WorldWideScience

Sample records for common property resources

  1. Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and ... Most contemporary discussions on African development since independence forty ... theories on CPR Resource Management in a specific ecological and political setting.

  2. Property rights, productivity and common property resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2003/04 Cambodia Household Socioeconomic Survey to investigate the effects of property rights to land. Plots held with a paper documenting ownership in rural Cambodia are found to have higher productivity and land values than other plots, while property rights have...

  3. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, G; Ho, C S; Ali, H M

    2014-01-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled

  4. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, G.; Ho, C. S.; Ali, H. M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled.

  5. Reclaiming deserted corridors: Rights of way as common property resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    In Canada, power line transmission corridors are administered and maintained by provincial crown utilities. These corridors have fragmented natural habitats, destroyed biota, and disrupted geological and hydrologic systems. The practices used by utilities to maintain their rights-of-way tend to worsen the environmental and social context of the localities affected by the corridors. If the corridors are considered as common resources, and if co-management of these resources is undertaken involving the utilities and the communities affected by the corridors, public rights-of-way would be created which would have environmental benefits. These corridors would have a recreational potential and could be managed so as to reduce considerably the negative impacts presently generated by current right-of-way management practices. The use of local residents in this management process could ensure that the use of the corridors harmonizes with local needs. Among the obstacles to the co-management of these corridors are the badly defined policies of secondary land use, the restrictions on vegetation maintenance in utility corridors, lengthy approvals processes, and concerns about public liability. To make co-management of these corridors a reality, new policy structures and new procedures have to be developed in cooperation with the utilities and the affected communities. 14 refs., 1 fig

  6. Recent research in data description of the measurement property resource on common data dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tielin; Fan, Zitian; Wang, Chunxi; Liu, Xiaojing; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Hua

    2018-03-01

    A method for measurement equipment data description has been proposed based on the property resource analysis. The applications of common data dictionary (CDD) to devices and equipment is mainly used in digital factory to advance the management not only in the enterprise, also to the different enterprise in the same data environment. In this paper, we can make a brief of the data flow in the whole manufacture enterprise and the automatic trigger the process of the data exchange. Furthermore,the application of the data dictionary is available for the measurement and control equipment, which can also be used in other different industry in smart manufacture.

  7. Policy Design for Competitive Retail Electric Institutions: Artificial Intelligence Representations for a Common Property Resource Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Nitin S.

    The U.S. electricity industry is being restructured to increase competition. Although existing policies may lead to efficient wholesale institutions, designing policies for the retail level is more complex because of intricate interactions between individuals and quasi-monopolistic institutions. It is argued that Hirshman's ideas of "exit" and "voice" (Hirshman, 1970) provide powerful abstractions for design of retail institutions. While competition is a known mechanism of "exit," a novel design of the "voice" mechanism is demonstrated through an artificial intelligence (AI) based software process model. The process model of "voice" in retail institutions is designed within the economic context of electricity distribution -- a common property resource (CPR), characterized by technological uncertainty and path-dependency. First, it is argued that participant feedback (voice) has to be used effectively to manage the CPR. Further, it is noted that the decision process, of using participant feedback (voice) to incrementally manage uncertainty and path-dependencies, is non-monotonic because it requires the decision makers to often retract previously made assumptions and decisions. An AI based process model of "voice" is developed using an assumption-based truth maintenance system. The model can emulate the non-monotonic decision making process and therefore assist in decision support. Such a systematic framework is flexible, consistent, and easily reorganized as assumptions change. It can provide an effective, formal "voice" mechanism to the retail customers and improve institutional performance.

  8. Experiments on common property management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.; Shogren, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Common property resources are (renewable) natural resources where current excessive extraction reduces future resource availability, and the use of which is de facto restricted to a specific set of agents, such as inhabitants of a village or members of a community; think of community-owned forests,

  9. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  10. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  11. Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty

  12. Voracious transformation of a common natural resource into productive capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze a power struggle where competing factions have private financial assets and deplete a common stock of natural resources with no private property rights. I obtain a feedback Nash equilibrium to the dynamic common-pool problem and obtain political variants of the Hotelling depletion rule and

  13. Household-level heterogeneity of water resources within common-pool resource systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCord, Paul; Dell'angelo, Jampel; Gower, Drew; Caylor, Kelly K.; Evans, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated the ability of common property systems to sustain institutional arrangements governing natural resources over long periods of time. Much of this work has focused on irrigation systems where upstream users agree to management arrangements that distribute water resources

  14. Commons, Piracy and the Crisis of Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the politicisation of copyright and file sharing as a starting point to discuss the concept of the commons and the construction of property. Empirically, the article draws on a series of interviews with Pirate Party members in Sweden, Australia, Germany, the UK and USA; placed in the theoretical framework of the commons. We argue that piracy, as an act and an ideology, interrogates common understandings of property as something self-evident, natural and uncontestable. Such constructions found liberal market ideology. The article has two broad aims: to outline the different phases of enclosure, from the physical commons, to the institutional and finally the cultural commons; and to discuss the way that piracy highlights the emergent crisis in private property rights, brought to the fore by the global financial crisis and ongoing privatization of public resources. We conclude by questioning what new modes of enclosure are emerging in a digital economy driven by excessive data mining and centralized streaming services.

  15. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  16. Sharing a common resource with concave benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, S.

    2006-01-01

    A group of agents enjoy concave and single-peak benefit functions from consuming a shared resource. They also value money (transfers). The resource is scarce in the sense that not everybody can consume its peak. The paper characterizes the unique (resource and money) allocation that is efficient, incentive compatible and equal-sharing individual rational. It can be implemented (i) by selling the resource or taxing extraction and redistributing the money collected equally, or (ii) by assigning...

  17. A common sense of property?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2016-01-01

    the human sciences it is important to trace the implicit knowledge claims that accompany the explicit normative arguments, paying specific attention to the ‘exemplars’ that underpin lines of argument, and the ‘sources of property knowledge’ that are drawn upon. This paper draws on and reworks W. B. Gallie...

  18. Common challenge in resource efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Motta, Sergio; Peronaci, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency and technology improvements on their own will not achieve the Low Carbon Societies (LCS) goals. Thus, resource efficiency and a circular economy are keys to a low carbon society. Resource efficiency improvement potential has been analysed from the industrial and territorial management perspectives. Exploring synergies between LCS and the larger area of sustainable development and green economy, highlighting co-benefits and trade-offs, is of utmost importance to pave the way to a more equitable and largely participated low carbon transition.

  19. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  20. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  1. Management of Common Resources and Reciprocity: the contributions of Elinor Ostrom to the Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sabourin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of reciprocity in the processes and procedures recorded in the management of common resources. It examines first the role that E. Ostrom attributes to the norm of reciprocity in her approach to common property resources. A second part interprets economic and social relations in the management of common resources as seen by economic anthropology’s theory of reciprocity. Finally, the conclusion attempts to establish a dialogue between Ostrom’s proposals and the theory of reciprocity.

  2. The promise of common pool resource theory and the reality of commons projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred P. Saunders

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.

  3. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  4. A common-pool resource experiment in acequia communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejem Raheem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers and rural advocates in New Mexico assert that traditional irrigators are better adapted to water scarcity and variability than other communities. Data to actually test this are often scarce, but such information could be useful for planning the state’s water future, especially as climate change predictions tend toward less reliable supplies. This paper reports results from a common pool resource (CPR experiment that simulates irrigating behavior using two groups: rural irrigators and undergraduate students. Despite predictions to the opposite, there was no significant difference between mean withdrawals or predictions of other players’ behavior. On average, both groups withdrew above the social optimum but below the Nash equilibrium. This work appears to be the first example of a common pool resource experiment conducted with traditional New Mexican irrigators.

  5. Cycles and Common Cycles in Property and Related Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Peijie Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines cycles and common cycles in the property market and the economy. While focusing on common cycles, the study also incorporates common trends in the meantime, so it covers the whole spectrum of dynamic analysis. It has been found that property shares common cycles, particularly with those sectors that are the user markets of property. The mechanisms of common cycles and the relative magnitudes of cycles of the sectors related to property are discussed to shed light on proper...

  6. Common accounting system for monitoring the ATLAS distributed computing resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavakis, E; Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Saiz, P; Gayazov, S; Jezequel, S; Sargsyan, L; Schovancova, J; Ueda, I

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers in detail a variety of accounting tools used to monitor the utilisation of the available computational and storage resources within the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the first three years of Large Hadron Collider data taking. The Experiment Dashboard provides a set of common accounting tools that combine monitoring information originating from many different information sources; either generic or ATLAS specific. This set of tools provides quality and scalable solutions that are flexible enough to support the constantly evolving requirements of the ATLAS user community.

  7. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  8. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  9. Intellectual property right in genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are necessary in food production and biodiversity conservation. These are the most important natural resources, in addition to air, water and soil. Unfortunately, during the evolution large number of plant genetic resources has been lost. The biggest negative impact on loss of plant genetic resources had been made by humans through the modernization of agriculture and the creation of varieties of high genetic uniformity. FAO and its operation through international mechanisms, such as the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first legal act which regulates all levels of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and genetic resources, biotechnology, including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (regulates the transfer of genetic material across the border, contributed to the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition to the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO has been defined by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in more specific and detailed way, the preservation of genetic resources. The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use. There are four basic pillars which form the substance of the Contract, Sustainable use of plant genetic resources, Farmers' Rights, the Multilateral System and the Global Information System. Two organizations, the International Biodiversity and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants trying to solve the issues of protection of the population and old varieties as intellectual property.

  10. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  11. Property regime concerning genetic resources and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Nemogá Soto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the changes that have taken place regarding ownership, control and access over genetic resources. Once considered the common heritage of humanity, rights over genetic resources, it is argued, have undergone radical transformations. The global legal framework regarding genetic resources has shifted to legitimize and promote their appropriation and monopolization. This transformation embraced the expansion of intellectual property rights over genetic material and information, including living organisms, through the World Trade Organization´s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs. This was coupled by the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which recognizes sovereign rights of the countries of origin over their genetic resources and, at the same time, obligates them to permit access to those resources. The Colombian Constitution of 1991 and unparalleled judicial decisions during the last decade reaffirmed sovereign rights over genetic resources in Colombia. Conversely, the genetic resources and the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities continue to be freely accessible resources within the current Colombian legal framework.

  12. Factors driving deforestation in common-pool resources in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Kim, Yeon-Su; Hospodarsky, Denver; Tecle, Aregai

    2009-01-01

    The theory of collective action has been extensively used to explain the relationship between common-based property regimes and the conservation of natural resources. However, there are two key components of the theory that literature reports as puzzles in which no consensus exists about their effect on the performance of common-pool resources. These are group size and heterogeneity. This study analyzes the effects of these two key components on the effectiveness of community-based forestry, called ejidos, to protect their forest resources in northern Mexico. We used a multinomial logit model to determine the contribution of 16 explanatory variables to the dependent variable, a measure of success of ejidos defined by the presence of deforested, degraded, or forested conditions. The results show that corn yield, marginality, percent of forest area, total population, a forest value index, distance to markets, roads and towns, were all statistically significant in driving deforested conditions. Deforestation becomes more attractive for poor communities and as corn yield and distance to towns, roads, and markets decrease. In general, group size and heterogeneity had no significant effects on the presence of deforested conditions. Deforestation is driven by resource-specific characteristics, such as location and soil productivity, not by ejidos' attributes, such as total area or number of members. We argue that current institutional policies focusing on the structure of property right arrangements should be shifted (1) to provide better technology for land cultivation; (2) to reduce the marginality problem in poor communities; and (3) to strengthen local institutions.

  13. From public open access to common property: the prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From public open access to common property: the prospects and challenges of institutionalizing boundaries for self-governance and management of community irrigation dams in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

  14. Content Integration: Creating a Scalable Common Platform for Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Max; Katz, Demian

    2012-01-01

    Academic, government, and corporate librarians organize and leverage internal resources and content through institutional repositories and library catalogs. Getting more value and usage from the content they license is a key goal. However, the ever-growing amount of content and shifting user demands for new materials or features has made the…

  15. Logical and physical resource management in the common node of a distributed function laboratory computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A scheme for managing resources required for transaction processing in the common node of a distributed function computer system has been given. The scheme has been found to be satisfactory for all common node services provided so far

  16. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise

    2013-01-01

    healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL...... values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method...... employed. The data were compared to previous studies and to those obtained from the youngest age group in the NORIP study. Marked age differences were observed for most of the properties. Several properties also showed gender-related differences, mainly at the onset of puberty. Data are presented...

  17. Human Resource and Nuclear Awareness Development: A Common Synergetic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear education problem is treated as societal optimization task of nuclear energy management, with the key parameter of optimization—stakeholder awareness level. As the key principles of optimisation are chosen: a self-organization concept, the principle of the requisite variety, where as a primary source of growth of internal variety is information and knowledge. We have shown: public education, social learning and the use of mass media are efficient self-organization mechanisms, thereby forming a knowledge-creating community. Such a created knowledge could facilitate solution of key issues: a) public acceptance of novel nuclear objects, b) promotion of adequate risk perception, and c) fostering of interest to nuclear energy. Comprehensive knowledge management and informational support firstly is needed in: a) for increasing general nuclear awareness and confidence level to nuclear activities, b) personnel education and training, c) reliable staff renascence, d) public education and involvement of all stakeholder categories in decision making, e) risk management. A common approach to nuclear education should include also comprehensive research activities, thereby joining knowledge acquisition with the generation of novel advanced knowledge. (author

  18. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nature, economics, property and commons. Subversive notes inspired by Elinor Ostrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriola Vincenzo M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature-economy relations also are the result of economics’ concepts, ideas and paradigms. Heterodox economic views and paradigms are urgently needed to foster shifts towards the planet’s future sustainability paths. Elinor Ostrom, 2009 Nobel economics laureate, stands as one of the authors whose long neglected views are most inspiring in subverting mainstream paradigms on property regimes and natural resource management. Challenging the tragedy of the commons orthodoxy, she shows humans are able to escape the prisoner’s dilemma, as well as the public vs private property, and state vs market modern dichotomy in natural resources’ management models, by recognizing common property as a third option, and re-inventing the commons as indeed diverse and resilient institutions to foster more sustainable economy-nature relations. Brazil’s indigenous territories are cited as a living example of commons’ sustainability, although increasingly threatened by economic growth.

  20. Concepts and Methods of Common Property Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Gurung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper has two-fold objectives: (i to familiarize the graduate students majoring in anthropology with the theoretical underpinnings of cultural ecology, and (ii to analyze and explicate the ecological-cultural adaptations among the communities living in the harsh mountain ecological setting of eastern Nepal and their traditional organizations and institutions contributing to community welfare and social equity within the framework of cultural ecology. The paper has been based on the impressionistic data garnered in from the Himalayan ecological setting in eastern Nepal.DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v1i0.273Dhaulagiri Vol.1 (2005 pp.1-32

  1. Internet-Based commons of intellectual resources : An exploration of their variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de laat, Paul B.; J. Berleur,; M.I. Nurminen,; J. Impaglizzo,

    2006-01-01

    During the two last decades, speeded up by the development of the Internet, several types of commons have been opened up for intellectual resources. In this article their variety is being explored as to the kind of resources and the type of regulation involved. The open source software movement

  2. Governing the management and use of pooled microbial genetic resources: Lessons from the global crop commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halewood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights lessons learned over the last thirty years establishing a governance structure for the global crop commons that are of relevance to current champions of the microbial commons. It argues that the political, legal and biophysical situation in which microbial genetic resources (and their users are located today are similar to the situation of plant genetic resources in the mid-1990s, before the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources was negotiated. Consequently, the paper suggests that it may be useful to look to the model of global network of ex situ plant genetic resources collections as a precedent to follow – even if only loosely – in developing an intergovernmentally endorsed legal substructure and governance framework for the microbial commons.

  3. Beyond Intellectual Property: Toward Traditional Resource Rights ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    If a stranger entered your community, and started asking questions about its people, its resources, and its history, what would you do? In today's global marketplace, no stone goes unturned. Where there is commercial value, there are profits to be made. However, as entrepreneurs scour the world in search of new ...

  4. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the GlideinWMS System as a Common Resource Provisioning Layer in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcas, J. [Vilnius U.; Belforte, S. [Trieste U.; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Colling, D. [Imperial Coll., London; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Hufnagel, D. [Fermilab; Khan, F. [Quaid-i-Azam U.; Larson, K. [Fermilab; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Mascheroni, M. [Milan Bicocca U.; Mason, D. [Fermilab; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Piperov, S. [Brown U.; Saiz-Santos, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Tanasijczuk, A. [UC, San Diego; Wissing, C. [DESY

    2015-12-23

    CMS will require access to more than 125k processor cores for the beginning of Run 2 in 2015 to carry out its ambitious physics program with more and higher complexity events. During Run1 these resources were predominantly provided by a mix of grid sites and local batch resources. During the long shut down cloud infrastructures, diverse opportunistic resources and HPC supercomputing centers were made available to CMS, which further complicated the operations of the submission infrastructure. In this presentation we will discuss the CMS effort to adopt and deploy the glideinWMS system as a common resource provisioning layer to grid, cloud, local batch, and opportunistic resources and sites. We will address the challenges associated with integrating the various types of resources, the efficiency gains and simplifications associated with using a common resource provisioning layer, and discuss the solutions found. We will finish with an outlook of future plans for how CMS is moving forward on resource provisioning for more heterogenous architectures and services.

  6. Appropriation of common access natural resources through exploration: A differential game of a claiming rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, E

    1985-10-01

    This paper provides a model of natural resource exploration, where the sole motivation to explore arises from a strategic incentive to preempt competitors. It is assumed that private ownership rights over a finite unexplored and commonly held resource stock can be established through a costly deterministic exploration process. The open-loop and the feedback Nash equilibrium is analysed. It is shown that in between intervals of soaring exploratory activities there may be an interval where exploration is declining over time.

  7. OGUMI-A new mobile application to conduct common-pool resource experiments in continuous time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available OGUMI is an Android-based open source mobile application for conducting Common-Pool Resource Experiments, Choice Experiments, and Questionnaires in the field, in the laboratory, and online. A main feature of OGUMI is its capacity to capture real-time changes in human behaviour in response to a dynamically varying resource. OGUMI is simple (for example, likewise other existing software, it does not require expertise in behavioural game theory, stable, and extremely flexible with respect to the user-resource model running in the background. Here we present the motivation for the development of OGUMI and we discuss its main features with an example application.

  8. Games of corruption in preventing the overuse of common-pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Jusup, Marko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2017-09-07

    Maintaining human cooperation in the context of common-pool resource management is extremely important because otherwise we risk overuse and corruption. To analyse the interplay between economic and ecological factors leading to corruption, we couple the resource dynamics and the evolutionary dynamics of strategic decision making into a powerful analytical framework. The traits of this framework are: (i) an arbitrary number of harvesters share the responsibility to sustainably exploit a specific part of an ecosystem, (ii) harvesters face three strategic choices for exploiting the resource, (iii) a delegated enforcement system is available if called upon, (iv) enforcers are either honest or corrupt, and (v) the resource abundance reflects the choice of harvesting strategies. The resulting dynamical system is bistable; depending on the initial conditions, it evolves either to cooperative (sustainable exploitation) or defecting (overexploitation) equilibria. Using the domain of attraction to cooperative equilibria as an indicator of successful management, we find that the more resilient the resource (as implied by a high growth rate), the more likely the dominance of corruption which, in turn, suppresses the cooperative outcome. A qualitatively similar result arises when slow resource dynamics relative to the dynamics of decision making mask the benefit of cooperation. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of managing common-pool resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sharing common pool resources at the border of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-IRINA DINCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The common pool resources are a very actual topic a pproached by both scientists and practitioners preoccupied nowadays of gradually incr easing environmental problems. Protected areas in Romania and especially in Romanian Carpath ians of national and natural park type (IUCN II and V represent areas of particular interes t in the light of the common pool resources theory imposing conservation laws on areas meeting a n increased pressure from human communities around them. The important socio-econom ic and ownership changes that Romania met in the last decades changed its previous state unique ownership into a multiple stakeholder ownership. At the same time vulnerable human communi ties located in fragile mountain areas and depending to a high extent on natural resources met an increased stress when exploiting natural resources at the border of protected areas. Consequently sharing the common pool of resources in the buffer zone of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians represents a very actual and important topic to be treated in the pre sent study.

  10. Integrated Common Radio Resource Management with Spectrum Aggregation over Non-Contiguous Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Orlando; Meucci, Filippo; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated Common Radio Resource Management (iCRRM). The iCRRM performs classic CRRM functionalities jointly with Spectrum Aggregation (SA), being able to switch users between non-contiguous frequency bands. The SA scheduling is obtained with an optimised General Multi...

  11. Diversity of resource use and property rights in Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta Thi Thanh Huong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, aquaculture has become the most important livelihood activity in Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam. The aquaculture boom has reduced the available water area for mobile gear fishers, polarized different user-groups, created resource conflicts, and increased pressures on the lagoon systems. Aquaculture in the lagoon is governed by both customary and legal rights. The objective of this paper is to explore the diversity of resource use and the complexity of property rights in one of the villages located in the lagoon. The paper emphasizes the linkages between changes in commons institutions and changes in resource use and property rights. First, the political and socio-economic changes in Vietnam are examined as well as how they have influenced traditional commons institutions and lagoon resource management in the village. Second, the linkages between common institutions and the diversity of property rights are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the analysis of different types of resource use associated with "bundle of rights" and the diversity of property rights regimes in the village.

  12. Ecologically sustainable but unjust? Negotiating equity and authority in common-pool marine resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Klain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under appropriate conditions, community-based fisheries management can support sound resource stewardship, with positive social and environmental outcomes. Evaluating indigenous peoples' involvement in commercial sea cucumber and geoduck fisheries on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, we found that the current social-ecological system configuration is relatively ecologically sustainable according to stock assessments. However, the current system also results in perceived inequities in decision-making processes, harvesting allocations, and socioeconomic benefits. As a result, local coastal resource managers envision a transformation of sea cucumber and geoduck fisheries governance and management institutions. We assessed the potential robustness of the proposed institutions using Elinor Ostrom's common-pool resource design principles. Grounded in the region's legal, political, and historical context, our analysis suggests that greater local involvement in these invertebrate fisheries and their management could provide more benefits to local communities than the status quo while maintaining an ecologically sustainable resource. Our research highlights the importance of explicitly addressing historical context and equity considerations in social-ecological system analyses and when renegotiating the institutions governing common-pool resources.

  13. Cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Dinar, Ariel

    2012-09-01

    Beneficiaries of common pool resources (CPRs) may select available noncooperative and regulatory exogenous institutions for managing the resource, as well as cooperative management institutions. All these institutions may increase the long-term gains, prolong the life of the resource, and help to escape the tragedy of the commons trap. Cooperative game theory approaches can serve as the backbone of cooperative CPR management institutions. This paper formulates and applies several commonly used cooperative game theoretic solution concepts, namely, the core, Nash-Harsanyi, Shapley, and nucleolus. Through a numerical groundwater example, we show how CPR users can share the gains obtained from cooperation in a fair and efficient manner based on these cooperative solution concepts (management institutions). Although, based on their fairness rationales, various cooperative management institutions may suggest different allocations that are potentially acceptable to the users, these allocation solutions may not be stable as some users may find them unfair. This paper discusses how different methods, such as application of the plurality rule and power index, stability index, and propensity to disrupt concepts, can help identify the most stable and likely solutions for enforcing cooperation among the CPR beneficiaries. Furthermore, how the noncooperative managerial characteristics of the CPR users can affect the stability and acceptability of the different cooperative CPR management institutions is discussed, providing valuable policy insights for cooperative CPR management at community levels.

  14. Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy Metric Spaces Satisfying -Contractive Condition with Common Limit Range Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some illustrative examples are furnished which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses and degree of utility of our results. We derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. As an application to our main result, we prove an integral-type fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric space. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in Imdad et al. (2012.

  15. Employing Common Limit Range Property to Prove Unified Metrical Common Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imdad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in metric spaces satisfying an implicit function essentially due to the paper of Ali and Imdad (2008. As an application to our main result, we derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in the paper of Ali and Imdad (2008. We also furnish some illustrative examples to support our main results.

  16. Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henry Buckley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Great enthusiasm is attached to the emergence of cross-border regions (CBRs as a new institutional arrangement for dealing with local cross-border environmental resource management and other issues that remain too distant from national capitals and/or too expensive to be addressed in the traditional topocratic manner requiring instead local adhocratic methods. This study briefly discusses the perceived value of CBRs and necessary and sufficient conditions for the successful and sustainable development of such places. Then, assuming that necessary conditions can be met, the study investigates an intriguing hypothesis concerning the catalyzing of sustainable consensus for cross-border resource management based on a game theoretical approach that employs the use of dilemma of common aversion rather than the more traditional dilemma of competing common interests. Using this lens to investigate a series of events on the Pacific northwestern Canadian-American border in a part of the Fraser Lowland, we look for evidence of the emergence of an active and sustainable CBR to address local trans-border resource management issues. Although our micro-level scale fails to conclusively demonstrate such evidence, it does demonstrate the value of using this approach and suggests a number of avenues for further research.

  17. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  18. Assessment of physical properties of foods commonly consumed by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Neeraja

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The physical properties and texture of food can be considered to be a risk factor for evaluating the relationship between food retention and dental caries. This information can further be used as an educative tool to parents and caregivers for effective modification of diet.

  19. determination of personal and common property during dissolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marriage as one of the most important social institutions is a bedrock for a ... *This article is a substantially modified version of an extract from an earlier work. The ... property, the application of which shall strictly be adhered to by the family ...... For example, an insurance policy purchased by the husband on his life and in.

  20. The Government Finance Database: A Common Resource for Quantitative Research in Public Financial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Kawika; Hand, Michael L; Thompson, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative public financial management research focused on local governments is limited by the absence of a common database for empirical analysis. While the U.S. Census Bureau distributes government finance data that some scholars have utilized, the arduous process of collecting, interpreting, and organizing the data has led its adoption to be prohibitive and inconsistent. In this article we offer a single, coherent resource that contains all of the government financial data from 1967-2012, uses easy to understand natural-language variable names, and will be extended when new data is available.

  1. The common property of isotope anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment proposed to account for the non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionation effect observed for oxygen isotopes during the synthesis of ozone (Robert and Camy-Peyret 2001) is applied to other chemical elements. A numerical treatment to calculate isotopic reaction rate ratios is proposed. This treatment yields non-mass-dependent isotopic effects in other chemical elements, qualitatively similar to those observed in some of the high temperature minerals found in the carbonaceous meteorites. This treatment may reflect the numerical consequences of an unrecognized quantum mechanical effect, linked to a property of chemical reactions involving indistinguishable isotopes. (author)

  2. Self-Governance and Sustainable Common Pool Resource Management in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Baerlein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to best govern natural resources in order to enable a sustainable way of handling them is what both research and practice aim to achieve. Empirical findings from several studies indicate that resource users are able to successfully cooperate in the management of common pool resources and solve social dilemmas through self-governance arrangements. The authors explore the potential success of self-governance in irrigation systems, focusing primarily on the factors influencing compliance of irrigation water users under self-crafted and self-enforced rules in two Kyrgyz communities. A field experiment is employed to provide insights and some quantitative empirical data, further complemented by qualitative methods (questionnaires, group discussions and interviews to enhance the analysis of the findings about working rules in irrigation at the community level. The results show that Kyrgyz irrigation users of the selected communities generally respond better in a self-governance setting in terms of rules compliance, distribution efficiency and equity. Compliance and cooperative behavior depend on group as well as individual variables including communication, social norms and the legitimacy of rules.

  3. LAKE VICTORIA AND THE COMMON PROPERTY DEBATE: IS THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS A THREAT TO ITS FUTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Ochieng OGELLO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  4. Spectral properties of common intraocular lens (IOL) types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Peter J.; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Clayman, H.; Rol, Pascal O.

    1999-06-01

    Currently over 50 kinds of intraocular lenses (IOLs) are approved for patient use in the treatment of cataracts and ametropia. These lenses are manufactured from at least 2 kinds of silicones as well as several kinds of acrylic polymers including polyHEMA, Poly HOXEMA, a range of polymethacrylate and polyacrylate formulations. We sought to measure spectral transmission curves of a range of IOLS in the UV-visible and near IR spectral regions in order to better characterize their optical properties and to provide a baseline from which to assess their alteration following implantation over time. Consideration of how this may best be achieved are discussed. The variable ability of both explained IOLs and some samples from a range of manufacturers to block UV wavelengths is commented upon.

  5. Building a model: developing genomic resources for common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca with low coverage genome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitemier Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milkweeds (Asclepias L. have been extensively investigated in diverse areas of evolutionary biology and ecology; however, there are few genetic resources available to facilitate and compliment these studies. This study explored how low coverage genome sequencing of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. could be useful in characterizing the genome of a plant without prior genomic information and for development of genomic resources as a step toward further developing A. syriaca as a model in ecology and evolution. Results A 0.5× genome of A. syriaca was produced using Illumina sequencing. A virtually complete chloroplast genome of 158,598 bp was assembled, revealing few repeats and loss of three genes: accD, clpP, and ycf1. A nearly complete rDNA cistron (18S-5.8S-26S; 7,541 bp and 5S rDNA (120 bp sequence were obtained. Assessment of polymorphism revealed that the rDNA cistron and 5S rDNA had 0.3% and 26.7% polymorphic sites, respectively. A partial mitochondrial genome sequence (130,764 bp, with identical gene content to tobacco, was also assembled. An initial characterization of repeat content indicated that Ty1/copia-like retroelements are the most common repeat type in the milkweed genome. At least one A. syriaca microread hit 88% of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae unigenes (median coverage of 0.29× and 66% of single copy orthologs (COSII in asterids (median coverage of 0.14×. From this partial characterization of the A. syriaca genome, markers for population genetics (microsatellites and phylogenetics (low-copy nuclear genes studies were developed. Conclusions The results highlight the promise of next generation sequencing for development of genomic resources for any organism. Low coverage genome sequencing allows characterization of the high copy fraction of the genome and exploration of the low copy fraction of the genome, which facilitate the development of molecular tools for further study of a target species

  6. Building a model: developing genomic resources for common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) with low coverage genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Shannon C K; Fishbein, Mark; Livshultz, Tatyana; Foster, Zachary; Parks, Matthew; Weitemier, Kevin; Cronn, Richard C; Liston, Aaron

    2011-05-04

    Milkweeds (Asclepias L.) have been extensively investigated in diverse areas of evolutionary biology and ecology; however, there are few genetic resources available to facilitate and compliment these studies. This study explored how low coverage genome sequencing of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) could be useful in characterizing the genome of a plant without prior genomic information and for development of genomic resources as a step toward further developing A. syriaca as a model in ecology and evolution. A 0.5× genome of A. syriaca was produced using Illumina sequencing. A virtually complete chloroplast genome of 158,598 bp was assembled, revealing few repeats and loss of three genes: accD, clpP, and ycf1. A nearly complete rDNA cistron (18S-5.8S-26S; 7,541 bp) and 5S rDNA (120 bp) sequence were obtained. Assessment of polymorphism revealed that the rDNA cistron and 5S rDNA had 0.3% and 26.7% polymorphic sites, respectively. A partial mitochondrial genome sequence (130,764 bp), with identical gene content to tobacco, was also assembled. An initial characterization of repeat content indicated that Ty1/copia-like retroelements are the most common repeat type in the milkweed genome. At least one A. syriaca microread hit 88% of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) unigenes (median coverage of 0.29×) and 66% of single copy orthologs (COSII) in asterids (median coverage of 0.14×). From this partial characterization of the A. syriaca genome, markers for population genetics (microsatellites) and phylogenetics (low-copy nuclear genes) studies were developed. The results highlight the promise of next generation sequencing for development of genomic resources for any organism. Low coverage genome sequencing allows characterization of the high copy fraction of the genome and exploration of the low copy fraction of the genome, which facilitate the development of molecular tools for further study of a target species and its relatives. This study represents a first

  7. Creating a data resource: what will it take to build a medical information commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Majumder, Mary A; Villanueva, Angela G; Anderson, Margaret; Bakker, Annette C; Bardill, Jessica; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bubela, Tania; Evans, Barbara J; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Gibbs, Richard A; Gentleman, Robert; Glazer, David; Goldstein, Melissa M; Greely, Hank; Harris, Crane; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Kohane, Isaac S; La Rosa, Salvatore; Mattison, John; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Rai, Arti K; Rehm, Heidi L; Rodriguez, Laura L; Shelton, Robert; Simoncelli, Tania; Terry, Sharon F; Watson, Michael S; Wilbanks, John; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2017-09-22

    National and international public-private partnerships, consortia, and government initiatives are underway to collect and share genomic, personal, and healthcare data on a massive scale. Ideally, these efforts will contribute to the creation of a medical information commons (MIC), a comprehensive data resource that is widely available for both research and clinical uses. Stakeholder participation is essential in clarifying goals, deepening understanding of areas of complexity, and addressing long-standing policy concerns such as privacy and security and data ownership. This article describes eight core principles proposed by a diverse group of expert stakeholders to guide the formation of a successful, sustainable MIC. These principles promote formation of an ethically sound, inclusive, participant-centric MIC and provide a framework for advancing the policy response to data-sharing opportunities and challenges.

  8. An analysis and comparison of commonly available United Kingdom prescribing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A R; Butt, T F; Ferner, R E

    2010-08-01

    Safe prescribing requires accurate and practical information about drugs. Our objective was to measure the utility of current sources of prescribing guidance when used to inform practical prescribing decisions, and to compare current sources of prescribing guidance in the UK with idealized prescribing guidance. We developed 25 clinical scenarios. Two independent assessors rated and ranked the performance of five common sources of prescribing guidance in the UK when used to answer the clinical scenarios. A third adjudicator facilitated review of any disparities. An idealized list of contents for prescribing guidance was developed and sent for comments to academics and users of prescribing guidance. Following consultation an operational check was used to assess compliance with the idealized criteria. The main outcome measures were relative utility in answering the clinical scenarios and compliance with the idealized prescribing guidance. Current sources of prescribing guidance used in the UK differ in their utility, when measured using clinical scenarios. The British National Formulary (BNF) and EMIS LV were the best performing sources in terms of both ranking [mean rank 1·24 and 2·20] and rating [%excellent or adequate 100% and 72%]. Current sources differed in the extent to which they fulfilled criteria for ideal prescribing guidance, but the BNF, and EMIS LV to a lesser extent, closely matched the criteria. We have demonstrated how clinical scenarios can be used to assess prescribing guidance resources. Producers of prescribing guidance documents should consider our idealized template. Prescribers require high-quality information to support their practice. Our test was helpful in distinguishing between prescribing resources. Producers of prescribing guidance should consider the utility of their products to end-users, particularly in those more complex areas where prescribers may need most support. Existing UK prescribing guidance resources differ in their

  9. Influence of three common calibration metrics on the diagnosis of climate change impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, G.; Roy, R.; Anctil, F.

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties associated to the evaluation of the impacts of climate change on water resources are broad, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This work specifically evaluates the influence of hydrological modeling calibration metrics on future water resources projections, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. Twelve lumped hydrologic models, representing a wide range of operational options, are calibrated with three common objective functions derived from the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. The hydrologic models are forced with climate simulations corresponding to two RCP, twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and two post-treatment techniques, leading to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the impacts of climate change on water resources are quite affected by the hydrologic models selection and calibration metrics. Indeed, for the four selected hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, parameters from the three objective functions can provide different interpretations in terms of absolute and relative changes, as well as projected changes direction and climatic ensemble consensus. The GR4J model and a multimodel approach offer the best modeling options, based on calibration performance and robustness. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute change values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.

  10. Managing a Common Pool Resource: Real Time Decision-Making in a Groundwater Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R.; McLaughlin, D.

    2017-12-01

    In a Common Pool Resource (CPR) such as a groundwater aquifer, multiple landowners (agents) are competing for a limited resource of water. Landowners pump out the water to grow their own crops. Such problems can be posed as differential games, with agents all trying to control the behavior of the shared dynamic system. Each agent aims to maximize his/her own personal objective like agriculture yield, being aware that the action of every other agent collectively influences the behavior of the shared aquifer. The agents therefore choose a subgame perfect Nash equilibrium strategy that derives an optimal action for each agent based on the current state of the aquifer and assumes perfect information of every other agents' objective function. Furthermore, using an Iterated Best Response approach and interpolating techniques, an optimal pumping strategy can be computed for a more-realistic description of the groundwater model under certain assumptions. The numerical implementation of dynamic optimization techniques for a relevant description of the physical system yields results qualitatively different from the previous solutions obtained from simple abstractions.This work aims to bridge the gap between extensive modeling approaches in hydrology and competitive solution strategies in differential game theory.

  11. Strengths of common resources for managing emergencies in the Spanish nuclear power plants (CAE y UME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, J. de

    2014-01-01

    Following the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi power plants, the electrical sector of nuclear generation recognised the need to reinforce the capacities that the nuclear power plants already had and which they were developing in order to satisfy the requisites of the stress tests, with the additional support of equipment and human resources common to all of them. Thus the idea arose to create a Spanish emergency Support centre. Its scope included an intervention unit, pumping equipment and electrical generation, a centralised warehouse and transfer logistics. UNESA-UME Collaboration Protocol With the collaboration of the CSN as a mediator, the UME reached an agreement with the nuclear electrical sector (UNESA) in order to be able to increase knowledge about the Spanish nuclear power plants and establish a means of collaboration to be able to act with their own human and equipment resources at a site that might suffer an accident such as the one at the Japanese plants of Fukushima-Daiichi. (Author)

  12. Topography- and management-mediated resource gradients maintain rare and common plant diversity around paddy terraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yuta; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2013-09-01

    Examining the causes of interspecific differences in susceptibility to bidirectional land-use changes (land abandonment and use-intensification) is important for understanding the mechanisms of global biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes. We tested the hypothesis that rare (endangered) plant species prefer wet and oligotrophic areas within topography- and management-mediated resource (soil water content, nutrient, and aboveground biomass) gradients, making them more susceptible to both abandonment and use-intensification of agricultural lands. We demonstrated that topography and management practices generated resource gradients in seminatural grasslands around traditional paddy terraces. Terraced topography and management practices produced a soil moisture gradient within levees and a nutrient gradient within paddy terraces. Both total and rare species diversity increased with soil water content. Total species diversity increased in more eutrophied areas with low aboveground biomass, whereas rare species diversity was high under oligotrophic conditions. Rare and common species were differentially distributed along the human-induced nutrient gradient, with rare species preferring wet, nutrient-poor environments in the agricultural landscapes studied. We suggest that conservation efforts should concentrate on wet, nutrient-poor areas within such landscapes, which can be located easily using land-use and topography maps. This strategy would reduce the costs of finding and conserving rare grassland species in a given agricultural landscape.

  13. View Points of an Ecologist on Practical Environmental Ethic: Socioecology, Common-Pool Resources and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The paper centers on environmental practical ethic point of views according to a professional ecologist. Ecology and the science of Socio-ecology are defined. The framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment initiative (MA 2003), including the use of ecosystems as the environmental unit of analysis, ecosystem services and human well-being as the center for assessment are discussed. Common-pool resources (CPR) and the allegory of the tragedy of the commons are used to illustrate main scientific and ethical environmental approaches, and above all to highlight the case of climate change, considering ″air-atmosphere″ as a CPR. The need to adopt practical personal environmental ethical positions is highlighted. Furthermore, on climate change, a discussion on the need to develop environmental and socio-ecological polycentric approaches: top-down and bottom-up, is included. An updated discussion on the concept of conservation, including main scientific and ethic points of view, is presented. Pope Francis's Encyclical, Laudato Si', is used to highlight environmental, socio-ecological and ethical aspects behind the comprehensive concept of Integral Ecology. The paper ends with a short synthesis on Earth modern unseen and astonishing environmental and socio-ecological rates of changes, and identifying the main barriers for personal environmental engagement. A call is done regarding the urgent need for socio-environmental ethic personal engagement and collective actions.

  14. Managing physical therapy resources: an analogy to the freedom of the commons and the need for collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Gerard P

    2012-06-01

    Tragedy results when we each pursue our own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of a commons, such as clean air, fresh water, or natural fishing grounds. The purpose of this editorial is to consider how resources related to healthcare, and specifically to the delivery of physical therapy, can suffer the tragedy of the commons, and to consider an alternative strategy by which we can manage physical therapy resources effectively through collective action.

  15. Community household income and resource utilization for common inpatient pediatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaniletti, Isabella; Hall, Matthew; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Gottlieb, Laura; Macy, Michelle L; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Morse, Rustin B; Hain, Paul D; Sills, Marion R; Frank, Gary; Shah, Samir S

    2013-12-01

    Child health is influenced by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children. Our objective was to analyze inpatient costs for children hospitalized with common conditions in relation to zip code-based median annual household income (HHI). Retrospective national cohort from 32 freestanding children's hospitals for asthma, diabetes, bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia, and kidney and urinary tract infections. Standardized cost of care for individual hospitalizations and across hospitalizations for the same patient and condition were modeled by using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for severity of illness, age, gender, and race. Main exposure was median annual HHI. Posthoc tests compared adjusted standardized costs for patients from the lowest and highest income groups. From 116,636 hospitalizations, 4 of 5 conditions had differences at the hospitalization and at the patient level, with lowest-income groups having higher costs. The individual hospitalization level cost differences ranged from $187 (4.1%) to $404 (6.4%). Patient-level cost differences ranged from $310 to $1087 or 6.5% to 15% higher for the lowest-income patients. Higher costs were typically not for laboratory, imaging, or pharmacy costs. In total, patients from lowest income zip codes had $8.4 million more in hospitalization-level costs and $13.6 million more in patient-level costs. Lower community-level HHI is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for 4 of 5 common pediatric conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design, delivery, and reimbursement calculations.

  16. The dual impact of ecology and management on social incentives in marine common-pool resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E S; Barbier, M R; Watson, J R

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how and when cooperative human behaviour forms in common-pool resource systems is critical to illuminating social-ecological systems and designing governance institutions that promote sustainable resource use. Before assessing the full complexity of social dynamics, it is essential to understand, concretely and mechanistically, how resource dynamics and human actions interact to create incentives and pay-offs for social behaviours. Here, we investigated how such incentives for information sharing are affected by spatial dynamics and management in a common-pool resource system. Using interviews with fishermen to inform an agent-based model, we reveal generic mechanisms through which, for a given ecological setting characterized by the spatial dynamics of the resource, the two 'human factors' of information sharing and management may heterogeneously impact various members of a group for whom theory would otherwise predict the same strategy. When users can deplete the resource, these interactions are further affected by the management approach. Finally, we discuss the implications of alternative motivations, such as equity among fishermen and consistency of the fleet's output. Our results indicate that resource spatial dynamics, form of management and level of depletion can interact to alter the sociality of people in common-pool resource systems, providing necessary insight for future study of strategic decision processes.

  17. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  18. Cockles in custody: the role of common property arrangements in the ecological sustainability of mangrove Fisheries on the Ecuadorian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Beitl

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of common property resource theory (CPR have long asserted that certain kinds of institutional arrangements based on collective action result in successful environmental stewardship, but feedback and the direct link between social and ecological systems remains poorly understood. This paper investigates how common property institutional arrangements contribute to sustainable mangrove fisheries in coastal Ecuador, focusing on the fishery for the mangrove cockle (Anadara tuberculosa and A. similis, a bivalve mollusk harvested from the roots of mangrove trees and of particular social, economic, and cultural importance for the communities that depend on it. Specifically, this study examines the emergence of new civil society institutions within the historical context of extensive mangrove deforestation for the expansion of shrimp farming, policy changes in the late 1990s that recognized “ancestral” rights of local communities to mangrove resources, and how custodias, community-managed mangrove concessions, affect the cockle fishery. Findings from interviews with shell collectors and analysis of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE indicate that mangrove concessions as common property regimes promote community empowerment, local autonomy over resources, mangrove conservation and recovery, higher cockle catch shares, and larger shell sizes, but the benefits are not evenly distributed. Associations without custodias and independent cockle collectors feel further marginalized by the loss of gathering grounds, potentially deflecting problems of overexploitation to “open-access” areas, in which mangrove fisheries are weakly managed by the State. Using Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD framework, the explicit link between social and ecological systems is studied at different levels, examining the relationship between collective action and the environment through quantitative approaches at the fishery level and qualitative

  19. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other’s knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty. PMID:27556175

  20. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schill

    Full Text Available Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  1. Cooperation Is Not Enough—Exploring Social-Ecological Micro-Foundations for Sustainable Common-Pool Resource Use [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Caroline; Wijermans, Nanda; Schlüter, Maja; Lindahl, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation amongst resource users holds the key to overcoming the social dilemma that characterizes community-based common-pool resource management. But is cooperation alone enough to achieve sustainable resource use? The short answer is no. Developing management strategies in a complex social-ecological environment also requires ecological knowledge and approaches to deal with perceived environmental uncertainty. Recent behavioral experimental research indicates variation in the degree to which a group of users can identify a sustainable exploitation level. In this paper, we identify social-ecological micro-foundations that facilitate cooperative sustainable common-pool resource use. We do so by using an agent-based model (ABM) that is informed by behavioral common-pool resource experiments. In these experiments, groups that cooperate do not necessarily manage the resource sustainably, but also over- or underexploit. By reproducing the patterns of the behavioral experiments in a qualitative way, the ABM represents a social-ecological explanation for the experimental observations. We find that the ecological knowledge of each group member cannot sufficiently explain the relationship between cooperation and sustainable resource use. Instead, the development of a sustainable exploitation level depends on the distribution of ecological knowledge among the group members, their influence on each other's knowledge, and the environmental uncertainty the individuals perceive. The study provides insights about critical social-ecological micro-foundations underpinning collective action and sustainable resource management. These insights may inform policy-making, but also point to future research needs regarding the mechanisms of social learning, the development of shared management strategies and the interplay of social and ecological uncertainty.

  2. Crowdsourcing cyber security: a property rights view of exclusion and theft on the information commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Shiffman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals increasingly rely upon the internet for basic economic interaction. Current cyber security mechanisms are unable to stop adversaries and hackers from gaining access to sensitive information stored on government, business, and public computers. Experts propose implementing attribution and audit frameworks in cyberspace to deter, prevent, and prosecute cyber criminals and attackers. However, this method faces significant policy and resource constraints. Social science research, specifically in law and economics, concerning common-pool resources suggests an organic approach to cyber security may yield an appropriate solution. This cyber commons method involves treating the internet as a commons and encouraging individuals and institutions to voluntarily implement innovative and adaptive monitoring mechanisms. Such mechanisms are already in use and in many cases have proven more effective than attribution mechanisms in resisting and tracing the source of cyber attacks.

  3. Understanding the Consequences of Property Rights Mismatches: a Case Study of New Zealand's Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Yandle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Within fisheries and natural resource management literature, there is considerable discussion about the key roles that property rights can play in building biologically and socially sustainable resource management regimes. A key point of agreement is that secure long-term property rights provide an incentive for resource users to manage the resource sustainably. However, property rights mismatches create ambiguity and conflict in resource use. Though the term mismatches is usually associated with problems in matching temporal and spatial resource characteristics with institutional characteristics, I expand it here to include problems that can arise when property rights are incompletely defined or incompletely distributed. Property rights mismatches are particularly likely to occur over marine resources, for which multiple types of resource and resource user can be engaged and managed under a variety of regulatory regimes. I used New Zealand's marine resources to examine the causes and consequences of these property rights mismatches. New Zealand is particularly interesting because its property-rights-based commercial fishing regime, in the form of individual transferable quotas, has attracted considerable positive attention. However, my review of the marine natural resource management regime from a broader property rights perspective highlights a series of problems caused by property rights mismatches, including competition for resources among commercial, customary, and recreational fishers; spatial conflict among many marine resource users; and conflicting incentives and objectives for the management of resources over time. The use of a property rights perspective also highlights some potential solutions such as the layering of institutional arrangements and the improvement of how property rights are defined to encourage long-term sustainability.

  4. LIBERAL CONTRACTS, RELATIONAL CONTRACTS AND COMMON PROPERTY: AFRICA AND THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Tabachnick, David

    1998-01-01

    The core thesis is that Western neoclassical economics and law (particularly Anglo-American) have a peculiar cultural history that biases Western-trained economists and lawyers against common property systems like those found among Africans and American Indians. This Western cultural bias is expressed through the recurrent focus on individuals as atomistic and independent of each other in contract and property law, as well as in economic theory. The bias derives in part from the historical su...

  5. OSL properties of three commonly available salt brands in India for its use in accident dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) characterization of three commonly available salt brands in India were undertaken for their application in accident dosimetry. The investigations showed that the luminescence properties differed to some extent with that reported in literature. Dosimetric properties of these salt samples showed that these can be useful in accident dosimetry. Based on the sensitization and fading behaviour of the samples a Single Aliquot Regenerative (SAR) protocol has been proposed for dose estimation.

  6. Management of Common Resources and Reciprocity: the contributions of Elinor Ostrom to the Debate Manejo dos Recursos Comuns e Reciprocidade: os Aportes de Elinor Ostrom ao Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sabourin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of reciprocity in the processes and procedures recorded in the management of common resources. It examines first the role that E. Ostrom attributes to the norm of reciprocity in her approach to common property resources. A second part interprets economic and social relations in the management of common resources as seen by economic anthropology’s theory of reciprocity. Finally, the conclusion attempts to establish a dialogue between Ostrom’s proposals and the theory of reciprocity.O artigo analisa a importância da reciprocidade nos processos e dispositivos de manejo de recursos comuns. Primeiro, examina o papel que Ostrom atribui à norma de reciprocidade na sua abordagem da gestão dos recursos em propriedade comum. Uma segunda parte apresenta a leitura das relações econômicas e sociais no manejo de recursos comuns pela ótica da teoria da reciprocidade da antropologia econômica. Finalmente, a conclusão apresenta um início de diálogo entre as propostas de Ostrom e a teoria da reciprocidade.

  7. Common Marsh Plants of the United States and Canada. Resource Publication 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Neil

    Described in this guide are the emergent and semiemergent plants most likely to be found in inland and coastal marshes. The guide is intended for field identification of marsh plants without resources to technical botanical keys. The plants are discussed in seven groups. Within each group the kinds which resemble one another most closely are next…

  8. The Influence of Ethnic Diversity on Social Network Structure in a Common-Pool Resource System: Implications for Collaborative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barnes-Mauthe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii's longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.

  9. Sustainability is possible despite greed - Exploring the nexus between profitability and sustainability in common pool resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Friedrich Burkhard von der; Kirley, Michael; Miller, Tim

    2017-05-23

    The sustainable use of common pool resources has become a significant global challenge. It is now widely accepted that specific mechanisms such as community-based management strategies, institutional responses such as resource privatization, information availability and emergent social norms can be used to constrain individual 'harvesting' to socially optimal levels. However, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on aligning profitability and sustainability goals. In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of a common pool resource game is developed to explore the nexus between the underlying costs and benefits of harvesting decisions and the sustainable level of a shared, dynamic resource. We derive optimal harvesting efforts analytically and then use numerical simulations to show that individuals in a group can learn to make harvesting decisions that lead to the globally optimal levels. Individual agents make their decision based on signals received and a trade-off between economic and ecological sustainability. When the balance is weighted towards profitability, acceptable economic and social outcomes emerge. However, if individual agents are solely driven by profit, the shared resource is depleted in the long run - sustainability is possible despite some greed, but too much will lead to over-exploitation.

  10. Civil society participation in the management of the common good: a case of ethics in biological resource centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrici Calvo Cabezas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The management of commons is now at the centre of researchers’ attention in many branches of science, particularly those related to the human or social sciences. This paper seeks to demonstrate how civil society participation in common goods or resources is not only possible but is also desirable for society because of the medium and long-term benefits it offers involved and/or affected parties. To this end, we examine the falsity of the discourse underlying the supposed incompetence of civil society to cooperate interpersonally in the pursuit of common objectives, and also analyse a specific example of the necessary and possible participation of civil society in managing common goods through biobanks.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  12. Common property organisations as actors in rural development: a case study of a mountain area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bassi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Consorzi Vicinali are common property organisations (CPOs located in a mountain area of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, in North East Italy. These CPOs have a long history of mutual assistance and collective use and management of local resources, thus contributing to a balanced development of the local community and territory. The research aimed at investigating whether these historical CPOs still have a relevant role to play in the development of local rural areas, and how they deal with the present needs and opportunities of these areas. Specifically, the robustness and viability of these organisations were analysed. The survey revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the Consorzi Vicinali. According to Ostrom’s design principles, the robustness is quite high. Nevertheless, this ability to maintain some desired characteristics despite internal and external fluctuations does not always match with a high viability, in terms of natural resource management, internal participation, creation of job opportunities especially for young people, and capacity to attract financial support. In fact, some Consorzi still act effectively in terms of the collective stewardship of rural resources. Whereas, others have the potential to adapt to new challenges and emerging needs, due to the deep rootedness and the sense of belonging of the local community to its territory. These are the strengths of all the Consorzi. The robustness and viability analyses used in a complementary way have been effective here in giving a more comprehensive description of CPOs and their (potential role in rural development.

  13. Common Aims, Values And Principles Of Intellectual Property, Right To Competence And Others Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims the definition of which are the pourposes, values and common principles of intellectual property, competence law of advertising, consumer and information. It shows how the principles are anchored in values, and these in turn into rights purposes, making palpable the hierarchy such purposes, values ​​and principles have in the legal system. Thus, the outcome of the research is threefold: (i definition of the purposes, values ​​and principles common to these areas of law, (ii its interface, and (iii their ranking.

  14. A comprehensive reference transcriptome resource for the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Posnien

    Full Text Available Parasteatoda tepidariorum is an increasingly popular model for the study of spider development and the evolution of development more broadly. However, fully understanding the regulation and evolution of P. tepidariorum development in comparison to other animals requires a genomic perspective. Although research on P. tepidariorum has provided major new insights, gene analysis to date has been limited to candidate gene approaches. Furthermore, the few available EST collections are based on embryonic transcripts, which have not been systematically annotated and are unlikely to contain transcripts specific to post-embryonic stages of development. We therefore generated cDNA from pooled embryos representing all described embryonic stages, as well as post-embryonic stages including nymphs, larvae and adults, and using Illumina HiSeq technology obtained a total of 625,076,514 100-bp paired end reads. We combined these data with 24,360 ESTs available in GenBank, and 1,040,006 reads newly generated from 454 pyrosequencing of a mixed-stage embryo cDNA library. The combined sequence data were assembled using a custom de novo assembly strategy designed to optimize assembly product length, number of predicted transcripts, and proportion of raw reads incorporated into the assembly. The de novo assembly generated 446,427 contigs with an N50 of 1,875 bp. These sequences obtained 62,799 unique BLAST hits against the NCBI non-redundant protein data base, including putative orthologs to 8,917 Drosophila melanogaster genes based on best reciprocal BLAST hit identity compared with the D. melanogaster proteome. Finally, we explored the utility of the transcriptome for RNA-Seq studies, and showed that this resource can be used as a mapping scaffold to detect differential gene expression in different cDNA libraries. This resource will therefore provide a platform for future genomic, gene expression and functional approaches using P. tepidariorum.

  15. Reinforcing Property by Strengthening the Commons: A New Media Policy Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jakobsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In much scholarly writing and in many leftist and activist accounts the enclosures of the cultural commons have been fiercely critiqued. However, during the last years, new media business models, that challenge the notion of the cultural industries as “copyright industries”, has been taking shape. A new class of entrepreneurs is instead working to expand the commons as part of their businesses. Accordingly, representatives from these new media industries, policy makers, and politicians have joined the academic and political critique of the “enclosures of the cultural common”. The paper argues that this is a shift within the dominant media policy paradigm and an attempt to integrate existing practices on the Internet, based on cooperation and sharing, into the market. By relocating the struggle from “intellectual property” to “platform economics”, the media industry can exploit the productivity of the commons while holding on to the power that comes with ownership and property.

  16. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  17. Social Cooperation and Disharmony in Communities Mediated through Common Pool Resource Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, H. S.; Lansing, J. S.; Chung, N. N.; Lai, C. H.; Cheong, S. A.; Chew, L. Y.

    2017-05-01

    It was theorized that when a society exploits a shared resource, the system can undergo extreme phase transition from full cooperation in abiding by a social agreement, to full defection from it. This was shown to happen in an integrated society with complex social relationships. However, real-world agents tend to segregate into communities whose interactions contain features of the associated community structure. We found that such social segregation softens the abrupt extreme transition through the emergence of multiple intermediate phases composed of communities of cooperators and defectors. Phase transitions thus now occur through these intermediate phases which avert the instantaneous collapse of social cooperation within a society. While this is beneficial to society, it nonetheless costs society in two ways. First, the return to full cooperation from full defection at the phase transition is no longer immediate. Community linkages have rendered greater societal inertia such that the switch back is now typically stepwise rather than a single change. Second, there is a drastic increase in social disharmony within the society due to the greater tension in the relationship between segregated communities of defectors and cooperators. Intriguingly, these results on multiple phases with its associated phenomenon of social disharmony are found to characterize the level of cooperation within a society of Balinese farmers who exploit water for rice production.

  18. The habitus professorial and special education: perceptions of common class teachers and resource room multifuncional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Kuhn Junior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Inclusive Education from the Specialized Educational Service (SES in Multifunctional Resources Classes (MRC in the Municipal Teaching web in Novo Hamburgo/RS. It counted with the participation of 99 teachers in the regular classroom who worked as teachers of students with disabilities, pervasive developmental disorders, high ability/gifted and 30 MRC teachers in 2013. The data showed that the MRC teachers shown to have minor difficulties in working with students from the Special Education than the teachers of regular class. Through the identification of the teachers’ habitus of regular class, it was understood that the difficulties indicated by them derive from the fragility in their pedagogical training to work with students of Special Education. It is about a non-inclusive habitus, which is constituted from the internalization of teaching models based on the subject homogenization (all are equal over the constitution of a new habitus, structural of a teaching model that recognizes the diversity for inclusion.

  19. 7 CFR 767.201 - Real estate inventory property with important resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate inventory property with important... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Real Estate Property With Important Resources or Located in Special Hazard Areas § 767.201 Real estate inventory...

  20. Liability for contaminated property : the interaction between regulation and the common law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacWilliam, A.G. [Milner Fenerty, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The criteria used for guidelines by environmental regulators to set acceptable levels of contamination for the purposes of site remediation were discussed. For the purposes of liability under environmental legislation, the guidelines allow `persons responsible` for property contamination to have an idea of the extent to which they must remediate. The guidelines provide a standard of cleanliness which takes into account the protection of environmental quality and human health. This paper describes common law causes of action, including claims in tort and claims in contract. Issues of negligence, nuisance, and liability under Rylands v. Fletcher are also addressed.

  1. Chemical and functional properties of different common Brazilian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Marquezi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six different common bean cultivars (BRS Embaixador, BRS Pitanga, BRS Estilo, Pérola, BRS Campeiro and BRS Esplendor were characterized aiming to determine possible uses for them in various food products. The samples were analysed to determine their chemical composition, weight per hundred beans, pH, water and oil absorption capacities (WAC and OAC, respectively, foaming at pH 2.5, 5.6 and 8.0 and emulsifying properties. The relationship between the physicochemical and functional properties was described using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results of the chemical composition, weight per hundred beans, WAC and OAC showed differences even between cultivars of the same commercial group. Foaming also varied between the cultivars and foaming capacity and stability were greatest at pH 5.6 and 8.0. The emulsifying capacity proved quite high for all cultivars, as well as the stability of the emulsion. According to these properties, with the contribution of the PCA, each different bean cultivar can be destined to specific applications according to its physicochemical properties.

  2. Cancer: an emergent property of disturbed resource-rich environments? Ecology meets personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, Hugo; Arnal, Audrey; Vittecoq, Marion; Daoust, Simon P; Ujvari, Beata; Jacqueline, Camille; Tissot, Tazzio; Ewald, Paul; Gatenby, Robert A; King, Kayla C; Bonhomme, François; Brodeur, Jacques; Renaud, François; Solary, Eric; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    For an increasing number of biologists, cancer is viewed as a dynamic system governed by evolutionary and ecological principles. Throughout most of human history, cancer was an uncommon cause of death and it is generally accepted that common components of modern culture, including increased physiological stresses and caloric intake, favor cancer development. However, the precise mechanisms for this linkage are not well understood. Here, we examine the roles of ecological and physiological disturbances and resource availability on the emergence of cancer in multicellular organisms. We argue that proliferation of 'profiteering phenotypes' is often an emergent property of disturbed, resource-rich environments at all scales of biological organization. We review the evidence for this phenomenon, explore it within the context of malignancy, and discuss how this ecological framework may offer a theoretical background for novel strategies of cancer prevention. This work provides a compelling argument that the traditional separation between medicine and evolutionary ecology remains a fundamental limitation that needs to be overcome if complex processes, such as oncogenesis, are to be completely understood.

  3. Common Practices from Two Decades of Water Resources Modelling Published in Environmental Modelling & Software: 1997 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Peterson, M.; Larsen, J.

    2016-12-01

    A steady flow of manuscripts describing integrated water resources management (IWRM) modelling has been published in Environmental Modelling & Software since the journal's inaugural issue in 1997. These papers represent two decades of peer-reviewed scientific knowledge regarding methods, practices, and protocols for conducting IWRM. We have undertaken to explore this specific assemblage of literature with the intention of identifying commonly reported procedures in terms of data integration methods, modelling techniques, approaches to stakeholder participation, means of communication of model results, and other elements of the model development and application life cycle. Initial results from this effort will be presented including a summary of commonly used practices, and their evolution over the past two decades. We anticipate that results will show a pattern of movement toward greater use of both stakeholder/participatory modelling methods as well as increased use of automated methods for data integration and model preparation. Interestingly, such results could be interpreted to show that the availability of better, faster, and more integrated software tools and technologies free the modeler to take a less technocratic and more human approach to water resources modelling.

  4. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  5. Revealing strong bias in common measures of galaxy properties using new inclination-independent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate measurement of galaxy structures is a prerequisite for quantitative investigation of galaxy properties or evolution. Yet, the impact of galaxy inclination and dust on commonly used metrics of galaxy structure is poorly quantified. We use infrared data sets to select inclination-independent samples of disc and flattened elliptical galaxies. These samples show strong variation in Sérsic index, concentration and half-light radii with inclination. We develop novel inclination-independent galaxy structures by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared on to the major axis, yielding inclination-independent 'linear' measures of size and concentration. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analogue galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, sizes and concentrations. Optical luminosities, light distributions and spectral properties are all found to vary strongly with inclination: When inclining to edge-on, r-band luminosities dim by >1 magnitude, sizes decrease by a factor of 2, 'dust-corrected' estimates of star formation rate drop threefold, metallicities decrease by 0.1 dex and edge-on galaxies are half as likely to be classified as star forming. These systematic effects should be accounted for in analyses of galaxy properties.

  6. The Protective Properties of Common Reed Plantations on Shores of the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solodovnikov Denis Anatolyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abrasion processing of shores is a pressing problem of large water basins of the Lower Volga region and other Russian regions. About 3 km2 of shoreland is annually lost in the zone of the Volgograd water basin as a result of this process. The existing methods of shores protection are connected with the creation of concrete structures having a high level of erosion resistance. They are extremely expensive and in most cases they are not affordable for rural municipalities suffering from abrasion. The authors offer cheap and environmentally friendly way of protecting the shores of large water basins from abrasion. The method is based on the plantation of a common reed strip on a water basin’s shallow. The biological characteristics of common reed as the main component of shore protection structures are described. The terms and milestones of the work in the conditions of the Volgograd water basin are developed. The main result of applying our methodology is the complete cessation of abrasion processing of the shore at the corresponding piece of land. The authors overview the positive qualities of reed plantations, their biocenotic, barrier and waterproof role in on-shore ecosystems. The application of the described method will allow saving for the national economy dozens of hectares of valuable shore lands annually, in particular, irrigated cropland, settlement lands, infrastructure. In addition to the direct benefits associated with the conservation of land resources, the intensity of adverse processes associated with erosion of shores (water basin muddying, deterioration of sanitary qualities of water will decrease. Due to the wide geographic spread of common reed described in the present work, the technology of shores stabilization can be applied at almost all lowland water basins of Russia.

  7. Experimental datasets on engineering properties of expansive soil treated with common salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Durotoye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction of highway pavements or high rise structures over the expansive soils are always problematic due to failures of volume change or swelling characteristic experienced in the water permeability of the soil. The data in this article represented summary of (Durotoye et al., 2016; Durotoye, 2016 [1,2]. The data explored different percentages of sodium chloride as additive in stabilizing the engineering properties of expansive soil compared with other available stabilizer previously worked on. Experimental procedures carried out on expansive soil include: (Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Plasticity index, Shrinkage limit, Specific gravity Free swell index and Optimum water content to determine the swelling parameters and (maximum dry density, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength to determine the strength parameters. The results of the experiment were presented in pie charts. Keywords: Common salt, Expansive soil, Experimental procedure, Strength parameters, Swelling parameters

  8. Family resources for families of children with cerebral palsy in Jordan: psychometric properties of the Arabic-family resources scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, N A; Saleh, M; Dunst, C J

    2014-05-01

    Resource-based, family-centred practices are associated with better health, emotional, and social well-being of children with disabilities. The adequacy of resources available for families of children with disabilities in Middle Eastern countries has not been described adequately in part because of lack of measures that are culturally adapted to be used in Arabic countries. Therefore, this study aims to (1) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Arabic-Family Resource Scale (A-FRS) on a sample of families of children cerebral palsy (CP); (2) examine the adequacy of family resources as perceived by parents of children with CP in Jordan; and (3) examine the influence of child and family demographic variables on how parents report resources available to their families. A cross-section design was applied. One-hundred fifteen parents of children with CP with mean age 4.6 years (SD = 4.4) and their parents participated in the study. Research assistants interviewed the participants to complete the A-FRS, and family and child demographic questionnaire, and determined the Gross Motor Function Classification System level of children. The principal axis factoring of the A-FRS yielded a six-factor solution that accounted for 67.39% of the variance and that is different than the factor structure reported by the developers of the FRS. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha of the total score of family resources was 0.86 indicating a good internal consistency and the test–retest reliability for the total scale score was r = 0.92 (P = 0.000) indicating excellent test–retest reliability. Child health and family income were significantly associated with the total score of the A-FRS. The A-FRS is a valid and reliable measure of family resources for Jordanian families of children with CP. Service providers are encouraged to use A-FRS with families to plan resource-based interventions in which family resources are mobilized to meet family needs.

  9. Framing water and forests as global or local? Transnational community-based networks transforming common-pool resources essence and scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuits, Emilie; Pflieger, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    The current era of globalization and commodification has had a substantial impact on common-pool resources governance. In direct response to this, community-based organizations managing water and forests at the local level began to create their own transnational networks. Primarily, these organizations aim to achieve direct representation in international decision-making arenas in order to promote their model of collective governance. By reframing the representations of common-pool resources ...

  10. Understanding the Effects of Users' Behaviors on Effectiveness of Different Exogenous Regulatory Common Pool Resource Management Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Dinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tragedy of the commons is generally recognized as one of the possible destinies for common pool resources (CPRs). To avoid the tragedy of the commons and prolonging the life of CPRs, users may show different behavioral characteristics and use different rationales for CPR planning and management. Furthermore, regulators may adopt different strategies for sustainable management of CPRs. The effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous management institutions cannot be evaluated through conventional CPR models since they assume that either users base their behavior on individual rationality and adopt a selfish behavior (Nash behavior), or that the users seek the system's optimal solution without giving priority to their own interests. Therefore, conventional models fail to reliably predict the outcome of CPR problems in which parties may have a range of behavioral characteristics, putting them somewhere in between the two types of behaviors traditionally considered. This work examines the effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous CPR management institutions through a user-based model (as opposed to a system-based model). The new modeling framework allows for consideration of sensitivity of the results to different behavioral characteristics of interacting CPR users. The suggested modeling approach is applied to a benchmark groundwater management problem. Results indicate that some well-known exogenous management institutions (e.g. taxing) are ineffective in sustainable management of CPRs in most cases. Bankruptcy-based management can be helpful, but determination of the fair level of cutbacks remains challenging under this type of institution. Furthermore, some bankruptcy rules such as the Constrained Equal Award (CEA) method are more beneficial to wealthier users, failing to establish social justice. Quota-based and CPR status-based management perform as the most promising and robust regulatory exogenous institutions in prolonging the CPR's life and

  11. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  12. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  13. Common and distinct genetic properties of ESCRT-II components in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Martin Herz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic studies in yeast have identified class E vps genes that form the ESCRT complexes required for protein sorting at the early endosome. In Drosophila, mutations of the ESCRT-II component vps25 cause endosomal defects leading to accumulation of Notch protein and increased Notch pathway activity. These endosomal and signaling defects are thought to account for several phenotypes. Depending on the developmental context, two different types of overgrowth can be detected. Tissue predominantly mutant for vps25 displays neoplastic tumor characteristics. In contrast, vps25 mutant clones in a wild-type background trigger hyperplastic overgrowth in a non-autonomous manner. In addition, vps25 mutant clones also promote apoptotic resistance in a non-autonomous manner. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we genetically characterize the remaining ESCRT-II components vps22 and vps36. Like vps25, mutants of vps22 and vps36 display endosomal defects, accumulate Notch protein and--when the tissue is predominantly mutant--show neoplastic tumor characteristics. However, despite these common phenotypes, they have distinct non-autonomous phenotypes. While vps22 mutations cause strong non-autonomous overgrowth, they do not affect apoptotic resistance. In contrast, vps36 mutations increase apoptotic resistance, but have little effect on non-autonomous proliferation. Further characterization reveals that although all ESCRT-II mutants accumulate Notch protein, only vps22 and vps25 mutations trigger Notch activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ESCRT-II components vps22, vps25 and vps36 display common and distinct genetic properties. Our data redefine the role of Notch for hyperplastic and neoplastic overgrowth in these mutants. While Notch is required for hyperplastic growth, it appears to be dispensable for neoplastic transformation.

  14. Property Rights for Natural Resources Management in Indonesia: Have They Been Ruled Unconstitutional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Waddell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new property right known as the coastal waters commercial use right (Hak Pengusahaan Pengairan Pesisir (HP-3 introduced by Law No. 27 of 2007 regarding the Management of Coastal and Small Island Areas has been ruled inoperative by the Constitutional Court. The decision raises a question as to whether the door has been closed to marketbased instruments that rely on property rights as a policy tool in natural resources management. This concern is relevant as legal developments in natural resources law internationally have moved away from traditional forms of regulation to focus on the creation of new statutory property rights such as fisheries rights, water use rights and rights associated with carbon sequestration. An exploration of theConstitutional Court’s decisionsuggests that a similar line of reasoning would not, and should not,arise in relation to other forms of property rights that the Government of Indonesia may seek to introduce in the future.

  15. Biochar from different residues on soil properties and common bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isley Cristiellem Bicalho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3, arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF, biochar from sawdust filter (BSF, and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF, respectively.

  16. Of Private, Common, and Public Property and the Rationale for Total Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Hermann Hoppe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, I want to clarify the nature and function of private property. Second, I want to clarify the distinction between “common” goods and property and “public” goods and property, and explain the construction error inherent in the institution of public goods and property. Third, I want to explain the rationale and principle of privatization.

  17. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J.-M.; Hoareau, J.; Grammare, M.; Caron, D.; Nandagiri, L.; Legchenko, A.

    2012-11-01

    Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements. We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m-2 of surface area (± 50%). We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  18. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  19. Expanding the Intellectual Property Knowledge Base at University Libraries: Collaborating with Patent and Trademark Resource Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Martin; Reinman, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Patent and Trademark Resource Centers are located in libraries throughout the U.S., with 43 being in academic libraries. With the importance of incorporating a knowledge of intellectual property (IP) and patent research in university curricula nationwide, this study developed and evaluated a partnership program to increase the understanding of IP…

  20. Gender and property rights in the commons : Examples of water rights in South Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Meinzen-Dick, R.

    2001-01-01

    In many countries and resource sectors, the state is devolving responsibility for natural resource management responsibility to ``communities'' or local user groups. However, both policymakers and researchers in this area have tended to ignore the implications of gender and other forms of

  1. Anisotropic local physical properties of human dental enamel in comparison to properties of some common dental filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Lars; Hartmann, Christiane D; Rödiger, Matthias; Bürgers, Ralf; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2014-11-01

    A major aspect in evaluating the quality of dental materials is their physical properties. Their properties should be a best fit of the ones of dental hard tissues. Manufacturers give data sheets for each material. The properties listed are characterized by a specific value. This assumes (but does not prove) that there is no direction dependence of the properties. However, dental enamel has direction-dependent properties which additionally vary with location in the tooth. The aim of this paper is to show the local direction dependence of physical properties like the elastic modulus or the thermal expansion in dental hard tissues. With this knowledge the 'perfect filling/dental material' could be characterized. Enamel sections of ∼400-500 μm thickness have been cut with a diamond saw from labial/buccal to palatal/lingual (canine, premolar and molar) and parallel to labial (incisor). Crystallite arrangements have been measured in over 400 data points on all types of teeth with x-ray scattering techniques, known from materials science. X-ray scattering measurements show impressively that dental enamel has a strong direction dependence of its physical properties which also varies with location within the tooth. Dental materials possess only little or no property direction dependence. Therefore, a mismatch was found between enamel and dental materials properties. Since dental materials should possess equal (direction depending) properties, worthwhile properties could be characterized by transferring the directional properties of enamel into a property 'wish list' which future dental materials should fulfil. Hereby the 'perfect dental material' can be characterized.

  2. Resourcefulness, Desperation, Shame, Gratitude and Powerlessness: Common Themes Emerging from A Study of Food Bank Use in Northeast Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; Sapko, Jennifer; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Kyle, Janet

    2015-01-01

    There is growing policy maker and public concern about current trends in food bank use in Scotland. Yet little is known about the experiences of those seeking help from food banks in this country. This research aimed to address this issue by studying the use and operation of a food bank situated in a rich northeast city during January and June 2014. The study aimed to establish who was seeking help from the food bank, their reasons for doing so, and what those who did thought of, and dealt with the food they received from it. Consequently, an audit of the food bank's client database, four months of participant observation based in the food bank, and seven face-to-face interviews with current and former food bank clients were conducted. The audit revealed that clients came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds, with men more likely to access it compared to women. Debt and social security benefit delays were cited as the main reasons for doing so. Qualitative data confirmed that sudden and unanticipated loss of income was a key driver of use. Resourcefulness in making donated food last as long as possible, keeping fuel costs low, and concern to minimise food waste were commonly described by participants. Desperation, gratitude, shame and powerlessness were also prevalent themes. Furthermore, clients were reluctant to ask for food they normally ate, as they were acutely aware that the food bank had little control over what it was able offer. Insights from this study suggest that recent UK policy proposals to address food poverty may have limited impact, without concomitant effort to address material disadvantage. Research is urgently required to determine the precise nature and extent of household level food insecurity in Scotland, and to consider monitoring for adverse physical and mental health outcomes for those affected by it.

  3. Resourcefulness, Desperation, Shame, Gratitude and Powerlessness: Common Themes Emerging from A Study of Food Bank Use in Northeast Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Douglas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing policy maker and public concern about current trends in food bank use in Scotland. Yet little is known about the experiences of those seeking help from food banks in this country. This research aimed to address this issue by studying the use and operation of a food bank situated in a rich northeast city during January and June 2014. The study aimed to establish who was seeking help from the food bank, their reasons for doing so, and what those who did thought of, and dealt with the food they received from it. Consequently, an audit of the food bank's client database, four months of participant observation based in the food bank, and seven face-to-face interviews with current and former food bank clients were conducted. The audit revealed that clients came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds, with men more likely to access it compared to women. Debt and social security benefit delays were cited as the main reasons for doing so. Qualitative data confirmed that sudden and unanticipated loss of income was a key driver of use. Resourcefulness in making donated food last as long as possible, keeping fuel costs low, and concern to minimise food waste were commonly described by participants. Desperation, gratitude, shame and powerlessness were also prevalent themes. Furthermore, clients were reluctant to ask for food they normally ate, as they were acutely aware that the food bank had little control over what it was able offer. Insights from this study suggest that recent UK policy proposals to address food poverty may have limited impact, without concomitant effort to address material disadvantage. Research is urgently required to determine the precise nature and extent of household level food insecurity in Scotland, and to consider monitoring for adverse physical and mental health outcomes for those affected by it.

  4. Is the Internet a Suitable Patient Resource for Information on Common Radiological Investigations?: Radiology-Related Information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Dermot J; Yap, Lee-Chien; Sheppard, Declan G

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of Internet information about common radiological investigations. Four search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, and Duckduckgo) were searched using the terms "X-ray," "cat scan," "MRI," "ultrasound," and "pet scan." The first 10 webpage results returned for each search term were recorded, and their quality and readability were analyzed by two independent reviewers (DJB and LCY), with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Analysis of information quality was conducted using validated instruments for the assessment of health-care information (DISCERN score is a multi-domain tool for assessment of health-care information quality by health-care professionals and laypeople (max 80 points)) and readability (Flesch-Kincaid and SMOG or Simple Measure of Gobbledygook scores). The search result pages were further classified into categories as follows: commercial, academic (educational/institutional), and news/magazine. Several organizations offer website accreditation for health-care information, and accreditation is recognized by the presence of a hallmark or logo on the website. The presence of any valid accreditation marks on each website was recorded. Mean scores between groups were compared for significance using the Student t test. A total of 200 webpages returned (108 unique website addresses). The average DISCERN score was search engines. No significant difference was seen in readability between modalities or between search engines. Websites carrying validated accreditation marks were associated with higher average DISCERN scores: X-ray (39.36 vs 25.35), computed tomography (45.45 vs 31.33), and ultrasound (40.91 vs 27.62) (P information on the Internet is poor. High-quality online resources should be identified so that patients may avoid the use of poor-quality information derived from general search engine queries. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for the prediction of common surface soil properties and expected accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Foerster, Saskia; Steinberg, Andreas; Stevens, Antoine; Segl, Karl

    2016-04-01

    There is a renewed awareness of the finite nature of the world's soil resources, growing concern about soil security, and significant uncertainties about the carrying capacity of the planet. As a consequence, soil scientists are being challenged to provide regular assessments of soil conditions from local through to global scales. However, only a few countries have the necessary survey and monitoring programs to meet these new needs and existing global data sets are out-of-date. A particular issue is the clear demand for a new area-wide regional to global coverage with accurate, up-to-date, and spatially referenced soil information as expressed by the modeling scientific community, farmers and land users, and policy and decision makers. Soil spectroscopy from remote sensing observations based on studies from the laboratory scale to the airborne scale has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative prediction of key soil surface properties in local areas for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions such as low vegetation cover and low water content. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors in the next 3 to 5 years (EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global mapping and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. Nevertheless, the capabilities to extend the soil properties current spectral modeling from local to regional scales are still to be demonstrated using robust methods. In particular, three central questions are at the forefront of research nowadays: a) methodological developments toward improved algorithms and operational tools for the extraction of soil properties, b) up scaling from the laboratory into space domain, and c) demonstration of the potential of upcoming satellite systems and expected accuracy of soil maps. In this study, airborne imaging spectroscopy data from several test sites are used to simulate EnMAP satellite images at 30 m scale. Then, different soil

  6. Starch composition, glycemic indices, phenolic constituents, and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of some common tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The fruits' low glycemic indices, strong antioxidant properties, and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities could be possible mechanisms for their use in the management and prevention of type-2 diabetes.

  7. Are the kids alright? Review books and the internet as the most common study resources for the general surgery clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janice A; Shaw, Christiana M; Tan, Sanda A; Falcone, John L

    2018-01-01

    To define resources deemed most important to medical students on their general surgery clerkship, we evaluated their material utilization. A prospective study was conducted amongst third-year medical students using a 20-item survey. Descriptive statistics were performed on the demographics. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney analyses were performed on the Likert responses (α = 0.05). Survey response was 69.2%. Use of review books and Internet was significantly higher compared to all other resources (p Internet source (39.1%). 56% never used textbooks. Analyses of surgery subject exam (NBME) results or intended specialty with resources used showed no statistical relationship (all p > 0.05). Resources used by students reflect access to high-yield material and increased Internet use. The Internet and review books were used more than the recommended textbook; NBME results were not affected. Understanding study habits and resource use will help guide curricular development and students' self-regulated learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An invariance property of the common trends under linear transformations of the data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina

    It is well known that if X(t) is a nonstationary process and Y(t) is a linear function of X(t), then cointegration of Y(t) implies cointegration of X(t). We want to find an analogous result for common trends if X(t) is generated by a finite order VAR. We first show that Y(t) has an infinite order...... VAR representation in terms of its prediction errors, which are a linear process in the prediction error for X(t). We then apply this result to show that the limit of the common trends for Y(t) are linear functions of the common trends for X(t)....

  9. An Invariance Property of the Common Trends under Linear Transformations of the Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina

    It is well known that if X(t) is a nonstationary process and Y(t) is a linear function of X(t), then cointegration of Y(t) implies cointegration of X(t). We want to find an analogous result for common trends if X(t) is generated by a finite order VAR. We first show that Y(t) has an infinite order...... VAR representation in terms of its prediction errors, which are a linear process in the prediction error for X(t). We then apply this result to show that the limit of the common trends for Y(t) are linear functions of the common trends for X(t). We illustrate the findings with a small analysis...... of the term structure of interest rates....

  10.   Exhaustion of Rights and Common Principles of European Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    of Market Integration. On the basis of case law on the concept of "consent" from the Trade Marks-Directive a Common Principle is then established. According to this, the legal framework for understanding the exhaustion rules is IPR and not national contract law. The Principle would seem to have horizontal......This article discusses whether or not Common Principles exist in EU law regarding exhaustion of rights ("first sale"). Traditionally, the law of the EU-countries conceptualized exhaustion in two different ways: Either "Contract" (e.g. UK law) or "Principle of exhaustion" (e.g. German law).  Whereas...

  11. Companion modeling for integrated renewable resource management: a new collaborative approach to create common values for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruankaew, N.; Page, Le C.; Dumrongrojwattana, P.; Barnaud, C.; Gajaseni, N.; Paassen, van A.; Trebuil, G.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable management of renewable resources is often complicated by the diversity and dynamic nature of the ecological and socio-economic systems involved. As the dynamics and interactions of these systems are highly complex and frequently unpredictable, there is a need to opt for

  12. Water, stakeholders and common ground : challenges for multi-stakeholder platforms in water resource management in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpungwe, E.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing global concern about future water supplies. Growing demands from agriculture, industry and urban growth are streching available water supplies while pollution is undermining the quality of the resource base. Physical data available indicate that in South Africa, full utilisation

  13. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Understanding the properties of diagnostic tests - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-01-01

    In this article in our series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at some of the attributes of diagnostic tests (i.e., tests which are used to determine whether an individual does or does not have disease). The next article in this series will focus on further issues related to diagnostic tests.

  14. Scoping the common antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction for nurses (2000-2013) using the job demands-resources model of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To identify core antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction, and to explore the potential of stress interventions to improve job satisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction for nurses is strongly associated with increased job stress. Stress management strategies might have the potential to improve job satisfaction. Comparative scoping review of studies (2000-2013) and location of their outcomes within the 'job demands-job resources' (JD-R) model of stress to identify commonalities and trends. Many, but not all, antecedents of both phenomena appeared consistently suggesting they are common mediators. Others were more variable but the appearance of 'emotional demands' as a common antecedent in later studies suggests an evolving influence of the changing work environment. The occurrence of 'shift work' as a common issue in later studies points to further implications for nurses' psychosocial well-being. Job satisfaction problems in nursing might be co-responsive to stress management intervention. Improving the buffering effectiveness of increased resilience and of prominent perceived job resource issues are urgently required. Participatory, psychosocial methods have the potential to raise job resources but will require high-level collaboration by stakeholders, and participative leadership and facilitation by managers to enable better decision-latitude, support for action planning and responsive changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Inalienably Yours? The new case for an inalienable property right in human biological material: Empowerment of sample donors or a recipe for a tragic Anti-Commons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper A. Bovenberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biomedical research into the genetic component of common diseases calls for broad access to existing and novel collections of samples of human biological material, aka Biobanks. Groups of donors of these samples, however, increasingly claim a property right in their samples. They perceive the recognition of a personal property right in their biological material as the best means to serve two goals: to secure ongoing control over their samples after donation and to underpin their claim for a share in the proceeds that the research on their samples may yield. Given the objective of ensuring ongoing control, this property right is claimed to be inalienable. Recognition of a personal property right in one’s biological material is problematic, especially where the requirement of inalienability seems at odds with the claim for a share of the profits. Yet, property rights in human biological material may be justified in a certain context, e.g. to enable subsets of patients to negotiate the terms and conditions of the research into their specific disorders. Biobanks, however, contain so many samples, which can be used for so many research purposes, that the unrestricted exercise of personal property rights by the sample donors will lead to a proliferation of rights. This proliferation is likely to deter or slow down both the creation of de novo Biobanks and the use of existing sample collections. Thus, recognising inalienable property rights in human biological material may lead to suboptimal use of these resources and create a classic ‘anticommons property’ scenario. It would also undermine the current trend to simplify existing informed consent requirements which aims to facilitate broad and previously unanticipated research on de novo and existing Biobanks. In addition, the tradition of altruistic participation in research and the notion that large-scale collections of human biological material are global public goods are arguments against

  16. Effects of substitution of Mo for Nb on less-common properties of Finemet alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butvin, P.; Butvinova, B.; Silveyra, J.M.; Chromcikova, M.; Janickovic, D.; Sitek, J.; Svec, P.; Vlasak, G.

    2010-01-01

    Particular properties of Fe-Nb/Mo-Cu-B-Si rapidly quenched ribbons were examined. Apart from minor variation, no significant difference due to the Mo for Nb substitution was observed in alloy density and its annealing-induced changes. The same holds for the anisotropic thermal expansion of as-cast ribbon when annealed and for induced anisotropy when annealed under stress. The Mo-substituted ribbons show only slightly higher crystallinity and lower coercivity if annealed in inert gas ambience than in vacuum. Some diversity in surface to interior heterogeneity of the differently annealed ribbons can still be distinguished. Preserving a minor percentage of Nb together with Mo does not seem substantiated to obtain favorable soft magnetic properties of ribbons annealed in inert gas.

  17. Effects of substitution of Mo for Nb on less-common properties of Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butvin, P., E-mail: pavol.butvin@savba.s [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Butvinova, B. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Silveyra, J.M. [Instituto de Technologias y Ciencias de la Ingenieria H.F. Long, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chromcikova, M. [Vitrum Laugaricio - Joint Glass Centre of the Inst. of Inorg. Chem., SAS Bratislava and A. Dubcek University of Trencin, 911 50 Trencin (Slovakia); Janickovic, D. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Sitek, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Phys. and Technol., FEI, Slovak University of Technology, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Svec, P.; Vlasak, G. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-10-15

    Particular properties of Fe-Nb/Mo-Cu-B-Si rapidly quenched ribbons were examined. Apart from minor variation, no significant difference due to the Mo for Nb substitution was observed in alloy density and its annealing-induced changes. The same holds for the anisotropic thermal expansion of as-cast ribbon when annealed and for induced anisotropy when annealed under stress. The Mo-substituted ribbons show only slightly higher crystallinity and lower coercivity if annealed in inert gas ambience than in vacuum. Some diversity in surface to interior heterogeneity of the differently annealed ribbons can still be distinguished. Preserving a minor percentage of Nb together with Mo does not seem substantiated to obtain favorable soft magnetic properties of ribbons annealed in inert gas.

  18. Effects of substitution of Mo for Nb on less-common properties of Finemet alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butvin, P.; Butvinová, B.; Silveyra, J. M.; Chromčíková, M.; Janičkovič, D.; Sitek, J.; Švec, P.; Vlasák, G.

    2010-10-01

    Particular properties of Fe-Nb/Mo-Cu-B-Si rapidly quenched ribbons were examined. Apart from minor variation, no significant difference due to the Mo for Nb substitution was observed in alloy density and its annealing-induced changes. The same holds for the anisotropic thermal expansion of as-cast ribbon when annealed and for induced anisotropy when annealed under stress. The Mo-substituted ribbons show only slightly higher crystallinity and lower coercivity if annealed in inert gas ambience than in vacuum. Some diversity in surface to interior heterogeneity of the differently annealed ribbons can still be distinguished. Preserving a minor percentage of Nb together with Mo does not seem substantiated to obtain favorable soft magnetic properties of ribbons annealed in inert gas.

  19. BRAIN Journal - From OER to Open Education: Perceptions of Student Teachers after Creating Digital Stories with Creative Common Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Tur; Santos Urbina; Juan Moreno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study explores the perceptions of three groups of student teachers in Spain after having used open licensed resources to construct their storytelling artifacts as OER. The theoretical framework briefly reviews the concept of Open Education and OER and the affordance and drawbacks previously observed in research. Data is obtained through a survey that enables the observation of students’ tendency to adapt OER, Open Educational Practices and the Open Movement. The resul...

  20. From OER to Open Education: Perceptions of Student Teachers after Creating Digital Stories with Creative Common Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Tur; Santos Urbina; Juan Moreno

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the perceptions of three groups of student teachers in Spain after having used open licensed resources to construct their storytelling artifacts as OER. The theoretical framework briefly reviews the concept of Open Education and OER and the affordance and drawbacks previously observed in research. Data is obtained through a survey that enables the observation of students’ tendency to adapt OER, Open Educational Practices and the Open Movement. The results reveal a g...

  1. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  2. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  3. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  4. Reforming the Financial System Governing the Relationships Between Spouses (Marital Life, Common Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد روشن

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Separation of property is defined as a principle of matrimonial regime such as, «Alimony» (Nafaqe, «Seal» (Mahriyeh and «Quantum Meruit»  (Ojrat al-Mesl, in Iranian family law. Matrimonial regime in family law is- beside some other especial factors- mainly dependent on the "separation of property regime". But the result of this regime is not perfect. It seems that these factors are unable to create financial equality between spouses which is the main character of modern family law. In order to improve the financial structure of families and accommodate it with modern family requirements, we should redefine matrimonial regimes, for that to be able to create economic equality between spouses. There fore, it is recommended that the legislature, inspired by experiences of other legal systems, starts to modify the regime of separation and prepare the choice of “community of property” between spouses besides the currently existing financial regime.

  5. Effect of the irradiation on the microbiological, physicochemical and technological properties of common wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benabderrahim Kaouthar

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have studying the effect of irradiation dose: 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5kGy on microbiological, physico-chemical and technological properties of three wheat samples. Moreover, the effect of these irradiation doses on the lengthening of the shelf life during four months storage at room temperature was measured. Thus, the irradiation showed been efficiency on the microbiological level, in effect we observed a reduction of microbial load according to the irradiation dose. The dose of 2; 1.6 and 1.7kGy was caused the destruction of 90% of the initial aerobic total mesophyl flora respectively for the local varieties Salambo, Tebica and imported wheat. The irradiation did not cause any significant modification on the majority of the physico-chemical parameters. We can observe a reduction on humidity and an increase in fatty acidity and deterioration on the level of the starch and gluten. The α amylasic activity increase significantly with the irradiation doses. The rheological properties of the flour paste resulting from the wheat irradiated show that the irradiation caused an increase in the capacity of water absorption in the flour and reduction of the time of development, stability, elasticity and extensibility of the paste. The test of panification showed that the colour of the crust and the crumb intensify with increase of irradiation dose. During storage, the irradiated samples did not show a possible recontamination. (author). 70 refs

  6. Imaging the effect of hemoglobin on properties of RBCs using common-path digital holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, M.; Shah, H.; Trivedi, V.; Mahajan, S.; Chhaniwal, V.; Leitgeb, R.; Javidi, B.; Anand, A.

    2017-07-01

    Adequate supply of oxygen to the body is the most essential requirement. In vertebrate species this function is performed by Hemoglobin contained in red blood cells. The mass concentration of the Hb determines the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Thus it becomes necessary to determine its concentration in the blood, which helps in monitoring the health of a person. If the amount of Hb crosses certain range, then it is considered critical. As the Hb constitutes upto 96% of red blood cells dry content, it would be interesting to examine various physical and mechanical parameters of RBCs which depends upon its concentration. Various diseases bring about significant variation in the amount of hemoglobin which may alter certain parameters of the RBC such as surface area, volume, membrane fluctuation etc. The study of the variations of these parameters may be helpful in determining Hb content which will reflect the state of health of a human body leading to disease diagnosis. Any increase or decrease in the amount of Hb will change the density and hence the optical thickness of the RBCs, which affects the cell membrane and thereby changing its mechanical and physical properties. Here we describe the use of lateral shearing digital holographic microscope for quantifying the cell parameters for studying the change in biophysical properties of cells due to variation in hemoglobin concentration.

  7. Extravagance in the commons: Resource exploitation and the frontiers of ecosystem service depletion in the Amazon estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, Caio C; Atkinson, Peter M; Dearing, John A

    2016-04-15

    Estuaries hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained local resources and produced extensive changes across both social and ecological systems. The Amazon estuary is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the estuary is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, recent and increasing pressure on ecosystem services is maximised by a combination of factors such as governance, currency exchange rates, exports of beef and forest products. Here we present a cross methodological approach in identifying the political frontiers of forest cover change in the estuary with consequences for ecosystem services loss. We used a combination of data from earth observation satellites, ecosystem service literature, and official government statistics to produce spatially-explicit relationships linking the Green Vegetation Cover to the availability of ecosystems provided by forests in the estuary. Our results show that the continuous changes in land use/cover and in the economic state have contributed significantly to changes in key ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, climate regulation, and the availability of timber over the last thirty years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Valentina; Pellegrino, Elisa; Coccina, Antonio; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Cerretani, Daniela; Sgherri, Cristina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ercoli, Laura

    2017-07-12

    The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.

  9. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Shaviv, Nir J. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ☉} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ≳ 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  10. Experimental datasets on engineering properties of expansive soil treated with common salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durotoye, Taiwo O; Akinmusuru, Joseph O; Ogundipe, Kunle E

    2018-06-01

    Construction of highway pavements or high rise structures over the expansive soils are always problematic due to failures of volume change or swelling characteristic experienced in the water permeability of the soil. The data in this article represented summary of (Durotoye et al., 2016; Durotoye, 2016) [1], [2]. The data explored different percentages of sodium chloride as additive in stabilizing the engineering properties of expansive soil compared with other available stabilizer previously worked on. Experimental procedures carried out on expansive soil include: (Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Plasticity index, Shrinkage limit, Specific gravity Free swell index and Optimum water content) to determine the swelling parameters and (maximum dry density, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength) to determine the strength parameters. The results of the experiment were presented in pie charts.

  11. Assessing potential for community-based management of peccaries through common pool resource theory in the rural area of the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrichter, Mariana

    2008-03-01

    Community-based management (CBM) has been recognized as an appropriate approach to conservation, assuming that local communities have higher stakes than the state in their natural resources and have better knowledge of local resources and, therefore, can manage them more efficiently. However, the implementation of CBM has not always been successful. The objective of this research was to assess the potential for the implementation of a governmental proposal for community-based management of peccaries (Tayassuidae) in the Impenetrable northern Argentine, through the examination of the reasons why arrangements to avoid overexploitation have not evolved in this region. I used the theory of common pool resources (CPRs) as a framework for this analysis. CPRs theory explains the conditions under which appropriators of a resource are likely to engage in devising and altering governing arrangements and the conditions under which such arrangements are likely to succeed. Fieldwork was conducted between June 2000 and August 2003 using a mixed methods approach. It was found that most of the condition of the resource and users identified by the CPR theory as associated with an increased likelihood of successful management of natural resources are absent or scarcely developed in the Impenetrable. Thus, the situation in the Impenetrable does not seem appropriate for the implementation of CBM of peccaries. It is first necessary to invest in training and development of local institutions' capacities and social capital. It is also important to increase the flow of relevant information, which will enable institutions to be effective, responsible, and accountable to the community. For the moment, a more appropriate approach will have to include a mixture of protectionism and comanagement of collared peccaries while the propitious conditions for a complete local management of the resource are developed.

  12. From OER to Open Education: Perceptions of Student Teachers after Creating Digital Stories with Creative Common Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Tur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the perceptions of three groups of student teachers in Spain after having used open licensed resources to construct their storytelling artifacts as OER. The theoretical framework briefly reviews the concept of Open Education and OER and the affordance and drawbacks previously observed in research. Data is obtained through a survey that enables the observation of students’ tendency to adapt OER, Open Educational Practices and the Open Movement. The results reveal a general positive impact on student perceptions, although nuances and challenges are observed. The part containing the discussion and conclusions suggests some implications of this current step of research for future implementation in Teacher Education and related research.

  13. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

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    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  14. Influence of dose and dose rate on the physical properties of commercial papers commonly used in libraries and archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area, María C.; Calvo, Ana M.; Felissia, Fernando E.; Docters, Andrea; Miranda, María V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dose and dose rate of gamma irradiation on the physical properties of commercial papers commonly used in libraries and archives to optimize the irradiation conditions. Three different brands of paper of different fiber compositions were treated, using a 32 factorial design with four replicates of the center point, with doses ranging from 2 to 11 kGy and dose rates between 1 and 11 kGy/h. Chemical, mechanical and optical properties were determined on the samples. With some differences between the different kinds of papers, tensile strength, elongation, TEA, and air resistance were in general, unaffected by the treatment. The minimum loss of tear resistance and brightness were obtained with doses in the range 4-6 kGy at any dose rate for all three kinds of paper. These conditions are ideal to remove insects and sufficient to eliminate fungus.

  15. Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  17. Physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of oxidized, acetylated and dual-modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro WOJEICCHOWSKI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Common beans are rich in protein and complex carbohydrates that are valuable for the human diet. Starch is the most abundant individual component; however, in its native form it has limited applications and modifications are necessary to overcome technological restrictions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oxidation, acetylation and dual-modification (oxidation-acetylation on the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of common bean starch. The degree of substitution of the acetylated starches was compatible with food use. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the acetylation of the bean starch, with a peak at 1,735cm-1. The granules of the bean starch were oval to spherical in shape, with no differences between the native and modified samples. Typical C-type diffraction of legume starches was found. The modified samples showed a reduced relative crystallinity and lower enthalpy change of gelatinization. The oxidized starch showed the highest peak viscosity, hardness, and gel adhesiveness due to the presence of functional groups. An increase in solubility and swelling power was observed, and the oxidized-acetylated starch presented the highest values. The properties of the modified bean starches made them suitable for application in breaded/battered foods, mainly due to improved textural attributes.

  18. A comparison of the antioxidant property of five Ayurvedic formulations commonly used in the management of vata vyadhis

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    C V Sruthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :The five kashayams (kwaths - decoctions Manjishtadi kashayam (MK, Rasna erandadi kashayam (REK, Sahacharadhi kashayam (SK, Maharasnadi (or Rasna dwiguna bhagam kashayam (MRK and Dhanwantharam kashayam (DK are widely used in the management of diseases manifested due to vitiation of vata and vatarakta (mostly diseases of connective tissues, bones, joints and nervous system. Free radicals are generated subsequent to the inflammatory changes in such conditions, and these cytotoxic reactive oxygen species cause oxidative damage to the cells. Phenolic compounds are the most common water soluble antioxidant compounds in plants. Objective : The present study aims at evaluating the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of these five kashayams and their probable protective role in the management of vata vyadhis. Materials and Method : The total phenolic contents of these five Ayurvedic decoctions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant properties were estimated by DPPH (2′2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine radical scavenging activity. Result : MK exhibited higher property (total phenolic content-15.61 ± 0.006 mg/g wt, EC50-7.2μg/ml when compared to other kashayams. DK with phenolic content 12.056 ± 0.004 mg/g wt and 22 μg/ml effective concentration for 50% inhibition comes next in the present study. REK, SK and MRK show almost similar phenolic content and antioxidant property. Conclusion : From the observations, it is seen that the total phenolic content and the antioxidant property of the products justify the protective and corrective effects produced by the products in vata and vatarakta disorders.

  19. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  20. Influence of dose and dose rate on the physical properties of commercial papers commonly used in libraries and archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area, María C.; Calvo, Ana M.; Felissia, Fernando E.; Docters, Andrea; Miranda, María V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dose and dose rate of gamma irradiation on the physical properties of commercial papers commonly used in libraries and archives to optimize the irradiation conditions. Three different brands of paper of different fiber compositions were treated, using a 3 2 factorial design with four replicates of the center point, with doses ranging from 2 to 11 kGy and dose rates between 1 and 11 kGy/h. Chemical, mechanical and optical properties were determined on the samples. With some differences between the different kinds of papers, tensile strength, elongation, TEA, and air resistance were in general, unaffected by the treatment. The minimum loss of tear resistance and brightness were obtained with doses in the range 4–6 kGy at any dose rate for all three kinds of paper. These conditions are ideal to remove insects and sufficient to eliminate fungus. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation is a valid option to remove mold from books and documents. • We studied the effect of irradiation dose and dose rate on the physical properties of papers. • We found an optimum combination of dose and dose rate

  1. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-01-01

    experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

  2. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  3. Mechanisms of Resilience in Common-pool Resource Management Systems: an Agent-based Model of Water Use in a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Schlüter

    2007-12-01

    scenarios of information on water availability. Under the given conditions of a regularly fluctuating inflow and compliance of agents with orders from a national authority, the centralized system performs better as long as irrigation is the only type of water use. Diversification of resource use, e.g., irrigation and fishing, increases the performance of the decentralized regime and the resilience of both. Systematic analysis of the performance of different system structures will help to identify properties and mechanisms of resilience. This understanding will be valuable for the identification, development, and evaluation of management interventions in specific river basins.

  4. The marginalization of "small is beautiful": Micro-hydroelectricity, common property, and the politics of rural electricity provision in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greacen, Christopher Edmund

    This study analyzes forces that constrain sustainable deployment of cost-effective renewable energy in a developing country. By many economic and social measures, community micro-hydro is a superior electrification option for remote mountainous communities in Thailand. Yet despite a 20 year government program, only 59 projects were built and of these less than half remain operating. By comparison, the national grid has extended to over 69,000 villages. Based on microeconomic, engineering, social barriers, common pool resource, and political economic theories, this study investigates first, why so few micro-hydro projects were built, and second, why so few remain operating. Drawing on historical information, site visits, interviews, surveys, and data logging, this study shows that the marginal status of micro-hydro arises from multiple linked factors spanning from village experiences to geopolitical concerns. The dominance of the parastatal rural electrification utility, the PEA, and its singular focus on grid extension are crucial in explaining why so few projects were built. Buffered from financial consequences by domestic and international subsidies, grid expansion proceeded without consideration of alternatives. High costs borne by villagers for micro-hydro discouraged village choice. PEA remains catalytic in explaining why few systems remain operating: grid expansion plans favor villages with existing loads and most villages abandon micro-hydro generators when the grid arrives. Village experiences are fundamental: most projects suffer blackouts, brownouts, and equipment failures due to poor equipment and collective over-consumption. Over-consumption is linked to mismatch between tariffs and generator technical characteristics. Opportunities to resolve problems languished as limited state support focused on building projects and immediate repairs rather than fundamentals. Despite frustrations, many remain proud of "their power plant". Interconnecting and selling

  5. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl available in Nigeria for use as accident dosimeter in radiological emergency situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ayobami Ademola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to assess and quantify radiation dose to the population. This could be done using materials in the vicinity that are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Common salt (NaCl is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescence (TL phosphor. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl used in Nigeria were investigated using an automated luminescence reader Risø TL/OSL-DA-15, with attention focused more on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL. Strong radiation-induced TL and OSL signals were observed. The TL peaks occurred at about 100 °C, 240 °C and 280 °C. The dose response of both the TL and OSL signals showed a linear relationship. From the OSL pulse anneal curve with TL curve, a preheat temperature of 190 °C for 10 s was found adequate for the OSL measurements. There was no significant difference in the OSL decay for stimulation temperatures of 100 and 120 °C. Fading experiment over a storage period of 14 days showed about 13 and 3% decrease in the OSL signal of sample 1 and sample 2, respectively. The ratios of measured to given dose for dose recovery test were within ±19% of unity. Within the limit of error the samples could be used as a complementary emergency dosimeter in radiological accident situation.

  6. Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, R

    1996-04-01

    The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which

  7. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  8. Hydropower vs. fisheries conservation: a test of institutional design principles for common-pool resource management in the lower Mekong basin social-ecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New methods have emerged for testing common-pool resource theory in large-scale environmental governance contexts. We aim to contribute to that scholarship by assessing the relevance of Elinor Ostrom's design principles in the lower Mekong basin (LMB. The recent dam-building trend in the LMB has revealed a trade-off between hydropower development and the conservation of migratory fish species. The need to internalize or avoid the negative externalities of hydropower dam construction poses a new challenge to the LMB governance system and its main management body, the Mekong River Commission. Our objective was to explain the emergence of the trade-off and the capacity of the governance system to address it. Elinor Ostrom's design principles and other variables provided by the Socio-ecological Systems Meta-analysis Database were first coded with regard to secondary data and then tested against the capacity for cooperation of the LMB governance system. The lack of sanctioning despite a strong monitoring system, and the existence of fuzzy governance boundaries in the context of a powerful outsider like China, were particularly relevant to understanding the current cooperation stalemate in the basin. Other variables such as scientific knowledge, triggering events, markets, resource spatial heterogeneity, and heterogeneity of interests were also relevant.

  9. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  10. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  11. Inhibitiory properties of cytoplasmic extract of Lactobacilli isolated from common carp intestine on human chronic myelocytic leukemia K562 cell line: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiri F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Lactobacillus species are genetically diverse groups of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB that have been introduced as probiotics, because of some characteristics such as their anti-tumor properties, helping the intestinal flora balance, production of antibiotics, stimulation of host immune response, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cytoplasmic extraction and cell wall of Lactobacillus species isolated from the intestine of common carp on human chronic myelocytic leukemia or K562 cancer cell lines."n"nMethods: The intestinal contents of 115 common carp captured from the natural resources of West Azerbaijan province in Iran were examined for LAB. After isolation, the identification of Lactobacilli was done according to traditional and molecular bacteriological tests. Subsequently, a suspension of each bacterium was prepared and the protein content of the cytoplasm was extracted. Cell wall disintegration was done by cell lysis buffer and sonication. The effects of cytoplasmic extraction and cell wall on K562 cell line proliferation were investigated by MTT assays."n"nResults: The cytoplasmic extraction of the isolated Lactobacilli had significant (p<0.05 anti

  12. Evaluating the utility of common-pool resource theory for understanding forest governance and outcomes in Indonesia between 1965 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest D Fleischman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While Common Pool Resource (CPR theory has been widely applied to forestry, there are few examples of using the theory to study large-scale governance. In this paper we test the applicability of CPR theory to understanding forest governance and outcomes in Indonesia between 1965 and 2012. Indonesia contains one of the world’s largest tropical forests, and experienced rapid deforestation during this time frame, with forest cover dropping from close to 85% to less than 50%. Using a mixture of within case comparison and process tracing methods, we identify key variables that influenced the levels of deforestation during two time periods: before 1998, when governance was dominated by the dictatorship of President Suharto, and after 1998, when democratic governance and political decentralization were initiated, and deforestation rates fell and then rose again. Our results point to the value of CPR theory in identifying important variables that influence sustainability at large scales, however they also illustrate important limitations of CPR theory for the study of forests with large spatial extent and large numbers of users. The presence and absence of key variables from CPR theory did emerge as important causes of deforestation. However, some variables, such as strong leadership and local rule-making, appeared to work in the opposite direction as predicted by CPR theory. In addition, key variables that may have influenced deforestation rates are not well captured in CPR theory. These include the intention of the governance system, the presence of clientelistic politics, the influences of international politics and markets, and the influence of top-down governance. Given that CPR theory does not fully explain the case at hand, its applicability, as is, to large-scale commons should be treated with some caution.

  13. Use of alternative plant resources by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in the semi-arid caatinga scrub forests of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Tacyana Duarte; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2013-04-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is amply distributed in the Brazilian Northeast, but little is known of its ecology in the semi-arid Caatinga scrublands. The present study provides the first detailed data on the composition of the diet of C. jacchus in Caatinga ecosystems, derived from observations at four sites in the state of Sergipe. While exudate sources were gouged at all four sites in a manner typical of the species, fruit was the principal component of the diet at the main study site during most months, and a number of unusual items were eaten, including leaves, and the reproductive parts of cacti and bromeliads. These plants are rarely recorded in marmoset diets, but are common in caatinga habitats. Leaves were ingested during 5 of the 8 months monitored at the main study site, reaching 39.74% of the diet in 1 month, and appeared to be an alternative fallback food to plant exudates during periods when fruit was scarce. Three species of cactus provided both flowers and fruits, while the terrestrial bromeliad, Encholirium spectabile, provided nectar (30.81% of the diet in November). Approximately half of the plant species (and three families) identified in this study had not been recorded previously in the diet of Callithrix. Overall, the data suggest that, while the marmosets exploit the same types of plant foods in the Caatinga, the resource base is quite distinct from that of the Atlantic Forest. Other differences, such as relatively small groups and large home ranges, may contribute to divergent ecological patterns, which require more systematic investigation. Am. J. Primatol. 75:333-341, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  15. The psychometric properties of GHQ for detecting common mental disorder among community dwelling men in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Paige; Weobong, Benedict; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-08-01

    There have not been many attempts to validate screening measures for common mental disorders (CMD) in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the criterion validity of the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) in a community-based study from Goa, India. Concurrent and convergent validity of the GHQ-12 were assessed against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS) for CMD and functional status through the secondary analysis of a community cohort of men from Goa, India. Criterion validity of the GHQ-12 was determined using ROC analyses with the MINI case criterion as the gold standard. Concurrent validity was assessed against the gold standard of WHODAS functional disability and number of disability days. In a sample of men (n=773), the GHQ-12 showed high internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.82) and acceptable criterion validity (Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve being 0.71). It had adequate psychometric properties for the detection of CMD (sensitivity of 68.75%; specificity of 73.14%) with the optimal cut-off score for identification of CMD being 2. In order to optimize the usefulness and validity of the GHQ-12, a low cut-off point for CMD may be beneficial in Goa, India. Further validation studies for the GHQ-12 should be conducted for continued validation of the test for use in the community. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.

  17. Some fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in Non-Archimedean Menger probabilistic metric spaces via common limit range property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize the notion of common limit range property in Non-Archimedean Menger PM-spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings. Some illustrative examples are furnished to support our results. As an application to our main result, we present a common fixed point theorem for four finite families of self mappings. Our results improve and extend several known results existing in the literature.

  18. Unpacking Social Media’s Role in Resource Provision: Variations across Relational and Communicative Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Vitak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies (ICTs challenge existing beliefs regarding the exchange of social resources within a network. The present study examines individuals’ perceived access to social, emotional, and instrumental resources by analyzing relational and Facebook-specific characteristics of dyadic relationships. Results suggest that the social and technical affordances of the site—including visibility of content and connections, as well as streamlined processes for interacting with a large audience—may augment existing perceptions of resource access for some ties while providing a major (or sole outlet to interact and exchange resources with others. Specifically, weaker ties appear to benefit more than strong ties from engagement in directed communication and relationship maintenance strategies, while additional variations were observed across relationship category, dyad composition, and geographic proximity. In summary, these findings provide new evidence for how positive relational gains may be derived from site use.

  19. Psychometric viability of measures of functional performance commonly used for people with dementia: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin; Henwood, Timothy; Keogh, Justin; Neville, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Confidence in findings can only be drawn from measurement tools that have sound psychometric properties for the population with which they are used. Within a dementia specific population, measures of physical function have been poorly justified in exercise intervention studies, with justification of measures based on validity or reliability studies from dissimilar clinical populations, such as people with bronchitis or healthy older adults without dementia. To review the reliability and validity of quantitative measures of pre-identified physical function, as commonly used within exercise intervention literature for adults with dementia. Participants were adults, aged 65 years and older, with a confirmed medical diagnosis of dementia. n/a Desired studies were observational and cross-sectional and that assessed measures from a pre-identified list of measures of physical function. Studies that assessed the psychometric constructs of reliability and validity were targeted. COSMIN taxology was used to define reliability and validity. This included, but were not limited to, Intra-Class Correlations, Kappa, Cronbach's Alpha, Chi Squared, Standard Error of Measurement, Minimal Detectable Change and Limits of Agreement. Published material was sourced from the following four databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science. Grey literature was searched for using ALOIS, Google Scholar and ProQuest. The COSMIN checklist was used to assess methodological quality of included studies. Assessment was completed by two reviewers independently. Reliability and validity data was extracted from included studies using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute data collection forms. Extraction was completed by two reviewers. A narrative synthesis of measurement properties of the tools used to measure physical function was performed. Quantitative meta-analysis was conducted for Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients only. With respect to relative reliability, studies reporting assessed

  20. Broadening benefits from natural resource extraction: Housing values and taxation of natural gas wells as property

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Jeremy G.; Burnett, J.Wesley; Xiarchos, Irene M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of the property tax base shock caused by natural gas drilling in the Barnett Shale in Texas–a state that taxes oil and gas wells as property. Over the boom and bust in drilling, housing appreciation closely followed the oil and gas property tax base, which expanded the total tax base by 23 percent at its height. The expansion led to a decline in property tax rates while maintaining or increasing revenues to schools. Overall, each $1 per student increase in the oil and gas...

  1. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  2. Traditional Knowledge, Biological Resources and Intellectual Property Rights in Asia: The Example of the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Antons, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights has become a topic for intensive debates at the national level, in various international settings and within and among different UN agencies, including the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), UNESCO, UNCTAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). However, a consensus on a definition of traditional knowledge has yet to emerge due to persisten...

  3. Saving the Commons: Community Involvement in the Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... full participation of local communities in resource management be set up to help avert further decline of the mangroves and fisheries of Chwaka Bay. Keywords: common property resources, mangroves, fisheries, overexploitation, community management. West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  4. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  5. Community based ecotourism as a panacea for protected areas: the use of common property theory in its analysis and development

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Victoria M.

    2004-01-01

    Tourism is the worlds largest employer, accounting for 10% of jobs worldwide (WTO, 1999). There are over 30,000 protected areas around the world, covering about 10% of the land surface(IUCN, 2002). Protected area management is moving towards a more integrated form of management, which recognises the social and economic needs of the worlds finest areas and seeks to provide long term income streams and support social cohesion through active but sustainable use of resources. Ecotourism - 'respon...

  6. Assessment of water resource potential for common use of cow and goat by GIS (Case study: Boroujerd Rangeland, Sarab Sefid, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariapour, A; Karami, K; Sadr, A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors to sustainability utilization of natural potential by rangeland grazing suitability is water resources suitability. This study is a model for quantitative, qualitative and spatial distance assessment of water resource's propriety for goat and cow grazing based on geographic information systems (GIS) in Boroujerd Sarab Sefid rangeland, Lorestan province, Iran 2013. In this research from combining three factors such as quantity, quality and water resource's distances; the final model of degree of propriety of water resources for goat and cow grazing is characterized. Results showed that slope factor was the reason of limitation, and it is considered as a limiting factor in propriety of water resources, so in terms of access to water resources for goat grazing, 4856.4 ha (100%) located in S1 classes and for cow grazing, 4023.14 ha (68.6%) located in S1(suitability) classes, 1,187 ha (20.24%) in S2 classes and 654.8 ha (11.16%) located in S3 classes, respectively for both. So according to the results the rangelands in this region are most suitable for goat because of terrain and weather but this, in combination with, cow hasbandry will allow diversity of economic production and stability of incomes

  7. Laboratories of commons: experimentation, recursivity and activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Estalella Fernández

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban public space, digital creations or the air, all of them are objects that have been traditionally thought within the dichotomous logic of the public and private property but in the last decade they have started to be considered as common resources. Commons is an old concept that has been recovered with intensity in the last decade; it refers to collective resources and goods that are governed collectively and whose property regime is different from the public and private. This article introduces the contributions to a monograph devoted to the topic of ‘Laboratories of commons’. Contributors discuss the diverse modalities of commons in different social domains like art, activism, the rural and the urban domain. This introduction contextualizes these contributions and identifies some of the issues that cross the different articles. In this exercise we introduce a tentative argument according to which the commons and the commons research take an exceptional configuration in Spain. Very briefly: commons are brought into existence as an epistemic object, an experimental domain quite different from the conventional conceptualizations that conceive it as a property regime or a type of good. This peculiar configuration gives a distinctive condition to commons in Spain that are different from other geographies; this is evidenced in a double shift: the emergence of new objects that are thought as commons and the location of their research in the domain of cultural and creative production.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1254-1 - Treatment of gain from disposition of natural resource recapture property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 31, 1975 of oil, gas, or geothermal property, gain is treated as ordinary income in an amount equal... geothermal wells commenced before October 1, 1978) and that, but for the deduction, would be reflected in the... that does not produce oil or gas in commercial quantities, including a well that is drilled for the...

  9. Effect of gamma radiation (60Co) on the organoleptic and nutritive properties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. mulatinho)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, H.; Nogueira, J.N.; Maffei, C.I.; Oliveira, M.G.

    1974-05-01

    The study of the influence of gamma radiation on the organoleptic and nutritive properties of kidney beans is presented. Samples of this vegetable were irradiated with 15 krad and stored for five months. Immediately after irradiation and monthly, sensory evaluations and chemical analysis of the vitamins thiamin (B1) and riboflavin (B2) were accomplished in the samples. The results showed an evident influence of radiation during its application since the higher losses occurred immediately after this treatment, mainly in riboflavin, which from the total losses observed, 47,9% occurred during irradiation. The riboflavin is much more sensitive to gamma radiation and in terms of organoleptic properties it was observed the development of an undesirable flavor and a hardening of the texture in the irradiated samples. However, at the end of the experiment no difference was found between control and irradiated samples

  10. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2018-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited......Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...

  11. Hydrogeothermal resources in spa areas of Serbia: Main properties and possible improvement of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Petar B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological complexity of the territory of Serbia is a world curiosity: six main geo-tectonic regions and tens sub-regions are delineated in a small area of 88,000 km2. Geologic origin and regional structure of some areas has long been the subject of discussion. Notable magmatism and associated tectonic events in the Earth's crust provided for a fairly large hydrogeothermal resource potential, which is manifested in more than 250 warm (mainly mineral springs and more than 100 hydrothermal wells. Thermal springs and wells together discharge some 5 m3/s. This potential is used in part for balneal therapy (waters differ in temperature and chemical composition in the spa areas of Serbia. The amounts of thermal water unused therapeutically or the amounts of heat energy from unused geo-thermal water may be used in almost all spas for space heating/cooling and thus increase the efficiency of the thermal water energy utilization. This also will be cost-effective, reduce emission of noxious gases, and improve the environmental-health image of the resorts. The hydrogeothermal resources are described for 29 spas with 700 l/s total discharge capacity of water temperature between 25°C and 96ºC, or an overall heat energy of 78.40 MWt. Feasibility of additional energy utilization of thermal water in spas is generally considered.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE MOST COMMON COFFEE BREWS AVAILABLE IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Huda A. Al Doghaither; Ashjan M. Almowalad; Ayat M. Shorbaji; Ayat B. Al-Ghafari; Ulfat M. Omar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the most commonly used coffee brews in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Further, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and antioxidants properties including ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous ion chelating activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide assays were also determined. Results of study revealed that phenolic contents were 741, 835 an...

  13. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as an Animal Health Assistant. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Fred C.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the animal health assistant is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  14. Measurement properties of the most commonly used Foot- and Ankle-Specific Questionnaires: the FFI, FAOS and FAAM. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierevelt, I N; Zwiers, R; Schats, W; Haverkamp, D; Terwee, C B; Nolte, P A; Kerkhoffs, G M M J

    2017-10-12

    In the foot and ankle literature, a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is used, however, consensus as to which PROMs are preferred is lacking. Selection of a PROM is among other reasons, often based on measurement properties without considering the methodological quality of the studies that evaluate these measurement properties. The aim of current study was first to identify the most frequently used foot and ankle-specific PROMs in recent orthopaedic foot and ankle literature, and second to conduct a systematic review to synthesize and critically appraise the measurement properties of these PROMS. Six PubMed indexed journals focussing on foot and ankle research were screened to identify most commonly used foot and ankle-specific PROMs over a 2 year period (2015-2016). Subsequently, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Scopus to identify relevant studies on their measurement properties. Methodological quality assessment was performed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, criteria for good measurement properties were applied, and a level of evidence was determined for the measurement properties of each domain of the questionnaires. The three most frequently reported PROMs were the Foot Function Index (FFI), the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Activity Measure (FAAM). Among 2046 unique citations, 50 studies were included evaluating these PROMs. Evidence to support the measurement properties of the FFI was mainly lacking due to poor methodological quality. More evidence was available for the measurement properties of the FAOS and the FAAM, but overall evidence supporting all measurement properties is not yet sufficient. The best available evidence retrieved in this review showed that the FAOS and the FAAM are promising outcome measures for evaluation of patients with foot and ankle conditions, but their

  15. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. I - Near-side compositional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Using telescopic CCD multispectral images of the lunar near side and the results of 330-870 nm spectroscopy of selected regions, the compositional differences relevant to the locations of potential lunar resources (such as ilmenite, FeTiO3, and solar-wind-implanted He-3 and H) are estimated. The 400/560 nm CCD ratio images were converted to weight percent TiO2, and the values were used to construct a new TiO2 abundance map which can be used to estimate the areas potentially rich in ilmenite. A 950/560 nm CCD ratio mosaic of the full moon provides estimates of relative surface maturity. Since high He-3 concentrations correlate with mature ilmenite-rich soils, a combination of relative surface maturity maps and the TiO2 abundance maps can be used to estimate distributions of He-3 (and possibly H) on local scales.

  17. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  18. Citizens, Leaders and the Common Good in a world of Necessity and Scarcity: Machiavelli’s Lessons for Community-Based Natural Resource Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.A.M.; Beunen, R.; Duineveld, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we investigate the value and utility of Machiavelli’s work for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). We made a selection of five topics derived from literature on NRM and CBNRM: (1) Law and Policy, (2) Justice, (3) Participation, (4) Transparency, and (5) Leadership

  19. Citizens, Leaders and the Common Good in a world of Necessity and Scarcity: Machiavelli’s Lessons for Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Assche, Kristof; Beunen, R.; Duineveld, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    n this article we investigate the value and utility of Machiavelli’s work for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). We made a selection of five topics derived from literature on NRM and CBNRM: (1) Law and Policy, (2) Justice, (3) Participation, (4) Transparency, and (5) Leadership and

  20. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun

    2018-04-01

    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the measurement properties of self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments among workers with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Femke I; van der Klink, Jac J L; Terwee, Caroline B; Amick, Benjamin C; Bültmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in occupational health practice and research, the measurement properties (eg, reliability, validity, responsiveness) must be evaluated. The objective of this study is to appraise critically and compare the measurement properties of self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments among workers with CMD. A systematic review was performed searching three electronic databases. Papers were included that: (i) mainly focused on the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of a self-reported health-related work-functioning instrument; (ii) were conducted in a CMD population; and (iii) were fulltext original papers. Quality appraisal was performed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Five papers evaluating measurement properties of five self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments in CMD populations were included. There is little evidence available for the measurement properties of the identified instruments in this population, mainly due to low methodological quality of the included studies. The available evidence on measurement properties is based on studies of poor-to-fair methodological quality. Information on a number of measurement properties, such as measurement error, content validity, and cross-cultural validity is still lacking. Therefore, no evidence-based decisions and recommendations can be made for the use of health-related work functioning instruments. Studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the existing instruments' measurement properties.

  2. In vitro and in vivo properties of human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, T.; Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Konishi, J.; Ueda, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Watanabe, T.

    1990-01-01

    A human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen was efficiently obtained by ligating human heavy-chain enhancer element to the chimeric heavy- and light-chain genes. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays of both radioiodine and indium-111- (111In) labeled chimeric antibodies demonstrated in vitro immunoreactivity identical with that of the parental murine monoclonal antibodies. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled chimeric antibody in tumor-bearing nude mice was similar to that of the parental murine antibody. Tumor accumulation of radioiodinated parental and chimeric antibodies was lower than that of 111 In-labeled antibodies, probably because of dehalogenation of the radioiodinated antibodies. Indium-111-labeled chimeric antibody clearly visualized xenografted tumor. These results suggest that a human/mouse chimeric antibody can be labeled with 111 In and radioiodine without the loss of its immunoreactivity, and that chimeric antibody localizes in vivo in the same way as the parental murine antibody

  3. Linear Quadratic Mean Field Type Control and Mean Field Games with Common Noise, with Application to Production of an Exhaustible Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, P. Jameson, E-mail: jameson-graber@baylor.edu [Baylor University, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We study a general linear quadratic mean field type control problem and connect it to mean field games of a similar type. The solution is given both in terms of a forward/backward system of stochastic differential equations and by a pair of Riccati equations. In certain cases, the solution to the mean field type control is also the equilibrium strategy for a class of mean field games. We use this fact to study an economic model of production of exhaustible resources.

  4. From decentralization to commonization of HIV healthcare resources: keys to reduction in health disparity and equitable distribution of health services in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Oladipo, Olabisi Abiodun; Ezieme, Iheaka Paul; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    Access to quality care is essential for improved health outcomes. Decentralization improves access to healthcare services at lower levels of care, but it does not dismantle structural, funding and programming restrictions to access, resulting in inequity and inequality in population health. Unlike decentralization, Commonization Model of care reduces health inequalities and inequity, dismantles structural, funding and other program related obstacles to population health. Excellence and Friends Management Care Center (EFMC) using Commonization Model (CM), fully integrated HIV services into core health services in 121 supported facilities. This initiative improved access to care, treatment, support services, reduced stigmatization/discrimination, and improved uptake of HTC. We call on governments to adequately finance CM for health systems restructuring towards better health outcomes.

  5. A common agenda of global challenges. Japan and U.S. pool resources to tackle global issues including population and HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective is a bilateral partnership established in 1993 between the US and Japan to address important global challenges of the 21st century such as global health and human development, including population and HIV/AIDS, global stability, protection of the global environment, and the advancement of science and technology. On the fifth anniversary of the agenda, representatives of the Japan and the US governments, international organizations, and private sectors discussed ways to further promote US-Japan cooperation under the agenda at a meeting held in Tokyo during March 12-13. Participants of the Common Agenda Open Forum also reviewed efforts made by Japan and the US under the agenda to address population and the environment. Forum participants focused upon developing new ideas for future cooperation between the governments, the private sector, and other nations, especially in the areas of health and the environment. The meeting was jointly organized by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Department of State. Attention was also given during talks to diminishing international assistance budgets worldwide.

  6. The Effect Of Organic Surfactants On The Properties Of Common Hygroscopic Particles: Effective Densities, Reactivity And Water Evaporation Of Surfactant Coated Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrarodriguez, L.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D.; Ellison, B.

    2006-12-01

    water impregnable layer that can change the dynamics of water evaporation from the hygroscopic particle core. To test this aspect we have used a tandem of mobility analyzers together with the measurements of vacuum aerodynamic diameters and mass spectral signatures. The combined measurements reveal that the hygroscopic properties of common salts can be significantly altered by the surfactants coatings when their concentrations exceed those required to form a monolayer.

  7. Identifying common impairments in frail and dependent older people: validation of the COPE assessment for non-specialised health workers in low resource primary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A T, Jotheeswaran; Dias, Amit; Philp, Ian; Beard, John; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2015-10-14

    Frail and dependent older people in resource-poor settings are poorly served by health systems that lack outreach capacity. The COPE (Caring for Older PEople) multidimensional assessment tool is designed to help community health workers (CHWs) identify clinically significant impairments and deliver evidence-based interventions Older people (n = 150) identified by CHWs as frail or dependent, were assessed at home by the CHW using the structured COPE assessment tool, generating information on impairments in nutrition, mobility, vision, hearing, continence, cognition, mood and behaviour. The older people were reassessed by local physicians who reached a clinical judgment regarding the presence or absence of the same impairments based upon clinical examination guided by the EASY-Care assessment tool. The COPE tool was considered easy to administer, and gave CHWs a sense of empowerment to understand and act upon the needs of older people. Agreement between COPE assessment by CHW and clinician assessors was modest (ranged from 45.8 to 91.3 %) for most impairments. However, the prevalence of impairments was generally higher according to clinicians, particularly for visual impairment (98.7 vs 45.8 %), cognitive impairment (78.4 vs. 38.2 %) and depression (82.0 vs. 59.9 %). Most cases identified by WHO-COPE were clinician confirmed (positive predictive values - 72.2 to 98.5 %), and levels of disability and needs for care among those identified by COPE were higher than those additionally identified by the clinician alone. The COPE is a feasible tool for the identification of specific impairments in frail dependent older people in the community. Those identified are likely to be confirmed as having clinically relevant problems by clinicians working in the same service, and the COPE may be particularly effective at targeting attention upon those with the most substantial unmet needs.

  8. A systematic review protocol investigating tests for physical or physiological qualities and game-specific skills commonly used in rugby and related sports and their psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-07-27

    Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention programmes. Although there are a number of tests available in the literature to measure physical or physiological variables and game-specific skills, there is limited information available on the psychometric properties of the tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature for tests commonly used in rugby to measure physical or physiological characteristics and rugby-specific skills, documenting evidence of reliability and validity of the identified tests. A systematic review will be conducted. Electronic databases such as Scopus, MEDLINE via EBSCOhost and PubMed, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL and Africa-Wide Information via EBSCOhost will be searched for original research articles published in English from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, using a pre-defined search strategy. The principal investigator will select potentially relevant articles from titles and abstracts. To minimise bias, full text of titles and abstracts deemed potentially relevant will be retrieved and reviewed by two independent reviewers based on the inclusion criteria. Data extraction will be conducted by the principal investigator and verified by two independent reviewers. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Choosing an appropriate test to be included in the screening test battery should be based on sound psychometric properties of the test available. This systematic review will provide an overview of the tests commonly used in rugby union

  9. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, E Petter; Iason, Glenn R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Whitham, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp.) that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch). Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members respond to host

  10. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Petter Axelsson

    Full Text Available A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp. that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch. Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members

  11. The ′Adat′ institution and the Management of Grand Forest ′Herman Yohannes′ in Indonesian Timor: The Role of Design Principles for Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacko A van Ast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local success stories of sustainable forest management can inspire scientists and decision-makers. This article analyses the traditional ′Adat′ institution that plays a role in the management of Grand Forest Park ′Herman Yohannes′, in the Western part of Timor where the Adat forest management regulation has been formally restored. The original set of design principles for sustainable management of common pool resources of Elinor Ostrom (1990 has been used in this study as an analytical framework for understanding the role of the Adat institution in respect to the forest. In the park, the local community applies Adat for protection and management of the forest that has been its home for centuries. It appears that Ostrom′s design principles can be identified in the current Adat institution and play a role in the sustainable management of the forest. Although many other variables can lead to success or failure of institutions, the original (internal design principles are still valuable as a practical tool for building institutions that are - under certain conditions - able to sustain common pool resources. The findings confirm the importance of traditional institutions in successful forest management. The study recommends that decision-makers take into account existing traditional management systems that have shown long term functionality.

  12. Variation of magnetic properties with mischmetal content in the resource saving magnets of MM-Fe-B ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu-bai, E-mail: lzbgj@163.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Li-chen [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Geng, Xiao-peng [Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare Earth Magnetic Materials Co.Ltd, Baotou 014030 (China); Hu, Feng-xia; Sun, Ji-rong; Shen, Bao-gen [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic materials of MM-Fe-B (MM=mischmetal) ribbons were prepared using melt spinning method by varying the content of MM. The ribbons contain minor phases besides the main phase of Re{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. X-ray techniques show that the diffraction peak intensities of the minor phase Fe{sub 3}B vary with the content of constituent elements, indicating that the amount of minor phase could be tunable. The squareness of hysteresis loop is the best in MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 80.5}B{sub 6.5} ribbons, which should mainly ascribe to the less amount of minor phase. Henkel plots verify the more uniform magnetization reversals in MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 80.5}B{sub 6.5} ribbons, and the energy product achieves to the maximum of 12.74 MGOe with the coercivity of 6.50 kOe. With the increase of MM content the coercivity increases monotonically, and reaches to 9.13 kOe in MM{sub 15}Fe{sub 77.5}B{sub 7.5} ribbons, which should be related with the nature of the defects in the main phase. These investigations show that optimizing the content of constituent elements and phase constitution could improve magnetic properties in the resource-saving magnets of MM-Fe-B ribbons. - Highlights: • MM-Fe-B (MM=mischmetal) ribbons contains the minor phases besides the main phase of Re{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. • The amount of minor phases varies with the content of constituent elements. • The energy product of 12.74 MGOe is obtained in MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 80.5}B{sub 6.5} ribbons by optimizing the phase constitution.

  13. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  14. Effects of 2,5-dimethylfuran fuel properties coupling with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) on combustion and emission characteristics in common-rail diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Di, Lei; Zhang, Quanchang; Zheng, Zunqing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of DMF (2,5-dimethylfuran) fuel properties combined with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), CA50, EHN (2-Ethylhexyl nitrate) and multi-injection strategies on combustion and emission characteristics were experimentally investigated in two common-rail diesel engines including a single-cylinder engine and a multi-cylinder engine. Results demonstrate that, with DMF addition into diesel, ID (ignition delay) prolongs and smoke decreases more greatly as EGR rate increases. When DMF addition fraction increases up to 40%, the inherent trade-off between NO_x and smoke can be eliminated, but the MPRR (maximum pressure rise rate) is too high. However, the higher MPRR can be reduced efficiently without serious penalties in smoke and BTE (brake thermal efficiency) by delaying CA50 and adding EHN reasonably. Although DMF and gasoline have very similar physic-chemical properties, DMF/diesel blends are much more efficient than gasoline/diesel wide-distillation blends to reduce soot with high EGR rates due to its much longer ID and atomic oxygen. With increasing DMF addition fraction, BTE is affected less by the delay of CA50, meanwhile, multi-injection strategies have less impact on soot generation. Additionally, as compared to the delay of CA50 and the addition of EHN, the employ of pilot injection is poor to reduced MPRR for DMF/diesel blends. - Highlights: • D40 can solve the NO_x-smoke trade-off relationship, but leading to higher MPRR. • Adding EHN into D40 can reduce MPRR efficiently with a little increase in soot. • Compared to gasoline, DMF is much more efficient to reduce soot in CI engines. • With DMF addition, multi-injection strategies have less impact on MPRR and soot. • DMF may be a promising alternative for reducing soot emissions in CI engine LTC.

  15. Common Engagements as Resources for Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix-Olsen, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer en socialpsykologisk undersøgelse af treårige børn med handicap, som skifter fra vuggestue- til børnehavegruppe. Artiklen teorigrundlag baserer sig på materielt feministiske handicapstudier, social praksisteori og tysk-dansk kritisk psykologi, og den indkredser børns overgang...

  16. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  17. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  18. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Serour, Francis [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Chaouat, Malka [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem (Israel); Gonen, Pinhas [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tommasino, Massimo [International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon (France); Sherman, Levana [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  19. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna; Serour, Francis; Chaouat, Malka; Gonen, Pinhas; Tommasino, Massimo; Sherman, Levana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling

  20. Satellite Data of Atmospheric Pollution for U.S. Air Quality Applications: Examples of Applications, Summary of Data End-user Resources, Answers to Faqs, and Common Mistakes to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan Neal; Prados, Ana; Lamsal, Lok N.; Liu, Yang; Streets, David G.; Gupta, Pawan; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Kahn, Ralph A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data of atmospheric pollutants are becoming more widely used in the decision-making and environmental management activities of public, private sector and non-profit organizations. They are employed for estimating emissions, tracking pollutant plumes, supporting air quality forecasting activities, providing evidence for "exceptional event" declarations, monitoring regional long-term trends, and evaluating air quality model output. However, many air quality managers are not taking full advantage of the data for these applications nor has the full potential of satellite data for air quality applications been realized. A key barrier is the inherent difficulties associated with accessing, processing, and properly interpreting observational data. A degree of technical skill is required on the part of the data end-user, which is often problematic for air quality agencies with limited resources. Therefore, we 1) review the primary uses of satellite data for air quality applications, 2) provide some background information on satellite capabilities for measuring pollutants, 3) discuss the many resources available to the end-user for accessing, processing, and visualizing the data, and 4) provide answers to common questions in plain language.

  1. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  2. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  3. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  4. Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant

  5. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  6. Computational tools and resources for metabolism-related property predictions. 1. Overview of publicly available (free and commercial) databases and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Megan L; Zakharov, Alexey V; Liu, Ruifeng; Pugliese, Angelo; Tawa, Gregory; Wallqvist, Anders; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Metabolism has been identified as a defining factor in drug development success or failure because of its impact on many aspects of drug pharmacology, including bioavailability, half-life and toxicity. In this article, we provide an outline and descriptions of the resources for metabolism-related property predictions that are currently either freely or commercially available to the public. These resources include databases with data on, and software for prediction of, several end points: metabolite formation, sites of metabolic transformation, binding to metabolizing enzymes and metabolic stability. We attempt to place each tool in historical context and describe, wherever possible, the data it was based on. For predictions of interactions with metabolizing enzymes, we show a typical set of results for a small test set of compounds. Our aim is to give a clear overview of the areas and aspects of metabolism prediction in which the currently available resources are useful and accurate, and the areas in which they are inadequate or missing entirely.

  7. Properties of soils and tree-wood tissue across a Lake States sulfate-deposition gradient. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmann, L.F.; Grigal, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    There is general concern that atmospheric pollutants may be affecting the health of forests in the USA. The hypotheses tested were that the wet sulfate deposition gradient across the Lake States: (1) is reflected in the amount of accumulated sulfur in the forest floor-soil system and tree woody tissue and (2) is related to differences in tree radial increment. The authors present the properties of the soil and tree woody tissue (mostly chemical) on the study plots. Knowledge of the properties of soil and woody tree tissue is needed for understanding and interpreting relations between sulfate deposition, sulfur accumulation in the ecosystem, soil and tree chemistry, and tree growth and climatic variation. The report provides a summary of those data for study, analysis, and interpretation

  8. Evaluation of the measurement properties of self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments among workers with common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, F.I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Terwee, C.B.; Amick, B.C.; Bultmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in

  9. Measurement properties of the most commonly used Foot- and Ankle-Specific Questionnaires: the FFI, FAOS and FAAM. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierevelt, I. N.; Zwiers, R.; Schats, W.; Haverkamp, D.; Terwee, C. B.; Nolte, P. A.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2017-01-01

    In the foot and ankle literature, a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is used, however, consensus as to which PROMs are preferred is lacking. Selection of a PROM is among other reasons, often based on measurement properties without considering the methodological quality of the

  10. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  11. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  12. Financial resources for the environment: the unsuccessful attempt to create a private financing intermediary for brownfield redevelopment projects

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Welkes

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes an unsuccessful attempt to establish a financing intermediary for the development of environmentally contaminated property (commonly known as brownfields) in Pennsylvania. The proposed intermediary was entitled Financial Resources for the Environment.

  13. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roopnarine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.

  14. De herba lunatica (London, Wellcome Library, 573, f. 149v): edition and translation of a medieval opuscule on the magical properties of common moonwort (Botrychium lunaria Swartz)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraces Rodríguez, Arsenio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides the first edition of a medieval text on the properties of a plant named herba lunatica. From the description of the plant found in this text as well as in other medieval sources, together with its iconographic representation on the lower margin of the manuscript, we propose its identification with the ‘Botrychium lunaria’ Swartz. The edition of the Latin text includes its translation into Spanish.

  15. Understanding knowledge as a commons from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrom, Elinor

    2011-01-01

    Looking at knowledge as a shared resource: experts discuss how to define, protect, and build the knowledge commons in the digital age. Knowledge in digital form offers unprecedented access to information through the Internet but at the same time is subject to ever-greater restrictions through intellectual property legislation, overpatenting, licensing, overpricing, and lack of preservation. Looking at knowledge as a commons―as a shared resource―allows us to understand both its limitless possibilities and what threatens it. In Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the knowledge commons in the digital era―how to conceptualize it, protect it, and build it. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. They look at ways to guard against enclosure of the knowledge commons, considering, among other topics, the role of research libraries, the advantage...

  16. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  17. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  18. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pH10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  20. When the enemy is the state: common lands management in northwest Spain (1850–1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Serrano Alvarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century, the Spanish government, led by a liberal political project, put up for sale the common properties of villages, and deprived local village authorities of their capacities, powers and laws to manage common woodlands, which were passed to the Forestry Service. This paper, based on Ostrom’s hypothesis that state intervention can have negative consequences for the conservation of common resources, is a case study of what happened in the province of León. It is shown that, although the conservation of common resources was endangered because those who were more directly concerned with protecting them were deprived of the means to do so, peasant communities staunchly defended the commons by maintaining traditional practices and uses in their commons.

  1. Convex geometry of quantum resource quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a framework unifying the mathematical characterisation of different measures of general quantum resources and allowing for a systematic way to define a variety of faithful quantifiers for any given convex quantum resource theory. The approach allows us to describe many commonly used measures such as matrix norm-based quantifiers, robustness measures, convex roof-based measures, and witness-based quantifiers together in a common formalism based on the convex geometry of the underlying sets of resource-free states. We establish easily verifiable criteria for a measure to possess desirable properties such as faithfulness and strong monotonicity under relevant free operations, and show that many quantifiers obtained in this framework indeed satisfy them for any considered quantum resource. We derive various bounds and relations between the measures, generalising and providing significantly simplified proofs of results found in the resource theories of quantum entanglement and coherence. We also prove that the quantification of resources in this framework simplifies for pure states, allowing us to obtain more easily computable forms of the considered measures, and show that many of them are in fact equal on pure states. Further, we investigate the dual formulation of resource quantifiers, which provide a characterisation of the sets of resource witnesses. We present an explicit application of the results to the resource theories of multi-level coherence, entanglement of Schmidt number k, multipartite entanglement, as well as magic states, providing insight into the quantification of the four resources by establishing novel quantitative relations and introducing new quantifiers, such as a measure of entanglement of Schmidt number k which generalises the convex roof-extended negativity, a measure of k-coherence which generalises the \

  2. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  3. Biobanche in bilico tra proprietà privata e beni comuni: brevetti o open data sharing? Biobanks on Balance between Private Property and Commons: Patents or Open Data sharing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Robbio

    2010-12-01

    organized set of human biological specimens with diagnostic, therapeutic, and research aims. Since the issue is quite new, their statutes are controversial; moreover, the exploitation of new detections is particularly complicated. The ownership of samples (tissues, cells, organs and the ownership of the biobank as the entity managing the database is crucial in order to determine any rights on researches that can be patented. The sui generic right in Europe states some rights for the database builder, whom allocates economic resources to organize information. However, the main issue of this kind of databases is related to the quality of the patented object: organic and living material. Regarding this fact, there exist stances for privatizing those biological specimens, while the majority consider models of open data sharing as a more suitable way, considering organic samples as “commons”. The latter tendency seems to predominate, protecting the human body and its genome from economical exploitation, although acknowledging some kinds of profits related to the intellectual property.

  4. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  5. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  6. Certifying the commons: eco-certification, privatization, and collective action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Foley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine new dynamics of privatization and collective action in common pool resource situations facilitated by the nonstate multistakeholder institutions of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC, the global leader in sustainability certification for wild caught seafood. Through a review of the literature and two case studies of fishing cooperatives in Baja California Sur, Mexico and on Fogo Island in the Canadian Province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL, we advance two interrelated arguments. First, certification and eco-labeling institutions privatize fisheries governance in largely unexamined ways through the injection of new forms of exclusive rights or privileges into common pool resource situations already complicated by access and property privileges, creating conditions for confusion and conflict as well as cooperation. Second, the MSC whole stock definition of sustainability places greater demands on certification clients for engaging in collective action by encouraging coordination over all social extractions from targeted fish stocks. Although rules encouraging collective action in common pool situations militate against the narrow private capture of certificate and eco-label rights, they also undermine the ability of small-scale and community-based fisheries that are embedded in larger unhealthy fishery contexts to acquire the right to the MSC stamp of sustainability. We conclude that MSC certification and eco-labeling create new institutions of private property rights and collective action, which can result in exclusionary practices, inclusionary collective action, or both. Much will depend on the specific common pool context and history of the fishery.

  7. Do institutions matter in neighbourhood commons governance? A two-stage relationship between diverse property-rights structure and residential public open space (POS quality: Kota Kinabalu and Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Gabriel Hoh Teck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existing literature regarding institutional influence ontraditional commons, there is still a comparative dearth of research that theorisesproperty-rights structure and its impact on contemporary commons. This isparticularly true for public open space (POS governance: its management andutilisation and hence its quality, of which underinvestment and overexploitationleads to increasingly negative externalities and outcomes. An interdisciplinarystudy is employed here to depict the relationships of diverse property-rightsstructure attributes – POS title existence, community existence, POS title transfer and POS site handing-over period to local government – with quality ofresidential POS. A cross-sectional survey via direct structured observation witha POS quality audit tool was conducted to collect a randomly stratified sampleof 155 Country Lease (CL POS and entire 22 Native Title (NT POS, from thedistricts of Kota Kinabalu and Penampang, Sabah, respectively. Archival searchand document analysis on data of property-rights attributes were executed aswell. Next, 2-stage Pearson’s Chi-Square ( c2 and Lambda (λ with ProportionalReduction Error feature analyses were performed. Results showed that only thesethree property-rights attributes – title deed existence, community existence andPOS site handing-over period to local government- are significantly associatedwith POS quality at significance level (p≤0.05. It is found that, although POSwith title deed and community’s involvement might not contribute to goodquality, these attributes were likely to provide better quality. On the other hand,it is found that the more recent the POS site handing over to government, thehigher the likelihood of good POS quality and vice versa. Such empirical findingsprima facie infer that: (i current local property-rights structure does matter incontributing to POS condition, particularly the effective management right whichlikely leads to better

  8. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  9. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  10. ORGANIZATION OF BIODIVERSITY RESOURCES BASED ON THE PROCESS OF THEIR CREATION AND THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL ORGANISMS AS RESOURCE RELATIONSHIP NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Baskauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. - Kinds of occurrences (evidence of particular living organisms can be grouped by common data and metadata characteristics that are determined by the way that the occurrence represents the organism. The creation of occurrence resources follows a pattern which can be used as the basis for organizing both the metadata associated with those resources and the relationships among the resources. The central feature of this organizational system is a resource representing the individual organism. This resource serves as a node which connects the organism's occurrences and any determinations of the organism's taxonomic identity. I specify a relatively small number of predicates which can define the important relationships among these resources and suggest which metadata properties should logically be associated with each kind of resource.

  11. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  12. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  13. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

  14. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of the Probiotic and Safety Properties of Bacteriocinogenic and Non-Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Intestines of Nile Tilapia and Common Carp for Their Use as Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Zambou, François Ngoufack; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    In this study, seven bacteriocinogenic and non-bacteriocinogenic LAB strains previously isolated from the intestines of Nile tilapia and common carp and that showed potent antibacterial activity against host-derived and non-host-derived fish pathogens were assayed for their probiotic and safety properties so as to select promising candidates for in vivo application as probiotic in aquaculture. All the strains were investigated for acid and bile tolerances, transit tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, for cell surface characteristics including hydrophobicity, co-aggregation and auto-aggregation, and for bile salt hydrolase activity. Moreover, haemolytic, gelatinase and biogenic amine-producing abilities were investigated for safety assessment. The strains were found to be tolerant at low pH (two strains at pH 2.0 and all the strains at pH 3.0). All of them could also survive in the presence of bile salts (0.3% oxgall) and in simulated gastric and intestinal juices conditions. Besides, three of them were found to harbour the gtf gene involved in pH and bile salt survival. The strains also showed remarkable cell surface characteristics, and 57.14% exhibited the ability to deconjugate bile salts. When assayed for their safety properties, the strains prove to be free from haemolytic activity, gelatinase activity and they could neither produce biogenic amines nor harbour the hdc gene. They did not also show antibiotic resistance, thus confirming to be safe for application as probiotics. Among them, Lactobacillus brevis 1BT and Lactobacillus plantarum 1KMT exhibited the best probiotic potentials, making them the most promising candidates.

  16. Radiation damage and recovery properties of common plastics PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate) and PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) using a 137Cs gamma ray source up to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, J.; Tiras, E.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-08-01

    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) are cheap and common polyester plastics used throughout the world in the manufacturing of bottled drinks, containers for foodstuffs, and fibers used in clothing. These plastics are also known organic scintillators with very good scintillation properties. As particle physics experiments increase in energy and particle flux density, so does radiation exposure to detector materials. It is therefore important that scintillators be tested for radiation tolerance at these generally unheard of doses. We tested samples of PEN and PET using laser stimulated emission on separate tiles exposed to 1 Mrad and 10 Mrad gamma rays with a 137Cs source. PEN exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 71.4% and 46.7% of the light of an undamaged tile, respectively, and maximally recover to 85.9% and 79.5% after 5 and 9 days, respectively. PET exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 35.0% and 12.2% light, respectively, and maximally recover to 93.5% and 80.0% after 22 and 60 days, respectively.

  17. Radiation damage and recovery properties of common plastics PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate) and PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) using a 137Cs gamma ray source up to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.; Tiras, E.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) are cheap and common polyester plastics used throughout the world in the manufacturing of bottled drinks, containers for foodstuffs, and fibers used in clothing. These plastics are also known organic scintillators with very good scintillation properties. As particle physics experiments increase in energy and particle flux density, so does radiation exposure to detector materials. It is therefore important that scintillators be tested for radiation tolerance at these generally unheard of doses. We tested samples of PEN and PET using laser stimulated emission on separate tiles exposed to 1 Mrad and 10 Mrad gamma rays with a 137 Cs source. PEN exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 71.4% and 46.7% of the light of an undamaged tile, respectively, and maximally recover to 85.9% and 79.5% after 5 and 9 days, respectively. PET exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 35.0% and 12.2% light, respectively, and maximally recover to 93.5% and 80.0% after 22 and 60 days, respectively.

  18. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  19. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  20. resources 1..1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e34.pdf. Morinha F., Carvalho M., Ferro A., Guedes-Pinto H., Rodrigues R. and Bastos E. 2011 Molecular sexing and analysis of CHD1-Z and. CHD1-W sequence variations in wild common quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica).

  1. Resources and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2005-01-01

    from resources depends on the property rights that he or she holds and on the transaction costs of exchanging, defining, and protecting them. While transaction costs are a major source of value dissipation, reducing such dissipation may create value. Implications for the RBV analysis of sustained...

  2. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  3. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  4. Understanding Access to Things: A Knowledge Commons Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the related ideas of access to knowledge resources and shared governance of those resources, often known as commons. Knowledge resources consist of many types and forms. Some are tangible, and some are intangible. Some are singular; some are reproduced in copies. Some are singular or unique; some are collected or pooled. Some are viewed, used, or consumed only by a single person; for some resources, collective or social consumption is the norm. Any given resource often h...

  5. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  6. Commoning in the periphery – The role of the commons for understanding rural continuities and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sandström

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how commons reproduce over time and introduces the concept of commoning to discuss rural continuities and change. The point of departure is that commons are essential for local community development in that they have an important role for mediating social change and for local identity production. Through an ethnographic and historical study of a number of commons systems from the village of Ängersjö in the Midwest of Sweden, the paper argues for a more historically and socially grounded understanding of how commons evolve. The paper examines Ängersjö’s commons within two broad historical time frames – the pre-industrial (4th to 20th century and the post-industrial time periods (20th century to the present – in order to understand commons, not just as arenas for resource extraction and resource struggles, but also as important contexts for identity formation, local mobilisation and for shaping rural change. The paper reveals how the commons have co-evolved with changes in society at large and how the meanings and functions of the commons have changed throughout history – from being important economic resources – to cultural and symbolic resources that have created new avenues for collective action.

  7. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  8. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  9. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  10. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  11. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  12. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  13. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  14. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  15. Bio-coal, torrefied lignocellulosic resources – Key properties for its use in co-firing with fossil coal – Their status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar, D.; Wihersaari, M.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-coal has received generous amounts of media attention because it potentially allows greater biomass co-firing rates and net CO 2 emission reductions in pulverised-coal power plants. However, little scientific research has been published on the feasibility of full-scale commercial production of bio-coal. Despite this, several companies and research organisations worldwide have been developing patented bio-coal technologies. Are the expectations of bio-coal realistic and are they based on accepted scientific data? This paper examines strictly peer-reviewed scientific publications in order to find an answer. The findings to date on three key properties of torrefied biomass are presented and reviewed. These properties are: the mass and energy balance of torrefaction, the friability of the product and the equilibrium moisture content of torrefied biomass. It is these properties that will have a major influence on the feasibility of bio-coal production regardless of reactor technology employed in production. The presented results will be of use in modelling commercial production of bio-coal in terms of economics and green-house gas emission balance. -- Highlights: ► A technical note on torrefaction research results. ► Presents experimental values on three key properties. ► Mass-energy balance, grindability, equilibrium moisture content of torrefied biomass. ► Results useful for modelling bio-coal production schemes.

  16. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  17. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  18. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of resources and support for chronic illness self-management scale in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Shakibazadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article is a report of psychometric testing of the Farsi version of Resources and Support for Chronic Illness Self-management (RSSM scale. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 160 patients with type 2 diabetes, registered with the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases′ team-focused diabetes clinic, were recruited (response rate=83.7%; n=134. Participants older than 18 years who had active medical files in the system completed the questionnaire. Content validity was established using translation and back-translation procedures, pilot testing of the instrument, and getting views of the expert panel. Construct validity was determined using explanatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was ascertained using Cronbach′s alpha. The stability was confirmed using intra-class correlation coefficients. Results: Using exploratory factor analysis, a five-factor model emerged, which explained 75.24% of the total variance. Internal consistency reliability was sufficient (α=0.70; range=0.66 - 0.87. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.74 - 0.81 for individual items. Conclusion: The RSSM-Farsi seems to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes of diabetes self-management education programs in Farsi. The RSSM-Farsi version scale could be a useful, comprehensive, and culturally sensitive scale for assessing resources and support for self-management between type 2 diabetic patients.

  19. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  20. Propriedades físicas e químicas de feijão comum preto, cultivar Iapar 44, após envelhecimento acelerado Physical and chemical properties of aged dry black common beans, Iapar 44 cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horaci Jaqueline Silva de Souza Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Feijão armazenado por período longo em temperatura e umidade relativa elevadas torna-se endurecido e resistente ao cozimento devido ao desenvolvimento do defeito "difícil de cozinhar". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar algumas propriedades físicas e químicas de feijão comum preto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Iapar 44, envelhecido. O envelhecimento do feijão foi acelerado a 41ºC e 75% de UR, por 30 e 60 dias, e feijão novo mantido a 5ºC e 60% de UR foi considerado controle. Foram avaliados o tempo de cozimento, por meio do equipamento de Mattson adaptado; a composição química e o pH dos grãos; a solubilidade em água e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de comparação de médias de Tukey (pBeans stored for long periods at high temperature and humidity become hardened and resistant to cook. This happens due to the development of the hard-to-cook defect. The objective of this work was evaluate some physical and chemical properties of the aged dry black common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Iapar 44 cultivar. The aging of beans was accelerated at 41ºC and 75% RH, for 30 e 60 days; and new beans, kept at 5ºC and 60% RH was used as the control. The cooking time, determined by a Mattson-type cooker; the chemical composition and the pH of the grains; the water solubility and protein eletrophorectic profile were evaluated. The results were submitted to analyses of variance and mean comparison Tukey test (p<0.05. It was observed that the two storage periods, caused: increased time of cooking; decreased percentage of humidity, increased percentage of ash and maintained the percentages of protein, lipids and carbohydrates; decreased pH and decreased solubility and changed the protein eletrophorectic profile. These results are in accordance with the literature, which demonstrated that during aging of beans at high temperature and humidity there is acid formation

  1. SHARING RESOURCES THROUGH COLLABORATION USING TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to changing social and economic conditions, instant communication, emerging technology, and decreasing resources for libraries, there is a need for librarians to use collaborative methods, strategies, and technologies to solve common problems or produce common produ...

  2. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  3. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  4. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  5. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  6. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  7. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  8. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  9. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  10. Transaction costs and community-based natural resource management in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim; Lovett, Jon C

    2006-01-01

    Transaction costs in community-based resource management are incurred by households attempting to enforce property right rules over common resources similar to those inherent in private property rights. Despite their importance, transaction costs of community-based management of common pool resources (CPRs) are often not incorporated into the economic analysis of participatory resource management. This paper examines the transaction costs incurred by forest users in community forestry (CF) based on a survey of 309 households belonging to eight different forest user groups (FUGs) in the mid hills of Nepal. The analysis reveals that the average 'poor' household incurred Nepalese rupees (NRS) 1265 in transaction costs annually, while wealthier 'rich' households incurred an average of NRS 2312 per year. Although richer households bear higher proportions of such costs, transaction costs for CF management as a percentage of resource appropriation costs are higher for poorer households (26%) than those of middle-wealth (24%) or rich households (14%). There are also village differences in the level of transaction costs. The results show that transaction costs are a major component of resource management costs and vary according to socio-economic status of resource users and characteristics of the community.

  11. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  12. A Reference Guide for Cryogenic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisend, John G

    2003-09-16

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures is critical for the design of successful cryogenic systems. Over the past 50 years, a tremendous amount of material properties at cryogenic temperatures have been measured and published. This guide lists resources for finding these properties. It covers online databases, computer codes, conference proceedings, journals, handbooks, overviews and monographs. It includes references for finding reports issued by government laboratories and agencies. Most common solids and fluids used in cryogenics are covered.

  13. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  14. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  15. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  16. Making It Happen: Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-of-a-kind guide identifies and highlights the ways in which NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) resources can support teachers as they implement and supplement the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in their states. The guide and accompanying charts are tools to help educators as they continue to make…

  17. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  18. Leading Change: Transitioning to the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    For many school districts in the United States, making the transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is proving to be a challenge at a time when they are already facing many obstacles, not the least of which is dwindling financial resources. A change of this magnitude cannot be made haphazardly; to be successful in its goal of helping…

  19. Common Threads: Teaching Immigration in Elementary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Robin Haskell; Bone, Kristine; Mossop, Gail; Owens, Carrie

    1998-01-01

    Brings together ideas on teaching about immigration from a number of elementary-school teachers in New Jersey and summarizes common themes. Outlines three specific projects based on the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, family history, and children's fiction. Includes a brief list of children's literature and other teaching resources. (DSK)

  20. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  1. Open Data as a New Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Mulder, Ingrid; Concilio, Grazia

    2017-01-01

    and environmental opportunities around them and government choices. Developing spacesmeans for enabling citizens to harness the opportunities coming from the use of this new resource, offers thus a substantial promise of social innovation. This means that open data is vi (still) virtually a new resource that could...... become a new commons with the engagement of interested and active communities. The condition for open data becoming a new common is that citizens become aware of the potential of this resource, that they use it for creating new services and that new practices and infrastructures are defined, that would......An increasing computing capability is raising the opportunities to use a large amount of publicly available data for creating new applications and a new generation of public services. But while it is easy to find some early examples of services concerning control systems (e.g. traffic, meteo...

  2. Fourth Tennessee water resources symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, M.J.; Presley, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The annual Tennessee Water Resources Symposium was initiated in 1988 as a means to bring together people with common interests in the state's important water-related resources at a technical, professional level. Initially the symposium was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology and called the Hydrology Symposium, but the Tennessee Section of the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) has taken on the primary coordination role for the symposium over the last two years and the symposium name was changed in 1990 to water resources to emphasize a more inter-disciplinary theme. This year's symposium carries on the successful tradition of the last three years. Our goal is to promote communication and cooperation among Tennessee's water resources professionals: scientists, engineers, and researchers from federal, state, academic, and private institutions and organizations who have interests and responsibilities for the state's water resources. For these conference proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  3. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  4. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  5. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  6. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  7. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  8. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  9. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  11. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  12. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  13. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  14. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  15. Common and Privatized: Conditions for Wise Management of Matsutake Mushrooms in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hardin's (1968 paper on the "Tragedy of the Commons," property rights of common-pool resources have been a central concern for natural resource management scholars. Matsutake, a common-pool resource, is an economically important mushroom in several locations around the world. Driven by growing international demand over the last few decades, matsutake management is a relatively new practice both for local communities and government agencies. In Northwest Yunnan, China, one of the most productive areas for matsutake globally, numerous local practices and systems have emerged in the last two to three decades. In this study, we investigate the differences between management systems in eight communities and the factors associated with them. The methods used for field research included key-informant interviews, household surveys, and questionnaires. Three main management patterns were identified through use of statistical clustering based on indicators such as physical environment, resource characteristics, tenure arrangements, regulations and implementation, harvesting behavior, income, and market regulation. It was found that private access - the principal characteristic of which is the exclusive use of resources - results in more income at lower labor cost per household than either of the other open-access management patterns. Even though under the context of ongoing Second Forest Tenure Reform in China - in which collective forest privatization is the key task - application of private-access regimes is limited because of site conditions including physical, institutional, and market environments. Common-access management systems have advantages in terms of managing conflict and balancing equity needs. No matter the type of access right, the key issue for wise matsutake management is institutional. Locally rooted innovative strategies should be encouraged, and institutional capacity building should be carried out to support innovations in

  16. Application and Prospect of Big Data in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Danchi; Xu, Xinyi

    2017-04-01

    Because of developed information technology and affordable data storage, we h ave entered the era of data explosion. The term "Big Data" and technology relate s to it has been created and commonly applied in many fields. However, academic studies just got attention on Big Data application in water resources recently. As a result, water resource Big Data technology has not been fully developed. This paper introduces the concept of Big Data and its key technologies, including the Hadoop system and MapReduce. In addition, this paper focuses on the significance of applying the big data in water resources and summarizing prior researches by others. Most studies in this field only set up theoretical frame, but we define the "Water Big Data" and explain its tridimensional properties which are time dimension, spatial dimension and intelligent dimension. Based on HBase, the classification system of Water Big Data is introduced: hydrology data, ecology data and socio-economic data. Then after analyzing the challenges in water resources management, a series of solutions using Big Data technologies such as data mining and web crawler, are proposed. Finally, the prospect of applying big data in water resources is discussed, it can be predicted that as Big Data technology keeps developing, "3D" (Data Driven Decision) will be utilized more in water resources management in the future.

  17. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  18. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  19. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  20. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  1. Governing the Conflicted Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth

    for collective decision-making. This makes them the natural institution of choice to nurture democratic practice among the Ho people of Jharkhand’s West Singhbhum district, whose village communities form the focus of this study. However, Jharkhand’s state laws are at odds with national ones, and decentralisation...... works more along administrative than democratic lines. This limits the extent to which the village assemblies can nurture democratisation in the implementation of development schemes. One village assembly is far more successful at governing natural resources than the other. This is shown to be due...... to proactive leadership, a cohesive community and local social mobilisation within the successful village assembly, in contrast to the co-option of benefits by some village inhabitants in the other. Based on these cases, it is concluded that while a local deliberative institution is essential for nurturing...

  2. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  3. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  4. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  5. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  6. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  7. What can we learn from resource pulses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louie H; Bastow, Justin L; Spence, Kenneth O; Wright, Amber N

    2008-03-01

    An increasing number of studies in a wide range of natural systems have investigated how pulses of resource availability influence ecological processes at individual, population, and community levels. Taken together, these studies suggest that some common processes may underlie pulsed resource dynamics in a wide diversity of systems. Developing a common framework of terms and concepts for the study of resource pulses may facilitate greater synthesis among these apparently disparate systems. Here, we propose a general definition of the resource pulse concept, outline some common patterns in the causes and consequences of resource pulses, and suggest a few key questions for future investigations. We define resource pulses as episodes of increased resource availability in space and time that combine low frequency (rarity), large magnitude (intensity), and short duration (brevity), and emphasize the importance of considering resource pulses at spatial and temporal scales relevant to specific resource-onsumer interactions. Although resource pulses are uncommon events for consumers in specific systems, our review of the existing literature suggests that pulsed resource dynamics are actually widespread phenomena in nature. Resource pulses often result from climatic and environmental factors, processes of spatiotemporal accumulation and release, outbreak population dynamics, or a combination of these factors. These events can affect life history traits and behavior at the level of individual consumers, numerical responses at the population level, and indirect effects at the community level. Consumers show strategies for utilizing ephemeral resources opportunistically, reducing resource variability by averaging over larger spatial scales, and tolerating extended interpulse periods of reduced resource availability. Resource pulses can also create persistent effects in communities through several mechanisms. We suggest that the study of resource pulses provides opportunities

  8. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  9. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  10. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  11. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  12. Disscusion on the common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Negri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this interview taken shortly after the launch of the Italian translation of the Commonwealth, Antonio Negri, besides discussing details of his collaboration with Michael Hardt, addresses the most important topics of the book, which could remain unclear for the readers. He gives a wide range of answers for the questions on, for example, importance of revision and revitalization of seventeenth century’s categories, what does it mean to be a communist today, elaboration of the thesis of real subsumption. He also stresses the significance of the struggle over the common and processes of its institutionalization for contemporary revolutionary politics and faces criticism of the conception of immaterial and biopolitical labour.

  13. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  14. Sustainable models of audiovisual commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Fuster Morell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an emerging phenomenon characterized by continuous change and experimentation: the collaborative commons creation of audiovisual content online. The analysis wants to focus on models of sustainability of collaborative online creation, paying particular attention to the use of different forms of advertising. This article is an excerpt of a larger investigation, which unit of analysis are cases of Online Creation Communities that take as their central node of activity the Catalan territory. From 22 selected cases, the methodology combines quantitative analysis, through a questionnaire delivered to all cases, and qualitative analysis through face interviews conducted in 8 cases studied. The research, which conclusions we summarize in this article,in this article, leads us to conclude that the sustainability of the project depends largely on relationships of trust and interdependence between different voluntary agents, the non-monetary contributions and retributions as well as resources and infrastructure of free use. All together leads us to understand that this is and will be a very important area for the future of audiovisual content and its sustainability, which will imply changes in the policies that govern them.

  15. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  16. How innovation commons contribute to discovering and developing new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy W.E. Allen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economics, the institutions surrounding the creation and development of new technologies are firms, markets and governments. We propose an alternative theory that locates the institutional origin of new technologies further back in the commons when self-organizing groups of technology enthusiasts develop effective governance rules to pool distributed information resources. The ‘innovation commons’ alleviates uncertainty around a nascent technology by pooling distributed information about uses, costs, problems and opportunities. While innovation commons are mostly temporary, because the resource itself – the information about opportunities – is only temporarily valuable, they are a further addition to the Pantheon of commons, and suggest that the institutions of the commons – and the common pool resource of information about applications of the technology – may be far more important in the study of innovation than previously thought.

  17. Beyond Intellectual Property: Toward Traditional Resource Rights ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    That voice belongs to the world's indigenous peoples, and it is voice that has ... how indigenous peoples and local communities worldwide should approach ... National Council for Science and Technology at the Goeldi Museum, Belém, Brazil.

  18. Rainforest Depiction in Children's Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how rainforests are portrayed in children's resources. Twenty books and 12 websites on rainforests, designed for pupils aged between 9 and 14 years, were examined to determine the types and range of animals depicted and how plant life in general is portrayed. The most commonly depicted animal was the orang-utan and other…

  19. Copyright Resources for School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvonne M.; Johnson, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a collection of annotated citations for online resources of interest to school librarians; the focus is on copyright law, related information, and guidelines. The citations are organized by themes based on common issues. Copyright protects originally created works, including movies, recorded music performances, novels,…

  20. APME launches common method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A common approach for carrying out ecological balances for commodity thermoplastics is due to be launched by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels) and its affiliate, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment (PWMI) this week. The methodology report is the latest stage of a program started in 1990 that aims to describe all operations up to the production of polymer powder or granules at the plant gate. Information gathered will be made freely available to companies considering the use of polymers. An industry task force, headed by PWMI executive director Vince Matthews, has gathered information on the plastics production processes from oil to granule, and an independent panel of specialists, chaired by Ian Boustead of the U.K.'s Open University, devised the methodology and analysis. The methodology report stresses the need to define the system being analyzed and discusses how complex chemical processes can be analyzed in terms of consumption of fuels, energy, and raw materials, as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions

  1. Cooperative research with the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology. Estimation and investigation of estimation method on property change accompanied with excavation. Intermediate report in 1994 and 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PRNFDC) and the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology (IRET) of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology conducted a cooperative research on a testing study based on in-door fundamental examination on Acoustic emission (AE) original position measuring tester to catch property change due to micro elastic wave formed with generation and propagation of rock deformation and fracture and AE measurement and specific resistance tomography under 3 years plan from 1989 fiscal year. In 1994 fiscal year, survey on the specific resistance tomography for pre-research on tunnel excavation effect test and experiment on the specific resistance measurement at in-door scale for fundamental study of estimation method were conducted. And, in 1995 fiscal year, by laying a main point of the experiment at in-door scale, the estimation and investigation on the excavation effect estimation method on a base of the past study results on the fundamental experiment results were conducted. In this paper, these experiment results conducted at IRET and PRNFDC in 1994 and 1995 fiscal years were reported. (G.K.)

  2. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    feedstock and the performance in the end-application. The cellulose resource matrix should become a practical tool for stakeholders to make choices regarding raw materials, process or market. Although there is a vast amount of scientific and economic information available on cellulose and lignocellulosic resources, the accessibility for the interested layman or entrepreneur is very difficult and the relevance of the numerous details in the larger context is limited. Translation of science to practical accessible information with modern data management and data integration tools is a challenge. Therefore, a detailed matrix structure was composed in which the different elements or entries of the matrix were identified and a tentative rough set up was made. The inventory includes current commodities and new cellulose containing and raw materials as well as exotic sources and specialties. Important chemical and physical properties of the different raw materials were identified for the use in processes and products. When available, the market data such as price and availability were recorded. Established and innovative cellulose extraction and refining processes were reviewed. The demands on the raw material for suitable processing were collected. Processing parameters known to affect the cellulose properties were listed. Current and expected emerging markets were surveyed as well as their different demands on cellulose raw materials and processes. The setting up of the cellulose matrix as a practical tool requires two steps. Firstly, the reduction of the needed data by clustering of the characteristics of raw materials, processes and markets and secondly, the building of a database that can provide the answers to the questions from stakeholders with an indicative character. This paper describes the steps taken to achieve the defined clusters of most relevant and characteristic properties. These data can be expanded where required. More detailed specification can be obtained

  3. Human Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    For ENSA, people are the fundamental base for achieving the Comany's objectives, and for this reason it tries to obtain their commitment by offering employability and stability, by integrating and motivating, by securing loyalty and recognizing merits, by putting training and improvement plans into place, and by rewarding hard work and maximizing their potential and professional performance. The company's current staff is composed of approximately 400 workers, including shop personnel and senior and middle-level technical personnel. ENSA is based on a series of values that provide a common direction to everyone in the Company and some guidelines for its daily activity based on: Customer orientation; Quality; Competitiveness (understood as a continuous effort to excel): Excellence; continuous improvement; Rigor; Safety; Personal development; Teamwork; Transparency and Communication; Honesty and Ethics. Regarding reconciliation of family and professional life, the Management has prepared a package of measures, in collaboration with the workers representatives, to improve the staff's quality of life. Following is a description of the ENSA H. R. organization and responsibilities. (Author)

  4. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  5. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E. [University of Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  6. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs

  7. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  8. Rare earth metals-primary resources and prospects of processing secondary resources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Rare earth metals (REMs) in modern technological applications is associated with their spectroscopic and magnetic properties. The occurrence of rare earths in mixed form is commonly reported and their separation to the individual metal is a challenging task because of the similar chemical properties. The economical processing of the primary ores of rare earths is limited to a few countries and their supply at the international level is currently dominated by China. Hence assessing the present scenario of the primary resources of rare earths vis-à-vis their applications and demand is crucial at this stage, besides looking at the alternate resources to ensure availability of REMs; such aspects are covered in the manuscript. In view of the environmental concerns in the processing of ores such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, etc, and increasing demand of REMs, corresponding increase in demand of the raw materials has been recorded. It is therefore, necessary to utilize the end-of the-life rare earth containing materials as a rich resource by developing an appropriate recycling technology, which is emerging as a high priority area. To recover the REMs, major secondary resources such as electronic wastes, industrial wastes, spent catalysts and magnets, and phosphors powder, etc, have been considered for now. This will not only open the prospects of utilizing the wastes containing REMs, but will also limit the imports while lowering the production cost and decreasing the load on the primary reserves. The paper also examines the efficient recycling methods to recover a fairly good amount of rare earths which are relevant to India in view of the limited exploitation of the ores. Recovery of REMs from secondary resources using mechanical treatment followed by hydrometallurgical methods is prevalent and the same is reviewed in some detail. The recent R and D work pursued at CSIR-NML to extract (leaching and metal separation using some phosphatic reagents

  9. Determinants of Critical Infrastructure Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issue of how resources are interpreted in the form of technology reactors that, as a result of unexpected circumstances, turn into pyramidal or avalanche threat dynamics. Counteracting such catastrophic, terrorist, or war situations cannot begin in the face of mass casualties or significant material losses that will require reconstruction and the work of many generations. The decisive factor is the correct long-term operation and management of the economy. The starting point of this article is the concept of resource and structural-functional relationships of resources and all their possible interpretations consistent with the functionalities they play in the human environment, human aggregates, and whole nations. The aim is to draw the reader's attention to the importance (semiotics of qualitative specifications and dynamically changing determinants contained in the material and structural-functional properties of the resources and their channel (information communication.

  10. The Cochrane Collaboration: Institutional Analysis of a Knowledge Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter; Stephani, Anne Marie; Garner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cochrane is an international network that produces and updates new knowledge through systematic reviews for the health sector. Knowledge is a shared resource, and can be viewed as a commons. As Cochrane has been in existence for 25 years, we used Elinor Ostrom's theory of the commons and Institutional Analysis and Development Framework to appraise…

  11. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronza, Amanda Lee

    2010-01-01

    TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests,

  12. 41 CFR 105-53.143 - Information Resources Management Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information Resources... FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.143 Information Resources Management Service. (a) Creation and authority. The Information Resources Management Service (IRMS), headed by the Commissioner, Information Resources...

  13. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  14. Resource Allocation and Justice-based Arguments for Funding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... healthcare system that would ensure Nigerians, access to glaucoma treatment ...... proceeds from the sales of common patrimony of natural resources ..... Besides, it would plausibly optimize use of healthcare resources and.

  15. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... Book cover Integrated Natural Resource Management in the ... with the common goal of implementing an integrated approach to natural resource ... and the International Water Management Institute in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  16. Open Data: Creating Communities and Practices for a New Common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Open Data are increasingly seen as a new and very relevant resource, that can dramatically change the landscape of the services and infrastructure in urban environments. This opportunity is often conceptualized by defining open data as a new common. Open data however, are not necessarily a commons...... of practices that regulate and facilitate the use of open data. Communities and practices, the two elements that would turn open data into a common, are not emerging spontaneously; their emergence needs to be appropriately designed....

  17. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  18. Common Virtual Path and Its Expedience for VBR Video Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chromy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with utilization of common Virtual Path (VP for variable bit rate (VBR video service. Video service is one of the main services for broadband networks. Research is oriented to statistical properties of common and separate VPs. Separate VP means that for each VBR traffic source one VP will be allocated. Common VP means that for multiple VBR sources one common VP is allocated. VBR video traffic source is modeled by discrete Markov chain.

  19. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  20. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory.

  1. A "Common" Vision of Instruction? An Analysis of English/Language Arts Professional Development Materials Related to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Emily; Benko, Susanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the stances put forward by a selection of professional development resources interpreting the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, and to analyse where these resources stand in relation to research in ELA. Specifically, we analyse resources written by English educators…

  2. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  3. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  5. Cooperation and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Rufus A; Rodrigues, António M M

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the 'abandoned' mate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Cytogenetic Resources and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Braekeleer, Etienne; Huret, Jean-Loup; Mossafa, Hossain; Dessen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The main databases devoted stricto sensu to cancer cytogenetics are the "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer" ( http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman ), the "Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology" ( http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org ), and COSMIC ( http://cancer.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic ).However, being a complex multistep process, cancer cytogenetics are broadened to "cytogenomics," with complementary resources on: general databases (nucleic acid and protein sequences databases; cartography browsers: GenBank, RefSeq, UCSC, Ensembl, UniProtKB, and Entrez Gene), cancer genomic portals associated with recent international integrated programs, such as TCGA or ICGC, other fusion genes databases, array CGH databases, copy number variation databases, and mutation databases. Other resources such as the International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN), the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), and the Human Gene Nomenclature Database (HGNC) allow a common language.Data within the scientific/medical community should be freely available. However, most of the institutional stakeholders are now gradually disengaging, and well-known databases are forced to beg or to disappear (which may happen!).

  7. SMEs’ Innovation and Export Capabilities: Identification and Characterization of a Common Space Using Data Spatialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Enjolras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous publications try to identify and test empirically the link between innovation and export to explain firms’ competitiveness. But it seems that several ways of thinking coexist, without a real consensus. This article proposes a different approach, by considering innovation and export not in terms of impact of the one on the other, but rather as two complementary activities mobilizing common capabilities (resources, skills, knowledge. These common capabilities represent the capabilities that a company needs to mobilize as a priority to improve its performance regarding innovation as well as export. This article aims to identify the common spaces between innovation and export in terms of current practices within SMEs. Initially, the innovation and export practices were identified in the literature and through a set of interviews with business managers. Then an analysis of similarity put forward the common practices between the innovation and export processes. A data spatialization shows that the common practices concern at least: (1 network management, (2 consideration of the customer, (3 the acquisition of information, (4 skills management, (5 the capitalization of knowledge, (6 the global strategy, (7 the follow-up of the projects, (8 the intellectual property, and finally (9 the corporate culture.

  8. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  9. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction.......This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly...

  10. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly t...... transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  11. The Commons revisited: The tragedy continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Garrett Hardin's classic paper ''Tragedy of the Commons'' published in Science in 1968 struck a chord with scientists and non-scientists alike and has continued to provide a key reference point to how a number of ''Commons''-related problems can be viewed. Hardin's paper will be in looked at in view of both anthropogenic global warming and peak oil and some of the solutions he posed for the ''population problem'' applied to the post-peak era. Possible solutions are compared with the Kyoto Protocol for global warming and the Rimini Protocol for peak oil. A carbon-indexed, universal tax on non-renewable energy resources 'Unitax' is mooted as a longer-term possibility to overcoming both global warming and the financing of post-peak oil problems. Alas, the process of dealing with global warming and peak oil seems to be falling into the ''no technical solution'' category that Hardin identified for population. (author)

  12. Entrepreneurship, Transaction Costs, and Resource Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    transaction costs and property rights shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  13. 20 CFR 418.3405 - What types of resources do we count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of resources that are ordinarily liquid are stocks, bonds, mutual fund shares, promissory notes... workdays, we will not count it as a resource. (b) We count the equity value of real property as a resource...

  14. Solar Climate Engineering and Intellectual Property : Toward a Research Commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Jesse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363244638; Contreras, Jorge L; Sarnoff, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges confronting society today. Solar climate engineering (SCE) has the potential to reduce climate risks substantially. This controversial technology would make the earth more reflective in order to counteract global warming. The science of SCE is still

  15. Antibacterial properties of Passiflora foetida L. – a common exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... 5Forest Utilization Division, Tamil Nadu Forests Department, Chennai 600 006, Tamil ... This study supports, the traditional medicines (herbal extracts) to cure many ... Health Organization (WHO, 2000) estimated that 80% of.

  16. Lessons from the Equator Initiative: Common Property Perspectives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Audrey

    . (CBNRM) program and ... particular attention, as a potential institutional opportunity for social-ecological linkages with Namibian ..... (22) full-time jobs for Torra Conservancy members (Long 2004; Manager, Damaraland. Camp, July 2006 ...

  17. The Ulip family phosphoproteins--common and specific properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, T; Ozon, S; Sobel, A

    1998-05-15

    The search for intracellular phosphoproteins implicated in the regulation of neuronal differentiation led to the identification of Ulip1, a mammalian protein related to the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-33 gene product [Byk, T., Dobransky, T., Cifuentes-Diaz, C. & Sobel, A. (1996) J. Neurosc. 16, 688-701]. The expression level and phosphorylation pattern of Ulip1 were shown to be strongly regulated during development and neuronal differentiation. We have isolated three additional complete coding sequences for members of the Ulip family in the mouse, Ulips 2-4, all preferentially expressed in the nervous system. Furthermore, two Ulip sequences, Ulips A and Ulips B, could be identified in C. elegans. The Ulip family is highly conserved throughout evolution (more than 96 % for Ulips 1-3 and 92.5 % for Ulip4 between mouse and human) and the various members of the family within a single species display about 75% similarity. Sequence comparisons further reveal several highly similar domains and subdomains, including a 32-amino-acid region highly conserved from a bacterial hydantoinase to human Ulips. Two-dimensional immunoblot analysis of in vitro translated Ulips 1-4 demonstrates the existence, for each Ulip protein, of several, most probably differentially phosphorylated forms, in agreement with the presence of conserved phosphorylation consensus sites within their sequences. The expression of Ulips 1-4 mRNAs is differentially regulated during development and nerve-growth-factor-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Our results indicate a differential, possibly complementary role of phosphoproteins of the highly conserved Ulip family in the control of neuronal differentiation, in relation with the development and plasticity of the nervous system.

  18. A Case for Data Commons: Toward Data Science as a Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert L; Heath, Allison; Murphy, Mark; Patterson, Maria; Wells, Walt

    2016-01-01

    Data commons collocate data, storage, and computing infrastructure with core services and commonly used tools and applications for managing, analyzing, and sharing data to create an interoperable resource for the research community. An architecture for data commons is described, as well as some lessons learned from operating several large-scale data commons.

  19. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Elena; Marti, M. Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Burger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Francois, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distribu...

  20. Resources scarcity: Cause of potential conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a common good and the common wealth of each country. Their use, commercial applications and economic evaluation should be planned focused and targeted controlled. In a group of natural resources include: energy resources, water, food, land, mineral resources, biological resources and others. Given that the conditions of resource exploitation variable categories, it can be said that the volume of resources also variable. Abstracting growing problem of resources scarcity of vital importance to the existence in the world, this paper aims to try to shed light on the wider and comprehensive aspects of contemporary global problems in the scarcity of natural resources with a focus on the deficit of food, water and energenata. Search for answers to questions related to the scarcity of the basic needs of some of the world's population, civilizational confrontation about the energy pie, is a research and empirical contribution to the work, which is reflected in the effort to look at global challenges that mankind faces in the second decade of the 21st century.

  1. Otwarty model licencjonowania Creative Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkowski, Alek

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a family of Creative Commons licenses (which form nowadays one of the basic legal tools used in the Open Access movement), as well as a genesis of the licenses – inspired by Open Software Licenses and the concept of commons. Then legal tools such as individual Creative Commons licenses are discussed as well as how to use them, with a special emphasis on practical applications in science and education. The author discusses also his research results on scientific publishers a...

  2. Five Theses on the Common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Roggero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present five theses on the common within the context of the transformations of capitalist social relations as well as their contemporary global crisis. My framework involves ‘‘cognitive capitalism,’’ new processes of class composition, and the production of living knowledge and subjectivity. The commons is often discussed today in reference to the privatizationand commodification of ‘‘common goods.’’ This suggests a naturalistic and conservative image of the common, unhooked from the relations of production. I distinguish between commons and the common: the first model is related to Karl Polanyi, the second to Karl Marx. As elaborated in the postoperaista debate, the common assumes an antagonistic double status: it is boththe plane of the autonomy of living labor and it is subjected to capitalist ‘‘capture.’’ Consequently, what is at stake is not the conservation of ‘‘commons,’’ but rather the production of the common and its organization into new institutions that would take us beyond the exhausted dialectic between public and private.

  3. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  4. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  5. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  6. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  7. Common fixed points of single-valued and multivalued maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new property which contains the property (EA for a hybrid pair of single- and multivalued maps and give some new common fixed point theorems under hybrid contractive conditions. Our results extend previous ones. As an application, we give a partial answer to the problem raised by Singh and Mishra.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of camwood (Baphia nitida) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... on common human pathogens. O. K. Agwa*, C. I. ... and have antimicrobial properties (Egharevba and. Ikhatua, 2008). ... properties. Antibiotic susceptibility is used to determine the efficacy of these plants for use as antibiotics. The most basic laboratory measurement of the activity of an antimicrobial agent ...

  9. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

    2010-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with

  10. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  11. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  12. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and ... RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy | Sitemap Our Family Of Sites ... Introduction Risk Factors Screening Symptoms Tumor Testing Summary '; var ...

  13. Hospital admission planning to optimize major resources utilization under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Admission policies for elective inpatient services mainly result in the management of a single resource: the operating theatre as it is commonly considered as the most critical and expensive resource in a hospital. However, other bottleneck resources may lead to surgery cancellations, such as bed

  14. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12 Section 1104.12 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO... resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property of...

  15. NATURAL RESOURCES – A REAL OR HYPOTHETICAL OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru FRECAUTEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural resources have a controversial accounting treatment which is caused, firstly, by neglecting their inherent properties and, secondly, by a free and one-sided interpretation of the legal framework. The definition of natural resources is bad too, which also creates additional difficulties in accounting of the operations connected with the preparation for natural resources usage and exploitation.

  16. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, P D [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    1995-12-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO{sub 2}, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world`s present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  17. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  18. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  19. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  20. Minerals, lands, and geology for the common defence and general welfare, Volume 4, 1939-1961: A history of geology in relation to the development of public-land, federal science, and mapping policies and the development of mineral resources in the United States from the 60th to the 82d year of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Nelson, Clifford M.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth volume of the comprehensive history of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is titled “Minerals, Lands, and Geology for the Common Defence and General Welfare—Volume 4, 1939‒1961.” The title is based on a passage in the preamble of the U.S. Constitution.

  1. Governing atmospheric sinks: the architecture of entitlements in the global commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Paavola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits key works on the management of common-pool resources under common property arrangements, in order to elicit a broader notion of collective ownership for analysing institutional arrangements that govern the use of large-scale environmental resources such as biodiversity and atmospheric sinks. The article proposes a model for analysing the institutional design of governance solutions which draws attention to 1 tiers and levels, 2 organisation of generic governance functions, and 3 formulation of specific institutional rules. The article exemplifies these analytical solutions by examining the emerging governance framework for global atmospheric sinks. The article indicates how crucial parts of the institutional framework for governing atmospheric sinks are still missing, a shortcoming which maintains the ‘‘tragedy of the commons’’ in their use. The article suggests that a workable governance solution for global atmospheric sinks has to 1 cap the use of atmospheric sinks; 2 provide for a more equitable benefit sharing; 3 provide for compensation of climate change impacts and assistance for adaptation to climate change impacts; and 4 create institutional solutions for enhancing participation in environmental decisions in order to guarantee progress in and legitimacy of the governance framework.

  2. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2013-01-01

    laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may......Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so...... large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one...

  3. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  4. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  5. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  6. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have......, together with concerted bodily (and vocal) activity, serve to organize, regulate and coordinate both attention and the verbal and non-verbal activity that it gives rise to. Since wordings are normative, they can be used to develop skills for making cultural sense of environments and other peoples’ doings...

  7. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  10. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  11. Common mode and coupled failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    Based on examples and data from Abnormal Occurence Reports for nuclear reactors, a classification of common mode or coupled failures is given, and some simple statistical models are investigated. (author)

  12. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  14. Communication, timing, and common learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 230-247 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : common knowledge * learning * communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2011

  15. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  16. Philosophy vs the common sense

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself...

  17. Whose commons are mobilities spaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    for cyclists and cycling to be given greater consideration in broader societal understandings of the common good. I argue that this is in fact not the case. Rather the specific project identities that are nurtured by Copenhagen’s cycling community inhibit it from advocating publicly or aggressively...... for a vision of the common good that gives cyclists greater and more protected access to the city’s mobility spaces...

  18. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  19. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  20. Spatial transferring of ecosystem services and property rights allocation of ecological compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wujun; Xu, Geng; Wang, Xingjie

    2011-09-01

    Ecological compensation is an important means to maintain the sustainability and stability of ecosystem services. The property rights analysis of ecosystem services is indispensable when we implement ecological compensation. In this paper, ecosystem services are evaluated via spatial transferring and property rights analysis. Take the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) as an example, we attempt to classify the spatial structure of 31 categories of ecosystem services into four dimensions, i.e., local, regional, national and global ones, and divide the property rights structure into three types, i.e., private property rights, common property rights and state-owned property rights. Through the case study of forestry, farming industry, drainage area, development of mineral resources, nature reserves, functional areas, agricultural land expropriation, and international cooperation on ecological compensation, the feasible ecological compensation mechanism is illustrated under the spatial structure and property rights structure of the concerned ecosystem services. For private property rights, the ecological compensation mode mainly depends on the market mechanism. If the initial common property rights are "hidden," the implementation of ecological compensation mainly relies on the quota market transactions and the state investment under the state-owned property rights, and the fairness of property rights is thereby guaranteed through central administration.

  1. Biomechanical studies: science (f)or common sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, Jos J.; Doornberg, Job N.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; van der Zwan, A. L.; Spoor, A. B.; van Vugt, A. B.; Armstrong, A. D.; Shrivastava, A.; Wahegaonkar, A. L.; Shafritz, A. B.; Adams, J.; Ilyas, A.; Vochteloo, A. J. H.; Castillo, A. P.; Basak, A.; Andreas, P.; Barquet, A.; Kristan, A.; Berner, A.; Ranade, A. B.; Ashish, S.; Terrono, A. L.; Jubel, A.; Frieman, B.; Bamberger, H. B.; van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; Belangero, W. D.; Hearon, B. F.; Boler, J. M.; Walter, F. L.; Boyer, M.; Wills, B. P. D.; Broekhuyse, H.; Buckley, R.; Watkins, B.; Sears, B. W.; Calfee, R. P.; Ekholm, C.; Fernandes, C. H.; Swigart, C.; Cassidy, C.; Wilson, C. J.; Bainbridge, L. C.; Wilson, C.; Eygendaal, D.; Goslings, J. C.; Schep, N.; Kloen, P.; Haverlag, R.

    2014-01-01

    It is our impression that many biomechanical studies invest substantial resources studying the obvious: that more and larger metal is stronger. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a subset of biomechanical studies comparing fixation constructs just document common sense. Using a web-based

  2. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns ...

  3. Religion and Environmental Education: Building on Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzhusen, Gregory E.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental educators are beginning to consider how to incorporate religious resources into their curricula. Common concerns about religion pose a challenge for integration, but these concerns are manageable. Reflection on the precursors of environmental citizenship behaviour provides a framework for considering some of the ways that religious…

  4. Smart Money? Philanthropic and Federal Funding for the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Barkauskas, Nikolaus J.; Griffith, Kelly M.

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative seeks to prepare all students to graduate high school without remedial needs, to improve transparency across states' accountability systems, and to foster efficiencies in the development and distribution of educational resources. The reform was adopted in more than 40 states and has been described as…

  5. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  6. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  7. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  8. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  9. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  10. Contract on using computer resources of another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractual relations involving the use of another's property are quite common. Yet, the use of computer resources of others over the Internet and legal transactions arising thereof certainly diverge from the traditional framework embodied in the special part of contract law dealing with this issue. Modern performance concepts (such as: infrastructure, software or platform as high-tech services are highly unlikely to be described by the terminology derived from Roman law. The overwhelming novelty of high-tech services obscures the disadvantageous position of contracting parties. In most cases, service providers are global multinational companies which tend to secure their own unjustified privileges and gain by providing lengthy and intricate contracts, often comprising a number of legal documents. General terms and conditions in these service provision contracts are further complicated by the '.service level agreement', rules of conduct and (nonconfidentiality guarantees. Without giving the issue a second thought, users easily accept the pre-fabricated offer without reservations, unaware that such a pseudo-gratuitous contract actually conceals a highly lucrative and mutually binding agreement. The author examines the extent to which the legal provisions governing sale of goods and services, lease, loan and commodatum may apply to 'cloud computing' contracts, and analyses the scope and advantages of contractual consumer protection, as a relatively new area in contract law. The termination of a service contract between the provider and the user features specific post-contractual obligations which are inherent to an online environment.

  11. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  12. Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety

  13. Human Resource Management in Russia: Some Unwritten Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more effic...

  14. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...... endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction....

  15. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  16. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  17. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  18. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  19. Water Property Models as Sovereignty Prerogatives: European Legal Perspectives in Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Casalini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water resources departed once civil law jurisdictions leveled the demesne on ownership model, by introducing public ownership in the French codification of 1804, while common law jurisdiction developed a broader legal concept of property that includes even the rights to use res communes. The models led respectively to the establishment of administrative systems of water rights and markets of water rights. According to the first, public authorities’ power to manage and preserve water resources is grounded in a derogatory regime, whereby water rights, grounded on licenses or concessions, are neither transferable nor tradeable. On the contrary, environmental and social concerns in water market schemes must be enforced by means of regulation, thus limiting private property rights on water, in compliance with the constitutional and common law constraints set out to protect the minimum content of property as a fundamental human right.

  20. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Jentoft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, security, etc.—all of which make poverty alleviation a particularly “wicked problem” that would require a broad process of political, social and institutional reform. In other words, poverty alleviation is not only an issue of sustainable resource management but also one of societal governance. Drawing from research in small-scale fisheries communities in Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Bangladesh, this paper describes how fishing people cope with poverty. The paper discusses what the governance implications are for alleviating poverty at individual, household and community levels, and argue that both the definition of poverty and poverty alleviation in small-scale fisheries must be rooted in real life experiences.

  1. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  2. A tale of two commons. Some preliminary hypotheses on the long-term development of the commons in Western and Eastern Europe, 11th-19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Laborda Pemán

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present our hypotheses regarding the divergence in the development of common-property regimes between Eastern and Western Europe. The latter area developed formalized arrangements for the collective exploitation of natural resources particularly early, and it was chosen not only by farmers, but also in the cities – by craftsmen – to deal with the economic and social problems during the late medieval and early modern times. In the East the development of such institutions for collective action started – we believe – much later, due to a number of factors. Whereas in the West population growth and urbanization occurred together with a speedy commercialization of the economy, putting pressure on natural resources and hence leading to an increasing demand by peasants to formalize the collective use of their land, the peasants east of the Elbe River lacked the agency to demand such change in the governance regime of their land. They were limited in their behaviour by the strictures of the second serfdom, which was accompanied by lesser urbanization and commercialization. In this article, we offer some explanatory frameworks to understand and study this long-term development – or lack thereof – of institutions for collective action across the European continent.

  3. Revisiting Maine’s lobster commons: rescaling political subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Calls for cross-scalar theoretical and methodological approaches are not new to commons scholarship. Such efforts might be hastened by channelling poststructuralist and critical theory perspectives through the geographic subfield of political ecology, including attention to political scales and subjects. Toward this end, this paper reconsiders Maine’s lobster fishery. This case has provided rich material for watershed commons scholarship, demonstrating the ability of social groups to conserve resources independent of government or markets, and it continues to offer new findings. Recent fieldwork shows that as lobster boat captains advance collective interests through state-supported co-management governance arrangements, concerns of crew and non-fishing community members may be marginalized. Regulatory exclusion prevents broader distribution of resource benefits at a time when employment alternatives are scarce. More pluralistic approaches to commons theory and its policy application have utility well beyond the lobster case.

  4. Philosophy vs the common sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself from the common sense, which refers to the common or collective experience. Moreover, the study examines the role of emotions, conformity and conventionality which they play with respect to the common sense. Next the author focuses on the role of philosophical intuition, guided with principles of rationality, nonconformity and scepticism, which the author professes the foundation stones of any sound philosophy. The common sense, described as deeply routed in the world of human emotions, aims at empathy, as the purpose of philosophy is to provide the rational means of knowledge. Therefore, philosophy uses thinking, keeping the permanent efforts to check and recheck data of its own experience. Thus, the first task of philosophical thinking appears to overcome the suggestion of the common sense, which purposes the social empathy, as philosophical intuition aims at independent thinking, the analytics of subjective experience. The study describes the fundamental principles of the common sense, on the one hand, and those of philosophy, on the other. The author arrives to conclusion that the common sense is unable to exceed the limits of sensual experience. Even there, where it apparently rises to a form of any «spiritual unity», even there it cannot avoid referring to the data of commonly shared sensual experience; though, philosophy, meanwhile, goes beyond sensuality, creating a discourse that would be able to alienate from it, and to make its rational

  5. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Governing for the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world.

  7. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    Civil society and its philanthropic and voluntary organisations are currently experiencing public and political attention and demands to safeguard society’s ‘common good’ through social cohesion and as providers of welfare services. This has raised the question by both practitioners and researchers...... that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift......-giving concepts, practices and operational forms throughout history have played a significant role in defining the common good and its future avenues. Through an analytical attitude based on microhistory, conceptual history and the sociology of translation it shows that civil society’s institutional logic always...

  8. Self managing experiment resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, F; Ubeda, M; Charpentier, P; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Romanovskiy, V; Roiser, S; Graciani, R

    2014-01-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  9. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  10. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    -shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other......Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U...

  11. Information-Theoretic Inference of Common Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Steudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A directed acyclic graph (DAG partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information-theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs, our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach’s principle of common cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for non-probabilistic observations, such as binary strings, since we state the proof for an axiomatized notion of “mutual information” that includes the stochastic as well as the algorithmic version.

  12. Uncommon among the Commons? Disentangling the Sustainability of the Peruvian Anchovy Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Arias Schreiber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "commons" refers to collectively exploited resources and their systems of usage; a synonymous term is common pool resources. Fisheries are typical common pool resources and also one of the most conspicuous examples of unsustainable use of natural resources. We examine one of the few globally important fisheries that is held to be sustainable, the Peruvian anchovy fishery, and considers the extent to which the institutional characteristics of the fishery conform to design principles that are considered prerequisites for long-term, successful, community-based common pool resources. Results showed that greater conformity to the principles was found in the sustainable phase of the fishery, compared to its unsustainable phase. For this case study, the conditions that supported the transition towards sustainability were: clearly defined resource boundaries, monitoring of rule enforcement, and conflict resolution mechanisms among users and management authorities. On the other hand, clearly defined user boundaries, collective choice arrangements, and nested enterprises were not required to achieve sustainability. The study concludes that the design principles are a valuable tool for analysis and understanding of large-scale common pool resource systems. At the same time it suggests that the application of the principles to a wider range of systems can generate new insights into what is required for successful management of common pool resources.

  13. Yukon's common oil and gas regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon's common oil and gas regime was developed in partnership with First Nations and it sets out the rules that will apply throughout the Yukon and on Yukon and First Nation lands. While separate and distinct, it conforms with and is compatible with other government systems and regimes. The major elements of the common regime include the Oil and Gas Act, regulations, policies, processes and agreements. The specific opportunities that are available in each phase of oil and gas development in the Yukon are described, with a map showing all basins, reserves and sites of current oil and gas activity. The Yukon has eight potential oil and gas basins: North Coast, Old Crow, Kandik, Eagle Plain, Peel Plateau, Bonnet Plume, Whitehorse Trough, and Liard Plateau. Only three of the eight, the Liard Plateau, Whitehorse Trough and Eagle Plain, have been explored. No wells have been drilled in several of Yukon's basins. Factors influencing economic opportunities in the Territory are also described, including: (1) international events and energy markets, (2) North American gas markets, (3) environmental factors, (4) competitiveness of the Yukon regime, and (5) the commitment of industry resources. 4 figs

  14. Renewable and nuclear power: A common future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power and renewable energy are the main options to bring down the carbon intensity of commercial energy supply. What technology is unlimited backstop supply depends on its performance on the sustainability criteria: democratic decided, globally accessible, environmental benign, low risk, affordable. Renewable power meets all criteria, with affordability under debate. Maximizing energy efficiency as prerequisite, the affordable sustainable option in fact is the twin efficiency/renewable power. Nuclear power falls short on the sustainability criteria and its public acceptance is low. Nuclear proponents now propose nuclear and renewable energy as a suitable couple to address the climate change challenge. The two antagonists however are mutually exclusive on the five major directions of future power systems. First, nuclear power has been architect of the expansive 'business-as-usual' energy economy since the 1950s. Second, add-on by fossil-fuelled power plants is bulky and expansive for nuclear power, but is distributed, flexible and contracting over time for renewable power. Third, power grids for spreading bulky nuclear outputs are other than the interconnection between millions of distributed power sources requires. Fourth, risks and externalities and the proper technology itself of nuclear power limit its development perspectives, while efficiency/renewable power are still in their infancy. Fifth, their stalemate for R and D resources and for production capacities will intensify. Nuclear power and renewable power have no common future in safeguarding 'Our Common Future'

  15. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  16. Missouri StreamStats—A water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains and operates more than 8,200 continuous streamgages nationwide. Types of data that may be collected, computed, and stored for streamgages include streamgage height (water-surface elevation), streamflow, and water quality. The streamflow data allow scientists and engineers to calculate streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood (also known as the 100-year flood), the mean flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are used by managers to make informed water resource management decisions, at each streamgage location. Researchers, regulators, and managers also commonly need physical characteristics (basin characteristics) that describe the unique properties of a basin. Common uses for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics include hydraulic design, water-supply management, water-use appropriations, and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. The USGS periodically publishes reports that update the values of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics at selected gaged locations (locations with streamgages), but these studies usually only update a subset of streamgages, making data retrieval difficult. Additionally, streamflow statistics and basin characteristics are most often needed at ungaged locations (locations without streamgages) for which published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics do not exist. Missouri StreamStats is a web-based geographic information system that was created by the USGS in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to provide users with access to an assortment of tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain the most recent published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamgage locations and to automatically calculate selected basin characteristics and estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged

  17. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichilnisky, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a

  18. Distributing Resources in a Construction Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper the status of theories are discussed. It will be based on the fact that our understanding comes out of our common activity, and we will take point of departure in some empirical material from a construction project. We shall explore a conception of conflictual cooperation, wh...... that accordingly theories must change with the process, that they are dissolving in praxis. Keywords: arrangement, common cause, concept, conflictual cooperation, contradictions, design of square, praxis, procedure, resources, theory....

  19. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  20. The Parody of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay builds on the idea that Commons-based peer production is a social advancement within capitalism but with various post-capitalistic aspects, in need of protection, enforcement, stimulation and connection with progressive social movements. We use theory and examples to claim that peer-to-peer economic relations can be undermined in the long run, distorted by the extra-economic means of a political context designed to maintain profit-driven relations of production into power. This subversion can arguably become a state policy, and the subsequent outcome is the full absorption of the Commons as well as of the underpinning peer-to-peer relations into the dominant mode of production. To tackle this threat, we argue in favour of a certain working agenda for Commons-based communities. Such an agenda should aim the enforcement of the circulation of the Commons. Therefore, any useful social transformation will be meaningful if the people themselves decide and apply policies for their own benefit, optimally with the support of a sovereign partner state. If peer production is to become dominant, it has to control capital accumulation with the aim to marginalise and eventually transcend capitalism.

  1. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  2. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  3. Twenty-First Century Diseases: Commonly Rare and Rarely Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunert, Sylvia; Sittampalam, Gurusingham Sitta; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J

    2017-09-20

    Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers ( www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/2014 ). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity. This editorial is taking into account the uniqueness of each individual and surrounding environment, and stresses the point that a more accurate definition of a "common" disorder could be simply the amalgamation of a myriad of "rare" diseases. These rare diseases are being grouped together because they share a rather constant complement of common features and, indeed, generally respond to empirically developed treatments, leading to a positive outcome consistently. We make the case that it is highly unlikely that such treatments, despite their statistical success measured with large cohorts using standardized clinical research, will be effective on all patients until we increase the depth and fidelity of our understanding of the individual "rare" diseases that are grouped together in the "buckets" of common illnesses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 511-516.

  4. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  5. Contested Property Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that we can sometimes forget the immense complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when social conflict over property erupts. When...... social actors confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. These confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series of case studies...... from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology exploring contested property claims brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how disagreements give us a privileged window onto how property regimes function and illustrates the many ways...

  6. Contested Property Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that the complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly are often forgotten. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when conflict over property erupts. When social actors...... confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. As this book demonstrates, these confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series...... of case studies from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how exploring contested property claims offers a privileged window onto how property regimes function, as well as an illustration of the many ways...

  7. Minerals, lands, and geology for the common defence and general welfare, Volume 3, 1904-1939 : A history of geology in relation to the development of public-land, federal-science, and mapping policies and the development of mineral resources in the United States from the 25th to the 60th year of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1986-01-01

    Mrs. Rabbitt's third volume covers the years 1904 to 1939, from the beginning of the conservation movement under Theodore Roosevelt to the beginning of World War II. From a national perspective, these were years of great development and change in the use of energy, trouble in the coal industry, and a great expansion in the oil industry. They were also years in which the public perceived for the first time that the Nation's mineral resources are not infinite, and the mineral industry realized its dependence on international trade. In these years, water became an increasingly valuable commodity, and the need for a national mapping program became abundantly evident. These were also the years when the Federal Government for the most part practiced stringent economy in funding science, but State and municipal agencies increasingly sought the services of the Survey's topographic and water specialists to aid in the solution of local problems. The balance maintained between fundamental and practical research during the first 25 years was more than once upset during the next 25 years, but the successful struggle to maintain a significant level of research laid the groundwork for the tremendous expansion in the Survey in the subsequent years.

  8. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Weather.gov > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  9. Diffusion of novel healthcare technologies to resource poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Robert; von Oldenburg Beer, Kim

    2013-09-01

    A new product has completed clinical trials in a distant, resource poor hospital using a few dozen prototypes. The data looks great. The novel medical device solves a widely felt problem. The next goal is to integrate the device into the country's healthcare system and spread the device to other countries. But how? In order to be widely used, the device must be manufactured and distributed. One option is to license the intellectual property (IP) to an interested third party, if one can be found. However, it is possible to manage the manufacturing and distribution without licensing. There are at least two common means for manufacturing a novel medical device targeted to resource poor settings: (a) formal (contract) manufacturing and (b) informal (local) manufacturing. There are three primary routes to diffusion of novel medical devices in the developing world: (1) local distributors (2) direct international sales and (3) international donations. Perhaps surprisingly, the least effective mechanism is direct importation through donation. The most successful mechanism, the method used by nearly all working medical devices in resource-poor settings, is the use of contract manufacturing and a local distributor. This article is written for the biomedical innovator and entrepreneur who wishes to make a novel healthcare technology or product available and accessible to healthcare providers and patients in the developing world. There are very few documented cases and little formal research in this area. To this end, this article describes and explores the manufacturing and distribution options in order to provide insights into when and how each can be applied to scale up a novel technology to make a difference in a resource poor setting.

  10. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  11. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  12. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Barker

    Full Text Available Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic "tug-of-war" model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

  13. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  14. George Combe and common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  15. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Dunnivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  16. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  17. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  18. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  19. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  20. Commonalities between perception and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela C. Tacca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception and cognition are highly interrelated. Given the influence that these systems exert on one another, it is important to explain how perceptual representations and cognitive representations interact. In this paper, I analyze the similarities between visual perceptual representations and cognitive representations in terms of their structural properties and content. Specifically, I argue that the spatial structure underlying visual object representation displays systematicity—a property that is considered to be characteristic of propositional cognitive representations. To this end, I propose a logical characterization of visual feature binding as described by Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory and argue that systematicity is not only a property of language-like representations, but also of spatially organized visual representations. Furthermore, I argue that if systematicity is taken to be a criterion to distinguish between conceptual and nonconceptual representations, then visual representations, that display systematicity, might count as an early type of conceptual representations. Showing these analogies between visual perception and cognition is an important step towards understanding the interface between the two systems. The ideas here presented might also set the stage for new empirical studies that directly compare binding (and other relational operations in visual perception and higher cognition.

  1. 20 CFR 416.1201 - Resources; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this subpart L, resources means cash or other liquid assets or any real or personal property that an... ordinarily liquid are stocks, bonds, mutual fund shares, promissory notes, mortgages, life insurance policies.... The money may be commingled with other funds, but if this is done in such a fashion that an amount...

  2. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  3. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  4. COMMON APPROACH ON WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The world population has doubled since the 60’s, now reaching 7 billion – it is estimated it will continue growing. If in more advanced economies, the population is starting to grow old and even reduce in numbers, in less developed countries, population numbers are registering a fast growth. Across the world, the ecosystems are exposed to critical levels of pollution in more and more complex combinations. Human activities, population growth and shifting patterns in consumer nature are the main factors that are at the base of thin ever-growing burden on our environment. Globalization means that the consumer and production patterns from a country or a region contribute to the pressures on the environment in totally different parts of the world. With the rise of environmental problems, the search for solutions also begun, such as methods and actions aimed to protect the environment and to lead to a better correlation between economic growth and the environment. The common goals of these endeavors from participating states was to come up with medium and long term regulations that would lead to successfully solving environmental issues. In this paper, we have analyzed the way in which countries started collaborating in the 1970’s at an international level in order to come up with a common policy that would have a positive impact on the environment. The European Union has come up with its own common policy, a policy that each member state must implement. In this context, Romania has developed its National Strategy for Waste Management, a program that Romania wishes to use to reduce the quantity of waste and better dispose of it.

  5. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  6. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  7. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  8. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  9. Resources for blueberry growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local extension agents and USDA-ARS research scientists are excellent resources for various aspects of blueberry production, but several print and web-based resources are also available to help commercial blueberry growers. Growers are encouraged to consider the source for all web-based information....

  10. Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  11. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  12. Resources in Technology 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…

  13. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  14. Modeling Common-Sense Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    This paper presents a methodology for efficient synthesis of dynamical model simulating a common-sense decision making process. The approach is based upon the extension of the physics' First Principles that includes behavior of living systems. The new architecture consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-base and incorporating it in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions.

  15. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...... were instrumental in this regard. However, the critics succeeded in weakening the initially strong focus on the transition from job security to employment security and the divisions between insiders and outsiders in the labour market. In contrast to some decision-making on the European Employment...

  16. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J

    1998-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  17. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.

    1997-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  18. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... due to the complicated administrative structure in China and clearer goals and better resources in Denmark. Denmark has also accomplished a large degree of environmental policy integration (EPI), which is not the case in China. But China has recently put environmental concerns high on the agenda...... and differences between the two ecosystems in terms of ecosystem characteristics, historical and cultural backgrounds of these societies, the technologies affecting the ecosystems and also how the ecosystems have been seen at different times as well as the existence of property rights through time. Both water...

  19. Active agents in common skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-02-01

    Skin care products are numerous and perplexing, yet the majority fall into the moisturizer category. Moisturizers are substances designed to improve and maintain the skin barrier. They serve as a vehicle for the delivery of active ingredients that minimize facial lines of dehydration, deliver photoprotection, and provide antioxidant properties. Moisturizers are based on occlusive substances, such as petrolatum and dimethicone, and humectant substances, such as glycerin, with a variety of sunscreens and botanicals for added functionality and marketing impact. This article reviews these common active agents. The plethora of over-the-counter skin care products available for patient purchase is overwhelming, yet there is certain commonality among 80 percent of the formulations. The majority of the products are moisturizers with added ingredients to support marketing claims. Whether the product is a facial foundation, an antiaging night cream, a sunscreen, a topical antioxidant, or a skin-lightening serum, the formulation is basically a moisturizer. Sunscreen is the most biologically active antiaging ingredient in skin care products, but the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of botanicals possess tremendous marketing appeal.

  20. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the combined effect of various factors, such as interrogations related to facing the climatic changes, the increasing prices of oil versus announced decrease of its resources, the major geopolitical evolution and the remarkable development of Asia, we live nowadays a revival of nuclear power in the very front of stage. In tis context, the following question is posed: could the nuclear fission be a sustainable source of energy when taking into consideration the availability of uranium resources? The article aims at pinpointing the knowledge we have about the world uranium resources, their limits of uncertainty and the relation between knowledge resources and market evolution. To conclude, some susceptible tracks are proposed to improve the using process of uranium resources particularly in softening the impact of high prices