygote (ID) is indicative of advantage in the population by maintaining lower ACE levels. The limitation of the present study is low sample size, however, the merit is that the subjects belonged to a Mendalian population with a common gene pool.

  7. Mutation rate heterogeneity and the generation of allele diversity at the human minisatellite MS205 (D16S309).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C A; Jeffreys, A J; Armour, J A

    1996-11-01

    Many tandemly repeated minisatellite loci display extreme levels of length variation as a consequence of high rates of spontaneous germline mutation altering repeat copy number. Direct screening for new allele lengths by small-pool PCR has shown that instability at the human minisatellite locus MS205 (D16S309) is largely germline specific and usually results in the gain or loss of just a few repeat units. Structural analysis of the order of variant repeats has shown that these events occur preferentially at one end of the tandem array and can result in complex rearrangements including the inter-allelic transfer of repeat units. In contrast, putative mutants recovered from somatic DNA occur at a substantially lower rate and are simple and non-polar in nature. Germline mutation rates vary considerably between alleles, consistent with regulation occurring in cis. Although examination of DNA sequence polymorphisms immediately flanking the minisatellite reveals no definitive associations with germline mutation rate variation, differences in rate may be paralleled by changes in mutation spectrum. These findings help to explain the diversity of MS205 allele structures in modern humans and suggest a common mutation pathway with some other minisatellites.

  8. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  9. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell ... alleles were more resistant to clinical mastitis. ... DRB3.2 allele pattern in two Iranian Holstein cow .... observed and the number of immune parameters with.

  10. Tri-allelic SNP markers enable analysis of mixed and degraded DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Antoinette A; Matai, Anuska S; Laros, Jeroen F J; Meiland, Hugo C; Jasper, Mandy; de Leeuw, Wiljo J F; de Knijff, Peter; Sijen, Titia

    2009-09-01

    For the analysis of degraded DNA in disaster victim identification (DVI) and criminal investigations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been recognized as promising markers mainly because they can be analyzed in short sized amplicons. Most SNPs are bi-allelic and are thereby ineffective to detect mixtures, which may lead to incorrect genotyping. We developed an algorithm to find non-binary (i.e. tri-allelic or tetra-allelic) SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP database. We selected 31 potential tri-allelic SNPs with a minor allele frequency of at least 10%. The tri-allelic nature was confirmed for 15 SNPs residing on 14 different chromosomes. Multiplex SNaPshot assays were developed, and the allele frequencies of 16 SNPs were determined among 153 Dutch and 111 Netherlands Antilles reference samples. Using these multiplex SNP assays, the presence of a mixture of two DNA samples in a ratio up to 1:8 could be recognized reliably. Furthermore, we compared the genotyping efficiency of the tri-allelic SNP markers and short tandem repeat (STR) markers by analyzing artificially degraded DNA and DNA from 30 approximately 500-year-old bone and molar samples. In both types of degraded DNA samples, the larger sized STR amplicons failed to amplify whereas the tri-allelic SNP markers still provided valuable information. In conclusion, tri-allelic SNP markers are suited for the analysis of degraded DNA and enable the detection of a second DNA source in a sample.

  11. Association of MMP7 -181A→G Promoter Polymorphism with Gastric Cancer Risk: INFLUENCE OF NICOTINE IN DIFFERENTIAL ALLELE-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION VIA INCREASED PHOSPHORYLATION OF cAMP-RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN (CREB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesh, Kousik; Subramanian, Lakshmi; Ghosh, Nillu; Gupta, Vinayak; Gupta, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Samir; Mahapatra, Nitish R; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2015-06-05

    Elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase7 (MMP7) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in cancer invasion. The -181A→G (rs11568818) polymorphism in the MMP7 promoter modulates gene expression and possibly affects cancer progression. Here, we evaluated the impact of -181A→G polymorphism on MMP7 promoter activity and its association with gastric cancer risk in eastern Indian case-control cohorts (n = 520). The GG genotype as compared with the AA genotype was predisposed (p = 0.02; odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-3.3) to gastric cancer risk. Stratification analysis showed that tobacco addiction enhanced gastric cancer risk in GG subjects when compared with AA subjects (p = 0.03, odds ratio = 2.46, and 95% confidence interval = 1.07-5.68). Meta-analysis revealed that tobacco enhanced the risk for cancer more markedly in AG and GG carriers. Activity and expression of MMP7 were significantly higher in GG than in AA carriers. In support, MMP7 promoter-reporter assays showed greater transcriptional activity toward A to G transition under basal/nicotine-induced/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) overexpressed conditions in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Moreover, nicotine (a major component of tobacco) treatment significantly up-regulated MMP7 expression due to enhanced CREB phosphorylation followed by its nuclear translocation in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed higher binding of phosphorylated CREB with the -181G than the -181A allele. Altogether, specific binding of phosphorylated CREB to the G allele-carrying promoter enhances MMP7 gene expression that is further augmented by nicotine due to increased CREB phosphorylation and thereby increases the risk for gastric cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A high-throughput method for genotyping S-RNase alleles in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new efficient screening tool for detection of S-alleles in apple. The protocol using general and multiplexed primers for PCR reaction and fragment detection on an automatized capillary DNA sequencer exposed a higher number of alleles than any previous studies. Analysis of alleles...

  13. Structural comparisons of two allelic variants of human placental alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J L; Stigbrand, T; Jörnvall, H

    1985-01-01

    A simple immunosorbent purification scheme based on monoclonal antibodies has been devised for human placental alkaline phosphatase. The two most common allelic variants, S and F, have similar amino acid compositions with identical N-terminal amino acid sequences through the first 13 residues. Both variants have identical lectin binding properties towards concanavalin A, lentil-lectin, wheat germ agglutinin, phytohemagglutinin and soybean agglutinin, and identical carbohydrate contents as revealed by methylation analysis. CNBr fragments of the variants demonstrate identical high performance liquid chromatography patterns. The carbohydrate containing fragment is different from the 32P-labeled active site fragment and the N-terminal fragment.

  14. Common genetic polymorphisms of microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Hyuna; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Jeon, Sujee; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Han, Sohee; Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of microRNA’s (miRNA’s) biogenesis pathway genes in cancer development and progression has been well established, the association between genetic variants of this pathway genes and breast cancer survival is still unknown. We used genotype data available from a previously conducted case–control study to investigate association between common genetic variations in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival. We investigated the possible associations between 41 germ-line single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and both disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among 488 breast cancer patients. During the median follow-up of 6.24 years, 90 cases developed disease progression and 48 cases died. Seven SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer survival. Two SNPs in AGO2 (rs11786030 and rs2292779) and DICER1 rs1057035 were associated with both DFS and OS. Two SNPs in HIWI (rs4759659 and rs11060845) and DGCR8 rs9606250 were associated with DFS, while DROSHA rs874332 and GEMIN4 rs4968104 were associated with only OS. The most significant association was observed in variant allele of AGO2 rs11786030 with 2.62-fold increased risk of disease progression (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-4.88) and in minor allele homozygote of AGO2 rs2292779 with 2.94-fold increased risk of death (95% CI, 1.52-5.69). We also found cumulative effects of SNPs on DFS and OS. Compared to the subjects carrying 0 to 2 high-risk genotypes, those carrying 3 or 4–6 high-risk genotypes had an increased risk of disease progression with a hazard ratio of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.18- 3.93) and 4.47 (95% CI, 2.45- 8.14), respectively (P for trend, 6.11E-07). Our results suggest that genetic variants in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may be associated with breast cancer survival. Further studies in larger sample size and functional characterizations are warranted to validate these results

  15. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Emma L; Elliott, Faye; Forman, David; Barrett, Jennifer H; Wilkie, Murray J V; Carey, Francis A; Steele, Robert J C; Wolf, Roland; Bishop, Timothy; Smith, Gillian

    2010-05-01

    We have earlier shown that diet and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genotypes influence colorectal cancer risk, and now investigate whether similar associations are seen in patients with premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA), recruited during the pilot phase of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. Nineteen polymorphisms in 13 genes [cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyl transferase, quinone reductase (NQ01) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes] were genotyped using multiplex PCR or Taqman-based allelic discrimination assays and analyzed in conjunction with diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, in a case-control study [317 CRA cases (308 cases genotyped), 296 controls]. Findings significant at a nominal 5% level are reported. CRA risk was inversely associated with fruit (P=0.02, test for trend) and vegetable (P=0.001, test for trend) consumption. P450 CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes had reduced CRA risk compared with homozygotes for the reference allele [odds ratio (OR): 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.99], whereas CYP2D6*4 homozygotes (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.18-6.27) and GSTM1 'null' individuals (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04-1.98) were at increased risk. The protective effect of fruit consumption was confined to GSTP1 (Ala114Val) reference allele homozygotes (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P=0.03 for interaction). CRA risk was not associated with meat consumption, although a significant interaction between red meat consumption and EPHX1 (His139Arg) genotype was noted (P=0.02 for interaction). We report the novel associations between P450 genotype and CRA risk, and highlight the risk association with GSTM1 genotype, common to our CRA and cancer case-control series. In addition, we report a novel modifying influence of GSTP1 genotype on dietary chemoprevention. These novel findings require independent confirmation.

  16. Allelic heterogeneity and genetic modifier loci contribute to clinical variation in males with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa due to RPGR mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T Fahim

    Full Text Available Mutations in RPGR account for over 70% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XlRP, characterized by retinal degeneration and eventual blindness. The clinical consequences of RPGR mutations are highly varied, even among individuals with the same mutation: males demonstrate a wide range of clinical severity, and female carriers may or may not be affected. This study describes the phenotypic diversity in a cohort of 98 affected males from 56 families with RPGR mutations, and demonstrates the contribution of genetic factors (i.e., allelic heterogeneity and genetic modifiers to this diversity. Patients were categorized as grade 1 (mild, 2 (moderate or 3 (severe according to specific clinical criteria. Patient DNAs were genotyped for coding SNPs in 4 candidate modifier genes with products known to interact with RPGR protein: RPGRIP1, RPGRIP1L, CEP290, and IQCB1. Family-based association testing was performed using PLINK. A wide range of clinical severity was observed both between and within families. Patients with mutations in exons 1-14 were more severely affected than those with ORF15 mutations, and patients with predicted null alleles were more severely affected than those predicted to make RPGR protein. Two SNPs showed association with severe disease: the minor allele (N of I393N in IQCB1 (p = 0.044 and the common allele (R of R744Q in RPGRIP1L (p = 0.049. These data demonstrate that allelic heterogeneity contributes to phenotypic diversity in XlRP and suggest that this may depend on the presence or absence of RPGR protein. In addition, common variants in 2 proteins known to interact with RPGR are associated with severe disease in this cohort.

  17. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cance...

  18. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickels, S.; Truong, T.; Hein, R.; Stevens, K.; Buck, K.; Behrens, S.; Eilber, U.; Schmidt, M.; Haberle, L.; Vrieling, A.; Gaudet, M.; Figueroa, J.; Schoof, N.; Spurdle, A.B.; Rudolph, A.; Fasching, P.A.; Hopper, J.L.; Makalic, E.; Schmidt, D.F.; Southey, M.C.; Beckmann, M.W.; Ekici, A.B.; Fletcher, O.; Gibson, L.; Idos, S. Silva; Peto, J.; Humphreys, M.K.; Wang, J; Cordina-Duverger, E.; Menegaux, F.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Bojesen, S.E.; Lanng, C.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Bernstein, L.; Clarke, C.A.; Brenner, H.; Muller, H.; Arndt, V.; Stegmaier, C.; Brauch, H.; Bruning, T.; Harth, V.; Genica, N.; Mannermaa, A.; Kataja, V.; Kosma, V.M.; Hartikainen, J.M.; Lambrechts, D.; Smeets, D.; Neven, P.; Paridaens, R.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Obi, N.; Wang-Gohrke, S.; Couch, F.J.; Olson, J.E.; Vachon, C.M.; Giles, G.G.; Severi, G.; Baglietto, L.; Offit, K.; John, E.M.; Miron, A.; Andrulis, I.L.; Knight, J.A.; Glendon, G.; Mulligan, A.M.; Chanock, S.J.; Lissowska, J.; Liu, J.; Cox, A; Cramp, H.; Connley, D.; Balasubramanian, S.; Dunning, A.M.; Shah, M.; Trentham-Dietz, A.; Newcomb, P.; Titus, L.; Egan, K.; Cahoon, E.K.; Rajaraman, P.; Sigurdson, A.J.; Doody, M.M.; Guenel, P.; Pharoah, P.D.; Schmidt, M.K.; Hall, P.; Easton, D.F.; Garcia-Closas, M.; Milne, R.L.; Chang-Claude, J.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer.

  19. Risk factors for common mental disorders in women. Population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Weiss, Helen; Mabey, David

    2006-12-01

    The determinants of common mental disorders in women have not been described in longitudinal studies from a low-income country. Population-based cohort study of 2494 women aged 18 to 50 years, in India. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the detection of common mental disorders. There were 39 incident cases of common mental disorder in 2166 participants eligible for analysis (12-month rate 1.8%, 95% CI 1.3-2.4%). The following baseline factors were independently associated with the risk for common mental disorder: poverty (low income and having difficulty making ends meet); being married as compared with being single; use of tobacco; experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge; reporting a chronic physical illness; and having higher psychological symptom scores at baseline. Programmes to reduce the burden of common mental disorder in women should target poorer women, women with chronic physical illness and who have gynaecological symptoms, and women who use tobacco.

  20. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  1. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a family with mosaicism and hypomorphic allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Jana; Štekrová, Jitka; Merta, Miroslav; Kotlas, Jaroslav; Elišáková, Veronika; Lněnička, Petr; Korabečná, Marie; Kohoutová, Milada; Tesař, Vladimír

    2013-03-15

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common form of inherited kidney disease that results in renal failure. ADPKD is a systemic disorder with cysts and connective tissue abnormalities involving many organs. ADPKD caused by mutations in PKD1 gene is significantly more severe than the cases caused by PKD2 gene mutations. The large intra-familial variability of ADPKD highlights a role for genetic background. Here we report a case of ADPKD family initially appearing unlinked to the PKD1 or PKD2 loci and the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele on the variability of the clinical course of the disease. A grandmother with the PKD1 gene mutation in mosaicism (p.Val1105ArgfsX4) and with mild clinical course of ADPKD (end stage renal failure at the age of 77) seemed to have ADPKD because of PKD2 gene mutation. On the other hand, her grandson had a severe clinical course (end stage renal disease at the age of 45) in spite of the early treatment of mild hypertension. There was found by mutational analysis of PKD genes that the severe clinical course was caused by PKD1 gene frameshifting mutation inherited from his father and mildly affected grandmother in combination with inherited hypomorphic PKD1 allele with described missense mutation (p.Thr2250Met) from his clinically healthy mother. The sister with two cysts and with PKD1 hypomorphic allele became the kidney donor to her severely affected brother. We present the first case of ADPKD with the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele of the PKD1 gene on clinical course of ADPKD in one family. Moreover, this report illustrates the role of molecular genetic testing in assessing young related kidney donors for patients with ADPKD.

  2. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal Changes in Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding in Short Serotonin Transporter Linked Polymorphic Region-Allele Carriers but Not in Long-Allele Homozygotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus K

    2010-01-01

    of the short 5-HTTLPR allele but not in homozygote carriers of the long allele. Conclusions: Our findings are in line with S-carriers having an increased response in neural circuits involved in emotional processing to stressful environmental stimuli but here demonstrated as a endophenotype with dynamic changes...

  4. Meal frequencies modify the effect of common genetic variants on body mass index in adolescents of the northern Finland birth cohort 1986.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jääskeläinen

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that meal frequencies influence the risk of obesity in children and adolescents. It has also been shown that multiple genetic loci predispose to obesity already in youth. However, it is unknown whether meal frequencies could modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the risk of obesity. We examined the effect of two meal patterns on weekdays -5 meals including breakfast (regular and ≤ 4 meals with or without breakfast (meal skipping - on the genetic susceptibility to increased body mass index (BMI in Finnish adolescents. Eight variants representing 8 early-life obesity-susceptibility loci, including FTO and MC4R, were genotyped in 2215 boys and 2449 girls aged 16 years from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated for each individual by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across the 8 loci. Weight and height were measured and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Among meal skippers, the difference in BMI between high-GRS and low-GRS (<8 and ≥ 8 BMI-increasing alleles groups was 0.90 (95% CI 0.63,1.17 kg/m(2, whereas in regular eaters, this difference was 0.32 (95% CI 0.06,0.57 kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.003. The effect of each MC4R rs17782313 risk allele on BMI in meal skippers (0.47 [95% CI 0.22,0.73] kg/m(2 was nearly three-fold compared with regular eaters (0.18 [95% CI -0.06,0.41] kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.016. Further, the per-allele effect of the FTO rs1421085 was 0.24 (95% CI 0.05,0.42 kg/m(2 in regular eaters and 0.46 (95% CI 0.27,0.66 kg/m(2 in meal skippers but the interaction between FTO genotype and meal frequencies on BMI was significant only in boys (p interaction = 0.015. In summary, the regular five-meal pattern attenuated the increasing effect of common SNPs on BMI in adolescents. Considering the epidemic of obesity in youth, the promotion of regular eating may have

  5. Local exome sequences facilitate imputation of less common variants and increase power of genome wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Joshi

    Full Text Available The analysis of less common variants in genome-wide association studies promises to elucidate complex trait genetics but is hampered by low power to reliably detect association. We show that addition of population-specific exome sequence data to global reference data allows more accurate imputation, particularly of less common SNPs (minor allele frequency 1-10% in two very different European populations. The imputation improvement corresponds to an increase in effective sample size of 28-38%, for SNPs with a minor allele frequency in the range 1-3%.

  6. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Iversen, Edwin S; Tyrer, Jonathan; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Concannon, Patrick; Hazelett, Dennis J; Li, Qiyuan; Marks, Jeffrey R; Berchuck, Andrew; Lee, Janet M; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T; Edwards, Robert P; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Cannioto, Rikki; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Budzilowska, Agnieszka; Sellers, Thomas A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Freedman, Matthew L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Pharoah, Paul D; Gayther, Simon A; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association was for CHEK2 SNP rs17507066 with serous EOC (P = 4.74 x 10(-7)). Additional genotyping and imputation of genotypes from the 1000 genomes project identified a slightly more significant association for CHEK2 SNP rs6005807 (r (2) with rs17507066 = 0.84, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.24, P = 1.1×10(-7)). We identified 293 variants in the region with likelihood ratios of less than 1:100 for representing the causal variant. Functional annotation identified 25 candidate SNPs that alter transcription factor binding sites within regulatory elements active in EOC precursor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10(-8)). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r (2) = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10(-8)). These data suggest that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in Papua New Guinea: High frequency of previously uncharacterized CYP2D6 alleles and heterozygote excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahsen, Nicolas; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Gomorrai, Servina; Ura, Alice; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Davis, Timothy M E; Mueller, Ivo; Ilett, Kenneth F; Oellerich, Michael

    2010-08-18

    A high frequency of previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have been reported in Oceania populations. Genetic and functional properties of these alleles remain unknown. We performed analyses of the genetic variability of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes using AmpliChip genotyping in cohorts from two distinct Papua New Guinea (PNG) populations (Kunjingini, n=88; Alexishafen, n=84) focussing on the genetic characterisation of PNG-specific alleles by re-sequencing. Previously unknown CYP2D6 alleles have population frequencies of 24% (Kunjingini) and 12% (Alexishafen). An allele similar to CYP2D6*1, but carrying the 1661G>C substitution, was the second most frequent CYP2D6 allele (20% Kunjingini and 10% Alexishafen population frequency). Sequencing suggests the CYP2D6* 1661G>C allele originated from a cross-over between CYP2D6*1 and *2 and thus is predicted to confer fully active CYP2D6 enzyme. Two additional predicted full activity alleles [1661G>C;4180G>C] and 31G>A were found in the Kunjingini cohort (frequencies 3 c/c and 1%, respectively) and a novel predicted reduced activity allele [100C>T;1039C>T] was found in the Alexishafen cohort (frequency 2%). A high frequency of ultra-rapid (15%) and notably low frequencies of intermediate and poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (exogamy and recent introduction of alleles by migration that are yet to reach HWE in relatively isolated populations. The CYP2D6*1661 allele common in Oceania may be regarded as functionally equivalent to the full activity CYP2D6*1 allele.

  8. Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P C B; Veiga, M M; de Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Melo, L C; Del Peloso, M J; Brondani, C; Vianello, R P

    2013-02-06

    The identification of germplasm genetic variability in breeding programs of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is essential for determining the potential of each combination of parent plants to obtain superior genotypes. The present study aimed to estimated the extent of genetic diversity in 172 lineages and cultivars of the common bean by integrating five tests of value for cultivation and use (VCU) that were conducted over the last eight years by the breeding program of Embrapa Arroz e Feijão in Brazil. Nine multilocus genotyping systems composed of 36 fluorescent microsatellite markers distributed across 11 different chromosomes of the common bean were used, of which 24 were polymorphic in all trials. One hundred and eighty-seven alleles were identified, with an average of 7.79 alleles per locus and an average gene diversity of 0.65. The combined probability of identity for all loci was 1.32 x 10(-16). Lineages that are more genetically divergent between the selection cycles were identified, allowing the breeding program to develop a crossbreed between elite genotypes with a low degree of genetic relatedness. HE values ranged from 0.31 to 0.63, with a large reduction in the genetic base over successive selection cycles. The test showed a significant degree of differentiation (FST = 0.159). Private alleles (26%) were identified and can be directly incorporated into the gene pool of cultivated germplasm, thereby contributing effectively to the expansion of genetic diversity in this bean-breeding program.

  9. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Anupam; Temkin, Alexis M; Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  10. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Paliwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons, one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs, each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  11. Implication of HLA-DMA Alleles in Corsican IDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cucchi-Mouillot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The HLA-DM molecule catalyses the CLIP/antigen peptide exchange in the classical class II peptide-binding groove. As such, DM is an antigen presentation regulator and may be linked to autoimmune diseases. Using PCR derived methods, a relationship was revealed between DM gene polymorphism and IDDM, in a Corsican population. The DMA*0101 allele was observed to confer a significant predisposition to this autoimmune disease while the DMA*0102 allele protected significantly. Experiments examining polymorphism of the HLA-DRB1 gene established that these relationships are not a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1 alleles implicated in this pathology. The study of the DMA gene could therefore be an additional tool for early IDDM diagnosis in the Corsican population.

  12. Allele frequency changes due to hitch-hiking in genomic selection programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huiming; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Meuwissen, Theo H E

    2014-01-01

    of inbreeding due to changes in allele frequencies and hitch-hiking. This study aimed at understanding the impact of using long-term genomic selection on changes in allele frequencies, genetic variation and the level of inbreeding. Methods Selection was performed in simulated scenarios with a population of 400......-BLUP, Genomic BLUP and Bayesian Lasso. Changes in allele frequencies at QTL, markers and linked neutral loci were investigated for the different selection criteria and different scenarios, along with the loss of favourable alleles and the rate of inbreeding measured by pedigree and runs of homozygosity. Results...

  13. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stringer Saundra L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In addition, LOH caused by mitotic crossing over might be discernable in tissues because this event produces a pair of neighboring monochromatic cells that are different colors. Results As a step in assessing the utility of this approach, we derived primary embryonic fibroblast populations and embryonic stem cell lines from mice that carried two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles at the chromosome 6 locus, ROSA26. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS showed that the vast majority of cells in each line expressed the two marker proteins at similar levels, and that populations exhibited expression noise similar to that seen in bacteria and yeast. Cells with a monochromatic phenotype were present at frequencies on the order of 10-4 and appeared to be produced at a rate of approximately 10-5 variant cells per mitosis. 45 of 45 stably monochromatic ES cell clones exhibited loss of the expected allele at the ROSA26 locus. More than half of these clones retained heterozygosity at a locus between ROSA26 and the centromere. Other clones exhibited LOH near the centromere, but were disomic for chromosome 6. Conclusion Allelic fluorescent markers allowed LOH at the ROSA26 locus to be detected by FACS. LOH at this locus was usually not accompanied by LOH near the centromere, suggesting that mitotic recombination was the major cause of ROSA26 LOH. Dichromatic mouse embryonic cells provide a novel system for studying genetic/karyotypic stability and factors

  14. Lack of association between the P413L variant of chromogranin B and ALS risk or age at onset: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinglong; Li, Shimei; Xing, Dongmei; Li, Peiyun; Li, Ci; Qi, Ling; Xu, Yanming; Ren, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common motor neuron disease, is thought to result from interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors. Whether the potentially functional exonic P413L variant in the chromogranin B gene influences ALS risk and age at onset is controversial. We meta-analysed or other studies assessing the association between the P413L variant and ALS risk or age at ALS onset indexed in Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and SinoMed databases. Five case-control studies were analysed, involving 2639 patients with sporadic ALS, 201 with familial ALS and 3381 controls. No association was detected between risk of either ALS type and the CT + TT genotype or T-allele of the P413L variant. Age at ALS onset was similar between carriers and non-carriers of the T-allele. The available evidence suggests that the P413L variant of chromogranin B is not associated with ALS risk or age at ALS onset. These results should be validated in large, well-designed studies.

  15. Role of the B Allele of Influenza A Virus Segment 8 in Setting Mammalian Host Range and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Matthew L; Wise, Helen M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Smith, Nikki; Dunfee, Rebecca L; Beard, Philippa M; Jagger, Brett W; Ligertwood, Yvonne; Hardisty, Gareth R; Xiao, Haixia; Benton, Donald J; Coburn, Alice M; Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P; McCauley, John W; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Lycett, Samantha J; Weekes, Michael P; Dutia, Bernadette M; Digard, Paul

    2016-10-15

    burden on farming and health care sectors. Host adaptation likely involves multiple viral factors. Here, we investigated the role of IAV segment 8. Segment 8 has evolved into two distinct clades: the A and B alleles. The B-allele genes have previously been suggested to be restricted to avian virus species. We introduced a selection of avian virus A- and B-allele segment 8s into human H1N1 and H3N2 virus backgrounds and found that these reassortant viruses were fully competent in mammalian host systems. We also analyzed the currently available public data on the segment 8 gene distribution and found surprisingly little evidence for specific avian host restriction of the B-clade segment. We conclude that B-allele segment 8 genes are, in fact, capable of supporting infection in mammals and that they should be considered during the assessment of the pandemic risk of zoonotic influenza A viruses. Copyright © 2016 Turnbull et al.

  16. Type 2 diabetes-related variants influence the risk of developing multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Rafael; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been suggested to be a risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), but the relationship between the two traits is still not well understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether 58 genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS)-identified common variants for T2D influence...... genetic information (area under the curve (AUC)=0.645 vs AUC=0.629; P=4.05×10(-) (06)). A gender-stratified analysis also revealed a significant gender effect modification for ADAM30rs2641348 and NOTCH2rs10923931 variants (Pinteraction=0.001 and 0.0004, respectively). Men carrying the ADAM30rs2641348C...... carrying the KCNQ1rs2237892T allele or the CDKN2A-2Brs2383208G/G, IGF1rs35767T/T and MADDrs7944584T/T genotypes had a significantly increased risk of MM (odds ratio (OR)=1.32-2.13) whereas those carrying the KCNJ11rs5215C, KCNJ11rs5219T and THADArs7578597C alleles or the FTOrs8050136A/A and LTArs1041981C...

  17. The NVL gene confers risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Chen, Jianhua; He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Wen, Zujia; Song, Zhijian; Xu, Yifeng; Shi, Yongyong

    2015-10-01

    NVL (nuclear VCP (valosin containing protein)/p97-Like), a member of the AAA-ATPase (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) family, encodes a novel hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase)-interacting protein NVL2 which is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Previous researches have reported the impacts of telomerase activity on mental illness and the potential association between NVL and major depressive disorder. To validate the susceptibility of NVL to major depressive disorder, and to investigate the overlapping risk conferred by NVL for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, we analyzed 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) using TaqMan® technology, in 1045 major depressive disorder patients, 1235 schizophrenia patients and 1235 normal controls of Han Chinese origin. We found that rs10916583 (P(allele) = 0.020, P(genotype) = 0.028, OR = 1.156) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 0.014, P(genotype) = 0.007, OR = 0.718) were associated with major depressive disorder, while rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 1.08E-02, OR = 1.213), rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 7.40E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.07E-05, OR = 0.598) and rs10799541 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.10E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.049, OR= 0.826) showed statistically significant association with schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 9.00E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 3.15E-02, OR = 1.187) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.92E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.84E-05, OR = 0.653) remained strongly associated with the analysis of combined cases of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Our results indicated that the NVL gene may contain overlapping common genetic risk factors for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. The roles of NVL in telomerase biogenesis were also highlighted in psychiatric pathogenesis. The study on

  18. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-11-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.

  19. Pricing Vulnerable Options with Market Prices of Common Jump Risks under Regime-Switching Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the valuation of vulnerable European options considering the market prices of common systematic jump risks under regime-switching jump-diffusion models. The way of regime-switching Esscher transform is adopted to identify an equivalent martingale measure for pricing vulnerable European options. Explicit analytical pricing formulae for vulnerable European options are derived by risk-neutral pricing theory. For comparison, the other two cases are also considered separately. The first case considers all jump risks as unsystematic risks while the second one assumes all jumps risks to be systematic risks. Numerical examples for the valuation of vulnerable European options are provided to illustrate our results and indicate the influence of the market prices of jump risks on the valuation of vulnerable European options.

  20. Common and rare variants in the exons and regulatory regions of osteoporosis-related genes improve osteoporotic fracture risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Kang, Moo Il; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lim, Kyeong-Hye; Lee, Gun Eui; Shin, Eun-Soon; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Beom-Jun; Cho, Eun-Hee; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Won Chul; Kim, Ghi Su; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporotic fracture risk is highly heritable, but genome-wide association studies have explained only a small proportion of the heritability to date. Genetic data may improve prediction of fracture risk in osteopenic subjects and assist early intervention and management. To detect common and rare variants in coding and regulatory regions related to osteoporosis-related traits, and to investigate whether genetic profiling improves the prediction of fracture risk. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three clinical units in Korea. Postmenopausal women with extreme phenotypes (n = 982) were used for the discovery set, and 3895 participants were used for the replication set. We performed targeted resequencing of 198 genes. Genetic risk scores from common variants (GRS-C) and from common and rare variants (GRS-T) were calculated. Nineteen common variants in 17 genes (of the discovered 34 functional variants in 26 genes) and 31 rare variants in five genes (of the discovered 87 functional variants in 15 genes) were associated with one or more osteoporosis-related traits. Accuracy of fracture risk classification was improved in the osteopenic patients by adding GRS-C to fracture risk assessment models (6.8%; P risk in an osteopenic individual.

  1. Detecting imbalanced expression of SNP alleles by minisequencing on microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlgren Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each of the human genes or transcriptional units is likely to contain single nucleotide polymorphisms that may give rise to sequence variation between individuals and tissues on the level of RNA. Based on recent studies, differential expression of the two alleles of heterozygous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be frequent for human genes. Methods with high accuracy to be used in a high throughput setting are needed for systematic surveys of expressed sequence variation. In this study we evaluated two formats of multiplexed, microarray based minisequencing for quantitative detection of imbalanced expression of SNP alleles. We used a panel of ten SNPs located in five genes known to be expressed in two endothelial cell lines as our model system. Results The accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative detection of allelic imbalance was assessed for each SNP by constructing regression lines using a dilution series of mixed samples from individuals of different genotype. Accurate quantification of SNP alleles by both assay formats was evidenced for by R2 values > 0.95 for the majority of the regression lines. According to a two sample t-test, we were able to distinguish 1–9% of a minority SNP allele from a homozygous genotype, with larger variation between SNPs than between assay formats. Six of the SNPs, heterozygous in either of the two cell lines, were genotyped in RNA extracted from the endothelial cells. The coefficient of variation between the fluorescent signals from five parallel reactions was similar for cDNA and genomic DNA. The fluorescence signal intensity ratios measured in the cDNA samples were compared to those in genomic DNA to determine the relative expression levels of the two alleles of each SNP. Four of the six SNPs tested displayed a higher than 1.4-fold difference in allelic ratios between cDNA and genomic DNA. The results were verified by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation and

  2. Functional consequences of the macrophage stimulating protein 689C inflammatory bowel disease risk allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Kauder

    Full Text Available Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP is a serum growth factor that binds to and activates the receptor tyrosine kinase, Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON. A non-synonymous coding variant in MSP (689C has been associated with genetic susceptibility to both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. We investigated the consequences of this polymorphism for MSP-RON pathway activity and IBD pathogenesis.RON expression patterns were examined on mouse and human cells and tissues under normal and disease conditions to identify cell types regulated by MSP-RON. Recombinant MSP variants were tested for their ability to bind and stimulate RON and undergo proteolytic activation. MSP concentrations were quantified in the serum of individuals carrying the MSP 689R and 689C alleles.In intestinal tissue, RON was primarily expressed by epithelial cells under normal and disease conditions. The 689C polymorphism had no impact on the ability of MSP to bind to or signal through RON. In a cohort of normal individuals and IBD patients, carriers of the 689C polymorphism had lower concentrations of MSP in their serum.By reducing the quantities of circulating MSP, the 689C polymorphism, or a variant in linkage disequilibrium with this polymorphism, may impact RON ligand availability and thus receptor activity. Given the known functions of RON in regulating wound healing and our analysis of RON expression patterns in human intestinal tissue, these data suggest that decreased RON activity may impact the efficiency of epithelial repair and thus underlie the increased IBD susceptibility associated with the MSP 689C allele.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1997-01-01

    codominantly in both pollen and style (SSIcod), in the second, alleles form a dominance hierarchy in pollen and style (SSIdom). In the third model, alleles interact codominantly in the style and form a dominance hierarchy in the pollen (SSIdomcod). The SSIcod model behaves similarly to the model...

  4. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubicka, Joanna; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Kładny, Józef; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Kowalska, Elżbieta; Lubinski, Jan; Scott, Rodney J; Grabowska-Kłujszo, Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Cybulski, Cezary; Górski, Bohdan; Huzarski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations

  5. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubicka Joanna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, it