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Sample records for common mastitis pathogens

  1. Emerging mastitis pathogens

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    Janus. A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated for clinical mastitis caused by other agents. Organisms such as coagulase negative Staphylococci, environmental Streptococci, Mycoplasma spp and Serratia spp have increasingly been isolated from dairy herds that had low somatic cell counts. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 38-39

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

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    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  3. Detection of mastitis pathogens by analysis of volatile bacterial metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In

  4. Detection and discrimination of common bovine mastitis-causing streptococci.

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    Almeida, Alexandre; Albuquerque, Pedro; Araujo, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Niza; Tavares, Fernando

    2013-06-28

    Detection and typing of bovine mastitis pathogens are currently limited by time-consuming and culture-based techniques. In this work, a novel genus-specific DNA marker for Streptococcus and species-specific DNA markers for the prevalent mastitis pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis were designed and assessed. In order to enable further discrimination of these mastitis-causing streptococci, metabolic and pathogenicity-related genes were used to infer additional functional markers. A total of 12 DNA markers were validated with a set of 50 reference strains and isolates, representative of the Streptococcus genus, of closely related species and of microorganisms with matching habitats. The experimental validation, using dot blot hybridization under high stringency conditions, confirmed the specificity of the selected markers. The broad-spectrum taxonomic marker (ST1) was specific to the Streptococcus genus and the markers selected for S. agalactiae (A1 and A2) and S. uberis (U1 and U2) were shown to be species-specific. The functional markers revealed strain-specific patterns of S. agalactiae and S. uberis. Markers derived from the fructose operon (FO1 and FO3) were specific to bovine isolates of S. agalactiae, and the nisin operon markers (NU1 and NU3) were able to discriminate isolates belonging to S. agalactiae and S. uberis. The virulence-associated markers (V1, V2 and V3) allowed the detection of S. uberis and of closely related species. This work suggests that the combined use of these novel taxa-specific markers coupled with discriminatory functional markers presents a promising approach for the rapid and cost-effective detection and discrimination of common bovine mastitis-causing pathogens, which will contribute to an improved treatment and control of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of major mastitis pathogens isolated in Unguja island of Zanzibar, Tanzania.

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    Suleiman, T S; Karimuribo, E D; Mdegela, R H

    2018-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and July 2014 in Unguja island of Zanzibar to establish prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy cows and patterns of antibacterial susceptibility of major mastitis pathogens isolated. A total of 416 dairy cows from 201 farmers were randomly selected from three districts of Unguja Island to participate in the study. Questionnaire interview, field observation, individual cow examination, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and bacteriological examination were carried out. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to test drug sensitivity for common bacteria isolated. Based on CMT results, the overall prevalence of SCM was 28.6, 48.8 and 64.7% at quarter, cow and farm level, respectively. Prevalence of bacterial infection was recorded at 42.9, 70.9 and 78.6% at quarter, cow and farm examined, respectively. The common bacteria isolated included Staphylococcus aureus (36.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.1%), Klebsiella spp. (9.5%), Micrococcus spp. (6.3%) and Escherichia coli (4.9%). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated high level of subclinical mastitis at farms, cows and quarters levels with both contagious and environmental bacterial pathogen involved. Therefore, efforts should be directed to the decreased subclinical mastitis by improving sanitary measures and proper milking practice.

  6. Genetic parameters of pathogen-specific incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

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    Haas, de Y.; Barkema, H.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus

  7. [Resistance patterns of ovine mastitis pathogens].

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    Winter, P; Höflechner, A; Baumgartner, W

    1999-01-01

    For control of the udder health status of milk sheep the minimal inhibitory concentration of mastitis causing pathogens to 12 different chemotherapeutics was determined by means of Sensititre microplate method. 73 staphylococci- and 8 streptococci-strains was examined. Following staphylococci-strains were found: S. aureus (11), S. epidermidis (34), S. chromogenes and S. xylosus (6 each), S. hyicus and S. warneri (each 5) as well as S. sciuri and S. simulans (3 each). MIC-values to penicillin, amoxycillin and ampicillin of 2 penicillinase-positive S. aureus-strains were more than 4.0 micrograms/ml. The remaining isolates and the major part of coagulase-negative staphylococci displayed MIC-values up to 1.0 microgram/ml to beta-lactamantibiotics except cloxacillin. Against cephalosporines, cephalexin excluded, and aminoglycosides very low MIC-values concerning staphylococci were observed. In case of spiramycin MIC-levels more or less than 8.0 micrograms/ml were determined. Streptococci exhibited MIC-values in the range of 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml against beta-lactamantibiotics with exclusion of cloxacillin, cefoperazone and cefquinome and spiramycin as well.

  8. Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L P; Madsen, P; Mark, T

    2009-01-01

    in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis...... treatments in general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately......The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...

  9. Comparison of seven antibiotic treatments with no treatment for bacteriological efficacy against bovine mastitis pathogens.

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    Wilson, D J; Gonzalez, R N; Case, K L; Garrison, L L; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-08-01

    Milk culture results were retrospectively reviewed from 9007 cases of subclinical mastitis affecting cows housed in dairy herds located in New York and northern Pennsylvania. Cases included in this analysis had at least one mastitis pathogen isolated from the initial milk sample, were recultured within 1 mo, had permanent cow identification, and had records of whether mastitis was treated with an antibiotic or no treatment at all. Overall bacteriological cure rate for 21 mastitis pathogens was 68% (6097 of 9007). Antibiotic treated cases had a higher cure rate (75%) than did untreated cases (65%). Antibiotic treatments that significantly differed from the untreated cure rate of 65% were amoxicillin (82%), erythromycin (76%), cloxacillin (73%), and pirlimycin (44%). Cure rates for antibiotic treatments with cephapirin, hetacillin, or penicillin did not differ from the untreated cure rate. Agents for which some antibiotics were associated with increased cure rates compared with no treatment were Streptococcus agalactiae, streptococci other than Strep. agalactiae, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. The antibiotic most commonly associated with higher cure rates was amoxicillin. Most of the 21 mastitis agents showed no difference in bacteriologic cure rates between any of the 7 antibiotic treatments and no treatment.

  10. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

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    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  11. Antibacterial effect of caprylic acid and monocaprylin on major bacterial mastitis pathogens.

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    Nair, M K M; Joy, J; Vasudevan, P; Hinckley, L; Hoagland, T A; Venkitanarayanan, K S

    2005-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most significant economic drain on the worldwide dairy industry. Concerns regarding poor cure rates, emergence of bacterial resistance, and residues in milk necessitate development of alternative therapeutic approaches to antibiotics for treatment of mastitis. A variety of free fatty acids and their monoglycerides have been reported to exert antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. The objective of our study was to examine the efficacy of caprylic acid, a short-chain fatty acid, and its monoglyceride, monocaprylin, to inactivate common mastitis pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Milk samples containing 50 mM or 100 mM caprylic acid, and 25 mM or 50 mM monocaprylin were inoculated separately with a 3-isolate mixture of each of the 5 pathogens, and incubated at 39 degrees C. Populations of surviving bacteria were determined at 0 min, 1 min, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h of incubation. Both caprylic acid and monocaprylin reduced all 5 pathogens by >5.0 log cfu/mL after 6 h of incubation. Among the bacterial species tested, Strep. agalactiae, Strep. dysgalactiae, and Strep. uberis were most sensitive, and E. coli was most tolerant to caprylic acid and monocaprylin. Results of this study indicate that caprylic acid and monocaprylin should be evaluated as alternatives or adjuncts to antibiotics as intra-mammary infusion to treat bovine mastitis.

  12. Incidence of subclinical mastitis and prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in organized farms and unorganized sectors.

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    Hegde, Raveendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Prabhu, K Nithin; Shome, B R; Rathnamma, D; Suryanarayana, V V S; Yatiraj, S; Prasad, C Renuka; Krishnaveni, N; Sundareshan, S; Akhila, D S; Gomes, A R; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2013-09-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) represents a major proportion of the burden of mastitis. Determining somatic cell count (SCC) and electrical conductivity (EC) of milk are useful approaches to detect SCM. In order to correlate grades of SCM with the load of five major mastitis pathogens, 246 milk samples from a handful of organized and unorganized sectors were screened. SCC (>5 × 10(5)/mL) and EC (>6.5 mS/cm) identified 110 (45 %) and 153 (62 %) samples, respectively, to be from SCM cases. Randomly selected SCM-negative samples as well as 186 samples positive by either SCC or EC were then evaluated for isolation of five major mastitis-associated bacteria. Of the 323 isolates obtained, 95 each were S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 48 were E. coli and 85 were streptococci. There was no association between the distribution of organisms and (a) the different groups of SCC, or (b) organised farms and unorganised sectors. By contrast, there was a significant difference in the distribution of CoNS, and not other species, between organized farms and unorganized sectors. In summary, bacteria were isolated irrespective of the density of somatic cells or the type of farm setting, and the frequency of isolation of CoNS was higher with organized farms. These results suggest the requirement for fine tuning SCC and EC limits and the higher probability for CoNS to be associated with SCM in organized diary sectors, and have implications for the identification, management and control of mastitis in India.

  13. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico

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    H. Castañeda Vázquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.

  14. Medicinal Plants Based Products Tested on Pathogens Isolated from Mastitis Milk

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    Claudia Pașca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis a major disease that is commonly associated with bacterial infection. The common treatment is with antibiotics administered intramammary into infected quarters of the udder. The excessive use of antibiotics leads to multidrug resistance and associated risks for human health. In this context, the search for alternative drugs based on plants has become a priority in livestock medicine. These products have a low manufacturing cost and no reports of antimicrobial resistance to these have been documented. In this context, the main objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of extracts and products of several indigenous, or acclimatized plants on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis. A total of eleven plant alcoholic extracts and eight plant-derived products were tested against 32 microorganisms isolated from milk. The obtained results have shown an inhibition of bacterial growth for all tested plants, with better results for Evernia prunastri, Artemisia absinthium, and Lavandula angustifolia. Moreover, E. prunastri, Populus nigra, and L. angustifolia presented small averages of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. Among the plant-derived products, three out of eight have shown a strong anti-microbial effect comparable with the effect of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, and better than individual plant extracts possibly due to synergism. These results suggest an important anti-microbial effect of these products on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis with a possible applicability in this disease.

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Pathogen Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Milk in Transylvania, Romania

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    Cosmina Bouari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows, one of the most common and economically important infectious diseases of dairy cattle, all over the world, with significant impact due to economic losses, occurs when the udder becomes inflamed because the leukocytes are released into the mammary gland usually in response to bacteria invasion of the teat canal. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from milk in order to design specific control programs for bovine mastitis in this area. A total of 204 milk samples aseptically collected both from farms and private owners were processed during May 2014 and March 2016 within the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The microbiological examination was carried out by inoculation on blood agar and MacConkey medium. After the overnight incubation in aerobic conditions, the identification of the isolates was performed using microscopic, cultural and biochemical methods. Biochemical identification was based on API 20 Biomerieux system. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar; the antibiotics were represented by Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid, Ceftiofur, Florfenicol, Mastidiscs, Enrofloxacin, Penicillin and Tetracycline. Staphylococcus spp. was the most common isolated pathogen, in 54.9% of the specimens, followed by Streptococcus spp. in 20.1%, Escherichia coli in 10.78%, Klebsiella spp. in 8.34%, Bacillus spp. in 5.88%. The most frequent associations were represented by staphylococci-streptococci in 62.7% of the samples, followed by streptococci-bacillus in 19.8% of the samples. The most important etiological agents identified were Staphylococcus aureus, S uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the total isolates revealed good sensitivity to Enrofloxacin, Mastidiscs and Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

  16. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L P; Mark, T; Sørensen, M K

    2010-01-01

    to €570 per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was €231 per case. Selection differentials (in €) were estimated for 4 different...

  17. Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L P; Mark, T; Madsen, P

    2009-01-01

    . uberis, and E. coli (ra = 0.54 to 0.69) and were lowest for Staph. aureus mastitis (ra = 0.44). The genetic correlation between LASCC_300 and the mastitis traits were generally smaller (ra = 0.47 to 0.69). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results, however, because some posterior density...... intervals for ra were large (between 0.14 and 0.47 units). Phenotypically, Staph. aureus is known to be associated with high SCC and especially with subclinical mastitis through chronic infections, so the low ra between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC, compared with ra for the other pathogens......, was not expected. Subclinical cases are usually submitted to dry cow therapy (not included in the present study), not treated at all, or wrongly recorded as clinical cases. Thus, the incidence of Staph. aureus mastitis is likely too low, and the genetic correlation between Staph. aureus mastitis and LASCC may...

  18. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

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    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  19. Occurrence of mastitis pathogens in relation to somatic cells

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    Marcela Vyletělová Klimešová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were examined 161 cows from 4 farms in total. The suspect animals were selected according to viscosity test results, clinical symptoms and somatic cell count (SCC. Milk samples were examined for the presence of pathogens and for SCC. 55 mastitis pathogens were identified. The most frequently isolated species was Enterococcus faecalis (n = 20, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6 and Streptococcus uberis (n = 5. The SCC ranged from 9 to 24 204 ths.ml−1. There was positive occurrence of bacteria genus Staphylococcus and Enterococcus at lower SCC (50 ths.ml−1 and at higher SCC numbers (> 300 ths. ml−1 bacteria genus Streptococcus, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli. Differences in SCC were significant (P < 0.001 in negative samples xg 131 SCC versus 491 for positive, 611 for staphylococci and 464 ths.ml−1 for other positive. SCC discrimination limit for practical likelihood of pathogen occurrence estimation in infectious sample groups was calculated. This limit for suspicion of infection is 159 for positive group, 113 for staphylococci and 174 ths.ml−1 for other positive. This could be possible to recommend the value 174 ths.ml−1 for practical use with target to apply preventive or curative measures.

  20. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis

    2013-01-01

    the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled...... the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying...... pathogens, the results from this study indicate that the practices’ application of basic biochemical analyses in this context could be optimized. In addition, dissemination of information on new methods and updated nomenclature appeared to be an area which future efforts with advantage could aim at....

  1. Mastitis

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    ... Female breast anatomy Mastitis Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  2. Assessment of genetic variation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

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    Tolone, Marco; Larrondo, Cristian; Yáñez, José M; Newman, Scott; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare

    2016-07-28

    Mastitis resistance is a complex and multifactorial trait, and its expression depends on both genetic and environmental factors, including infection pressure. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic basis of mastitis resistance to specific pathogens using a repeatability threshold probit animal model. The most prevalent isolated pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); 39 % of records and 77 % of the animals infected at least one time in the whole period of study. There was significant genetic variation only for Streptococci (STR). In addition, there was a positive genetic correlation between STR and all pathogens together (ALL) (0.36 ± 0.22), and CNS and ALL (0.92 ± 0.04). The results of our study support the presence of significant genetic variation for mastitis caused by Streptococci and suggest the importance of discriminating between different pathogens causing mastitis due to the fact that they most likely influence different genetic traits. Low heritabilities for pathogen specific-mastitis resistance may be considered when including bacteriological status as a measure of mastitis presence to implement breeding strategies for improving udder health in dairy ewes.

  3. Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental

  4. Associations between pathogen-specific clinical mastitis and somatic cell count patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Barkema, H.W.; Gröhn, Y.T.; Schukken, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    Associations were estimated between pathogen-specific cases of clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell count (SCC) patterns based on deviations from the typical curve for SCC during lactation and compared with associations between pathogen-specific CM and lactation average SCC. Data from 274 Dutch

  5. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions.

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    Kessels, J A; Cha, E; Johnson, S K; Welcome, F L; Kristensen, A R; Gröhn, Y T

    2016-05-01

    This study used an existing dynamic optimization model to compare costs of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in US dairy herds. Clinical mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland causing major economic losses in dairy herds due to reduced milk production, reduced conception, and increased risk of mortality and culling for infected cows. Treatment protocols were developed to reflect common practices in dairy herds. These included targeted therapy following pathogen identification, and therapy without pathogen identification using a broad-spectrum antimicrobial or treating with the cheapest treatment option. The cost-benefit of J5 vaccination was also estimated. Effects of treatment were accounted for as changes in treatment costs, milk loss due to mastitis, milk discarded due to treatment, and mortality. Following ineffective treatments, secondary decisions included extending the current treatment, alternative treatment, discontinuing treatment, and pathogen identification followed by recommended treatment. Average net returns for treatment protocols and vaccination were generated using an existing dynamic programming model. This model incorporates cow and pathogen characteristics to optimize management decisions to treat, inseminate, or cull cows. Of the treatment protocols where 100% of cows received recommended treatment, pathogen-specific identification followed by recommended therapy yielded the highest average net returns per cow per year. Out of all treatment scenarios, the highest net returns were achieved with selecting the cheapest treatment option and discontinuing treatment, or alternate treatment with a similar spectrum therapy; however, this may not account for the full consequences of giving nonrecommended therapies to cows with clinical mastitis. Vaccination increased average net returns in all scenarios. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Brandenburg, Germany.

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    Tenhagen, B-A; Köster, G; Wallmann, J; Heuwieser, W

    2006-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin

  7. Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Erözgen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious or non-infectious breast disease associated with breast inflammation. It is observed most frequently during milk stasis (engorgement and lactation period (puerperal with superimposed infection. Most mastitides heal with simple self-help measures, however, sometimes antibiotherapy and abscess drainage may be required. Other than lactating period, mastitides are encountered in the presence of recurrent infections and abscess. Although various factors, such as smoking, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis can at times be the root causes of mastitis, they are frequently observed in granulomatous mastitides. Treatment approaches not involving biopsy are disadvantageous and harmful in such cases which can be confused with breast cancer. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage in patients with breast abscess and irrigation of the pouch with saline are the preferred treatment approach today. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 150-2

  8. Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kanamycin and Norfloxacin showed to be the best drugs of choice for treatment. The economic losses due to reduction in milk yield, changes in milk composition and discarded milk are serious burden to the dairy industry. Mastitis can be subclinical, therefore, it is important to screen dairy animal frequently to determine the ...

  9. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    Mastitis, som er betændelse i yverkirtlen forårsaget af indtrængende patogener, udgør en betydelig udfordring for dyresundhed- og velfærd i malkekvægsbesætninger. Identifikation af følsomme diagnostiske mastitismarkører vil kunne hjælpe med at stille en tidligere diagnose og gavne effekten af...... behandling. Patogenspecifikke biomarkører, der kan måles direkte i mælk, er lovende for at diagnosticere mastitis i de tidligste stadier af sygdommen. Dermed kan den korrekte antibiotika behandling påbegyndes, så snart en infektion i yveret opdages. Den massive tilstedeværelse af de dominerende...... hinanden. For at opfylde dette formål blev der udviklet en SRM metode rettet mod proteiner, som formodes at spille en stor rolle i mastitis. Under udviklingen af SRM metoden blev der først udvalgt 20 biomarkørkandidater, der relaterer til inflammation og mastitis. Derefter skulle der udvælges peptider, som...

  10. Camel Mastitis, associated Bacterial Pathogens and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted between September 2006 and April 2007 with the aim of assessing the occurrence of camel mastitis and bacterial causes associated with it and evaluating Fat and Protein content of camel milk in Gewane district, Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia. Lactating camels which are ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Ekman, Torkel; Artursson, Karin; Nilsson-Ost, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson

    2009-04-14

    To investigate occurrence of acquired antimicrobial resistance in udder pathogens MICs in Staphylococcus aureus (n=211), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (n=56), Streptococcus uberis (n=113), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=152), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=6), Escherichia coli (n=163), and Klebsiella spp. (n=42) were determined using microdilution. Isolates were from a nation wide survey employing strict inclusion criteria. Presence of acquired resistance was evaluated by species-specific epidemiological cut-off values issued by EUCAST. Penicillin or methicillin resistance in staphylococci were however evaluated by beta-lactamase production or presence of the mecA gene, respectively. Staphylococci were mostly susceptible to antimicrobials tested but 7.1% of S. aureus and 12.5% of CNS were resistant to penicillin by beta-lactamase production. Methicillin resistance was not found in S. aureus. All Streptococcus dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae were susceptible to penicillin. Bimodal MIC distributions for tetracycline in S dysgalactiae and S. uberis indicate acquired resistance in some isolates. Among E. coli 12.3% of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to streptomycin (11.0%), sulphametoxazole (8.6%), ampicillin (7.4%), or tetracycline (4.9%) were the most common traits. Klebsiella spp. were resistant to ampicillin and some isolates also to tetracycline (7.1%) or sulphonamide (9.5%). The study shows that in Sweden bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis for the most part are susceptible to antimicrobials used in therapy but resistance to penicillin in S. aureus is not uncommon. Penicillin is recommended for treatment of mastitis caused by gram-positive pathogens and regular monitoring of beta-lactamase production in S. aureus is therefore recommended in herds with udder health problems.

  12. Functional adaptations of the transcriptome to mastitis-causing pathogens: the mammary gland and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Moyes, Kasey M; Bionaz, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Application of microarrays to the study of intramammary infections in recent years has provided a wealth of fundamental information on the transcriptomics adaptation of tissue/cells to the disease. Due to its heavy toll on productivity and health of the animal, in vivo and in vitro transcriptomics works involving different mastitis-causing pathogens have been conducted on the mammary gland, primarily on livestock species such as cow and sheep, with few studies in non-ruminants. However, the response to an infectious challenge originating in the mammary gland elicits systemic responses in the animal and encompasses tissues such as liver and immune cells in the circulation, with also potential effects on other tissues such as adipose. The susceptibility of the animal to develop mastitis likely is affected by factors beyond the mammary gland, e.g. negative energy balance as it occurs around parturition. Objectives of this review are to discuss the use of systems biology concepts for the holistic study of animal responses to intramammary infection; providing an update of recent work using transcriptomics to study mammary and peripheral tissue (i.e. liver) as well as neutrophils and macrophage responses to mastitis-causing pathogens; discuss the effect of negative energy balance on mastitis predisposition; and analyze the bovine and murine mammary innate-immune responses during lactation and involution using a novel functional analysis approach to uncover potential predisposing factors to mastitis throughout an animal's productive life.

  13. Lysis of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid the use of broad spectrum antibiotics which can induce antibiotic resistance, we developed a recombinant lysostaphin with high purity against mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk. The gene encoding for mature lysostaphin peptide was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression systems, pET28a, ...

  14. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  15. Short communication: N-Acetylcysteine-mediated modulation of antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Liu, L H; Li, X P; Luo, J Y; Zhang, Z; Yan, Z T; Zhang, S D; Li, H S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were tested by the agar-based E-test method. The presence of 10mM NAC reduced the MIC of penicillin and ampicillin but enhanced the MIC of erythromycin and ciprofloxacin for all of the strains. In addition, NAC-mediated modulation of MIC of kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was diverse, depending on the target bacterial pathogen and antibiotic being used. The results suggest that NAC is an important modulator of antibiotic activity against the major bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bourabah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on mastitis causing bacteria. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, using the agar incorporation method. Results: The results showed that both Micrococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were susceptible to Streptomycin and tetracycline, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E coli, Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci (CNS were preferentially susceptible to Streptomycin. However, Streptococcus D was the most resistant to the tested antibiotics whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to all the studied antibiotics. As regards to the antimicrobial activity of honey, the measured values were comprised between 11 and 14%. Conclusion: The results reveal that antimicrobial drugs susceptibility tests in goat subclinical mastitis might be necessary before the treatment. Algerian honey exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against different isolated bacteria in goat mastitis.

  18. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  19. Mode of action and in vitro susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to macedocin ST91KM and preparation of a teat seal containing the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Pieterse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most economically costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Regular dosage of animals with antibiotics, including use of prophylactic concentrations, may select for resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the mode of action of a new bacteriocin (macedocin ST91KM, to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens to antibiotics commonly used in treatment remedies, and to introduce the possible use of an alternative antimicrobial agent. The bacteriocin macedocin ST91KM, produced by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus ST91KM, is bactericidal to Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis infections, including strains resistant to methicillin and oxacillin. Sensitive cells were deformed and secreted nucleotides, K+ and β-galactosidase when exposed to macedocin ST91KM. Adsorption of the peptide to target cells decreased in the presence of solvents, suggesting that receptors on the cell surfaces have lipid moieties. No adsorption was recorded in the presence of MgCl2, KI and Na2CO3, suggesting that ionic strength plays an important role. A teat seal preparation containing macedocin ST91KM effectively released the peptide and inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae. Macedocin ST91KM could form the basis for alternative dry cow therapy to prevent mastitis infections in dairy cows as it is effective against pathogens that display resistance to conventional antibiotic therapy.

  20. The Lactococcus genus as a potential emerging mastitis pathogen group: A report on an outbreak investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M X; Lima, S F; Higgins, C H; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Bicalho, R C

    2016-12-01

    The bacterium Lactococcus lactis is widely used in food production and in medical applications, and is considered safe for human and animal use. However, studies have also linked Lactococcus bacteria to infection. For example, certain variants of Lactococcus species have been associated with bovine mastitis (e.g., Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae). In this study, we investigated an outbreak of bovine mastitis thought to be associated with Lactococcus bacteria by using microbiological and molecular techniques. We used bacterial isolation, next-generation sequencing, DNA fingerprinting, and other methods to test our hypothesis that Lactococcus microbes were the primary pathogen causing the mastitis outbreak. Twenty-eight Lactococcus isolates were obtained from mastitic milk of 28 dairy cows. The isolates were identified as L. lactis (27 isolates) and L. garvieae (1 isolate). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison indicated similarity among the L. lactis isolates as well as between the isolates and reference sequences. The DNA fingerprinting analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA results of the 27 L. lactis isolates identified different random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles, which suggests they originated from multiple sources. Microbiome analysis determined Lactococcus to be the dominant genus in the majority of the mastitic milk samples, whereas it was found in low relative abundance in healthy milk samples. The Lactococcus genus was detected in all environmental samples tested, and sampling of bulk tank milk corroborated that Lactococcus was not abundant in healthy milk from the same dairy herd. In summary, our findings suggest that Lactococcus bacteria are a potential etiological agent in the mastitis outbreak studied. Further studies should be conducted to understand the importance of Lactococcus, especially L. lactis, as pathogenic microbes in veterinary medicine and food safety. Copyright © 2016 American

  1. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Liquidambar Orientalis Mill. Various Extracts Against Bacterial Pathogens Causing Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Ökmen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is being constantly developed worldwide. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and Staphylococcus aureus are common causes of bovine subclinical mastitis. Bioactive compound of medicinal plants shows anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidant effects. The anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Liquidambar orientalis (L. orientalis extracts on subclinical mastitis causing bacteria in cows have not been reported to date. The aim of the present study was to examine anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects of L. orientalis leaf extracts on S. aureus and CNS isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis symptoms. In this study, 3.2 mg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ethanol extracts of L. orientalis has shown to be a most potent anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant for all isolated bacterial species from mastitis cows. In this study, it was investigated anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of the L. orientalis. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibition zone against S. aureus numbered 17 (12 mm. In addition to anti-bacterial properties, anti-oxidant activity of L. orientalis extract was examined by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] free radical assay. Trolox was used as a positive control anti-oxidant. Ethanol extract exhibited a strong anti-oxidant activity like Trolox anti-oxidant which was effective at 2.58 mM concentration. Bioactive compounds of sweet gum may be useful to screening mastitis causing bacteria for clinical applications.

  2. Evidence of no protection for a recurrent case of pathogen specific clinical mastitis from a previous case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cha, Elva; Hertl, Julia; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Tauer, Loren; Welcome, Frank; Gröhn, Yrjö

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of a previous case of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) protects Holstein dairy cows against a recurrent case. Pathogens studied were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.,

  3. Short communication: Identification of subclinical cow mastitis pathogens in milk by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J R; Ferreira, C R; Sanvido, G B; Kostrzewa, M; Maier, T; Wegemann, B; Böttcher, V; Eberlin, M N; dos Santos, M V

    2010-12-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a common and easily disseminated disease in dairy herds. Its routine diagnosis via bacterial culture and biochemical identification is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this work, we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows bacterial identification with high confidence and speed (1 d for bacterial growth and analysis). With the use of MALDI-TOF MS, 33 bacterial culture isolates from milk of different dairy cows from several farms were analyzed, and the results were compared with those obtained by classical biochemical methods. This proof-of-concept case demonstrates the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS bacterial identification, and its increased selectivity as illustrated by the additional identification of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species and mixed bacterial cultures. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry considerably accelerates the diagnosis of mastitis pathogens, especially in cases of subclinical mastitis. More immediate and efficient animal management strategies for mastitis and milk quality control in the dairy industry can therefore be applied. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S aureus (19% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16% followed by Streptococcus (Str dysgalactiae (9%, Str. uberis (8%, Escherichia (E. coli (2.9%, and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%. Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus - 31%, CNS - 27%, Str. dysgalactiae - 15%, Str. uberis - 14%, E. coli - 4.8%, and Streptococcus spp. - 3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.

  5. Relationship between mastitis causative pathogens and somatic cell counts in milk of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Eldeen Idriss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk somatic cell count is a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality and an indicator of udder health and of the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk samples differed by somatic cell count (SCC in microbiologically positive samples. Also frequency of distribution of samples differed by SCC were studied in non infected samples as well. The milk samples were collected from individual quarters from the dairy farms located in Nitra region with problematic udder health of herd for SCC and bacteriological analysis. Totally, 390 milk samples were examined, and 288 (73.85% positive milk samples were detected. Four SCC groups of samples (400×103 /ml were used to identify presence of microorganisms in positive samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens in samples with high SCC >400×103 /ml according to year were Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (29.11 % in 2012, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (28.0% in 2010, yeasts (24.05% in 2012, Escherichia coli (22.78% in 2012, Bacillus sp. (20% in 2010 and Pseudomonas aerugenosa (11.88% in 2011. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (66.67% were the predominantly identified in the samples with low SCC <100×103 cells/ml, followed by Bacillus spp (50%, Entrococcus spp. (33.33% and Staphylococcus aureus (16.67% and E. coli (16.67%. The results of this study indicated that the SCC of individual milk samples corresponded with the health status of the udder of dairy cows represented by presence of mastitis microorganisms in milk. However, the contamination of milk samples could be also connected with low SCC. On the ohter side the samples with high SCC were found out without presence of microorganism. The further study is needed to identify the reason of high SCC in milk from negative samples.

  6. Quantifying Degree of Mastitis from Common Trends in a Panel of Indicators for Mastitis in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, S; Friggens, N C

    2010-01-01

    This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based...... for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis....

  7. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Pathogens from Sub-Clinical and Clinical Mastitis in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Memon, Jam Kashif, Muhammad Yaqoob, Wang Liping, Yongchun Yang and Fan Hongjie*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical coliform mastitis with antimicrobial sensitivity profile of various mastitis-causing organisms was investigated. Milk samples collected from 299 cows infected with clinical mastitis to evaluate the prevalence of coliform mastitis and 1660 quarters milk samples randomly collected from 415 lactating cows for detection of subclinical mastitis (SCM by Hangzhou Mastitis Test (HMT. SCM at quarters and cow level was recorded to be 20.2 and 52.3%, respectively. Occurrence of SCM in left rear quarter was high (26.7%. Statistical analysis of risk factors showed, cows with 6-9 years of age (P=0.046; Odds ratio (OR, +1.414; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.006-1.988 and 60.7%, cows with 4-7 calves (P=0.028; OR, +1.502; 95% CI=1.044-2.160 and 62.2%, and cows in late stage of lactation (P=0.039; OR, +1.947; 95% CI=1.023-3.702 and 68%, were more susceptible to SCM. All the 115 organisms from SCM milk samples and 103 Escherichia coli from CM samples were confirmed by PCR techniques. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC results revealed that E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillin group (93-99%, fluoroquinolones (40-74%, cephalosporins (54-66%, oxytetracycline (91%, gentamycin (82%, SUL-TRM (88% and were sensitive to florfenicol. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to ampicillin (91%, oxytetracycline (59% and methicillin (29%. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were 8 to 15% resistant to used antimicrobials. In conclusion, cows with SCM were reservoir of various bacterial pathogens and high prevalence of E. coli in clinical mastitis milk could be major complications for mastitis treatment due to their multidrug resistance profile.

  8. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  9. Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, Richard G M; Barkema, Herman W; Veenstra, Stefan; Poole, Doris E; Dingwell, Randy T; Keefe, Gregory P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) estimate the herd prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk milk from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms, 2) determine the association between bulk milk culture results and mean bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), and 3) investigate the agreement of repeated bulk milk cultures. Three consecutive bulk milk samples were obtained at weekly intervals from all 258 PEI dairy herds and were cultured using routine laboratory methods. Cumulative prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma spp. (M. bovis and M. alkalescens) was 74%, 1.6%, and 1.9%, respectively. Bulk milk somatic cell count of Staph. aureus-positive herds was higher than that of negative herds. Agreement for Staph. aureus isolation between 3 consecutive tests was moderate (kappa = 0.46). Mycoplasma bovis and M. alkalescens in bulk milk are being reported for the 1st time in PEI ever and in Canada since 1972.

  10. Detection and characterization of pathogenicPseudomonas aeruginosafrom bovine subclinical mastitis in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Batabyal, K; Joardar, S N; Isore, D P; Dey, S; Samanta, I; Samanta, T K; Murmu, S

    2017-07-01

    Subclinical mastitis in bovines is mainly responsible for the huge economic loss of the dairy farmers, of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the causative agents. The study was aimed at a screening of suspected milk samples from different cattle farms of West Bengal for detection and confirmation of P. aeruginosa strains followed by their characterization. Around 422 milk samples were screened from different dairy farms primarily by on-spot bromothymol blue (BTB) test and then in the lab by somatic cell counts (SCC) to finally consider 352 samples for detection of P. aeruginosa . Selective isolation and confirmation of the isolates were done using selective media, viz ., cetrimide and Pseudomonas agar followed by confirmation by fluorescent technique. Molecular characterization of the strains was done by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of tox A (enterotoxin A, 352 bp) and exo S (exoenzyme S, 504 bp) genes. Approximately, 371 (87.9%) samples were positive in on-spot BTB test among which 352 (94.8%) samples revealed high SCC values (more than 3 lakh cells/ml) showing infection when screened. Among these, 23 (6.5%) samples yielded typical Pseudomonas sp. isolates out of which only 19 (5.4%) isolates were confirmed to be P. aeruginosa which showed characteristic blue-green fluorescence due to the presence of pigment pyoverdin under ultraviolet light. Out of these 19 isolates, 11 isolates were positive for tox A, 6 isolates for exo S, and 2 for both these pathogenic genes. Approximately, 5.4% cases of bovine subclinical mastitis infections in South Bengal were associated with P. aeruginosa which possess pathogenic genes such as tox A (63.2%) and exo S (36.8%).

  11. Detection and characterization of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bovine subclinical mastitis in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Subclinical mastitis in bovines is mainly responsible for the huge economic loss of the dairy farmers, of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the causative agents. The study was aimed at a screening of suspected milk samples from different cattle farms of West Bengal for detection and confirmation of P. aeruginosa strains followed by their characterization. Materials and Methods: Around 422 milk samples were screened from different dairy farms primarily by on-spot bromothymol blue (BTB test and then in the lab by somatic cell counts (SCC to finally consider 352 samples for detection of P. aeruginosa. Selective isolation and confirmation of the isolates were done using selective media, viz., cetrimide and Pseudomonas agar followed by confirmation by fluorescent technique. Molecular characterization of the strains was done by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxA (enterotoxin A, 352 bp and exoS (exoenzyme S, 504 bp genes. Results: Approximately, 371 (87.9% samples were positive in on-spot BTB test among which 352 (94.8% samples revealed high SCC values (more than 3 lakh cells/ml showing infection when screened. Among these, 23 (6.5% samples yielded typical Pseudomonas sp. isolates out of which only 19 (5.4% isolates were confirmed to be P. aeruginosa which showed characteristic blue-green fluorescence due to the presence of pigment pyoverdin under ultraviolet light. Out of these 19 isolates, 11 isolates were positive for toxA, 6 isolates for exoS, and 2 for both these pathogenic genes. Conclusion: Approximately, 5.4% cases of bovine subclinical mastitis infections in South Bengal were associated with P. aeruginosa which possess pathogenic genes such as toxA (63.2% and exoS (36.8%.

  12. In Vitro Assessment of the Probiotic Potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930 against Ruminant Mastitis-Causing Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Armas

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy ruminants is considered to be the most expensive disease to farmers worldwide. Recently, the intramammary infusion of lactic acid bacteria has emerged as a potential new alternative to antibiotics for preventing and treating bovine mastitis. In this study we have investigated in vitro the probiotic potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930, a food-grade and nisin-producing strain, against mastitis-causing pathogens. We have characterized its carbohydrate fermentation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, cell surface properties and antimicrobial activity, as well as its capabilities to adhere to and inhibit the invasion of pathogens into the bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1d. We found that L. lactis LMG 7930 was sensitive to tested drugs, according to the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP, and showed an improved carbohydrate fermentation capacity compared to starter strains. Moreover, the strain exhibited antagonistic properties towards many of the pathogens tested. It presented medium surface hydrophobicity, a low basic property and no electron acceptor capability. It showed low auto-aggregation and no co-aggregation abilities towards any of the tested pathogens. The strain was one of the most adhesive to bovine mammary epithelial cells among tested bacteria, but its internalisation was low. The strain did not affect significantly pathogen invasion; however, a trend to decrease internalization of some pathogens tested was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that this strain might be a promising candidate for the development of new strategies of mastitis control in ruminants. Future investigations are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy under field conditions.

  13. In Vitro Assessment of the Probiotic Potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930 against Ruminant Mastitis-Causing Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Federica; Camperio, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis in dairy ruminants is considered to be the most expensive disease to farmers worldwide. Recently, the intramammary infusion of lactic acid bacteria has emerged as a potential new alternative to antibiotics for preventing and treating bovine mastitis. In this study we have investigated in vitro the probiotic potential of Lactococcus lactis LMG 7930, a food-grade and nisin-producing strain, against mastitis-causing pathogens. We have characterized its carbohydrate fermentation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, cell surface properties and antimicrobial activity, as well as its capabilities to adhere to and inhibit the invasion of pathogens into the bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1d. We found that L. lactis LMG 7930 was sensitive to tested drugs, according to the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), and showed an improved carbohydrate fermentation capacity compared to starter strains. Moreover, the strain exhibited antagonistic properties towards many of the pathogens tested. It presented medium surface hydrophobicity, a low basic property and no electron acceptor capability. It showed low auto-aggregation and no co-aggregation abilities towards any of the tested pathogens. The strain was one of the most adhesive to bovine mammary epithelial cells among tested bacteria, but its internalisation was low. The strain did not affect significantly pathogen invasion; however, a trend to decrease internalization of some pathogens tested was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that this strain might be a promising candidate for the development of new strategies of mastitis control in ruminants. Future investigations are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy under field conditions. PMID:28068371

  14. Microorganisms associated with sub-Clinical mastitis and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camels are adapted to the arid and semi arid lands (ASAL), but their full milking potential is affected by udder infection especially sub-clinical mastitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common pathogens responsible for sub-clinical mastitis in camels kept under ranch conditions in Northern Kenya. A total of ...

  15. Pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in dairy herds in the south region of Brazil

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    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through microbiological examinations, the etiology of bovine mastitis in 628 milk samples coming from dairy farms from Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul along the year of 2007 were evaluated. Out of this total 1,382 microorganisms were isolated. By taking into account the total of isolations, the following microorganisms and their percentage, respectively were found: Staphylococcus spp. (30.53%, Escherichia coli (21.64%, Streptococcus bovis (17.08%, Streptococcus agalactiae (11.07%, Enterobacter spp. (7.53%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.12% and others (8.03%. The microorganisms grouped into the others are: Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., gram negative rods, Shigella spp., Alcaligenes spp., Klebsiella spp., Edwarsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Salmonella spp. e Corynebacterium spp. The environmental pathogens predominated among the isolated microorganisms; 33.13% of the cultures presented more than three pathogens, suggesting contamination of the samples; in the mounts of November and December, there was an increase of the samples sent.

  16. Sensor measurements revealed: Predicting the Gram-status of clinical mastitis causal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems produce mastitis alert lists that report cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). A farmer has to check these listed cows to confirm a CM case and to start an antimicrobial treatment if necessary. In order to make a more informed decision, it would be beneficial to have

  17. Changing trends in mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Rn; Fitzpatrick, Jl

    2009-04-01

    The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control.

  18. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Aga, Mushtaq A; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Ali, Md Niamat; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Hussain, Aehtesham; Rasool, Faheem; Dar, Hafizullah; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Lone, Shabir H

    2016-02-03

    The underground parts of Aquilegia fragrans are traditionally used for the treatment of wounds and various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports on the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial studies of A. fragrans. To isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans and determine their antibacterial activity against the pathogens of bovine mastitis. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of A. fragrans. Five compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done using spectral data analysis and comparison with literature. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isolated compounds in the crude methanol extract. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against mastitis pathogens using broth micro-dilution technique. The five isolated compounds were identified as (1) 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (2) β-sitosterol (3) Aquilegiolide (4) Glochidionolactone-A and (5) Magnoflorine. A quick and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the first time for qualitative and quantitative determination of four isolated marker compounds from A. fragrans. The crude methanol extract and compound 5 exhibited weak antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=500-3000 µg/ml). The above results show that the crude methanol extract and isolated compounds from A. fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Lewis, M J; Gillespie, B E; Dowlen, H H

    1997-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine if antibiotic treatment of heifer mammary glands earlier in the prepartum period reduced the occurrence of residues in milk without compromising efficacy in treatment of intramammary infections. Heifers were assigned randomly to two groups: 1. untreated negative control (n = 42); and 2. intramammary infusion of 200 mg cephapirin sodium (n = 40) 14 days prior to expected calving. Mammary secretions were collected before treatment and during early lactation, and were analyzed for residues by the Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay. Only four of 127 samples (3.1%) obtained from cephapirin-treated mammary glands at 3 days after calving were positive for residues and most (three of four) were from a heifer that calved within 3 days of treatment. Mammary secretions were also collected before treatment, and at 3 and 30 days after calving for microbiological evaluation. For untreated control heifers, mastitis pathogens were isolated from 67.3% of samples obtained from mammary glands 14 days prior to expected calving, 55.6% obtained 3 days after calving and 36.4% of samples obtained 30 days postpartum. A similar percentage of samples (63.8%) was positive for mastitis pathogens at 14 days before expected calving prior to antibiotic treatment. However, only 15.1% of samples obtained at 3 days after calving and 7.9% of samples obtained 30 days postpartum from mammary glands of antibiotic-treated heifers contained mastitis pathogens. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated most frequently. Intramammary infusion of antibiotics earlier in the prepartum period markedly reduced the occurrence of residues in milk during early lactation without affecting efficacy.

  20. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  1. Pathogens isolated from clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes and their antibiogram

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    Gaurav Charaya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the etiology of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes and to develop an antibiogram of organisms isolated. Materials and Methods: A total of 564 quarter milk samples of 144 buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis received in Veterinary College Central Laboratory were inoculated on blood agar, MacConkey’s lactose agar and sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacteria isolated were characterized to the species level and subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Results: Out of 564 quarters examined for mastitis, 320 (56.73% quarters were found culturally positive showing isolation of Staphylococcus aureus 140 (38.04%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 112 (30.43%, Streptococcus agalactiae 13 (3.53%, Escherichia coli 74 (20.10% and Corynebacterium pyogenes 29 (7.88%. On carrying antibiogram staphylococci and streptococci revealed high sensitivity towards chloramphenicol, gentamicin, amikacin and enrofloxacin. Streptococci showed high sensitivity towards ceftriaxone and cefaperazone also. E. coli was found highly sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamicin. C. pyogenes was sensitive to the majority of antibiotics. Conclusion: S. aureus was the most predominant bacteria isolated from mastitis cases and irrespective of the isolates chloramphenicol was found to be most sensitive when tested in-vitro.

  2. Immune competence of the mammary gland as affected by somatic cell and pathogenic bacteria in ewes with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Ciliberti, M; Sevi, A

    2012-07-01

    Immune competence of the ewe mammary gland was investigated by monitoring the leukocyte differential count, cytokine pattern, and endogenous proteolytic enzymes in milk samples with different somatic cell counts (SCC) and pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the leukocyte differential count and T-lymphocyte populations were evaluated in ewe blood. A total of 1,500 individual milk samples were randomly selected from the pool of the samples collected during sampling and grouped into 5 classes of 300 samples each, on the basis of SCC. Classes were 2,000,000 cells/mL. Microbiological analyses of ewe milk were conducted to detect mastitis-related pathogens. Sheep whose udders were without clinical abnormalities, and whose milk was apparently normal but with at least 10(3)cfu/mL of the same pathogen were considered to have subclinical mastitis and therefore defined as infected. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) and macrophages increased with SCC, whereas lymphocytes decreased. Milk samples with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL showed differences in leukocyte populations between uninfected and infected ewes, with higher percentages of PMNL and macrophages and lower percentages of lymphocytes in infected animals. Nonviable PMNL levels were the highest in ewe milk samples with SCC 500,000 cells/mL, nonviable PMNL were higher in uninfected ewes than in infected ones. In infected animals giving milk with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL, a higher CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was observed, suggesting that the presence of pathogens induced an activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-12 were higher in infected than uninfected ewes, irrespective of SCC. Plasmin activity increased along with SCC and was always higher in infected than uninfected animals; cathepsin D increased starting from 1,001,000 cells/mL in milk samples from noninfected ewes and starting from 301,000 cells/mL in milk samples from infected animals. The associations between somatic

  3. Test characteristics of milk amyloid A ELISA, somatic cell count, and bacteriological culture for detection of intramammary pathogens that cause subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, S; Virchow, F; Torgerson, P R; Bischoff, M; Biner, B; Hartnack, S; Rüegg, S R

    2017-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important disease in the dairy industry, causing economic losses as a result of withheld milk and treatment costs. Several studies have suggested milk amyloid A (MAA) as a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of mastitis. In the absence of a gold standard for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, we estimated the diagnostic test accuracy of a commercial MAA-ELISA, somatic cell count (SCC), and bacteriological culture using Bayesian latent class modeling. We divided intramammary infections into 2 classes: those caused by major pathogens (e.g., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, and lacto-/enterococci) and those caused by all pathogens (major pathogens plus Corynebacterium bovis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp.). We applied the 3 diagnostic tests to all samples. Of 433 composite milk samples included in this study, 275 (63.5%) contained at least 1 colony of any bacterial species; of those, 56 contained major pathogens and 219 contained minor pathogens. The remaining 158 samples (36.5%) were sterile. We determined 2 different thresholds for the MAA-ELISA using Bayesian latent class modeling: 3.9 µg/mL to detect mastitis caused by major pathogens and 1.6 µg/mL to detect mastitis caused by all pathogens. The optimal SCC threshold for identification of subclinical mastitis was 150,000 cells/mL; this threshold led to higher specificity (Sp) than 100,000 cells/mL. Test accuracy for major-pathogen intramammary infections was as follows: SCC, sensitivity (Se) 92.6% and Sp 72.9%; MAA-ELISA, Se 81.4% and Sp 93.4%; bacteriological culture, Se 23.8% and Sp 95.2%. Test accuracy for all-pathogen intramammary infections was as follows: SCC, sensitivity 90.3% and Sp 71.8%; MAA-ELISA, Se 88.0% and Sp 65.2%; bacteriological culture, Se 83.8% and Sp 54.8%. We suggest the use of SCC and MAA-ELISA as a combined screening procedure for situations such as a Staphylococcus aureus control program. With Bayesian

  4. Invited Review: The role of cow, pathogen, and treatment regimen in the therapeutic success of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; Schukken, Y H; Zadoks, R N

    2006-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of udder infections in dairy herds. Both lactational and dry cow therapy are part of Staph. aureus control programs. Reported cure rates for Staph. aureus mastitis vary considerably. The probability of cure depends on cow, pathogen, and treatment factors. Cure rates decrease with increasing age of the cow, increasing somatic cell count, increasing duration of infection, increasing bacterial colony counts in milk before treatment, and increasing number of quarters infected. Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in hind quarters has a low cure rate compared with front quarters. Antimicrobial treatment of intramammary infections with penicillin-resistant Staph. aureus strains results in a lower cure rate for treatment with either beta-lactam or non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Other strain-specific factors may affect the probability of cure but routine diagnostic methods for use in bacteriology laboratories or veterinary practices are not yet available. The most important treatment factor affecting cure is treatment duration. Increased duration of treatment is associated with increased chance of cure. Economically, extended treatment is not always justified, even when indirect effects of treatment such as prevention of contagious transmission are taken into consideration. Usefulness of treatment trials could be improved by standardization of case definitions, consideration of host and strain factors, and sufficient statistical power. Treatment of young animals with penicillin-sensitive Staph. aureus infections is often justified based on bacteriological cure and economic outcome, whereas treatment of older animals, chronic infections, or penicillin-resistant isolates should be discouraged.

  5. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

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    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  6. Identification of Emerging Human Mastitis Pathogens by MALDI-TOF and Assessment of Their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

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    María Marín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactational mastitis constitutes one of the main causes of undesired weaning, depriving the mother–infant pair from the benefits of breastfeeding; therefore, this condition should be considered a relevant public health issue. The role of specific microorganisms remains unclear since human milk cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST are not routinely performed, despite the fact that this would be key to ensure an early and effective diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the culturable microbial diversity in 647 milk samples from breastfeeding women with clinical symptoms of mastitis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF VITEK MS technology and to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a collection of isolates from these samples by the VITEK 2 AST system. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species isolated from mastitis samples (87.6%, while Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 22.1%. Streptococci constituted the second (68.6% most prevalent bacterial group, with Streptococcus mitis/oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus parasanguinis detected with frequencies of 40.8, 36.8, and 14.4%, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of 642 staphylococcal isolates indicated a remarkable resistance to benzylpenicillin (88.3% and erythromycin (67.3% with differences between species. A high percentage of Staphylococcus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic (Staphylococcus hominis, 100%; S. epidermidis, 98.2%; S. aureus, 92.9%; Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 90.5% and the percentage of multidrug-resistance (MDR isolates was noticeable (S. hominis, 81%; S. epidermidis, 64.4%; S. aureus, 11.5%; S. lugdunensis, 10.5%. In relation to streptococcal isolates (n = 524, AST revealed high or moderate percentages of resistance to erythromycin (68.7%, benzylpenicillin (63.7%, ampicillin (51.5%, and tetracycline

  7. Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for

  8. Detection of selected antibiotic resistance genes using multiplex PCR assay in mastitis pathogens in the Czech Republic

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    Vladimir Pyatov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of aminoglycoside (strA, strB, sulphonamide (sulI, sulII, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetK, tetM, tetO, macrolide and lincosamide (msrA, ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA/E genes of resistance in mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Applying the established assays, we investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the above mentioned species isolated from milk samples in the Czech Republic. Each assay consisted of seven pairs of primers. Six of them amplified fragments of antibiotic resistance genes and one pair a fragment of a species specific gene. Polymerase chain reaction conditions were optimized to amplify seven gene fragments simultaneously in one reaction. In total, 249 isolates were used, among which 111 were positive for E. coli, 52 for S. aureus and 86 for Streptococcus spp. The majority (60.2% of bacteria carried at least one antibiotic resistance gene and 44.6% were multidrug-resistant. The designed multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays may be applied as diagnostic method to replace or complement standard techniques of antibiotic susceptibility testing in the mentioned pathogens.

  9. [Current data on antibiotic resistance of the most important bovine mastitis pathogens in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, S; Sicher, D; Regli, W; Stephan, R

    2003-12-01

    100 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), 100 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), 100 strains of Streptococcus spp. and 100 strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli), isolated from bovine mastitis milk samples between November 2002 and April 2003, were tested for their sensitivity to various antibiotics by means of the agar diffusion method. The antibiotics were chosen on the basis of their licenses for intramammary application in Switzerland (www.vetpharm.unizh.ch). 91% of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. Only 9% of the strains were resistant to Penicillin G and 7% to Ampicillin. 53% of the CNS strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. 31% exhibited resistance to Penicillin G, 26% to Ampicillin, 16% to Cloxacillin and 14% to Lincomycin. 30% of the Streptococcus spp. strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. 4% were resistant to Penicillin G, 4% to Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 1% to Cefoperazone, 2% to Cefquinome, 35% to Neomycin, 22% to Gentamicin, 61% to Kanamy-cin and 11% to Lincomycin. 43% of the strains showed multiple resistance. 79% of the E. coli strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. 20% exhibited resistance to Ampicillin, 9% to Neomycin and 10% to Kanamycin. A comparison of the own results with data of other authors in Switzerland shows no important changes in the resistance situation during the last 20 years. With the exception of two strains (Streptococcus spp.), all tested isolates were sensible against Cefquinome.

  10. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

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    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  11. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to mastitis were calculated for 2840 cows and heifers. Overall, 19.8% of cows experienced one or more cases of clinical mastitis during location. Teat injuries occurred in 2.1% of lactations. Standard bacteriology was performed on pretreatment milk samples from 834 cows with clinical mastitis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0.7%), other Streptococcus spp. (14.1%), coliforms (17.2%), gram-positive bacilli (5.5%), Corynebacterium bovis (1.7%), and other Staphylococcus spp. (28.7%). There was no growth in 17.7% of samples, and 8.3% of samples were contaminated. Clinical mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows in Ontario; approximately 1 in 5 cow lactations have at lease one episode of clinical mastitis. There is, however, considerable variation in the incidence of clinical mastitis among farms. The majority of 1st cases of clinical mastitis occur early in lactation, and the risk of clinical mastitis increases with increasing parity. Environmental, contagious, and minor pathogens were all associated with cases of clinical mastitis. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:9442950

  12. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46) or severe (O11) mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4%) were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland. PMID:21324116

  13. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma. Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E.; Lechuga-Arana, A. Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A.; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P < 0.01), and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 (P < 0.01). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  14. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  15. The Mastitis Case in Water Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Şahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an important disease which causes economic losses in the water buffalo breeding. According to severity, duration and primary, mastitis is generally classified as clinical and subclinical. Because of contamination from other animals in the herd, subclinical mastitis is a important dairy herd problem. However, clinical mastitis is a clinical case created by deformation of udder gland and decreasing milk yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia and Streptococcus dysgalactia are in clinical mastitis, but Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus agalactia and Streptococcus dysgalactia are the most common isolated microorganisms in subclinical mastitis. Due to mastitis caused by these microorganisms in Water Buffalo, abnormality in the structure of milk are observed, and it causes economic losses to farmers from reduced production. Therefore, the detection of effective factors on mastitis and taking of the necessary precautions are very important. In this review, mastitis case in water Buffalo and its effects were discussed.

  16. 259 - 263_Umaru_Mastitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    CONS). T mastitis coupled with the ... factors such as poor management and hygiene, injuries and faulty milking machines, pendulous u with long teats, larger ... nds standards hygienic pathogens to uninfected ani herds, Kaduna State all dairy cows ...

  17. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  19. Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women

    OpenAIRE

    Shayesteh Jahanfar; Chirk Jenn Ng; Cheong Lieng Teng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis...

  20. Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Distribution of Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu Districts, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebora, L. C.; Gitao, G. C.; Mobegi, V. A.; Iraguha, B.; Kamana, O.

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to January 2017 in Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Western Rwanda, aiming at estimating the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and identifying its causative bacteria. Management practices and milking procedures were recorded through a questionnaire. 123 crossbreed milking cows from 13 dairy farms were randomly selected and screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT). Composite CMT positive milk samples were processed for bacterial isolation and identification. The overall SCM prevalence at cow level was 50.4%. 68 bacterial isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. They included, Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (51.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.6%), Streptococcus species (10.3%), Bacillus species (10.3%), Streptococcus agalactiae (5.8%), and Escherichia coli (1.5%). About 67.1% of the farmers checked for mastitis; of these, 58.9% relied on clinical signs and only 6.8% screened with CMT. Only 5.5% and 2.7% of the farmers tried to control mastitis using dry cow therapy and teat dips, respectively. Thus, to reduce the prevalence of SCM, farmers in the study area need to be trained on good milking practices, including regular use of teat dips, application of dry cow therapy, and SCM screening. This will improve their sales and their financial status. PMID:28798952

  1. Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Distribution of Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu Districts, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Mpatswenumugabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to January 2017 in Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Western Rwanda, aiming at estimating the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and identifying its causative bacteria. Management practices and milking procedures were recorded through a questionnaire. 123 crossbreed milking cows from 13 dairy farms were randomly selected and screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT. Composite CMT positive milk samples were processed for bacterial isolation and identification. The overall SCM prevalence at cow level was 50.4%. 68 bacterial isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. They included, Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (51.5%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.6%, Streptococcus species (10.3%, Bacillus species (10.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (5.8%, and Escherichia coli (1.5%. About 67.1% of the farmers checked for mastitis; of these, 58.9% relied on clinical signs and only 6.8% screened with CMT. Only 5.5% and 2.7% of the farmers tried to control mastitis using dry cow therapy and teat dips, respectively. Thus, to reduce the prevalence of SCM, farmers in the study area need to be trained on good milking practices, including regular use of teat dips, application of dry cow therapy, and SCM screening. This will improve their sales and their financial status.

  2. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  3. Retrospective studies of the trends of occurrence of ruminant mastitis pathogens in a veterinary teaching hospital in Northwest, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Clara N Kwanashie; Kingsley Oputeh; Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study to determine the pattern of isolation of mastitis causing organisms from milk samples of cattle, sheep and goats submitted to the Microbiology laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria from 1980-1991 and 1999-2009 was conducted. The samples were subjected to cultural isolation and biochemical characterization. The results of the isolates were assembled, reviewed and summarised. A total of 227 milk samples were sub...

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quali...

  5. Development of a multi-pathogen enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of five common foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Junni; Bhunia, Arun K; Tang, Cheng; Wang, Changting; Shi, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a multi-pathogen enrichment broth which could support the simultaneous growth of five common foodborne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7). The formulated broth SSSLE was composed of potassium tellurite, bile salt, lithium chloride, and sodium chloride as growth-inhibitors; glucose, esculin, mannitol and sodium pyruvate as growth-promoters. Compared with the respective specific selective enrichment broths, the individual growth pattern of each target pathogen in SSSLE was equal, or even better, except in the case of S. flexneri. In mixed-culture experiments, the gram-negative bacteria showed higher growth capabilities than the gram-positive bacteria after 8-h enrichment; however, the cell numbers after 24-h enrichment indicated that SSSLE could support the concurrent growth of five target pathogens irrespective of whether pathogens were inoculated initially at equal or unequal levels. For natural food samples under the high background flora, the final cell numbers enriched in SSSLE for five targets were enough to be detected by multiplex PCR. In conclusion, SSSLE was capable of supporting the growth of five target pathogens concurrently. The new broth formulated in this study has the potential of saving time, efforts and costs in multi-pathogen enrichment procedures.

  6. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  7. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  8. Effectors of Filamentous Plant Pathogens: Commonalities amid Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Marina; Maqbool, Abbas; Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Maximiliano J; Pennington, Helen G; Kamoun, Sophien; Banfield, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and oomycetes are filamentous microorganisms that include a diversity of highly developed pathogens of plants. These are sophisticated modulators of plant processes that secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to target multiple host cell compartments and enable parasitic infection. Genome sequencing revealed complex catalogues of effectors of filamentous pathogens, with some species harboring hundreds of effector genes. Although a large fraction of these effector genes encode secreted proteins with weak or no sequence similarity to known proteins, structural studies have revealed unexpected similarities amid the diversity. This article reviews progress in our understanding of effector structure and function in light of these new insights. We conclude that there is emerging evidence for multiple pathways of evolution of effectors of filamentous plant pathogens but that some families have probably expanded from a common ancestor by duplication and diversification. Conserved folds, such as the oomycete WY and the fungal MAX domains, are not predictive of the precise function of the effectors but serve as a chassis to support protein structural integrity while providing enough plasticity for the effectors to bind different host proteins and evolve unrelated activities inside host cells. Further effector evolution and diversification arise via short linear motifs, domain integration and duplications, and oligomerization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Breast Milk are Associated with HIV-1 Shedding but Not With Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Shetty, Avinash K.; Seidel, Kristy D.; Qin, Xuan; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S.; Katzenstein, David A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Breast milk HIV-1 load is associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, and both milk viral load and mastitis are associated with increased mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) through breastfeeding. Bacterial infections may cause clinical mastitis, but whether other co-pathogens common in HIV-1 infection are associated with subclinical mastitis or HIV-1 shedding is unknown. Design A cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected breastfeeding women in Zimbabwe was performed to examine the relationship between a wide range of breast co-infections, mastitis, and HIV-1 shedding. Methods Breast milk was cultured for bacteria and fungi, and tested by PCR for mycobacteria, mycoplasmas, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Symptoms of clinical mastitis were documented, and subclinical mastitis was identified by breast milk sodium concentration (Na+) and leukocyte counts. Results Co-infections of milk were not associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis in the 217 women studied. Detection of HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk was associated with CMV concentration (OR 1.8, p=0.002) and detection of EBV (OR 3.8, p=0.0003), but not other co-infections in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Co-infection of breast milk with bacteria, fungi or herpes viruses was not associated with mastitis. The associations between shedding of CMV and EBV with HIV-1 in milk suggest a local interaction between herpes virus infection and HIV-1 independent of mastitis. CMV and EBV infections may impact HIV-1 shedding in breast milk and the risk of MTCT. PMID:18614868

  10. Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. against Common Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Živanov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organic food production demands more environmental friendly control of plant diseases. Biocontrol based on Trichoderma spp. usage is a promising due to Trichoderma is aggressive to broad range of phytopathogenic fungi. Given that, the aim of this study was to test in vitro antagonistic ability of ten native Serbian Trichoderma strains to ten common fungal pathogens. Study confirmed that Trichoderma spp. inhibits radial growth of Ascochyta pinodella (76.9%, A. pinodes (60.0%, A. pisi (68.5%, Fusarium graminearum (71.1%, F. proliferatum (63.9%, F. verticillioides (62.6%, F. oxysporum (63.9%, Macrophomina phaseolina (63.8%, and Pyrenophora teres (83.9%. These are first reports of Trichoderma spp. in vitro efficacy against A. pisi, A. pinodes, A. pinodella and P. teres. The lowest inhibitory effect was registered in dual cultures with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - 52.2%.

  11. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...... of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  12. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  13. Evaluation of an On-Farm Culture System (Accumast for Fast Identification of Milk Pathogens Associated with Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Korzune Ganda

    Full Text Available The present study aimed evaluate an on-farm culture system for identification of milk pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows using two different gold standard approaches: standard laboratory culture in study 1 and 16S rRNA sequencing in study 2. In study 1, milk from mastitic quarters (i.e. presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk; n = 538 was cultured on-farm using a single plate containing three selective chromogenic media (Accumast-FERA Animal Health LCC, Ithaca, NY and in a reference laboratory using standard culture methods, which was considered the gold standard. In study 2, mastitic milk was cultured on-farm and analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing (n = 214. In both studies, plates were cultured aerobically at 37°C for 24 h and read by a single technician masked to gold standard results. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated based on standard laboratory culture in study 1, and PPV was calculated based on sequencing results in study 2. Overall accuracy of Accumast was 84.9%. Likewise, accuracy for identification of Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp. was 96.4%, 93.8%, and 91.5%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 75.0%, 97.9%, 79.6%, and 97.3% for identification of E. coli, 100.0%, 99.8%, 87.5%, and 100.0% for S. aureus, 70.0%, 95.0%, 45.7%, and 98.1% for other Staphylococcus sp., and 90.0%, 92.9%, 91.8%, and 91.2% for Streptococcus sp. In study 2, Accumast PPV was 96.7% for E. coli, 100.0% for Enterococcus sp., 100.0% for Other Gram-negatives, 88.2% for Staphylococcus sp., and 95.0% for Streptococcus sp., respectively. In conclusion, Accumast is a unique approach for on-farm identification pathogens associated with mastitis, presenting overall sensitivity and specificity of 82.3% and 89.9% respectively.

  14. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  15. The effect of corticosteroid treatment on bilateral idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    ?iftci, Fatih; Abdurrahman, ?brahim; Tatar, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is the commonly encountered form of granulomatous mastitis that may result into repetitive infections and/or abscess formation. Mastitis may develop secondary to a systemic disorder such as tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, or rheumatoid arthritis, or it may develop as an idiopathic disorder. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is the most frequent form of all granulomatous diseases affecting the breast. This disorder frequently presents as painful and fas...

  16. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  17. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Kudinha, T.; C. Simango

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %), followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 %) and th...

  18. Contagem de células somáticas e isolamento de agentes causadores de mastite em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis Somatic cell count and mastitis causing pathogens isolation in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was accomplished in eight dairy water buffalo herds, randomically choosen in Região do Alto São Francisco, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Information was collected from March to November, 2003 during 270 days of observation. In order to determine the somatic cell count (SCC in presence or absence of microbial isolation, 1,393 samples were collected from 285 lactating females and microbiological exams and SCC were done. Samples obtained from udders without evidence of clinical or subclinical inflammation showed infection for a great variety of microbial mastitis pathogens. The low SCC did not necessarily indicate the absence of intramammary infection, suggesting that SCC patterns used for bovine cannot be appropriate in order to control mastitis in buffalo herds.

  19. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinha, T; Simango, C

    2002-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4%), followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9%) and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1%), whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2%) the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95% of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9%), S. epidermidis (7.4%) and S. hominis (5.9%). They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90% of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6%), followed by lincomycin (13.7%). About 8% of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

  20. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kudinha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.

  1. Effectiveness of Salvadora persica extracts against common oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Hanan; Al-Sanie, Ibrahim; Al-Beshri, Sultan; Aldrees, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol and hexane extracts of Salvadora persica against common oral pathogens. Well diffusion, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), and Broth microdilution tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of S. persica extracts against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), and Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% was used as a positive control. The findings showed that the microbial activity of both extracts was concentration-dependent. Ethanol extract of S. persica at 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml had more growth inhibitory effect against all isolates compared to hexane extract. In addition, ethanol extract at 8 mg/ml (MBC value) was able to eradicate the growth of all isolates. S. sanguis and S. salivarius were very sensitive to hexane extract and required 4 mg/ml (MBC value) for their eradication while S. mutans was the most resistant (MBC = 8 mg/ml).The statistical findings of CFU counts showed no significant difference (p = 1.000) in antibacterial effectiveness between the two extracts against all isolates. A significant decline overtime in CFU counts was noted, except at 12 h and 24 h where no significant difference (p = 0.793) was observed and was comparable to CHX. Ethanol and hexane extracts of S. persica were found to exhibit maximum antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. sanguis and S. salivarius at high concentrations.

  2. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  3. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jeanne P

    2008-09-15

    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess.

  4. [Recurrent clinical mastitis in dairy cattle - importance and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis.

  5. Influence of clinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive performance of Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, A R; Schrick, F N; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of clinical mastitis on reproductive performance of high producing Jersey cows. Cows (n = 102) with clinical mastitis during the first 150 d of lactation were evaluated. Groups were balanced according to lactation number and days of lactation and sub-divided as follows: group 1, clinical mastitis before first artificial insemination (AI) (n = 48); group 2, clinical mastitis between first AI and pregnancy (n = 14); group 3, clinical mastitis after confirmed pregnancy (n = 40); and group 4, control cows (n = 103) with no clinical mastitis. No differences in reproductive performance were detected because of milk production or mastitis caused by Gram-positive or Gram-negative pathogens. The number of days to first AI was significantly greater for cows with clinical mastitis before first AI (93.6 d) than for all other groups (71.0 d). Artificial inseminations per conception were significantly greater for cows with clinical mastitis after first AI (2.9) than for cows with clinical mastitis before first AI (1.6), cows with no clinical mastitis, or cows with clinical mastitis after confirmed pregnancy (1.7). The number of days to conception for cows with clinical mastitis after first AI (136.6 d) was significantly greater than that for control cows and that for cows that developed clinical mastitis after confirmed pregnancy (92.1 d). Clinical mastitis during early lactation markedly influenced reproductive performance of Jersey cows.

  6. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cojkić Aleksandar; Čobanović Nikola; Suvajdžić Branko; Savić Mila; Petrujkić Branko; Dimitrijević Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case ...

  7. Antepartum Mastitis: A Rare Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sushma; Patil, Varsha Anant; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Shah, Dipti Parag

    2015-08-01

    Puerperal or lactational mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast that is commonly encountered in breastfeeding mothers. It occurs most commonly in the postpartum period, generally in the first 6 weeks of breastfeeding. In contrast, antepartum mastitis is an uncommon condition, and if not treated adequately, it may be complicated by the formation of a breast abscess. The authors present a case of a 24-year-old, second gravida mother who developed unilateral antepartum mastitis with abscess formation at 34 weeks of gestation, which was initially treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. However, her symptoms persisted over the next 2 weeks, and she was referred to the authors' institution, where she was managed with antibiotics and surgical drainage after delivering a healthy near-term infant. The abscesses healed completely 2 months later, with sequelae of residual scarring and a nonprotractile nipple. The authors wish to emphasize that health care providers should be aware of the occurrence of mastitis in the antepartum period. Early recognition with adequate treatment of mastitis is the key to avoiding complications, and this will prevent lactation issues and also reduce morbidity in the mother and neonate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Pathogen-Specific Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Clinical Mastitis and Somatic Cell Count in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    2008-01-01

    , and samples from first-crop daughters only. The results showed with high certainty that 2 QTL affecting SCS exhibited pathogen specificity against Staph. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The latter result might be explained by a pleiotropic QTL that also affects CM2 and CM3. Less certain results were found...... for QTL affecting CM. A QTL affecting CM1 was found to be specific against Strep. dysgalactiae and Staph. aureus, a QTL affecting CM2 was found to be specific against E. coli, and finally a QTL affecting CM3 was found to be specific against Staph. aureus. None of the QTL analyzed was found to be specific...

  9. Potential of berberine to enhance antimicrobial activity of commonly used antibiotics for dairy cow mastitis caused by multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Yang, C; Li, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-08-19

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of berberine against multi-drug resistant field isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated using berberine alone or in combination with a commonly used antibiotics in veterinary clinics, including penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of berberine, penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin against field S. epidermidis isolates were 2-512, 0.8-213, 0.4-1024, and 0.4-256 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates were observed when the berberine was combined with penicillin, lincomycin, or amoxicillin; no antagonistic effect of the combination was detected in any of the clinical isolates. These observations were further confirmed using a time-killing assay, in which a combination of 2 agents yielded a greater than 2.03-2.44 log10 decrease in colony-forming unit/mL compared with each agent alone. These findings suggest that berberine is a promising compound for preventing and treating multi-drug resistant S. epidermidis infected mastitis in dairy cows either alone or in combination with other commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin.

  10. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  12. Bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in lactating cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study of bovine mastitis was conducted on 275 lactating cows from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of mastitis and to determine the pathogens causing mastitis with the associated risk factors. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination of the udder and milk and the use of White ...

  13. Pathogenicity of two seed-borne fungi commonly involved in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nazar Hussain

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... of stored grain. These species were tested to determine their pathogenicity to maize seed germination and seedlings. Pathogenicity findings depicted that maize variety under cultivation in the area was ... were found as common fungal contaminants of maize ..... Seed-borne fungi in common bean seeds.

  14. Profilaxis, immunoprophylaxis and therapy of staphylococcal mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.

  15. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  16. Isolation of microbial pathogens of subclinical mastitis from raw sheep's milk of Epirus (Greece) and their role in its hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Voidarou, Ch; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Avgeris, I; Bezirtzoglou, E; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G

    2011-12-01

    The natural raw milk microflora is a factor that expresses its sensorial characteristics. The microbial charge into the mammary gland of healthy animal is low and the application of right and healthy conditions during milking and cheese making procedure, prevents from contaminating as well as maintains the natural microflora in order to lend the particular characteristics of milk. The purpose of the present project was the study of the Total Viable Count (T.V.C.) and the count of total psychrotropic bacteria of raw sheep milk from Boutsiko and Karamaniko breeds, collected from healthy animals, as well as the isolation, identification and enumeration of pathogenic bacteria related with the hygiene and the quality of raw sheep milk (with a particular interest in bacteria that may cause human infection). During the experiment we examined two hundred forty (240) samples of raw sheep milk. In these samples a) Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens (vegetative cells and spores) and Bacillus sp. were isolated and identified b) the Total Viable Count and the total number of psychrotropic bacteria were also specified. The sampling, the preparation of samples and decimal dilutions were based on international methods. The Total viable count was determined using the standard methods of the American Public Health Association, 2002. The total number of psychrotropic bacteria was determined using APHA 1976, 1978 rules. The identification of the bacteria was carried out according to the Bergey's manual. Microscopic examination of Gram stained cells, catalase, oxidase and biochemical tests were performed when necessary to further identify. From the 240 milk samples tested, only 5% were E. coli positive, with mean counts ranged from 2 × 10(3) to 2.4 × 10(4) cfu/ml. S. aureus was isolated from 24% of the samples and the mean count per ml was ranged from milk samples such as Salmonella, which was only detected in 5% of the samples. Listeria

  17. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC production was observed in the 2 UH status groups with the highest milk SCC (i.e., contagious IMI and culture-negative samples with high SCC), revealing a discrepancy between the

  18. Antibiotic sensitivities of common bacterial pathogens in urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the isolates E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella species, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species and Citrobacter species were common accounting for 46.0%, 18.0%, 10.0%, 8.0% and 6.0%, respectively. Of the total isolates 71.5% were Gram negatives. Sensitivity tested against ten antibiotics showed that resistance ...

  19. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Pumipuntu, Natapol; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Santajit, Sirijan; Tunyong, Witawat; Kong-ngoen, Thida; Hinthong, Woranich; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method...

  20. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  1. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  2. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  3. Genetic diversity and virulence genes in Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ambrósio Loures

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most common and costly infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. This is a multifactorial illness caused by different microorganisms, including virus, yeasts, algae, parasites, and several species of bacteria. Among these bacteria, Streptococcus uberis is an important environmental pathogen that is responsible for a large range of clinical and subclinical mammary infections, especially in intensively managed herds. Despite the increasing importance of this pathogen in the etiology of bovine mastitis, data on its virulence and diversity in Brazilian dairy herds are scarce. The aims of the present study were to investigate the virulence characteristics of S. uberis isolated from bovine mastitis and to assess the molecular epidemiology of the Brazilian isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. In this work, 46 strains of S. uberis isolated from bovine mastitis from 26 Brazilian dairy herds were evaluated regarding their genetic diversity by PFGE using with the SmaI enzyme. Additionally, the presence of the virulence genes skc and pauA, which encode plasminogen activators, and the gene sua, which encodes an adhesion molecule in mammary epithelial cells, were assessed by PCR. Our results showed a high genetic diversity in the population, displaying many different patterns in the PFGE analysis. A high proportion of strains was positive for virulence genes in the sampled population (sua [100%], pauA [91%], and skc [91%]. The high frequency of skc, pauA, and sua genes among the studied strains suggests the importance of these virulence factors, possibly helping S. uberis in the colonization of the bovine mammary gland. Surveys of the genetic and molecular characteristics of this pathogen can improve our knowledge of bacterial activity and identify molecules that have roles in the establishment of the infection. This might help in the development of more effective measures to control and prevent bovine mastitis.

  4. [Treatment of mastitis in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Tufte, Elisabeth; Nylander, Gro

    2003-11-06

    This article presents an update on causes and management of mastitis in general practice. Published articles on the causes and management of mastitis were identified by Medline and Embase searches, and reviewed. In addition, clinical experience from The National Breast-Feeding Centre in Norway is included. Most studies report an incidence of mastitis of less than 20% though major methodological limitations make estimates difficult. Common symptoms of mastitis is a swollen, red, hot and painful breast, and systemic symptoms as fever occur frequently. Mastitis may be inflammatory or caused by microorganisms, and often secondary to milk stasis. Effective milk removal is a most essential part of the treatment and may make antibiotics superfluous. In most cases bacterial mastitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to beta-lactamase sensitive antibiotics. Culture of the milk is necessary to determine the infecting organism and its antibiotic sensitivity. When antibiotics are warranted, dicloxacillin or cloxacillin are suggested as first-line drugs. The transfer of dicloxacillin/cloxacillin to breast milk is minimal. In most cases women with mastitis can continue to breast-feed also from the affected breast during treatment.

  5. Microbial Diversity in Milk of Women With Mastitis: Potential Role of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci, Viridans Group Streptococci, and Corynebacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Arroyo, Rebeca; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2017-05-01

    Lactational mastitis constitutes a significant cause of premature weaning. However, its etiology, linked to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, has been scarcely reported. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the microbial diversity in milk samples from women suffering from lactational mastitis and to identify more accurately a collection of isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and coryneform bacteria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive one-group study. A total of 5,009 isolates from 1,849 mastitis milk samples was identified by culture, biochemical, and/or molecular methods at the species or genus level. A more precise identification of a collection of 211 isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mean total bacterial count in milk samples was 4.11 log 10 colony-forming units/ml, 95% confidence interval [4.08, 4.15]. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species being isolated from 91.56% of the samples, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 29.74%. Streptococci and corynebacteria constituted the second (70.20%) and third (16.60%) most prevalent bacterial groups, respectively, found in this study. In contrast, Candida spp. was present in only 0.54% of the samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a high diversity of bacterial species among identified isolates. Many coagulase-negative staphylococci, viridans group streptococci, and corynebacteria, usually dismissed as contaminant bacteria, may play an important role as etiologic agents of mastitis. Proper diagnosis of mastitis should be established after performing microbiological testing of milk based on standardized procedures. A reliable analysis must identify the mastitis-causing pathogen(s) at the species level and its(their) concentration(s).

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. T...

  7. CANINE GANGRENOUS MASTITIS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Egyptien, Sophie; Lefebvre, Michaël; Guieu, Liz-Valéry; Robiteau, Guillaume; Deleuze, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the treatments and discusses the cost effectiveness of a Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) device on a gangrenous mastitis case. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland found mainly in lactating females. Coliforms (Escherichia coli), Staphylococcus spp (Staphylococcus aureus) and, to a lesser extent, Streptococcus spp are the most commonly isolated organisms in bitches. The bitch can be presented because of local signs of inflammation, puppies failing to th...

  8. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  9. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST PATHOGENIC AGENT CAUSING OF BOVINE MASTITIS BACTERIAS ACIDO LACTICAS CON ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA PATÓGENOS CAUSANTES DE MASTITIS BOVINA OUT BACTÉRIAS LÁTICAS COM ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA OUT PATÓGENOS DA MASTITE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat bovine mastitis, produces antibiotic residues in milk and decreased quality of dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria have been proposed as an alternative to avoid the use of antibiotics. This paper reports the antimicrobial activity against pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis, of 4 lactic acid strains isolated from cattle in a state of acidosis ruminal. It also evaluated the specific growth rate (m and antimicrobial activity of one of the strains, using two concentrations of carbon source (20 and 60 gl-1 in the commercial substrate MRS. The strains were biochemically identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermen-tum and Weissella confusa. Weissella confusa showed the best antimicrobial activity against the major pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis. When has been used 60 gl-1 of total sugars in the fermentation substrate, was obtained diameter of inhibition of 31 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and 36 mm for Streptococcus agalactiae. The antimicrobial activity of Weissella confusa is superior antimicrobial activity reported by many other lactic acid bacteria, therefore Weissella confusa could potentially be used to prevent bovine mastitis.El uso de antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis bovina, genera residuos de antibióticos en la leche y disminuye la calidad de los subproductos lácteos. Las bacterias ácido lácticas se han propuesto como una alternativa para evitar el uso de antibióticos. En este artículo se reporta la actividad antimicrobiana contra patógenos productores de mastitis bovina, de 4 cepas acido lácticas aisladas de bovinos en estado de acidosis ruminal. Se evaluó además la velocidad especifica de crecimiento (m y la actividad antimicrobiana de una de las cepas, utilizando dos concentraciones de fuente de carbono (20 y 60 gl-1 en el sustrato comercial MRS. Las cepas se identificaron bioquímicamente como Lactobacillus acidophilus

  10. DMPD: Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different pathogenicstrategies. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11207583 Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different path...ml) Show Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different pathogenicstrategies. PubmedI...D 11207583 Title Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different

  11. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  12. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) Suggests Pathogen Coevolution with the Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Alexander B C; Mabagala, Robert B; Guzmán, Pablo; Gepts, Paul; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans, is one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in East Africa and other bean-growing regions. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Malawi and Tanzania, East Africa, and in Wisconsin, U.S., were characterized based on brown pigment production, pathogenicity on common bean, detection with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli- or X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans-specific PCR primer pair, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. The common bean gene pool (Andean or Middle American) from which each strain was isolated also was determined. In Malawi, X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans were isolated predominantly from Andean or Middle American beans, respectively. In Tanzania, X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans was most commonly isolated, irrespective of gene pool; whereas, in Wisconsin, only X. campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated from Andean red kidney beans. Three rep-PCR fingerprints were obtained for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains; two were unique to East African strains, whereas the other was associated with strains collected from all other (mostly New World) locations. RFLP analyses with repetitive DNA probes revealed the same genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains as did rep-PCR. These probes hybridized with only one or two fragments in the East African strains, but with multiple fragments in the other X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. East African X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on Andean beans, but were significantly less pathogenic on Middle American beans. In contrast, X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains from New World locations were highly pathogenic on beans of both gene pools. Together, these results indicate the

  13. Genotypic characterization by polymerase chain reaction of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ote, Isabelle; Taminiau, Bernard; Duprez, Jean-Noël; Dizier, Isabelle; Mainil, Jacques G

    2011-12-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as a pathogen causing many serious diseases in humans and animals, and is the most common aetiological agent of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. The importance of evaluating the combination of S. aureus virulence factors has been emphasized both in human and veterinary medicine, and knowledge about the genetic variability within different S. aureus populations would help in the design of efficient treatments. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic profiles of S. aureus strains isolated from milk of cows suffering from clinical and subclinical mastitis in Belgium. The presence of about forty virulence-associated genes was investigated by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. A high number of genotypic subtypes were observed, demonstrating further the large variation in the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates and the considerable diversity of strains populations that are able to cause mastitis in cows. In accordance with other studies, we showed that some genes are associated with mastitis-causing S. aureus isolates, whereas others are absent or rarely present. We also further highlighted the presence of conserved gene combinations, namely the enterotoxigenic egc-cluster and the bovine pathogenicity island SaPIbov. Importantly, the presence of isolates carrying genes coding for toxins involved in important human infections makes the milk of cows with mastitis a potential reservoir for these toxins, and therefore a potential danger in human health, which strengthens the importance to consider raw milk consumption and its processing very carefully. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

  15. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfia Marcenaro

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the

  16. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  17. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  18. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  19. Molecular Basis of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Seyffert, Nubia; Jardin, Julien; Hernandez, David; Jan, Gwenaël; Rault, Lucie; Azevedo, Vasco; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; van de Guchte, Maarten; Even, Sergine; Berkova, Nadia; Thiéry, Richard; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11) and milder (strain O46) mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases. Conclusions/Significance Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity. PMID:22096559

  20. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  1. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  2. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.

  3. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are...

  4. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, L; Arroyo, R; Espinosa, I; Marín, M; Jiménez, E; Rodríguez, J M

    2014-06-01

    The use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study the human milk microbiota and microbiome has revealed a complex ecosystem with a much greater diversity than previously anticipated. The potential role of the milk microbiome appears to have implications not only for short- and long-term infant health but also for mammary health. In fact, mammary disbiosis, which may be triggered by a variety of host, microbial and medical factors, often leads to acute, subacute or subclinical mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Multiresistance to antibiotics, together with formation of biofilms and mechanisms for evasion of the host immune response, is a common feature among the bacterial agents involved. This explains why this condition uses to be elusive to antibiotic therapy and why the development of new strategies for mastitis management based on probiotics is particularly appealing. In fact, selected lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk have already shown a high efficacy for treatment.

  5. Patterns of clinical mastitis manifestations in Danish organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    coli infections were typically (truly) acute cases. Bacteriologically negative mastitis (20% of the cases) showed strong similarities with clinical coliform mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus cases (18% of the cases) occurred most frequently in late lactation or around drying-off. Prior isolation of Staph....... aureus and slight decreases in milk yield were two factors that interacted but both were strongly and positively related to clinical Staph. aureus. Staph. aureus mastitis typically had a subclinical debut, and increasing degrees and duration of inflammation decreased shedding of this pathogen...

  6. Brazilin plays an anti-inflammatory role with regulating Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 2 downstream pathways in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-jiao; Wang, Tian-cheng; Zhang, Ze-cai; Cao, Yong-guo; Zhang, Nai-sheng; Guo, Meng-yao

    2015-07-01

    Mastitis, which commonly occurs during the postpartum period, is caused by the infection of the mammary glands. The most common infectious bacterial pathogen of mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in both human and animals. Brazilin, a compound isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit multiple biological properties. The present study was performed to determine the effect of brazilin on the inflammatory response in the mouse model of S. aureus mastitis and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. Brazilin treatment was applied in both a mouse model and cells. After brazilin treatment of cells, Western blotting and qPCR were performed to detect the protein levels and mRNA levels, respectively. Brazilin treatment significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of brazilin in mice suppressed S. aureus-induced inflammatory injury and the production of proinflammatory mediators. This suppression was achieved by reducing the increased expression of TLR2 and regulating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in the mammary gland tissues and cells with S. aureus-induced mastitis. These results suggest that brazilin appears to be an effective drug for the treatment of mastitis and may be applied as a clinical therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variação da contagem de células somáticas em vacas leiteiras de acordo com patógenos da mastite Somatic cell counts variation in dairy cows according to mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de patógenos da mastite sobre a contagem de células somáticas (CCS em leite. Foram coletadas 3.987 amostras de leite de 2.657 animais oriundos de 24 rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais. As amostras de leite foram usadas para CCS e identificação de patógenos da mastite. Estatísticas descritivas, teste T para amostras independentes e modelo linear generalizado foram usados para análise dos dados. O modelo linear generalizado identificou os efeitos de rebanho, animal dentro de rebanho, ordem de parto, estação do ano e infecção intramamária causada por Streptococcus agalactiae e Streptococcus spp. que não S. agalactiae como significativos na variação da CCS. O efeito de animal dentro de rebanho foi maior que o efeito de rebanho. S. agalactiae foi o patógeno responsável pelo maior aumento da CCS em vacas e apresentou em média 1.520.000 células/mL. Foi observado efeito específico dos patógenos na variação da CCS.The influence of mastitis pathogens on variation of milk somatic cell count (SCC was evaluated. Three thousand nine hundred eighty-seven milk samples were colected from 2,657 dairy cows in 24 herds located in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The milk samples were used to SCC and identification of mastitis pathogens. Descriptive statistics, T test for independent samples, and generalized linear model were used to data analysis. The generalized linear model identified the effects of herd, animal within herd, parity, year season, intramammary infection, and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus spp. except S. agalactiae as significant on SCC variation. The effect of animal within herd was higher than the effect of herd. S. agalactiae was the pathogen responsible for higher SCC increasing and presented the average of 1,520,000 cells/mL. The specific effect on SCC variation was observed in the study.

  8. Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teng, Cheong Lieng

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation. Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25) compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as 'supportive therapy' versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic. There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this common postpartum condition.

  9. Bovine mastitis and antibiotic resistance patterns in Selalle smallholder dairy farms, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, K; Kelay, B; Bekana, M; Lobago, F

    2008-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mastitis, identify the major bacterial pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in smallholder dairy farms in Selalle area, Ethiopia. A total of 109 smallholder dairy farms comprising 500 crossbred lactating cows were included. The prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd, cow and quarter level was 8.3% (n=9), 1.8% (n=9) and 0.51% (n=10), respectively, while that of sub-clinical mastitis was 54.7%, 22.3% and 10.1%, respectively. The univariate logistic regression showed that among the risk factors considered, presence of teat lesion, stage of lactation and parity number had significant effect on the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. However, after multivariate analysis, only presence of teat lesion and stage of lactation had significant effect. The common isolates from the clinical mastitic quarters were St. agalactiae (30%, n=3) and St. dysgalactiae (30%, n=3), while from sub-clinical cases were S. aureus (42.6%, n=83), S. epidermidis (22.1%, n=43), St. agalactiae (12.8%, n=25) and St. uberis (10.3%, n=20). Staphylococcus intermedius and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were the species, which showed high level of susceptibility for most of the antimicrobials tested, while the remaining had varying levels of resistance for almost all the antimicrobials used. Among the antimicrobials employed, erythromycin and sulphonamide showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates. Considering the possible significant economic losses that could be incurred by both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis, attention should be paid for further detailed investigations including the economic losses and benefits of interventions in the study area.

  10. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, T; Huijps, K; Østerås, O; Hogeveen, H

    2007-03-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a framework for economic analysis. As a second step calculations of the costs of mastitis and the costs in relation to the benefits of mastitis management published since 1990 in peer-reviewed journals are extensively reviewed and analysed. The result shows a large variation in the calculated costs and benefits of mastitis and mastitis management between the different studies. Moreover, it is clear that important factors were ignored in some of the studies. The framework provided in this paper can provide a basis for analysis for future studies on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management.

  11. Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore...... function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated....... Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model...

  12. Isolation and identification of main mastitis pathogens in Mexico Isolação e identificação dos micróbios patogênicos principais da mastite em México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Castañeda Vázquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.O trabalho atual é um estudo epidemiológico que objetiva detectar a predominância da mastite subclínica e investigar os micróbios patogênicos principais do úbere no México ocidental. Com esta finalidade, foram utilizadas 2205 vacas leiteiras, representando 33 rebanhos de leiteiras mexicanas. Além dessas 2205 vacas, 752 animais com mastite foram diagnosticados, considerando-se que somente 2979 amostras do leite poderiam ser obtidas para a posterior investiga

  13. Identification of Host Defense-Related Proteins Using Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Milk Whey from Cows with Staphylococcus aureus Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmegid, Shaimaa; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Abo-Ismail, Mohamed; Caswell, Jeff L; Kelton, David; Kirby, Gordon M

    2017-12-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious pathogen associated with bovine subclinical mastitis. Current diagnosis of S. aureus mastitis is based on bacteriological culture of milk samples and somatic cell counts, which lack either sensitivity or specificity. Identification of milk proteins that contribute to host defense and their variable responses to pathogenic stimuli would enable the characterization of putative biomarkers of subclinical mastitis. To accomplish this, milk whey samples from healthy and mastitic dairy cows were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. In total, 90 proteins were identified, of which 25 showed significant differential abundance between healthy and mastitic samples. In silico functional analyses indicated the involvement of the differentially abundant proteins in biological mechanisms and signaling pathways related to host defense including pathogen-recognition, direct antimicrobial function, and the acute-phase response. This proteomics and bioinformatics analysis not only facilitates the identification of putative biomarkers of S. aureus subclinical mastitis but also recapitulates previous findings demonstrating the abundance of host defense proteins in intramammary infection. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007516 .

  14. Identification of Host Defense-Related Proteins Using Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Milk Whey from Cows with Staphylococcus aureus Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Abdelmegid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious pathogen associated with bovine subclinical mastitis. Current diagnosis of S. aureus mastitis is based on bacteriological culture of milk samples and somatic cell counts, which lack either sensitivity or specificity. Identification of milk proteins that contribute to host defense and their variable responses to pathogenic stimuli would enable the characterization of putative biomarkers of subclinical mastitis. To accomplish this, milk whey samples from healthy and mastitic dairy cows were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. In total, 90 proteins were identified, of which 25 showed significant differential abundance between healthy and mastitic samples. In silico functional analyses indicated the involvement of the differentially abundant proteins in biological mechanisms and signaling pathways related to host defense including pathogen-recognition, direct antimicrobial function, and the acute-phase response. This proteomics and bioinformatics analysis not only facilitates the identification of putative biomarkers of S. aureus subclinical mastitis but also recapitulates previous findings demonstrating the abundance of host defense proteins in intramammary infection. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007516.

  15. Herd-level relationship between antimicrobial use and presence or absence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bovine mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vineet; McClure, J T; Scholl, Daniel T; DeVries, Trevor J; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-08-01

    Concurrent data on antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance are needed to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria. The present study examined a herd-level association between AMU and AMR in Escherichia coli (n=394) and Klebsiella species (n=139) isolated from bovine intramammary infections and mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Antimicrobial use data were collected using inventory of empty antimicrobial containers and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify herd-level AMU. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using Sensititre National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) gram-negative MIC plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Isolates were classified as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Intermediate and resistant category isolates were combined to form an AMR category, and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level odds of AMR to tetracycline, ampicillin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and kanamycin in E. coli isolates. In the case of Klebsiella species isolates, logistic regression models were built for tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; however, no associations between AMU and AMR in Klebsiella species were observed. Ampicillin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates were associated with herds that used intramammarily administered cloxacillin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, and cephapirin used for dry cow therapy [odds ratios (OR)=26, 32, and 189, respectively], and intramammary ceftiofur administered for lactating cow therapy and systemically administered penicillin (OR=162 and 2.7, respectively). Use of systemically administered penicillin on a dairy farm was associated with tetracycline and streptomycin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates (OR=5

  16. Oxidative Damage Caused by Common Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Afshordi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria in foodstuff are the most important agent of foodborne disease. Aside from their infectious effects, obligate aerobes have a respiratory metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Therefore, they can produce reactive oxygen species and free radicals in contaminated food. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage produced by two common food pathogenic bacteria in foodstuff. Materials and Methods: The egg yolks were incubated with different dilutions (105,106, and 107 of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis at 37°C for 20 hours. The level of MDA in egg yolk was measured by fast and simple enzymatic or colorimetric methods, such as the thiobarbituric acid reactive species method. Results: The high group (107 had a higher MDA level of 1.97 ± 0.11 (μg MDA/g in S. aureus and 1.65 ± 0.27 (mg MDA/L in S. enteritidis than the control (0.90 ± 0.13 mg MDA/L. Conclusions: We concluded that common food pathogenic bacteria can induce oxidative damage in foodstuff aside from other common problems. Heating or sterilization methods cannot protect foodstuff from the damage caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Cytokine responses to two common respiratory pathogens in children are dependent on interleukin-1β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C-H. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB in young children is a common cause of prolonged wet cough and may be a precursor to bronchiectasis in some children. Although PBB and bronchiectasis are both characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation and a prominent interleukin (IL-1β signature, the contribution of the IL-1β pathway to host defence is not clear. This study aimed to compare systemic immune responses against common pathogens in children with PBB, bronchiectasis and control children and to determine the importance of the IL-1β pathway. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from control subjects (n=20, those with recurrent PBB (n=20 and bronchiectasis (n=20 induced high concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN-γ and IL-10. Blocking with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra modified the cellular response to pathogens, inhibiting cytokine synthesis by NTHi-stimulated PBMCs and rhinovirus-stimulated PBMCs (in a separate PBB cohort. Inhibition of IFN-γ production by IL-1Ra was observed across multiple cell types, including CD3+ T cells and CD56+ NK cells. Our findings highlight the extent to which IL-1β regulates the cellular immune response against two common respiratory pathogens. While blocking the IL-1β pathway has the potential to reduce inflammation, this may come at the cost of protective immunity against NTHi and rhinovirus.

  18. Treatment of mastitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Erin; Wagner, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of mastitis, its cause, and the rationale for treatment or nontreatment of mastitis under various circumstances continues to evolve. This article presents research-based evidence about the use or nonuse of drugs to treat mastitis. Nondrug factors involved in decision making about mastitis, including cow characteristics and the epidemiology of mastitis, are also briefly discussed. This article provides information that helps in the making of knowledgeable, evidence-based decisions about therapy for mastitis. Focus is primarily on the use of antimicrobial drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Herbivore and fungal pathogen exclusion affects the seed production of four common grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Timothy L; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-08-11

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs.

  20. Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrick, F N; Hockett, M E; Saxton, A M; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    2001-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of mastitis during early lactation on the reproductive performance of Jersey cows. From 1986 to 1997, quarter foremilk samples were collected every 4 to 8 wk during lactation, at drying off, near calving, and when clinical mastitis was diagnosed and were evaluated microbiologically to identify causative bacteria. Services per conception, days open, and days to first service were obtained from DHIA records on 752 cows. Cows were separated by mastitis type (clinical, n = 186; subclinical, n = 240; control, uninfected or infected after confirmed pregnancy, n = 326). Cows were reclassified based on the time of clinical or subclinical mastitis as follows: period 1, before first service (n = 374); period 2, between first service and pregnancy (n = 52); and period 3, after confirmed pregnancy or uninfected (control; n = 326). Milk production did not differ for any group separations. Reproductive performance did not differ between gram-negative or gram-positive mastitis pathogens. Cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis before first service had increased days to first service (77.3+/-2.7 and 74.8+/-2.7 d), days open (110.0+/-6.9 and 107.7+/-6.9 d), and services per conception (2.1+/-0.2 and 2.1+/-0.2) compared with controls (67.8+/-2.2 d, 85.4+/-5.8 d, 1.6+/-0.2; P < 0.05). Days to first service were not increased in cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis during period 2 (70.6+/-3.3 and 61.2+/-7.8 d). However, days open (143.6+/-8.5 d) and services per conception (3.0+/-0.2) were increased (P < 0.05) in cows with clinical mastitis during period 2, but not in cows with subclinical mastitis (90.9+/-20.2 d and 2.1+/-0.5). Cows initially diagnosed subclinical that became clinical during period 2 exhibited increased days to first service (93.9+/-10.1 d), days open (196.0+/-26.2 d), and services per conception (4.3+/-0.7) compared with control animals (P < 0.05). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis reduced reproductive

  1. Sonographic Elastography of Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousaris, Nicholas; Barr, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Sonographic elastography has been shown to be a useful imaging modality in characterizing breast lesions as benign or malignant. However, in preliminary research, mastitis has given false-positive findings on both strain and shear wave elastography. In this article, we review the findings in mastitis with and without abscess formation on both strain and shear wave elastography. The elastographic findings in all cases were suggestive of a malignancy according to published thresholds. In cases of mastitis with abscess formation, there is a characteristic appearance, with a central very soft area (abscess cavity) and a very stiff outer rim (edema and inflammation). This appearance should raise the suspicion of mastitis with abscess formation, since these findings are rare in breast cancers.

  2. Kosten mastitis onderschat: Hoogste kostenpost bij mastitis is melkproductieverlies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis kost geld. Maar hoeveel? Beduidend meer dan melkveehouders denken, zo blijkt uit recent onderzoek van het Uiergezondheidscentrum Nederland en de faculteit Diergeneeskunde onder 64 veehouders. Vooral het productieverlies bij subklinische mastitis kost veel euro’s

  3. Duct Ectasia and Periductal Mastitis in Indian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramalingam, Kirithiga; Srivastava, Anurag; Vuthaluru, Seenu; Dhar, Anita; Chaudhry, Rama

    ...) and periductal mastitis (PDM) causing nipple discharge. Not only that these benign breast diseases ring a false alarm of cancer, they are also the second most common cause of benign breast diseases...

  4. Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles along with protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahat Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in dairy ruminants which is also found in healthy carriage and can be a major cause of mastitis. Various mastitis control programs have been used to combat the problem but have not always been efficient. In most countries, antibiotic resistance is extremely common. Silver nanoparticles have shown antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. In the present study the effect of silver nanoparticles on S. aureus isolated from cattle mastitis along with antibiotics of operative on protein bacterial synthesis investigated. Materials and methods: Three hundred eleven milk samples were collected from the cow farms. Each milk sample was cultured on mannitol salt agar and was incubated. A total of 72 isolates of S. aureus were isolated from the bovine mastitis milk samples. S. aureus DNA extracted by DNA purification kit according to the manufacturer protocol. 58 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by biochemical tests as well as nuc gene detection. MIC and MBC determined for silver nanoparticles with antibiotics on 50 isolates. Results: The resistance of S. aureus isolates against erythromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin and doxycycline were 100, 22, 100 and 8%, respectively. 8 of all isolates were sensitive to 25 µg/ml concentration of silver nanoparticles. The 92% growth of the samples were inhibited at concentrations between 50-100 µg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that antibiotics which can inhibit protein synthesis have significant synergistic effect along with silver nanoparticles.

  5. Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Jahanfar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012, contacted investigators and other content experts known to us for unpublished trials and scanned the reference lists of retrieved articles. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing the effectiveness of various types of antibiotic therapies or antibiotic therapy versus alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When in dispute, we consulted a third author. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25 compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as 'supportive therapy' versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this

  6. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a

  7. Relatie tussen celgetal en mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.

    1993-01-01

    Het vóórkomen en de kosten van mastitis blijven hoog, ondanks de vele pogingen tot preventie van de ziekte. Mastitispreventie programma's zijn veelal gebaseerd op de positieve relatie tussen celgetal en het optreden van mastitis.

  8. Common processes in pathogenesis by fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, described with Gene Ontology terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shaowu; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Chibucos, Marcus C; Tyler, Brett M; Dean, Ralph A

    2009-02-19

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes result in significant economic losses every year. Although phylogenetically distant, the infection processes by these organisms share many common features. These include dispersal of an infectious particle, host adhesion, recognition, penetration, invasive growth, and lesion development. Previously, many of these common processes did not have corresponding Gene Ontology (GO) terms. For example, no GO terms existed to describe processes related to the appressorium, an important structure for infection by many fungi and oomycetes. In this mini-review, we identify common features of the pathogenic processes of fungi and oomycetes and create a pathogenesis model using 256 newly developed and 38 extant GO terms, with an emphasis on the appressorium and signal transduction. This set of standardized GO terms provides a solid base to further compare and contrast the molecular underpinnings of fungal and oomycete pathogenesis.

  9. Poultry: the most common food in outbreaks with known pathogens, United States, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, S J; Cole, D; Nisler, A; Mahon, B E

    2017-01-01

    As poultry consumption continues to increase worldwide, and as the United States accounts for about one-third of all poultry exports globally, understanding factors leading to poultry-associated foodborne outbreaks in the United States has important implications for food safety. We analysed outbreaks reported to the United States' Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System from 1998 to 2012 in which the implicated food or ingredient could be assigned to one food category. Of 1114 outbreaks, poultry was associated with 279 (25%), accounting for the highest number of outbreaks, illnesses, and hospitalizations, and the second highest number of deaths. Of the 149 poultry-associated outbreaks caused by a confirmed pathogen, Salmonella enterica (43%) and Clostridium perfringens (26%) were the most common pathogens. Restaurants were the most commonly reported location of food preparation (37% of poultry-associated outbreaks), followed by private homes (25%), and catering facilities (13%). The most commonly reported factors contributing to poultry-associated outbreaks were food-handling errors (64%) and inadequate cooking (53%). Effective measures to reduce poultry contamination, promote safe food-handling practices, and ensure food handlers do not work while ill could reduce poultry-associated outbreaks and illnesses.

  10. Introgression of resistance to pathogens in common bean lines with the aid of molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    Alisson Campos Pereira; Nerison Luis Poersch; Pedro Crescêncio Souza Carneiro; Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; José Eustáquio de Souza Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to incorporate resistance to the anthracnose and angular leaf spot pathogens in the common bean lines BRSMG Talismã, VC8 and VC9, crosses were made between these lines and the line Rudá-R, donor of the alleles Phg1, Co-4, Co-10, which confer resistance to Pseudocercospora griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. After the crosses, the backcross populations were obtained, and the RC1F1 plants were inoculated with race 65 of C. lindemuthianum. The resistant plants were genotyped with ...

  11. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, Felix J S; Santman-Berends, Inge M G A; Lam, Theo J G M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in controlling mastitis, and these preventive costs (PC) also need to be taken into account. To estimate the total costs of mastitis, we estimated both FC and PC. We combined multiple test-day milk records from 108 Dutch dairy farms with information on applied mastitis prevention measures and farmers' registration of clinical mastitis for individual dairy cows. The aim was to estimate the total costs of mastitis and to give insight into variations between farms. We estimated the average total costs of mastitis to be €240/lactating cow per year, in which FC contributed €120/lactating cow per year and PC contributed another €120/lactating cow per year. Milk production losses, discarded milk, and culling were the main contributors to FC, at €32, €20, and €20/lactating cow per year, respectively. Labor costs were the main contributor to PC, next to consumables and investments, at €82, €34, and €4/lactating cow per year, respectively. The variation between farmers was substantial, and some farmers faced both high FC and PC. This variation may have been due to structural differences between farms, different mastitis-causing pathogens, the time at which preventive action is initiated, stockmanship, or missing measures in PC estimates. We estimated the minimum FC to be €34 per lactating cow per yr. All farmers initiated some preventive action to control or reduce mastitis, indicating that farmers will always have mastitis-related costs, because mastitis will never be fully eradicated from a farm. Insights into both the PC and FC of a specific farm will allow veterinary advisors and farmers to assess whether current udder health strategies are appropriate or whether there

  12. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D'Andreano, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical

  13. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  14. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  15. Pathogenic variability within race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and its implications for common bean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Chamma Davide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide pathogenic variability among and within races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum has complicated theprocess of obtaining cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris that are resistant to anthracnose. Six isolates were inoculated into twelvedifferential cultivars and seven commercial cultivars of the common bean at concentrations in the range 102 to 106 sporesmL-1. Information concerning the vertical and horizontal resistance of hosts and the virulence of isolates was obtained fromdiallel analysis. It was clear that the set of differential cultivars recommended for the determination of races of C. lindemuthianumis inefficient in detecting differences within race 65, and it is suggested that new sources of resistance should be identified andadded to the cultivar set. There were significant differences in the virulence of isolates from race 65, with isolates CL 837 and CL844 being the most virulence. No horizontal resistance was detected in the C. lindemuthianum-common bean system.

  16. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were...

  17. Evaluation of tandem repeats for MLVA typing of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamoureux Jérémy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of bovine mastitis and recommended control measures, based on improved milking practice, teat dipping and antibiotic treatment at drying-off, are poorly efficient against this environmental pathogen. A simple and efficient typing method would be helpful in identifying S.uberis sources, virulent strains and cow to cow transmission. The potential of MLVA (Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis; VNTR, Variable Number of Tandem Repeats for S. uberis mastitis isolates genotyping was investigated. Results The genomic sequence of Streptococcus uberis (strain 0104J was analyzed for potential variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs. Twenty-five tandem repeats were identified and amplified by PCR with DNA samples from 24 S. uberis strains. A set of seven TRs were found to be polymorphic and used for MLVA typing of 88 S. uberis isolates. A total of 82 MLVA types were obtained with 22 types among 26 strains isolated from the milk of mastitic cows belonging to our experimental herd, and 61 types for 62 epidemiologically unrelated strains, i.e. collected in different herds and areas. Conclusion The MLVA method can be applied to S. uberis genotyping and constitutes an interesting complement to existing typing methods. This method, which is easy to perform, low cost and can be used in routine, could facilitate investigations of the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in dairy cows.

  18. Mastitis diagnosis in ten Galician dairy herds (NW Spain) with automatic milking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.; Pereira, J.M.; Amiama, C.; Bueno, J.

    2015-07-01

    Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS) has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis detection in AMS is very important, the primary objective of this study was to determine operational reliability and sensibility of mastitis detection systems from AMS. Additionally, the frequency of pathogen-specific was determined. For this purpose, 228 cows from ten farms in Galicia (NW Spain) using this system were investigated. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) was considered the gold-standard test for mastitis diagnosis and milk samples were analysed from CMT-positive cows for the bacterial examination. Mean farm prevalence of clinical mastitis was 9% and of 912 milk quarters examined, 23% were positive to the AMS mastitis detection system and 35% were positive to the CMT. The majority of CMT-positive samples had a score of 1 or 2 on a 1 (lowest mastitis severity) to 4 (highest mastitis severity) scale. The average sensitivity and specificity of the AMS mastitis detection system were 58.2% and 94.0% respectively being similar to other previous studies, what could suggest limitations for getting higher values of reliability and sensibility in the current AMSs. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.8%), followed by Streptococcus uberis (8.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.3%). The relatively high prevalence of these pathogens indicates suboptimal cleaning and disinfection of teat dipping cups, brushes and milk liners in dairy farms with AMS in the present study. (Author)

  19. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...

  20. Biofilm-forming ability profiling of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis mastitis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, M; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm-forming ability has been increasingly recognized as an important virulence factor in Staphylococci, facilitating their persistence in the host, evading its defences and allowing bacterial survival at high antimicrobial concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus remains a major pathogen...... of chronic mastitis, but in the last years Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a relevant mastitis pathogen. The present work aimed at the evaluation of the biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococci field isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis and at the development of a fluorescent in situ...

  1. Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC. The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1: no growth (52,000; 12,000, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000, Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000; other streptococci (432,000; 108,000 and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000. The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542 was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS e contagem total de bactérias (CTB. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram

  2. Are antibiotic-resistant pathogens more common in subsequent episodes of diabetic foot infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Dan; Gariani, Karim; Kressmann, Benjamin; Dach, Elodie von; Huttner, Benedikt; Bartolone, Placido; Lê, Nam; Mohamad, Morad; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Uçkay, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    After antibiotic therapy of an initial diabetic foot infection (DFI), pathogens isolated from subsequent episodes might become more resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. If so, this might require a modification of the current recommendations for the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy. This study investigated whether the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) DFI guideline recommendations should be modified based on the number of past DFI episodes. This was a single-centre retrospective cohort survey of DFI patients seen during the years 2010 to 2016. A total 1018 episodes of DFI in 482 adult patients were identified. These patients were followed-up for a median of 3.3 years after the first DFI episode. The total number of episodes was 2257 and the median interval between recurrent episodes was 7.6 months. Among the recurrent DFIs, the causative pathogens were the same as in the previous episode in only 43% of cases (158/365). Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in all episodes (range 1 to 13 episodes) and was not more prevalent with the increasing number of episodes. DFIs were treated with systemic antibiotics for a median duration of 20 days (interquartile range 11-35 days). Overall, there was no significant increase in the incidence of antibiotic resistance to methicillin, rifampicin, clindamycin, or ciprofloxacin over the episodes (Pearson's Chi-square test p-values of 0.76, 1.00, 0.06, and 0.46, respectively; corresponding p-values for trend of 0.21, 0.27, 0.38, and 0.08, respectively). After the successful treatment of a DFI, recurrent episodes are frequent. A history of a previous DFI episode did not predict a greater likelihood of any antibiotic-resistant isolate in subsequent episodes. Thus, broadening the spectrum of empiric antibiotic therapy for recurrent episodes of DFI does not appear necessary. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Magnetic beads adsorption-PCR detection method of four common foodborne pathogens in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Yue; Tian, Xue; Yang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongsheng; Chen, Ying

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads for common foodborne pathogens. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii were used as targets, the suitable conditions were obtained by optimization the incubation time, bead size, reaction temperature and so on. The adsorption efficiency of the magnetic beads in analog samples was also tested. The optimum conditions were as follows: 2.0 - 3.0 microm diameter magnetic beads 50 microl, incubation for 60 min under 37 degrees C. In analog samples, the adsorption efficiency of the magnetic beads for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii in juice, milk, duck meat were 50% - 84%, 46% - 66%, 54% - 74%, respectively. Magnetic beads enrichment technique has high adsorption efficiency, simple to operate, which is meet the requirement for PCR detection.

  4. Virulence traits and pathogenicity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates with common and uncommon O serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingqing; Zhang, Debao; Ye, Zhengqin; Zhu, Xiaoping; Yang, Weixia; Dong, Lanmei; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common human diseases worldwide. This study aimed to collect uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates from Jiangsu Province and obtain insights into the molecular epidemiology of UPEC in this region. The O serotypes, phylogenetic groups, and virulence factors of 183 UPEC isolates were determined. In this study, we isolated 51 UPEC isolates with common O serotypes including O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O16, O18 and O75, as well as 35 of those with uncommonly encountered O serotypes including O8, O12, O15, O26, and O74. Groups B2 and D were the most prevalent phylogenetic groups and accounted for 29.5% and 41% of the isolates, respectively. In the tested 13 virulence genes (VGs), tonB and dsdA possessed the highest prevalence rate, followed by fimH, degP and ompR. Several other virulence genes such as fliC, neuC, ireA, and vat had prevalence less than 23%. Moreover, representative isolates belonging to common or uncommon O serotypes with different numbers of VGs were chosen for the pathogenic analyses. Based on the results of 1-day-old chick lethality assay and UTI ascending mouse infection model, our study suggested that the virulence of UPEC isolates for chicks and/or mice depended on both the number of VGs expressed and the O serotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages with lytic activity against common bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Shende

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteriophages with lytic activity against common bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 samples of animal waste disposal from cattle (42 and buffalo (18 farms were collected from three different strata, i.e., top, mid, and bottom of collection tank. Samples were primarily subjected to rapid detection methods, and then isolation of phage was done by double agar layer method using Bacillus subtilis (BsH and Escherichia coli (EH as host system. Phages were characterized on the basis of plaque morphology, temperature, pH susceptibility, and host range. Results: Recovery of phages was higher from dairy cattle farm waste (78.57% as compared to buffalo farm waste (72.22% and bottom layer of tank showed maximum recovery. Bacillus subtilis (91% supported the growth of more phages as compared to E. coli (9%. Three different phage morphotypes were observed each against Bacillus subtilis (BsHR1, BsHR2, and BsHR3 and E. coli (EHR1, EHR2, and EHR3. Mean phage titer of above six phage isolates ranged between 3x1010 and 5x1012 plaque forming units/ml. Viability of phages was by, and large unaffected at 70°C within 2-3 min, and phage isolates were completely inactivated below pH 3 and above 11. Coliphage EHR1 had widest host range followed by BsHR1 and BsHR2 while EHR2, EHR3, and BsHR3 had low lytic activity. Conclusion: It could be concluded from the present study that the Bacillus and Coli phage has wide host range and thus exhibits the potential to be used as drug substitute tool against common bacterial pathogens.

  6. The effect of corticosteroid treatment on bilateral idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftci, Fatih; Abdurrahman, İbrahim; Tatar, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is the commonly encountered form of granulomatous mastitis that may result into repetitive infections and/or abscess formation. Mastitis may develop secondary to a systemic disorder such as tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, or rheumatoid arthritis, or it may develop as an idiopathic disorder. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is the most frequent form of all granulomatous diseases affecting the breast. This disorder frequently presents as painful and fast-growing mass in the breast. Biopsy is required to confirm diagnosis. Surgical excision and immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids are employed for therapeutic management. Here we present 3 female cases of bilateral IGM who were followed up and treated successfully with 1 mg/kg/day prednisolone.

  7. Coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases in dairy cattle. Recently, the so-called minor pathogens, of which coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most important group of bacteria, has received more attention. This thesis focuses on the role of CNS in udder health of dairy cows. The

  8. Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Mekele, Northern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to April 2008 on Holstein and Holstein-Zebu cross breds lactating dairy cows in and around Mekele to determine the prevalence, major risk factors and major bacterial pathogens of bovine mastitis in the study area. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical ...

  9. Mastitis in Ettawa Crossbred Goat (Pe Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus: Epidemiology, Clinical Signs, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat is commonly found and caused economic loss. Staphylococcus aureus is one of bacteria caused clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of clinical and subclinical mastitis in the Ettawa crossbred goat caused by S. aureus from epidemiological aspect, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Mastitis should be eliminated because it lead to death for the goats and lambs. In addition, S. aureus has greater risk for contamination in milk because it produces heat-stable toxin. Isolation and identification bacteria with total of somatic cell counts are important as a reference to determine the actions to decrease the occurrence of mastitis. Some preventive measures for mastitis include clean milking, dipping the teats with a disinfectant and antibiotic treatment during dry lactation.

  10. Biocontrol of seed pathogens and growth promotion of common bean seedlings by Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate isolates of Trichoderma harzianum regarding biocontrol of common bean seed-borne pathogens, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere competence. Five isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated and compared with commercial isolate (Ecotrich, Carboxin+Thiram, and an absolute control. Bean seeds of the cultivar Jalo Precoce, contaminated with Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were microbiolized with antagonists, and seed health tests were carried out. Isolates were evaluated on autoclaved substrate and in field conditions. Ten days after sowing (DAS, plant length was measured. To test rhizosphere competence, isolates were applied in boxes containing autoclaved washed sand, and root colonization was evaluated at 10 DAS, using five plants per box. The most effective isolates in the seed health tests were: CEN287 and CEN289 to control Aspergillus; the commercial isolate to control Cladosporium; and CEN287 and CEN316 to control S. sclerotiorum. Isolates CEN289 and CEN290 promoted bean growth in greenhouse and field. Seed treatment with T. harzianum reduces the incidence of Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and S. sclerotiorum in 'Jalo Precoce' common bean seeds.

  11. Interaction between Food-borne Pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes) and a Common Soil Flagellate (Cercomonas sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    understood. In this study, we investigated the interactions between a common soil flagellate, Cercomonas sp., and three different bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes). Rapid growth of flagellates was observed in co-culture with C. jejuni and S....... The results of this study suggest that Cercomonas sp. and perhaps other soil flagellates may play a role for the survival of food-borne pathogens on plant surfaces and in soil....

  12. A case of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin‐positive Staphylococcus aureus‐mediated neonatal mastitis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connor, Ciara

    2014-09-01

    Introduction: Neonatal mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus. While Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL), a B‐pore‐forming cytotoxin, is commonly associated with enhanced virulence in community‐acquired methicillin‐resistant S. aureus isolates, this is the first report to our knowledge of neonatal mastitis caused by PVL‐positive S. aureus.\\r\

  13. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  14. STRATEGIES FOR DIAGNOSIS, CONTROL, AND PREVENTION OF MASTITIS ESTRATEGIAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO, CONTROL Y PREVENCIÓN DE MASTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotrino Badillo Victor

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, the great diversity in management, methods of milking and breeds for milk production, makes very difficult to unify the rules for mastitis control; therefore the veterinarian’s job, according to the available resources in each herd is to advise the best procedures for both, milking routines and mastitis control. Influenced by the differences in management, the prevalence of each of the microorganisms that may cause mastitis varies from region to region and even from herd to herd within the same area. As a rule of thumb, the more basic the system, the less practices for mastitis control are present; this situation consequently leads to a high presentation of contagious mastitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. As the management improves, and dry cow therapy practices are implemented particularly in systems with milking machines, the mayor pathogen isolated is Staphylococcus aureus which is a regular resident in the skin. The number of cases caused by environmental microorganisms is very low, but maintains the clinical level of serious acute mastitis reported in dairy herds in other countries. Due to the indiscriminate and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics used for mastitis treatment, a high level of resistance to antibiotics has resulted to most of the antibiotics already in the market. It is imperative a close cooperation between the organizations for drug regulation and control, the pharmaceutical industry and the Veterinary medical profession to established rules and standards to safeguard this non-renewable resource.La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la

  15. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

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    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  16. Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds

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    Houe Hans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

  17. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Seetharam; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Dave, Aniket; Pai, Deepti

    2017-01-01

    To study idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with respect to its various clinical features, etiologic factors, treatment modalities and complications. Retrospective study of all patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis from 1(st) January 2006 to 31(st) December 2014 at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India (a tertiary care referral centre). The research was performed according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was taken from the patient before invasive procedures including surgery. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 wherever appropriate. 73 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis during the time period were included. One patient was a male (1.37%), rest were all females (98.63%). The mean age of presentation was 32.67 years (range 23 to 66 years). 70 patients (95.89%) were parous females. Average duration since last childbirth was 4.6 years (range: 3 months to 33 years). 8 patients (10.95%) were lactating. History of oral contraceptive pill use was present in 40 patients (54.79%). The right breast was affected in 44 patients (60.27%), and the left breast in 29 patients (39.73%). None of the patients had bilateral disease. The most common symptom was a painless lump (61.64%). Rest of the patients (38.36%) presented with features of a breast abscess. 19 out of 39 FNACs done (48.72%) were positive for granulomatous mastitis. 59 were primarily managed surgically (lumpectomy/wide excision-33, incision & drainage-26). One patient was treated primarily with prednisolone. 13 patients did not receive specific treatment, and were only kept on regular follow-up. Patients managed with lumpectomy/wide excision had the least rate of complications & recurrence (18.18%). Patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can present with a wide variety of symptoms which mimic other more common conditions. Surgical management in the form of wide excision appears

  18. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliauskas, J R; Pieterse, A S; Williams, R S

    1995-02-01

    Two cases of benign lobular granulomatous mastitis, both clinically felt to be carcinoma, are reported. One patient was cured by local excision of the mass while the other was cured by oral prednisolone, demonstrating the variable ways to treat this entity. The clinical and histological features were similar to those noted in previous reports. Immunological studies revealed predominantly stromal T lymphocytes and only duct intra-epithelial T lymphocytes.

  19. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

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    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  20. Pathogenicity of two seed-borne fungi commonly involved in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of two mostly prevailing fungal species on maize (Zea maize L.) from different localities of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Pathogenic fungi deteriorate food grains by producing mycotoxins and aflotoxins during storage consequently shedding menace on its ...

  1. Microbiota of bovine udder foremilk and susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Bouchard, Damien; Nicolas, Aurélie; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, generally of infectious origin,which causes huge economic losses in the milk production chain and can affect milk yield and quality. The capacity of the internal microbiota of the bovine udder (contained notably in foremilk) to exert a barrier effect with regard to pathogens has never been investigated so far. In this study, we evaluated composition of the bovine udder microbiota in relation to mastitis susceptibility. Udder microbiota...

  2. Microbiota of bovine udder and susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Bouchard, Damien; Nicolas, Aurélie; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, which causes huge economic losses in the milk production chain. The involvement of the internal microbiota of the bovine udder in the modulation of pathogens populations and, consequently, of the infection prevalence has never been investigated so far. In this study, the udder microbiota was investigated in 31 quarters (corresponding to 27 cows) whose sanitary status ranged from healthy (i.e. no mastitis during the previ...

  3. Virulence gene profiles in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Barbara; Szweda, Piotr; Frankowska-Maciejewska, Aneta; Piechota, Małgorzata; Wolska, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is arguably the most important pathogen involved in bovine mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the virulence gene profiles of 124 Staph. aureus isolates from subclinical mastitis in cows in eastern Poland. The presence of 30 virulence genes encoding adhesins, proteases and superantigenic toxins was investigated by PCR. The 17 different combinations of adhesin genes were identified. Occurrence of eno (91·1%) and fib (82·3%) genes was found to be common. The frequency of other adhesion genes fnbA, fnbB, ebps were 14·5, 50, 25%, respectively, and for cna and bbp were 1·6%. The etA and etD genes, encoding exfoliative toxins, were present in genomes of 5·6 and 8·9% isolates, respectively. The splA and sspA, encoding serine protease, were detected in above 90% isolates. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sei (21%), sem (19·4%), sen (19·4%), seg (18·5%) and seo (13·7%). The tst gene was harboured by 2·4% isolates. The 19 combinations of the superantigenic toxin genes were obtained and found in 35·5% of isolates. Three of them (seg, sei, sem, sen, seo; sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo and seg, sei, sem, sen) were the most frequent and found in 16·1% of the isolates. The most common virulotype, present in 17·7% of the isolates, was fib, eno, fnbB, splA, splE, sspA. The results indicate the variation in the presence of virulence genes in Staph. aureus isolates and considerable diversity of isolates that are able to cause mastitis in cows.

  4. Immunotherapy of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gabriel; Pinchasov, Yosef; Morag, Eli; Spanier, Yossi; Jacoby, Samy; Eliau, Dorit; Pitcovski, Jacob

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this study was to examine an alternative, immunologically based treatment for mastitis. A microbead carrying specific anti-mastitis bacteria antibodies and an enhancer of phagocytosis, termed Y-complex, was tested in two experiments. In experiment 1, 21 cows were challenged with Streptococcus dysgalactiae and treated with Y-complex, Cobactan LC(®) or saline. Y-complex cleared the bacteria by day 4 and by day 10 only one cow was positive and remained positive up to day 28. No bacteria were isolated from any of the seven cows treated with Cobactan LC after day 4; however, in two out of the seven cows, the bacteria were re-isolated on day 24. On day 28, cows treated with placebo had still not cleared the bacteria. Experiment 2 was a field study in which cows, naturally infected with Escherichia coli, S. dysgalactiae or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were treated with Y-complex (32 cows), sulfadiazine+trimethoprim or procaine penicillin+streptomycin (BA) (8 cows), or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (19 cows). Y-complex was as effective as antibiotics, and superior to NSAID, in eliminating bacteria. Milk quantity and quality following infection and treatment were similar for all treatments, but significantly less milk was discarded from cows treated with Y-complex as compared to antibiotics. Y-complex was proven to be safe and effective, and may serve as a new approach for the treatment of mastitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

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    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  6. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Gerema

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT), and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%). The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6%) quarters which belong to 75 (19.5%) animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention. PMID:28352648

  7. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT, and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6% quarters which belong to 75 (19.5% animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p<0.05. Bacteriological examination of milk sample revealed 187 isolates where coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CNS (34.2% was the predominant species while Streptococcus faecalis (2.1% was identified as the least bacteria. The present study concluded that prevalence of mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Amanda N; Seiler, Stephen J; Hayes, Jody C; Wooldridge, Rachel; Porembka, Jessica H

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a benign chronic inflammatory condition of the breast. This study was performed to determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating GM from malignancy. MRI findings in 12 women with clinical or histopathologically-proven GM were retrospectively reviewed. Non-mass enhancement on MRI was present in all 12 patients with clustered ring enhancement being the most common pattern (n=7, 58%). Architectural distortion (n=10, 83%), skin thickening (n=10, 83%) and focal skin enhancement (n=10, 83%) were also very common. MRI features of GM are often identical to features considered suspicious for malignancy on MRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The association between the signalment, common causes of canine otitis externa and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, G; Lifshitz, B; Bdolah-Abram, T

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether associations exist between pathogens, allergies, conformational abnormalities, endocrinopathies and signalment in canine otitis externa (OE). Medical records of 149 dogs which met predetermined inclusion criteria were evaluated retrospectively. Correlations between pathogens and the presence of allergy, endocrinopathy, conformational abnormalities and signalment were evaluated statistically. The shar-pei, German shepherd and cocker spaniel breeds were over-represented compared with the hospital's breed distribution (Potitis, however. OE may be more severe when it affects older dogs. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Bovine mastitis may be associated with the deprivation of gut Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C; Zhao, J; Xi, X; Ding, J; Wang, H; Zhang, H; Kwok, L Y

    2016-02-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economical important microbial disease in dairy industry. Some recent human clinical trials have shown that oral probiotics supplementation could effectively control clinical mastitis, suggesting that the mechanism of mastitis protection might be achieved via the host gut microbiota. We aimed to test our hypothesis that bovine mastitis was related to changes in both the mammary and gut microbial profiles. By quantitative PCR, the milk and faecal microbial profiles of cows with low (1×10(6) cells/ml) somatic cell count (SCC) were compared. Firstly, we observed drastic differences in both the milk and faecal microbial compositions at genus and Lactobacillus-species levels between the two groups. Secondly, the pattern of faecal microbial community changes of mastitis cows was similar to that of the milk, characterised by a general increase in the mastitis pathogens (Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and deprivation of Lactobacillus and its members (L. salivarius, L. sakei, L. ruminis, L. delbrueckii, L. buchneri, and L. acidophilus). Thirdly, only the faecal lactobacilli, but not bifidobacteria correlated with the milk microbial communities and SCC. Our data together hint to a close association between bovine mastitis, the host gut and milk microbiota.

  11. Selective, reliable blood and milk bio-markers for diagnosing clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Saleh, Ebeed; Ayoub, Mousa

    2017-02-01

    Mastitis is positioned as the most vital ailment in dairy cows in light of conventional cost examinations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of different acute phase proteins (APPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy cows and in those with clinical or subclinical mastitis and to localize APP gene expression in the milk of mastitic cows. Therefore, 20 subclinical mastitic cows with positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) results and no clinical signs of mastitis, 15 clinically mastitic cows, and 15 healthy cows with negative CMT results and somatic cell count (SCC) of mastitis, except for total protein, albumin, and GSH levels and the TAC, which were significantly (p mastitis, while Fb expression was absent. The present study demonstrates that APPs, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicators of oxidative stress may serve as biomarkers of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Interestingly, the expression of SAA and Hp indicates the local de novo synthesis of these APPs within the mammary glands. Furthermore, the presence of SAA and Hp transcripts in milk cells derived from pathogen-free mammary glands proved their constitutive expression. However, future studies with more extensive baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate the reference values for APPs, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in cows.

  12. BACTERIOLOGY OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN TEHSIL SAMUNDRI OF DISTRICT FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

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    L. ALI, G. MUHAMMAD, M. ARSHAD1, M. SAQIB AND I. J. HASSAN2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fore-milk samples collected from 200 mastitis quarters of buffaloes (clinically mastitis quarters n = 17, sub-clinically mastitis quarters n = 183 were subjected to microbiological examination. The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was based on the results of Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. A total of 214 isolates of 13 different microbial species were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterial species accounting for 49.53% of all the isolates, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23.83%, Staphylococcus hyicus (8.88%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.54%, Bacillus spp. (3.74%, Staphylococcus hominis (1.40%, Escherichia coli (1.40%, Staphylococcus xylosus (0.93%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.93% and Corynebacterial spp. (0.93%. Yeast and prototheca each accounted for 0.47 percent of isolates. Two (0.93% isolates were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci species. In view of preponderance of the contagious pathogens (S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, it is recommended that mastitis control in the area of study should be based on contagious mastitis control practice.

  13. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erkan; Akin, Murat; Can, Mehmet F; Ozerhan, Ismail; Kurt, Bulent; Yagci, Gokhan; Tufan, Turgut

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings, and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%), and a skin fistula in one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according to radiological findings. We performed large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were also performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation.

  14. Mastitis de Verano en terneras (Summer Mastitis in veals).

    OpenAIRE

    García Lara. Tomás José; Hernández Ferro Sergio C; Silva Lugo Luís

    2012-01-01

    ResumenEn el presente trabajo se brindan algunas consideraciones clínicas, anatomopatológicas y epizootiológicas sobre un brote de Mastitis de Verano Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes) sensible a la Penicilina, Cloranfenicol, Kanamicina y Propóleo en solución oleosa.Abstract The present paper gives some clinical, anatomopathological and epizootiological considerations on an outbreak of Summer Mastitis Arcanobectarium pyogenes (Corynebacterium pyogenes) sensitive to Penicillin...

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility in commonly isolated pathogens from urinary tract infection in a cohort of subjects from low socioeconomic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Saera Suhail; Nageen, Ayesha; Ghaznavi, Samina; Bashir, Farhat; Ara, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the commonest infections seen in clinical practice. Lack of compliance and unjustified antibiotic prescriptions has resulted in bacterial resistance and is proving as a major challenge in the management of these infections. Our aim was to identify the sensitivity pattern of commonly used antibiotics against urinary tract infections so as to suggest an improvised line of action against bacteria causing urinary tract infections'. This was a hospital based cross sectional study extended over a period of four months. Patients were recruited from outpatients department of a tertiary care hospital in an industrial area of Karachi. Adult patients with symptomatic and documented UTI in urine detailed report (pus cells >10) were enrolled after informed consent. A clean catch midstream urine was collected for culture and sensitivity testing using the standard microbiological procedure. Data is analyzed on SPSS 16. A total of 184 samples were collected in 4 months. The Male to Female ratio was 1:2 (n=58/126) with mean age 48.5±12 years. 83(45.6%) patients were between 45-60 years. Most common isolated pathogen was Eschericia coli 108(59%) followed by staphylococcus aureus 30(16.4%) and Klebsiella 20(11%). 55(30%) pathogens showed sensitivity to 4-6 antibiotics, 22(12%) strains to 7-9 antibiotics, 33(18%) were sensitive to ≤3 drugs and in 3(1.6%) patients resistance to all antibiotics is seen. The more resistant pathogens were sensitive to intravenous antibiotics alone. In this low socioeconomic cohort with UTI nearly half the isolated pathogens has shown resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics recommended in the guidelines especially the floxacin group probably because of its unwarranted use. Therefore, a revised line of management should be developed locally in accordance with the susceptibility pattern of the urinary pathogens to avoid further resistance as well as morbidity of the patient.

  16. Molecular Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis between 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianming; Lu, Huiying; Wang, Xing; Gao, Qianqian; Dai, Yingxin; Shang, Jun; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9. Within 14 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates and 198 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, ST97 was the predominant MSSA clone and ST9-MRSA-SCCmecXII-spa t899 was the most common MRSA clone. The MRSA strains showed much higher rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics than did MSSA strains. Compared with other MSSA strains, MSSA ST398 was more resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. No isolates were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The molecular profiles of the virulence genes varied in different strains. ST520 strains carried seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, and ST9 and ST97 harbored sdrD-sdrE genes. Virulence phenotype analysis showed diversity in different clones. Biofilm formation ability was significantly enhanced in ST188 and ST7, and red blood cell lysis capacity was relatively strong in all S. aureus strains of animal origin except ST7. Our results indicate that MSSA was the predominant S. aureus strain causing bovine mastitis in eastern regions of China. However, the presence of multidrug resistant and toxigenic MRSA clone ST9 suggests that comprehensive surveillance of S. aureus infection should be implemented in the management of animal husbandry products.

  17. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  18. Identification and characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolase constructs with activity in cow milk as potential antimicrobials for treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis in dairy cows is a widespread infection of the mammary glands that leads to high losses in dairy production. Most members of the Gram-positive genus Staphylococcus can cause mastitis, with Staphylococcus S. aureus being one of the major pathogens. Intramammary application of antibiotics i...

  19. Analysis of associations between major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class I haplotypes and subclinical mastitis of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.; Østergård, H.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between BoLA class I haplotypes and subclinical mastitis were investigated using information on 333 cows from three different breeds and crossbreeds from 14 dairy herds in Denmark. Somatic cell count and bacteriological status were used as markers for subclinical mastitis....... Associations between BoLA class I haplotypes and IMI status were also determined. The association between BoLA class I haplotypes and subclinical mastitis was weak. The A10(W50), A11, A12(A30), A16, A19(A6), A21, A26, and A31(A30) alleles were associated with different markers of subclinical mastitis....... Susceptibility or resistance to the two bacteria categories was associated with different alleles. This study indicated that BoLA antigens may be involved in resistance to mastitis and that resistance may be specific for a particular pathogen....

  20. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus.

  1. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Mdegela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  2. Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Fox, L K; Piepers, S; McDougall, S; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development

  3. A descriptive study of mastitis in Australian breastfeeding women: incidence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Forster, Della A; Lumley, Judith; McLachlan, Helen

    2007-04-25

    Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection. The aims of this paper are to compare rates of mastitis in primiparous women receiving public hospital care (standard or birth centre) and care in a co-located private hospital, and to use multivariate analysis to explore other factors related to mastitis. Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey) have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB) which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18-20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation) and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital). All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump) AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms. The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206) of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24%) than women in ABFAB (15%); adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR) ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365). Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56). We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis. The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis. Trial registration (ABFAB): Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21556494.

  4. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Katsande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584 had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584 had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584 had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%,  Escherichia coli (25.2%,  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%, Klebsiella spp. (15.5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.6% were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3 and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1 were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae from dairy cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hussein, H; Petrovski, K

    2014-03-01

    To determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials for common mastitis pathogens from dairy cows in New Zealand; and to assess the effect of source of the isolates, i.e. commercial veterinary laboratories or collected as part of research studies; the clinical status of the cow, i.e. subclinical or clinical mastitis; cow age and herd on the distribution of the MIC. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for Staphylococcus aureus (n=364), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=65) and Streptococcus uberis (n=102) isolated from milk samples from dairy cows were determined for a variety of antimicrobials using broth microdilution. Isolates of S. aureus were sourced from research studies from both subclinically (n=161) and clinically (n=104) affected cows, as well as from commercial veterinary laboratories (n=101); while all the streptococcal isolates were from commercial laboratories. Resistance was defined using the cut-points provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The distribution of MIC varied among the bacterial species for every antimicrobial tested (pStreptococcus isolates; therefore microbial identification and sensitivity testing would be beneficial when assessing treatment options. The source of the isolates affected the estimated MIC, suggesting that selection of isolates for monitoring of resistance requires care and that use of routine submissions to commercial laboratories to assess antimicrobial resistance patterns may result in biased estimates of prevalence of resistance.

  6. Radiation resistances and decontamination of common pathogenic bacteria contaminated in white scar oyster ( Crassostrea belcheri) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupila, Nunticha; Ratana-arporn, Pattama; Wilaipun, Pongtep

    2011-07-01

    In Thailand, white scar oyster ( Crassostrea belcheri) was ranked for premium quality, being most expensive and of high demand. This oyster is often eaten raw, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. As limited alternative methods are available to sterilize the oyster while preserving the raw characteristic, irradiation may be considered as an effective method for decontamination. In this study, the radiation resistance of pathogenic bacteria commonly contaminating the oyster and the optimum irradiation doses for sterilization of the most radiation resistant bacteria were investigated. The radiation decimal reduction doses ( D10) of Salmonella Weltevreden DMST 33380, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Vibrio vulnificus DMST 5852 were determined in broth culture and inoculated oyster homogenate. The D10 values of S. Weltevreden, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth culture were 0.154, 0.132 and 0.059 kGy, while those of inoculated oyster homogenate were 0.330, 0.159 and 0.140 kGy, respectively. It was found that among the pathogens tested, S. Weltevreden was proved to be the most resistant species. An irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the counts of 10 5 CFU/g S. Weltevreden inoculated in oyster meat to an undetectable level. The present study indicated that a low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial quality of oyster and further reduce the risks from the food-borne pathogens without adversely affecting the sensory attributes.

  7. Urinary metabolomic fingerprinting after consumption of a probiotic strain in women with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Marinic, Jelena; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Infectious mastitis is a common condition among lactating women, with staphylococci and streptococci being the main aetiological agents. In this context, some lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk appear to be particularly effective for treating mastitis and, therefore, constitute an attractive alternative to antibiotherapy. A (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach was applied to detect metabolomic differences after consuming a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus salivarius PS2) in women with mastitis. 24h urine of women with lactational mastitis was collected at baseline and after 21 days of probiotic (PB) administration. Multivariate analysis (OSC-PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering) showed metabolome differences after PB treatment. The discriminant metabolites detected at baseline were lactose, and ibuprofen and acetaminophen (two pharmacological drugs commonly used for mastitis pain), while, after PB intake, creatine and the gut microbial co-metabolites hippurate and TMAO were detected. In addition, a voluntary desertion of the pharmacological drugs ibuprofen and acetaminophen was observed after probiotic administration. The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the identification of the overall effects of probiotic consumption among women suffering from mastitis and highlighted the potential of this approach in evaluating the outcomes of probiotics consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been applied in women with mastitis during lactation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Mastitis Case in Water Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Şahin; Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease which causes economic losses in the water buffalo breeding. According to severity, duration and primary, mastitis is generally classified as clinical and subclinical. Because of contamination from other animals in the herd, subclinical mastitis is a important dairy herd problem. However, clinical mastitis is a clinical case created by deformation of udder gland and decreasing milk yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia and Stre...

  9. A method for the rapid detection and identification of halo blight pathogen on common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic method based on nested-PCR, followed by ELISA and conventional bacteriology tests, for the rapid and reliable detection of halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Psp collected from infected bean leaves and seeds is described. Psp formed white, small and flat colonies on nutrient agar medium, creamy white, flat and circular on Milk-Tween agar medium and light yellow, convex and shiny on modified sucrose peptone agar medium. Eighteen Gram-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative strains were subjected to nested PCR with primers P 5.1/P 3.1 and P 5.2/P 3.2, which directed the amplification of the 450 bp target DNA fragment in all tested strains. According to the results of DAS- and PTA-ELISA with respect to reactivity to specific antibodies, all analyzed strains belonged to Psp bacterium. Pathogenicity was tested on bean pods and cotyledon leaves, on which greasy spots were formed. Psp did not cause hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of tobacco and geranium. Strains produced levan, fluorescent pigment, oxidative metabolism of glucose, did not reduce nitrate, did not produce indole and H2S, did not hydrolyze starch, gelatin and esculin; they produced acid from glucose, mannose, sucrose and glycerol, and did not produce acid from maltose, starch, esculin, dulcite, sorbitol, inositol and erythritol.

  10. Radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H; Li, R; Liu, H; Gu, Y; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis and to determine the most accurate method of preventing unnecessary surgical procedures. Methods: Clinical and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed in 51 females with non-puerperal mastitis, which was confirmed by biopsy/surgical pathology. All 51 patients had pre-operative MRI; 45 patients also had sonograms and 25 also had mammograms, pre-operatively. Results: Of the 51 cases with non-puerperal mastitis, 94.1% (48/51) were confirmed as having acute or chronic inflammation, and the other 3 had plasma cell mastitis; areola papillaris inflammation was found in 39.2% (20/51) of the cases. Overall, 6 of the 25 cases that were examined with mammography and 2 of the 45 cases that were examined with sonography appeared normal, but all 51 lesions were positively identified on MRI. Asymmetrical density (12/25) on mammograms and solitary or separated/contiguous, clustered, hypoechoic mass-like lesions (31/45) on ultrasound were the most common signs of non-puerperal mastitis. On enhanced MRI, 90.2% (46/51) of patients showed non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Multiple regional enhancements in the pattern of distribution (32/46) and separated or contiguous, clustered, rim-like enhancements in the pattern of internal enhancement (29/46) were the most common manifestations in non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Of the 51 patients, mastitis Type 1 and Type 2 in the time–signal intensity curve were detected in 47.1% and 51.0% of the patients, respectively. The breast imaging reporting and data system categories with the highest number of patients were Category 0 (9/25) on mammography, Category 4a on sonography (18/45) and Category 4a on MRI (29/51). Conclusion: The findings from mammography and ultrasound are non-specific; therefore, using MR can be helpful in the diagnosis, especially in the presence of non-mass-like enhancements that are multiple, regional, separated, or

  11. The role of veterinarian in the monitoring programs of mastitis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletić, M.; Magaš, V.; Maletić, J.

    2017-09-01

    Mastitis is the most common and the most expensive disease of dairy cows. It is followed by a large number of direct and indirect costs that burden the farm’s budget and lead to major economic and health losses. The veterinarian at the farm plays a key role in implementing a protocol of biosecurity measures, a protocol of control, therapy, and the suppression of clinical and subclinical mastitis. In order to successfully implement these measures, a good communication between a veterinarian and a farm staff who performs milking procedures is necessary in order to detect and treat all cases of mastitis in time.

  12. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  13. Proatherogenic effects of common pathogens on liver, adipose tissue and coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvärinen, Kati

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular diseases (ASVDs) affect the heart and circulatory system. One of the most common forms is coronary artery disease (CAD) which may eventually lead to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ASVDs are currently the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and account for 47% of all deaths in Europe. The underlying mechanism is atherosclerosis, a progressive disease that manifests in several tissues. Common chronic infections, including periodontal disease and Chlamydia pneumoniae, ...

  14. Reverse transcription-PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid detection of biothreat and common respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Kevin; Hardick, Justin; Rothman, Richard; Yang, Samuel; Won, Helen; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Masek, Billie Jo; Carroll, Karen C; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-10-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR amplicons from human respiratory samples allows for broad pathogen identification approximately 8 h after collection. We investigated the performance characteristics of a high-throughput RT-PCR-coupled ESI-MS assay for distinguishing biothreat (BT) agents from common bacterial, fungal, and viral respiratory pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from subjects with suspected respiratory infections. In a retrospective case series, 202 BAL fluid specimens were collected at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between August 2010 and February 2011 from patients with suspected acute respiratory infections. Samples were processed using standard bacterial, viral, and fungal testing in the clinical microbiology laboratory as part of routine care and then were blindly spiked with either water or nucleic acids from BT organisms (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella spp., Burkholderia spp., and Rickettsia prowazekii) and tested by RT-PCR-ESI-MS. The sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR-ESI-MS versus standard clinical methods were as follows: for mock BT DNA, 98.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.2 to 99.7%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 93.1 to 100.0%); for bacterial pathogens, 81.8% sensitivity (95% CI, 74.3 to 87.6%) and 73.6% specificity (95% CI, 64.2 to 81.4%); for viral pathogens, 93.3% sensitivity (95% CI, 66.0 to 99.7%) and 97.3% specificity (95% CI, 89.7 to 99.5%); for fungal pathogens, 42.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 29.5 to 56.7%) and 97.8% specificity (95% CI, 91.8 to 99.6%). Our data suggest that RT-PCR-ESI-MS is a useful adjunct to standard culture protocols for rapid detection of both BT and common respiratory pathogens; further study is required for assay validation, especially for fungal detection, and potential implementation.

  15. Reverse Transcription-PCR–Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Biothreat and Common Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Kevin; Rothman, Richard; Yang, Samuel; Won, Helen; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Masek, Billie Jo; Carroll, Karen C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR amplicons from human respiratory samples allows for broad pathogen identification approximately 8 h after collection. We investigated the performance characteristics of a high-throughput RT-PCR-coupled ESI-MS assay for distinguishing biothreat (BT) agents from common bacterial, fungal, and viral respiratory pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from subjects with suspected respiratory infections. In a retrospective case series, 202 BAL fluid specimens were collected at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between August 2010 and February 2011 from patients with suspected acute respiratory infections. Samples were processed using standard bacterial, viral, and fungal testing in the clinical microbiology laboratory as part of routine care and then were blindly spiked with either water or nucleic acids from BT organisms (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella spp., Burkholderia spp., and Rickettsia prowazekii) and tested by RT-PCR–ESI-MS. The sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR–ESI-MS versus standard clinical methods were as follows: for mock BT DNA, 98.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.2 to 99.7%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 93.1 to 100.0%); for bacterial pathogens, 81.8% sensitivity (95% CI, 74.3 to 87.6%) and 73.6% specificity (95% CI, 64.2 to 81.4%); for viral pathogens, 93.3% sensitivity (95% CI, 66.0 to 99.7%) and 97.3% specificity (95% CI, 89.7 to 99.5%); for fungal pathogens, 42.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 29.5 to 56.7%) and 97.8% specificity (95% CI, 91.8 to 99.6%). Our data suggest that RT-PCR–ESI-MS is a useful adjunct to standard culture protocols for rapid detection of both BT and common respiratory pathogens; further study is required for assay validation, especially for fungal detection, and potential implementation. PMID:23903543

  16. Antimicrobial flavonoids isolated from Indian medicinal plant Scutellaria oblonga inhibit biofilms formed by common food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Narendran; Subramaniam, Shankar; Christena, Lowrence Rene; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram; Subramanian, Nagarajan Sai; Pemiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind

    2016-09-01

    Scutellaria oblonga Benth., a hitherto phytochemically unexplored Indian medicinal folklore plant was extracted with acetone and subjected to chromatography to yield nine flavonoids, for the first time from this plant. Antimicrobial assays were performed against 11 foodborne pathogens, and three molecules (Techtochrysin, Negletein and Quercitin-3-glucoside) depicted significant activity. These molecules were assessed for their rate of antibacterial action using time-kill curves which depicted complete inhibition of most of the bacteria within 12-16 h. The significant biofilm-reducing capability exhibited by these three molecules formed a significant finding of the current study. In most of the experiments, a 90-95% reduction in biofilms was observed. Thus, flavonoids as natural molecules from S. oblonga could be further researched to be used as potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents.

  17. Rapid multiplex PCR assay to identify respiratory viral pathogens: moving forward diagnosing the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Clifton P; Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray(®) system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time.

  18. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  19. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

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    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in

  20. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J R; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  2. Antimicrobial effect of MTAD, Tetraclean, Cloreximid, and sodium hypochlorite on three common endodontic pathogens

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    Giardino Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, Tetraclean, Cloreximid (a mixture of Chlorhexidine (CHX digluconate and Cetrimide, and 5.25% NaOCl (Ogna Laboratori Farmaceutici, Milano, Italy against selected endodontic pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. Materials and Methods: The agar plate diffusion procedure was used to observe the antimibrobial activity of irrigants. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant effects of the different irrigants on the bacteria colonies. Treatment with 5.25% NaOCl induced a larger zone of microbial inhibition in Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Tukey HSD post-test, P = 0.0001 when compare to MTAD, Tetraclean and CHX. Anyway, MTAD and Tetraclean were more effective to inhibit bacterial growth compared to CHX (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test. Furthermore, post hoc analysis revealed that MTAD and Tetraclean induced the largest zone of microbial inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis cultured under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, when compared with 2% CHX and NaOCl (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test. The control group showed no microbial inhibition. Conclusion: 5.25% NaOCl showed a high antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria. MTAD and Tetraclean showed a high action against both, strictly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Chlorexidine + Cetrimide (Cloreximid showed the lowest antibacterial activity against both, facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria tested.

  3. Antimicrobial effect of MTAD, Tetraclean, Cloreximid, and sodium hypochlorite on three common endodontic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Luciano; Savoldi, Enrico; Ambu, Emanuele; Rimondini, Roberto; Palezona, Alberto; Debbia, Eugenio A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN), Tetraclean, Cloreximid (a mixture of Chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate and Cetrimide), and 5.25% NaOCl (Ogna Laboratori Farmaceutici, Milano, Italy) against selected endodontic pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia). The agar plate diffusion procedure was used to observe the antimibrobial activity of irrigants. Statistical analysis revealed significant effects of the different irrigants on the bacteria colonies. Treatment with 5.25% NaOCl induced a larger zone of microbial inhibition in Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Tukey HSD post-test, P = 0.0001) when compare to MTAD, Tetraclean and CHX. Anyway, MTAD and Tetraclean were more effective to inhibit bacterial growth compared to CHX (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test). Furthermore, post hoc analysis revealed that MTAD and Tetraclean induced the largest zone of microbial inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis cultured under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, when compared with 2% CHX and NaOCl (P < 0.0001, Tukey HSD post-test). The control group showed no microbial inhibition. 5.25% NaOCl showed a high antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria. MTAD and Tetraclean showed a high action against both, strictly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Chlorexidine + Cetrimide (Cloreximid) showed the lowest antibacterial activity against both, facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria tested.

  4. Redefining common endophytes and plant pathogens in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Verkley, Gerard J M; Sun, Guangyu; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2016-11-01

    Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated. Five new species were described in Pezicula based on morphology, while a further eight unnamed phylogenetic lineages revealed further diversity in the genus. Based on these results, the generic concept of Neofabraea was also emended. Phlyctema, which was previously associated with Neofabraea, formed a distinct clade, separate from Neofabraea s. str. Two new neofabraea-like genera, Parafabraea and Pseudofabraea were proposed, along with one new combination in Neofabraea s. str. To stabilise the application of these names, an epitype was designated for Pe. carpinea, the type species of Pezicula, and for N. malicorticis, the type species of Neofabraea. Copyright © 2015 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and characterization of three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Thalictrum minus L. and their antibacterial activity against bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Rather, Muzafar Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Aga, Mushtaq A; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Shah, Aiyatullah; Ali, Md Niamat

    2016-12-04

    The roots of Thalictrum minus are traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases such as bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports available in literature till date regarding the antibacterial studies of T. minus against bovine mastitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial potential of crude extract of T. minus (root) and some of its isolated constituents against bovine mastitis in order to scientifically validate its traditional use. A total of three alkaloid compounds were isolated from the DCM: MeOH extract of roots of T. minus using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done by using spectroscopic techniques like mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Pathogens were isolated from cases of bovine mastitis and identified by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The broth micro-dilution method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of DCM: MeOH extract and isolated compounds against mastitis pathogens. The three isolated compounds were identified as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (1) 5'-Hydroxythalidasine, (2) Thalrugosaminine and (3) O-Methylthalicberine. Compounds (2) and (3) are reported for the first time from the roots of T. minus. Five mastitis pathogens viz., Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus equorum, Enterococcus faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans were identified on the basis of sequence analysis of isolates using the nucleotide BLAST algorithm. This study reports for the first time the isolation and molecular characterization of mastitis pathogens from Kashmir valley, India. The DCM: MeOH extract exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=250-500µg/ml). 5'-Hydroxythalidasine and Thalrugosaminine showed promising antibacterial activity with MIC values of 64-128µg/ml while Staphylococcus species were found to be the most sensitive strains. The antibacterial

  6. N-acetyl -β-D-glucosaminidase activity in cow milk as an indicator of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovinen, Mari; Simojoki, Heli; Pösö, Reeta; Suolaniemi, Jenni; Kalmus, Piret; Suojala, Leena; Pyörälä, Satu

    2016-05-01

    Activity of lysosomal N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk has been used as an indicator of bovine mastitis. We studied NAGase activity of 808 milk samples from healthy quarters and quarters of cows with spontaneous subclinical and clinical mastitis. Associations between milk NAGase activity and milk somatic cell count (SCC), mastitis causing pathogen, quarter, parity, days in milk (DIM) and season were studied. In addition, the performance of NAGase activity in detecting clinical and subclinical mastitis and distinguishing infections caused by minor and major bacteria was investigated. Our results indicate that NAGase activity can be used to detect both subclinical and clinical mastitis with a high level of accuracy (0·85 and 0·99). Incomplete correlation between NAGase activity and SCC suggests that a substantial proportion of NAGase activity comes from damaged epithelial cells of the udder in addition to somatic cells. We therefore recommend determination of NAGase activity from quarter foremilk after at least six hours from the last milking using the method described. Samples should be frozen before analysis. NAGase activity should be interpreted according to DIM, at least during the first month of lactation. Based on the results of the present study, a reference value for normal milk NAGase activity of 0·1-1·04 pmoles 4-MU/min/μl for cows with ≥30 DIM (196 samples) could be proposed. We consider milk NAGase activity to be an accurate indicator of subclinical and clinical mastitis.

  7. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese

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    Paola Cremonesi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a third-generation PCR provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4×106 to 4×101 CFU/g of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection.Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (102 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay without the necessity of a standard curve.In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  9. Development of a Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid and Simultaneous Identification of Common Foodborne Pathogens in Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Cortimiglia, Claudia; Picozzi, Claudia; Minozzi, Giulietta; Malvisi, Michela; Luini, Mario; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a "third-generation PCR") provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4 × 106 to 4 × 101 CFU/g) of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection. Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (102 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay) without the necessity of a standard curve. In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  10. Identifying resistance gene analogs associated with resistances to different pathogens in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Camilo E; Acosta, Iván F; Jara, Carlos; Pedraza, Fabio; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Gallego, Gerardo; Beebe, Steve; Tohme, Joe

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.

  11. Soft tissue infections from fish spike wounds: normal commensal bacteria are more common than marine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hannah; Lee, Kin Mun; Cheng, Paul T-Y; Hulme, Sarah

    2017-03-20

    A fish spike injury can be sustained by anyone handling fish; during fishing, meal preparation or in retail. Case reports of fish spikes inoculating victims with virulent marine-specific pathogens and causing systemic illness led us to question whether empirical treatment of these injuries with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is adequate. This 2-year prospective observational study was conducted at Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Wound swabs and tissue samples belonging to patients presenting to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery with an upper limb fish spike injury were sent to the laboratory (n = 60). A series of stains and cultures were performed to look specifically for marine bacteria not typically isolated in other soft tissue injuries. Patient demographic data and injury details were collected. Of the patients with adequate microbiology samples, 12% (6/50) grew clinically relevant bacteria resistant to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. These included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (8%, 4/50), Enterobacter cloacae (2%, 1/50) and an anaerobic sporing bacillus (2%, 1/50). Only one patient grew a true marine-specific bacteria, Photobacterium damselae, which was susceptible to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The authors concluded that amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is an adequate first-line antibiotic for fish spike injuries but that flucloxacillin may be more appropriate given most bacteria were from patients' own skin flora. The authors suggest that clinicians consider the presence of resistant marine-specific bacteria in cases where there is sepsis or inadequate response to initial therapy. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Systems biology elucidates common pathogenic mechanisms between nonalcoholic and alcoholic-fatty liver disease.

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    Silvia Sookoian

    Full Text Available The abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver is often related either to metabolic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the absence of alcohol consumption (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD or to chronic alcohol consumption (alcoholic fatty liver disease, AFLD. Clinical and histological studies suggest that NAFLD and AFLD share pathogenic mechanisms. Nevertheless, current data are still inconclusive as to whether the underlying biological process and disease pathways of NAFLD and AFLD are alike. Our primary aim was to integrate omics and physiological data to answer the question of whether NAFLD and AFLD share molecular processes that lead to disease development. We also explored the extent to which insulin resistance (IR is a distinctive feature of NAFLD. To answer these questions, we used systems biology approaches, such as gene enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction networks, and gene prioritization, based on multi-level data extracted by computational data mining. We observed that the leading disease pathways associated with NAFLD did not significantly differ from those of AFLD. However, systems biology revealed the importance of each molecular process behind each of the two diseases, and dissected distinctive molecular NAFLD and AFLD-signatures. Comparative co-analysis of NAFLD and AFLD clarified the participation of NAFLD, but not AFLD, in cardiovascular disease, and showed that insulin signaling is impaired in fatty liver regardless of the noxa, but the putative regulatory mechanisms associated with NAFLD seem to encompass a complex network of genes and proteins, plausible of epigenetic modifications. Gene prioritization showed a cancer-related functional map that suggests that the fatty transformation of the liver tissue is regardless of the cause, an emerging mechanism of ubiquitous oncogenic activation. In conclusion, similar underlying disease mechanisms lead to NAFLD and AFLD, but specific ones depict a

  13. Cost of Mastitis in Scottish Dairy Herds with Low and High Subclinical Mastitis Problems

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of mastitis and the contribution of each cost component of mastitis to the total mastitis induced cost in herds with low and high levels of subclinical mastitis under Scottish field conditions. It was estimated that mastitis cost £140 per cow/year to the average Scottish dairy farmer in 1996. However, this figure was as low as £69 per cow/year in herds with lower levels of subclinical mastitis, and as high as £228 cow/year in herds with high s...

  14. Relationship between milk cathelicidin abundance and microbiologic culture in clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M F; Bronzo, V; Puggioni, G M G; Cacciotto, C; Tedde, V; Pagnozzi, D; Locatelli, C; Casula, A; Curone, G; Uzzau, S; Moroni, P

    2017-04-01

    The availability of reliable tools to enable the sensitive and specific detection of mastitis in dairy cows can assist in developing control strategies and promote the more rational use of antibiotics. We have developed a milk cathelicidin ELISA that shows high sensitivity and specificity for dairy cow mastitis, based on latent class analysis. In this study, we investigated the effect of microbial agents on cathelicidin abundance in the milk of cows with clinical mastitis. We subjected 535 quarter milk samples (435 from quarters showing signs of clinical mastitis and 100 from healthy quarters as a control) to milk cathelicidin ELISA, somatic cell count (SCC), and microbiologic culture. Of the 435 clinical mastitis samples, 431 (99.08%) were positive for cathelicidin, 424 (97.47%) had SCC >200,000 cells/mL, and 376 (86.44%) were culture-positive. Of the 59 culture-negative samples, 58 (98.30%) were positive for cathelicidin and 55 (93.22%) had SCC >200,000 cells/mL. The abundance of cathelicidin and the extent of SCC increase depended on the causative agent: Streptococcus agalactiae and coagulase-negative staphylococci showed the highest and lowest changes, respectively. We also observed differences in behavior between the 2 markers depending on the pathogen: Streptococcus agalactiae induced the highest cathelicidin abundance, and Serratia spp. induced the highest SCC. Nevertheless, the different ability of microorganisms to induce cathelicidin release in milk did not compromise its value as a mastitis marker, given its higher sensitivity compared to SCC or microbiologic culture. All 100 negative control samples (collected from healthy quarters with SCC study confirmed the value of the milk cathelicidin ELISA for detecting bovine mastitis, and highlighted the influence of mastitis-causing microorganisms on cathelicidin abundance. This influence did not compromise diagnostic performance; instead, it may have better reflected disease severity and evolution than SCC

  15. Vitamin supplementation increases risk of subclinical mastitis in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis.

  16. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  17. Endocrine profiles of dairy cows following experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, M E; Hopkins, F M; Lewis, M J; Saxton, A M; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P; Schrick, F N

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of LH, cortisol, estradiol-17beta (E(2)), prolactin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGFM) were determined in cows with experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation. Cows free of intramammary infection (IMI) and in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were balanced by lactation number and days in milk and assigned to either control (n=5) or treatment (n=5) groups. Treated cows were infected experimentally (day 0), in two mammary quarters, with Streptococcus uberis and developed clinical mastitis within 60 h after inoculation as evidenced by increased mastitis scores, elevated rectal temperatures, mammary swelling and isolation of S. uberis pathogen. Four days following bacterial challenge, blood samples were collected every 20 min for 8 h for determination of PGFM and LH following administration of oxytocin and GnRH, respectively. Blood samples were also collected on days 0, 4 and 7 of the experiment to determine concentrations of E(2), prolactin and cortisol. Four days after bacterial challenge, concentrations of cortisol were higher (P=0.04) in experimentally infected cows than controls. Experimentally challenged cows had increased (P=0.02) concentrations of cortisol on days 4 and 7 compared with day 0. Control cows had no significant increase in blood cortisol during the experimental period. Baseline concentrations of PGFM did not differ between groups; however, peak concentrations of PGFM following oxytocin challenge were elevated (P=0.006) in cows with clinical mastitis compared with control animals. Prolactin, E(2) and LH did not differ between cows with clinical mastitis or controls. Experimentally induced mastitis during early lactation elevated concentrations of cortisol during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, mastitic cows demonstrated an increased PGFM response following oxytocin administration. Altered reproductive efficiency in cows with clinical mastitis caused by Gram

  18. Antimicrobial resistance levels amongst staphylococci isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Behluli, Behlul; Mestani, Mergim; Ademi, Arsim; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2016-10-31

    Mastitis is one of the most frequent and costly disease in cattle. We studied milk samples from cattle with mastitis from farms in Kosovo to identify mastitis-causing pathogens and possible effective antibiotics. Our ultimate goal is to help implement adequate antibiotic management and treatment practices in Kosovo METHODOLOGY: A total of 152 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical mastitis from different farms in Kosovo. After identification of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and the occurrence of enterotoxins was investigated. Staphylococci were found in 89 samples, of which 58 were coagulase negative and 31 coagulase positive. S. aureus was isolated from 27 samples, S. epidermidis from 25, and S. chromogenes from 15, while other species of staphylococci were isolated from the remaining 22 isolates. Interestingly, the bacterial diversity was different between cows in different periods of lactation and among different breeds. Most of the isolates (76/89) were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was to penicillin and ampicillin (> 65%), followed by tetracycline, oxacillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol (> 23%), and less than 3% to erythromycin. Of the 89 isolates, 40 produced enterotoxins that were most frequently typed as A and C. We detected human bacterial pathogens in the cultures of milk samples from cows with mastitis. The isolates demonstrated resistance to two or more antibiotics, some of which are frequently used to treat animal and human infections. We recommend increased control and more stringent use of antibiotics in veterinary as well as human medicine.

  19. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious

  20. Cerebellar ataxias: β‐III spectrin's interactions suggest common pathogenic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Emma; Suminaite, Daumante

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders all characterised by postural abnormalities, motor deficits and cerebellar degeneration. Animal and in vitro models have revealed β‐III spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein present throughout the soma and dendritic tree of cerebellar Purkinje cells, to be required for the maintenance of dendritic architecture and for the trafficking and/or stabilisation of several membrane proteins: ankyrin‐R, cell adhesion molecules, metabotropic glutamate receptor‐1 (mGluR1), voltage‐gated sodium channels (Nav) and glutamate transporters. This scaffold of interactions connects β‐III spectrin to a wide variety of proteins implicated in the pathology of many SCAs. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding β‐III spectrin (SPTBN2) underlie SCA type‐5 whereas homozygous mutations cause spectrin associated autosomal recessive ataxia type‐1 (SPARCA1), an infantile form of ataxia with cognitive impairment. Loss‐of β‐III spectrin function appears to underpin cerebellar dysfunction and degeneration in both diseases resulting in thinner dendrites, excessive dendritic protrusion with loss of planarity, reduced resurgent sodium currents and abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission. The initial physiological consequences are a decrease in spontaneous activity and excessive excitation, likely to be offsetting each other, but eventually hyperexcitability gives rise to dark cell degeneration and reduced cerebellar output. Similar molecular mechanisms have been implicated for SCA1, 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 19, 22, 27 and 28, highlighting alterations to intrinsic Purkinje cell activity, dendritic architecture and glutamatergic transmission as possible common mechanisms downstream of various loss‐of‐function primary genetic defects. A key question for future research is whether similar mechanisms underlie progressive cerebellar decline in normal ageing. PMID:26821241

  1. CASE REPORT Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The rare condition of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is presented here, unusually, in a 54-year-old woman. IGM mimics breast carcinoma and further differentials include tuberculosis and fungal infections of the breast together with other chronic granulomatous conditions. Of note is its characteristic ...

  2. Integration of epidemiology into the genetic analysis of mastitis in Swedisch Holstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Urioste, J.I.; Strandberg, E.

    2013-01-01

    Heritability of mastitis (and diseases in general) tends to be low. One possible cause is that no clear distinction can be made between resistant and nonresistant animals, because healthy animals include animals that have not been exposed to pathogens and resistant animals. To account for this, we

  3. The antimicrobial activity of the three commercially available intense sweeteners against common periodontal pathogens: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, G M; Patil, Ravi B; Nagaraj, Tejavathi; Patel, Vinit B

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three commercially available intense sweeteners against two common periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Three commercially available intense sweeteners namely saccharin, aspartame and sucralose were obtained and powdered. Necessary concentrations of the sweeteners were prepared by mixing them with an inert solvent. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed using agar well diffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. p-value sweeteners showed significant antimicrobial activity against the periodontal pathogens tested. Sucralose containing sucralose showed maximum zone of inhibition, against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Saccharin and aspartame containing saccharin and aspartame respectively, showed maximum zone of inhibition, against Porphyromonas gingivalis. All the sweeteners used in this study have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity. Therefore, these sweeteners could be recommended as an ideal alternative to sucrose. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are ubiquitous diseases of mankind caused by microorganisms. Dental caries is caused by sucrose. By altering the source like intense sweetener we can combat caries as well as with its antimicrobial properties against periodontopathic bacteria, we can reduce prevalence of periodontal diseases.

  4. Susceptibility to antimicrobials of mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae from New Zealand and the USA as assessed by the disk diffusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, K R; Grinberg, A; Williamson, N B; Abdalla, M E; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Parkinson, T J; Tucker, I G; Rapnicki, P

    2015-07-01

    To compare the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of three common mastitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae) isolated from milk samples from New Zealand and the USA. A total of 182 S. aureus, 126 Str. uberis and 89 Str. dysgalactiae isolates from New Zealand (107, 106 and 41, respectively) and the USA (75, 20 and 48, respectively) were assessed using the disk diffusion test. Susceptibility varied among the bacterial species. All isolates were susceptible to the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination. Resistance to lincomycin was most frequent (susceptibility of 8.6%) across all species. Non-susceptible (i.e. resistant or intermediate) isolates of S. aureus were identified for the three non-isoxazolyl penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin and penicillin: 20.6% and 36.0%) and lincomycin (99.9% and 94.6%) for NZ and the USA, respectively. Resistance to erythromycin (5.3%) and tetracyclines (6.7%) was detected only in isolates from the USA. There were differences in susceptibility between Str. uberis and Str. dysgalactiae; all streptococcal isolates demonstrated resistance to aminoglycosides (neomycin 52.4% and streptomycin 27.9%) and enrofloxacin (28%). Resistance of Str. dysgalactiae to tetracycline was almost 100.0% and to oxytetracycline 89.9%. Most of the isolates tested were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials commonly used for treatment of bovine mastitis, with the exception of the lincosamides. Susceptibility to a selected class-representative antimicrobial and at the genus level should be interpreted with caution. Differences between NZ and the USA confirm the value of national surveys to determine the susceptibility patterns of mastitis pathogens. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Detection and drug resistance profile of Escherichia coli from subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranich Hinthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E. coli was predominant, followed by enteroaggregative E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli, which was found only in milk samples. Twenty-one patterns of antibiotic resistance were identified in this study. Ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common among the bacterial isolates from water samples. Meanwhile, resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the pattern found most commonly in the E. coli from milk samples. Notably, only the E. coli from water samples possessed ESBL phenotype and carried antibiotic resistance genes, blaTEM and blaCMY-2. This indicates that pathogenic E. coli in dairy farms is also exposed to antibiotics and could potentially transfer these genes to other pathogenic bacteria under certain conditions.

  6. Detection and drug resistance profile ofEscherichia colifrom subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinthong, Woranich; Pumipuntu, Natapol; Santajit, Sirijan; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Buranasinsup, Shutipen; Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Aiumurai, Pisinee; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E. coli was predominant, followed by enteroaggregative E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli , which was found only in milk samples. Twenty-one patterns of antibiotic resistance were identified in this study. Ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common among the bacterial isolates from water samples. Meanwhile, resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the pattern found most commonly in the E. coli from milk samples. Notably, only the E. coli from water samples possessed ESBL phenotype and carried antibiotic resistance genes, bla TEM and bla CMY-2 . This indicates that pathogenic E. coli in dairy farms is also exposed to antibiotics and could potentially transfer these genes to other pathogenic bacteria under certain conditions.

  7. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To date, only one trial of probiotics to treat mastitis in women and one trial to prevent mastitis have been published. Although trials of probiotics to prevent mastitis in breastfeeding women are still in progress, health professionals in Australia are receiving marketing of these products. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of mastitis.

  8. Corticosteroid and Azithromycin in Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Salehi; Maryam Salehi; Nader Kalbasi; Atousa Hakamifard; Hassan Salehi; Mohammad Mahdi Salehi; Jalil Sharifian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. Materials and Methods: This study is a cli...

  9. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis among buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Namakkal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P; Jagadeswaran, D; Manoharan, R; Giri, T; Balasubramaniam, G A; Balachandran, P

    2013-12-01

    Milk samples from 206 apparently healthy buffaloes of marginal farmers maintained under the prevailing field conditions were screened for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) to determine its prevalence and etiology by White Side Test (WST), California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Bacteriological examination. 26.20% of animals were positive for SCM in SCC and bacteriological examination. Prevalence in graded Murrah buffaloes were found to be higher compared to graded Surti and Non-descript breeds. The prevalence of SCM was highest in above 6th stage of lactation. Single quarter infection (51.85%) was more common compared to multiple quarter infection. Hind (83.34%) and left side (57.41%) quarters were more prone to SCM. The indirect tests such as WST and CMT were found to be closely agreement with SCC and bacteriological examination. Due to their efficacious, easy to perform and interpret, these tests can effectively be employed to detect SCM under field conditions. Somatic cell count of = 3,00,000/mL of milk was regarded as the upper limit for normal buffaloes. The SCC of = 3,00,000/mL of milk with positive bacterial growth were used to diagnose SCM in the present study. Staphylococcus sp. 25 (46.30%) was the most common pathogens isolated from SCM followed by Streptococcus sp. 11 (20.37%) and E. coli 06 (11.11%) of the 54 bacterial isolates. Monobacterial and mixed bacterial infections were observed in 47 (87.04%) and 7 (12.96%) cases respectively.

  10. Successfully treated Mycobacterium abscessus mastitis: A rare cause of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Yasar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria are pathogens responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections especially occurring after injection, trauma or surgery. We describe a patient with Mycobacterium abscessus mastitis that presented as a mass lesion and haemorrhagical discharge. It was initially diagnosed and treated as fibrocystic disease and non-specific abscess. Full recovery was obtained with combination therapy of clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin without surgical debridement followed by several abscess aspirations. Atypical mycobacteria should be considered in diagnosis of chronic breast lesions in endemic areas. This is the first reported case of mastitis due to M. abscessus in Turkey.

  11. Biosecurity and mastitis in intensive dairy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boboš Stanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034

  12. common bacterial pathogens seen.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial infections are important causes of morbidity in the neonatal period. Therefore identification of infecting organisms and the risk factors for possible bacterial infection in the newborn is of great importance. Institution early appropriate therapy is an important step in combating morbidity and mortality in this ...

  13. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk are associated with HIV-1 shedding but not with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Shetty, Avinash K; Seidel, Kristy D; Qin, Xuan; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S; Katzenstein, David A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2008-07-31

    Breast milk HIV-1 load is associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, and both milk viral load and mastitis are associated with increased mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding. Bacterial infections may cause clinical mastitis, but whether other copathogens common in HIV-1 infection are associated with subclinical mastitis or HIV-1 shedding is unknown. A cross-sectional study of HIV-1-infected breastfeeding women in Zimbabwe was performed to examine the relationship between a wide range of breast coinfections, mastitis, and HIV-1 shedding. Breast milk was cultured for bacteria and fungi and tested by PCR for mycobacteria, mycoplasmas, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Symptoms of clinical mastitis were documented and subclinical mastitis was identified by breast milk sodium concentration (Na) and leukocyte counts. Coinfections of milk were not associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis in the 217 women studied. Detection of HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk was associated with cytomegalovirus concentration (odds ratio = 1.8, P = 0.002) and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (odds ratio = 3.8, P = 0.0003) but not other coinfections in multivariate analysis. Coinfection of breast milk with bacteria, fungi, or herpes viruses was not associated with mastitis. The associations between shedding of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with HIV-1 in milk suggest a local interaction between herpes virus infection and HIV-1 independent of mastitis. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections may impact HIV-1 shedding in breast milk and the risk of MTCT.

  14. Strengthening insights into host responses to mastitis infection in ruminants by combining heterogeneous microarray data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiling studies of mastitis in ruminants have provided key but fragmented knowledge for the understanding of the disease. A systematic combination of different expression profiling studies via meta-analysis techniques has the potential to test the extensibility of conclusions based on single studies. Using the program Pointillist, we performed meta-analysis of transcription-profiling data from six independent studies of infections with mammary gland pathogens, including samples from cattle challenged in vivo with S. aureus, E. coli, and S. uberis, samples from goats challenged in vivo with S. aureus, as well as cattle macrophages and ovine dendritic cells infected in vitro with S. aureus. We combined different time points from those studies, testing different responses to mastitis infection: overall (common signature), early stage, late stage, and cattle-specific. Results Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of affected genes showed that the four meta-analysis combinations share biological functions and pathways (e.g. protein ubiquitination and polyamine regulation) which are intrinsic to the general disease response. In the overall response, pathways related to immune response and inflammation, as well as biological functions related to lipid metabolism were altered. This latter observation is consistent with the milk fat content depression commonly observed during mastitis infection. Complementarities between early and late stage responses were found, with a prominence of metabolic and stress signals in the early stage and of the immune response related to the lipid metabolism in the late stage; both mechanisms apparently modulated by few genes, including XBP1 and SREBF1. The cattle-specific response was characterized by alteration of the immune response and by modification of lipid metabolism. Comparison of E. coli and S. aureus infections in cattle in vivo revealed that affected genes showing opposite regulation had the same altered

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  16. A study of bovine mastitis, milking procedures and management practices on 25 Estonian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonova Irina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis prevalence, milking procedures and management practices were investigated in 25 big dairy herds supplying milk to an Estonian dairy company. The aim of the study was to provide information for the company to be used in their new udder health improvement program to be set up after the completion of this study. Methods Quarter milk samples were collected from 3,166 cows for bacterial analysis and SCC (somatic cell counting. During the farm visit the veterinarian filled in a questionnaire about milking procedures and management practices with the help of farm managers. If the milk SCC of a cow or of a quarter exceeded 200,000/ml, the cow was defined as having mastitis. Results The percentage of cows having inflammation in one or more quarters measured by SCC (200,000/ml was 52.7%. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacterial isolates. Women as farm owners, and participating in the milking, were associated with lower mastitis prevalence on the farm. Peat bedding was associated with higher mastitis prevalence. Conclusion We demonstrated relatively high mastitis prevalence in this study. Contagious bacteria (eg. S. aureus, C. bovis, S. agalactiae and coagulase negative staphylococci caused most of the infections. These infections are usually spread from cow to cow at milking if the milking hygiene is not good enough. The mastitis situation could be improved by improving milking procedures and hygiene.

  17. Intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis in ewes to treat staphylococcal mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignacca, Sebastian Alessandro; Dore, Simone; Spuria, Liliana; Zanghì, Pietro; Amato, Benedetta; Duprè, Ilaria; Armas, Federica; Biasibetti, Elena; Camperio, Cristina; Lollai, Stefano A; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Cannas, Eugenia Agnese; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-12-01

    Alternatives to antibiotic therapy for mastitis in ruminants are needed. We present an evaluation, in two trials, of the efficacy of an intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis for the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in ewes. In total, 67 animals were enrolled: 19 lactating ewes (study 1), including healthy (N=6) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-infected ewes (N=13); and 48 lactating ewes (study 2) with either CNS mastitis (N=32), or Staphylococcus aureus mastitis (N=16), for a total of 123 mammary glands. Intramammary infusions were performed with either L. lactis or PBS for 3 (study 1) or 7 (study 2) consecutive days. Antibiotic-treated and untreated control glands were included. Milk samples for microbiology, somatic cell analysis and milk production were collected before and after treatment.Results/Key findings.L. lactis rapidly activated the mammary glands' innate immune response and initiated an inflammatory response as evidenced by the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and increased somatic cell counts. But while leading to a transient clearance of CNS in the gland, this response caused mild to moderate clinical cases of mastitis characterized by abnormal milk secretions and udder inflammation. Moreover, S. aureus infections did not improve, and CNS infections tended to relapse. Under our experimental conditions, the L. lactis treatment led to a transient clearance of the pathogen in the gland, but also caused mild to moderate clinical cases of mastitis. We believe it is still early to implement bacterial formulations as alternatives in treating mastitis in ruminants and further experimentation is needed.

  18. Using a common commensal bacterium in endangered Takahe as a model to explore pathogen dynamics in isolated wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Zoe L; Gartrell, Brett D; Biggs, Patrick J; Nelson, Nicola J; Marshall, Jonathan C; Howe, Laryssa; Balm, Matthew G M; French, Nigel P

    2015-10-01

    Predicting and preventing outbreaks of infectious disease in endangered wildlife is problematic without an understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors that influence pathogen transmission and the genetic variation of microorganisms within and between these highly modified host communities. We used a common commensal bacterium, Campylobacter spp., in endangered Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) populations to develop a model with which to study pathogen dynamics in isolated wildlife populations connected through ongoing translocations. Takahe are endemic to New Zealand, where their total population is approximately 230 individuals. Takahe were translocated from a single remnant wild population to multiple offshore and mainland reserves. Several fragmented subpopulations are maintained and connected through regular translocations. We tested 118 Takahe from 8 locations for fecal Campylobacter spp. via culture and DNA extraction and used PCR for species assignment. Factors relating to population connectivity and host life history were explored using multivariate analytical methods to determine associations between host variables and bacterial prevalence. The apparent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Takahe was 99%, one of the highest reported in avian populations. Variation in prevalence was evident among Campylobacter species identified. C. sp. nova 1 (90%) colonized the majority of Takahe tested. Prevalence of C. jejuni (38%) and C. coli (24%) was different between Takahe subpopulations, and this difference was associated with factors related to population management, captivity, rearing environment, and the presence of agricultural practices in the location in which birds were sampled. Modeling results of Campylobacter spp. in Takahe metapopulations suggest that anthropogenic management of endangered species within altered environments may have unforeseen effects on microbial exposure, carriage, and disease risk. Translocation of wildlife between locations could

  19. Prevalence and etiological agents of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in nine dairy herds in North-East Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztachańska, M; Barański, W; Janowski, T; Pogorzelska, J; Zduńczyk, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and etiological agents of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in nine dairy herds in North-East Poland. In total, 387 Polish HF were involved in the study. The diagnosis of mastitis was performed on the basis of clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk, determination of somatic cell count and bacteriological examination of milk. Subclinical mastitis was found in an average of 36.7% (range from 21.0% to 53.1%) of cows and of 15.7% (range from 9.6% to 25.2%) of quarters. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS; 31.6% of quarters), Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (15.6% of quarters), Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus (12.1% of quarters) and fungi (12.2% of quarters) were most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis. Etiological agents of subclinical mastitis differed strongly between herds. The results of this study showed that the incidence of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in dairy herds in North-East Poland is high. CNS were the most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis cases, however mastitis caused by the contagious pathogens Str. agalactiae and Staph. aureus is still a problem. The fungal infections of the mammary gland also play an important role.

  20. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  1. Common motifs in the response of cereal primary metabolism to fungal pathogens are not based on similar transcriptional reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Matthias Voll

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During compatible interactions with their host plants, biotrophic plant pathogens subvert host metabolism to ensure the sustained provision of nutrient assimilates by the colonized host cells. To investigate, whether common motifs can be revealed in the response of primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism towards colonization with biotrophic fungi in cereal leaves, we have conducted a combined metabolome and transcriptome study of three quite divergent pathosystems, the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis and the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, the latter being a hemibiotroph that only exhibits an initial biotrophic phase during its establishment.Based on the analysis of 42 water-soluble metabolites, we were able to separate early biotrophic from late biotrophic interactions by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, irrespective of the plant host. Interestingly, the corresponding transcriptome dataset could not discriminate between these stages of biotrophy, irrespective, of whether transcript data for genes of central metabolism or the entire transcriptome dataset was used. Strong differences in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, lipid biosynthesis, and cell wall metabolism were observed between the pathosystems. Increased contents of Gln, Asn, and glucose as well as diminished contents of PEP and 3-PGA were common to early post-penetration stages of all interactions. On the transcriptional level, genes of the TCA cycle, nucleotide energy metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis exhibited consistent trends among the compared biotrophic interactions, identifying the requirement for metabolic energy and the rearrangement of amino acid pools as common transcriptional motifs during early biotrophy. Both metabolome and transcript data were employed to generate models of leaf primary metabolism during

  2. Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: I. Quarter-level outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

    2013-07-01

    The study objective was to compare the efficacy of 3 commercial dry cow mastitis formulations regarding quarter-level prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) postcalving, cure of preexisting infections over the dry period, prevention of new infections during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis case between calving and 100d in milk (DIM). A total of 1,091 cows (4,364 quarters) from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 different states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 3 treatments at dry-off: Quartermaster (QT; 1,000,000 IU of procaine penicillin G and 1 g of dihydrostreptomycin; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY), Spectramast DC (SP; 500 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride; Pfizer Animal Health), or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; 300mg of cephapirin benzathine; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO). Quarter milk samples were collected for routine bacteriological culture before dry cow therapy treatment at dry-off, 0 to 6 DIM, and 7 to 13 DIM and an on-farm record-keeping system was used to retrieve data on clinical mastitis cases. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the primary outcome, risk for a bacteriological cure during the dry period. Multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for presence of IMI postcalving and risk of a new IMI during the dry period. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to describe the effect of treatment on the risk and time for quarters to experience an episode of clinical mastitis between calving and 100 DIM. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of infection at dry-off was 19.2%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by Aerococcus spp. and other Streptococcus spp. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on risk for a cure between dry-off and calving [least squares means (LSM): QT=93

  3. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and isolation of its major causes in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Misrak; Leta, Samson; Mamo, Gezahegne; Tesfaye, Shimelis

    2017-12-21

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to March 2016 to estimate the prevalence, to assess the risk factors and to isolate the major etiological agent of subclinical mastitis in Bishoftu town. The study was conducted on 262 cross breed lactating cows selected from 12 intensively managed dairy farms. California mastitis test (CMT) and bacteriological culture methods were used as diagnostic tools. From 262 cows examined, 105 (40.1%) and from 1048 quarters examined, 170 (16.1%) were positive for sub-clinical mastitis using CMT. All CMT positive samples were cultured for etiological agent identification. From 170 samples cultured, 153 were positive for known subclinical mastitis pathogens. The dominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus species from these Staphylococcus aureus (44.9%) was the major one followed by Streptococcus spp. (25.3%) and other gram negative enteric bacteria, Escherichia coli (8.8%). Age, body condition score, milk yield, and number of parity were considered as potential risk factors; among these, age and number of parity have statistically significance association with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis (P < 0.05) both in the CMT and the bacteriological tests.

  4. Efficiency evaluation of a bivalent vaccine in the prophylaxis of mastitis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaš V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The longtime different approaches to the treatment of mastitis have not offered a suitable solution, and the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. Prevention of pathogen penetration into the mammary gland, its colonization and multiplication impose a constant need for regular inspections of milk, as well as preventive and therapeutic measures to reduce the incidence of mastitis. Studies in the field of vaccination of ruminants against mastitis pathogens suggest a limited success in obtaining significant results in immunoprophylaxis. Considering the results of other researchers and our own research, and bearing in mind the problems mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae represent, the aim of this study was the preparation and testing of an indigenous vaccine prepared with two stable strains, SAU 7 (S. aureus and SAG 3 (Str.agalactiae. The dose was 5 mL/cow and consisted of inactivated bacterial S. aureus SAU 7 cells in a concentration of 1x1010 cfu/mL and Str. agalactiae SAG 3 in a concentration of 4 x 109 cfu/mL. The number of somatic cells in the milk samples during the whole study period was higher in vaccinated cows in both groups compared with the control, but this difference was not statistically significant. The concentration of immunoglobulin IgG in the milk of vaccinated cows was significantly higher than the concentration of this class of proteins in the milk of unvaccinated cows. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  5. Shifted T Helper Cell Polarization in a Murine Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanqing; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Yang; Liu, Heyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Yue, Jinhua; Chen, Dekun

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis, one of the most costly diseases in dairy ruminants, is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by pathogenic infection. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity against pathogens in mastitis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate T helper cell-mediated adaptive immune responses, we established a mastitis model by challenge with an inoculum of 4 × 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus in the mammary gland of lactating mice, followed by quantification of bacterial burden and histological analysis. The development of mastitis was accompanied by a significant increase in both Th17 and Th1 cells in the mammary gland. Moreover, the relative expression of genes encoding cytokines and transcription factors involved in the differentiation and function of these T helper cells, including Il17, Rorc, Tgfb, Il1b, Il23, Ifng, Tbx21, and Il12, was greatly elevated in the infected mammary gland. IL-17 is essential for neutrophil recruitment to infected mammary gland via CXC chemokines, whereas the excessive IL-17 production contributes to tissue damage in mastitis. In addition, a shift in T helper cell polarization toward Th2 and Treg cells was observed 5 days post-infection, and the mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 was markedly increased at day 7 post-infection. These results indicate that immune clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitis is facilitated by the enrichment of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells in the mammary gland mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is tightly regulated by Treg cells and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  6. Prevalence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is extensive literature on bovine mastitis and to a lesser extent on ovine and caprine mastitis; however, little is known about mastitis in camels. There is limited information on the prevalence and causative agents of camel masti- tis in Ethiopia. The prevalence and causes of mastitis differ markedly due to geographical ...

  7. Herpes Simplex Mastitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Brown

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common sites of herpes simplex virus (HSV infection are around the oral cavity and the genitalia. However, HSV can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface. One uncommon site of HSV infection is the breast. Reports of herpetic breast infections are predominantly cases of transmission from a systemically HSV-infected neonate to the mother during breast-feeding. A review of the literature identified only six reports suggesting HSV breast lesions acquired by means other than through an infected infant. Of these, only one report suggests HSV transmission to the breast from a male sexual partner. A second case of clinically unsuspected symptomatic herpes mastitis presumably acquired from sexual contact in a 46-year-old woman is presented. Herpes simplex type 1 was isolated by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymerization techniques. The purpose of this report is to alert physicians to HSV mastitis.

  8. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  9. Studies on the genus Pythium in Egypt. V. Test of pathogenicity of some common root-infecting fungi in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mazen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity tests of various species of Pythium, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sotani were made on five plants namely cotton, pea, tomato, maize and wheat. Pythium ultimum proved to be the most destructive species to tomato and cotton seedlings. The four species of Fusarium tested showed considerably different pathogenic abilities. Isolate of Rhizoctonia soleni (A — from soil showed slight pathogenicity to all test plants and isolate (B — from cotton seedlings was highly destructive to cotton and pea.

  10. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  11. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  12. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%, limonene (11.50%, β-bourbonene (11.23%, cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%, trans-caryophyllene (1.04%, menthone (1.01%, menthol (1%, and terpinen-4-ol (0.99. The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL. Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  13. Autoimmune forms of thrombotic microangiopathy and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Indications for a disease spectrum and common pathogenic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerka, Christine; Licht, Christoph; Mengel, Michael; Uzonyi, Barbara; Strobel, Stefanie; Zipfel, Peter F; Józsi, Mihály

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) and Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN), especially subtype II (also termed Dense Deposit Disease) represent a spectrum of related disorders. Thrombi are common for all three disorders, develop in different microvascular beds and appear relevant for organ dysfunction. TTP not only develops primarily at neurological sites, but also in the kidney and aHUS develops primarily in the kidneys. In TTP thrombi formation occurs subsequently to the release of multimers of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and in HUS (both typical and atypical) to endothelial cell damage (via toxins or complement dysregulation). In MPGN thrombus formation occurs in the kidney, however, the cause for thrombi development is less clear. In addition autoimmune forms, in which acquired inhibitors in form of autoantibodies are de novo generated, exist for all three disorders. However, the autoantibodies are directed against different antigens. In TTP against ADAMTS 13, the vWF cleaving protease and in the DEAP-HUS (Deficient for CFHR1 and CFHR3 proteins and autoantibody positive) group against the major complement regulator Factor H. Autoantibodies in MPGN are termed C3 Nephritic Factor (C3NeF) and are directed against a neoepitope of the complement C3 convertase C3bBb. Apparently C3NeF stabilizes this convertase and this results in C3 amplification and complement activation. Based on the existence of acquired immune inhibitors and the shared thrombus formation in TTP, aHUS (DEAP-HUS) and MPGN we here address the hypothesis if the three autoimmune forms represent a spectrum of related diseases and share a common pathogenic principle.

  14. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  15. STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46% followed by staphylococci (33.99%, E. coli (27.09%, pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97% and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%. The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%, highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%.

  16. Short communication: Lipolytic activity on milk fat by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains commonly isolated in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanarachchi, Janak K; Li, Shengjie; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö; Johansson, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lipolytic activity on milk fat of 2 bovine mastitis pathogens, that is, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The lipolytic activity was determined by 2 different techniques, that is, thin-layer chromatography and an extraction-titration method, in an experimental model using the most commonly occurring field strains of the 2 mastitic bacteria isolated from Swedish dairy farms. The microorganisms were inoculated into bacteria-free control milk and incubated at 37°C to reflect physiological temperatures in the mammary gland. Levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were analyzed at time of inoculation (t=0) and after 2 and 6h of incubation, showing significant increase in FFA levels. After 2h the FFA content had increased by approximately 40% in milk samples inoculated with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, and at 6h the pathogens had increased FFA levels by 47% compared with the bacteria-free control milk. Changes in lipid composition compared with the bacteria-free control were investigated at 2 and 6h of incubation. Diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids increased significantly after 6h incubation with the mastitis bacteria, whereas cholesterol and sterol esters decreased. Our results suggest that during mammary infections with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, the action of lipases originating from the mastitis pathogens will contribute significantly to milk fat lipolysis and thus to raw milk deterioration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Granulomatous lobular mastitis ,A case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourzand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM is an inflammatory disease of the breast, which can mimic breast cancer in clinical and radiological findings. We conducted the present study in order to determine the diagnostic and other important aspects of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the records of 38 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis in order to describe the clinical, imaging, laboratory, pathologic, and treatment aspects of this disease. RESULTS: All of the patients’ ages were in the range of 22-62 years (mean age: 42 years. All of them had children, history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP usage, antibiotic therapy and mammoplasty. In physical examination, dimpling, edema, inflammation, ulcer, abscess, and firm mass were detected. Size of masses was in the range of 2 × 2 to 8 × 6 cm and their location, in most cases, was in the superior lateral quadrant or central region. In Ultrasonography, a hypoechoic fibroglandular mass and collection, and in pathologic findings, granulomatous reaction was reported. These patients were treated by antibiotics, corticosteroids, and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: GLM is a chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast which can mimic breast cancer. A history of child bearing, lactation, and OCP drug usage have suspicious roles in the formation of GLM. The most common clinical sign in these patients is a painful mass in the breast. We uncovered that clinical and radiological findings are not specific and sufficient for diagnosis of GLM. Therefore, for better diagnosis of this disease, usage of core, incisional, or excisional biopsy are recommended.

  18. Eradication of common pathogens at days 2, 3 and 4 of moxifloxacin therapy in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Alice

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS is a common infection in clinical practice. Data on time to bacteriologic eradication after antimicrobial therapy are lacking for most agents, but are necessary in order to optimize therapy. This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study to determine the time to bacteriologic eradication in ABS patients (maxillary sinusitis treated with moxifloxacin. Methods Adult patients with radiologically and clinically confirmed ABS received once-daily moxifloxacin 400 mg for 10 days. Middle meatus secretion sampling was performed using nasal endoscopy pre-therapy, and repeated on 3 consecutive days during treatment. Target enrollment was 30 bacteriologically evaluable patients (pre-therapy culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis and evaluable cultures for at least Day 2 and Day 3 during therapy visits, including at least 10 each with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae. Results Of 192 patients enrolled, 42 were bacteriologically evaluable, with 48 pathogens isolated. Moxifloxacin was started on Day 1. Baseline bacteria were eradicated in 35/42 (83.3% patients by day 2, 42/42 (100% patients by day 3, and 41/42 (97.6% patients by day 4. In terms of individual pathogens, 12/18 S. pneumoniae, 22/23 H. influenzae and 7/7 M. catarrhalis were eradicated by day 2 (total 41/48; 85.4%, and 18/18 S. pneumoniae and 23/23 H. influenzae were eradicated by day 3. On Day 4, S. pneumoniae was isolated from a patient who had negative cultures on Days 2 and 3. Thus, the Day 4 eradication rate was 47/48 (97.9%. Clinical success was achieved in 36/38 (94.7% patients at the test of cure visit. Conclusion In patients with ABS (maxillary sinusitis, moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 10 days resulted in eradication of baseline bacteria in 83.3% of patients by Day 2, 100% by Day 3 and 97.6% by Day 4.

  19. Combined analysis of DNA methylome and transcriptome reveal novel candidate genes with susceptibility to bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minyan; He, Yanghua; Zhou, Huangkai; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xizhi; Yu, Ying

    2016-07-14

    Subclinical mastitis is a widely spread disease of lactating cows. Its major pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In this study, we performed genome-wide integrative analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptional expression to identify candidate genes and pathways relevant to bovine S. aureus subclinical mastitis. The genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis (SA group) and healthy controls (CK) were generated by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays. We identified 1078 differentially methylated genes in SA cows compared with the controls. By integrating DNA methylation and transcriptome data, 58 differentially methylated genes were shared with differently expressed genes, in which 20.7% distinctly hypermethylated genes showed down-regulated expression in SA versus CK, whereas 14.3% dramatically hypomethylated genes showed up-regulated expression. Integrated pathway analysis suggested that these genes were related to inflammation, ErbB signalling pathway and mismatch repair. Further functional analysis revealed that three genes, NRG1, MST1 and NAT9, were strongly correlated with the progression of S. aureus subclinical mastitis and could be used as powerful biomarkers for the improvement of bovine mastitis resistance. Our studies lay the groundwork for epigenetic modification and mechanistic studies on susceptibility of bovine mastitis.

  20. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ssajjakambwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1% had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3% and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7% of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%, Streptococcus spp. (12.3%, Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%, and E. coli (7.7%. Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%, Streptococcus spp. (8.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%, and E. coli (8.3%, whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%. Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended.

  1. A descriptive study of mastitis in Australian breastfeeding women: incidence and determinants

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    Forster Della A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection. The aims of this paper are to compare rates of mastitis in primiparous women receiving public hospital care (standard or birth centre and care in a co-located private hospital, and to use multivariate analysis to explore other factors related to mastitis. Methods Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18–20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital. All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms. Results The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206 of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24% than women in ABFAB (15%; adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365. Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56. We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis. Conclusion The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis. Trial registration

  2. Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report

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    Atanasov Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can

  3. The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment

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    Hall-Lord Marie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of bacterial pathogens in lactational mastitis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare bacterial species in breast milk of women with mastitis and of healthy breast milk donors and to evaluate the use of antibiotic therapy, the symptoms of mastitis, number of health care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess, damaged nipples and recurrent symptoms in relation to bacterial counts. Methods In this descriptive study, breast milk from 192 women with mastitis (referred to as cases and 466 breast milk donors (referred to as controls was examined bacteriologically and compared using analytical statistics. Statistical analyses were also carried out to test for relationships between bacteriological content and clinical symptoms as measured on scales, prescription of antibiotics, the number of care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess and recurring symptoms. Results Five main bacterial species were found in both cases and controls: coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, viridans streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Group B streptococci (GBS and Enterococcus faecalis. More women with mastitis had S. aureus and GBS in their breast milk than those without symptoms, although 31% of healthy women harboured S. aureus and 10% had GBS. There were no significant correlations between bacterial counts and the symptoms of mastitis as measured on scales. There were no differences in bacterial counts between those prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics or those with and without breast abscess. GBS in breast milk was associated with increased health care contacts (p = 0.02. Women with ≥ 107 cfu/L CNS or viridans streptococci in their breast milk had increased odds for damaged nipples (p = 0.003. Conclusion Many healthy breastfeeding women have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their breast milk. Increasing bacterial counts did not affect the clinical manifestation of mastitis; thus bacterial counts in

  4. Determination of common pathogenic bacteria of blast injury to the limbs in plateau area and related research

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    Zheng-lei WANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the common pathogenic bacteria and their drug susceptibility in the wounds in the limbs as a result of blast injury in plateau with a low temperature so as to provide a basis for prevention and treatment of war wound infection in such area. Methods The model of blast injury was reproduced to the hind legs of 800 rabbits in cold and dry plateau. 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h after injury, the general condition and vital signs of the wounded were observed, and bacterial culture, flora analysis and drug susceptibility test of excretion from wound tract, air, surface of snow, soil and animal fur were performed. Results Micrococciand Bacilliwere found in air and snow. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosawere found in soil, and Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacters, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Escherichia coliin rabbit fur. The respiration and pulse became faster, and body temperature lowered after injury compared with that before injury. G+ bacteria were found in most wound tract secretions, and the frequency of the bacterial strains in descending order were Bacillus subtilis, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophiliastrains. The sensitive antibiotics for these G+ bacteria were ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin. Susceptible G– bacteria were susceptible to ceftazidime, minocycline, sulfamethoxazole etc. Conclusions The growth of bacteria in the wounds as a result of blast injury grow slower in cold and dry alpine area. The time of debridement may be delayed for 2-3h. G+ bacteria were main susceptible flora to antibiotics, and it is related to the bacterial flora of the surrounding environment, thus it is suggested that a combination of different antibiotics (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin or erythromycin alone combined with ceftazidime, minocycline or cotrimoxazole alone are needed to prevent infection after blast injury. DOI: 10.11855/j

  5. USE OF CALIFORNIA MASTITIS TEST IN DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

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    Nazif Varatanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Udder health control has been conducted in three different cow breeds by comparing the California Mastitis Test results in order to justify its use in detecting subclinical mastitis. The test examined 75 cows, or 228 quarters in total. In 76% of the cows of different breeds, the results of California Mastitis Test were positive. The tests were positive in one or two quarters with the intensity level of one, two and three. The test showed much higher percentage of positive reaction in the rear quarters. According to the results of our research, the continuous application of this test enables the early detection of subclinical mastitis resulting in its prevention and also improvement in quantity and milk quality.Key words: mastitis, California Mastitis Test, cow

  6. Reduction of Lactobacillus in the milks of cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, J; Kwok, L; Zhang, J; Gao, P; Zheng, Y; Guo, Z; Hou, Q; Huo, D; Huang, W; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis are the most frequent diseases encountered on dairy farms worldwide, which cause significant economic loss and veterinary cost. The mastitic disease status is associated with increases in both milk bacterial pathogens and somatic cell count (SCC). Although it is well established that the mastitic pathogens generally correlate with the milk SCC, to our knowledge, the correlation between the probiotic genus, Lactobacillus, and the mastitic causative bacteria and SCC have not been determined previously. Thus, in this study, milk samples from 12 mild and 28 severe subclinical mastitic dairy cows were collected from the same farm. The overall milk bacterial load was quantified with the total plate count method. The Lactobacillus genus and 4 common clinical and subclinical mastitic pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Trueperella pyogenes) in the sampled milk were enumerated by quantitative PCR. Mild and severe subclinical mastitic samples were distinctly separated on the principal component analysis score plot generated based on the quantities of these 5 target bacteria, suggesting that clear differences existed in the microbiological composition between the two sample groups. Based on comparison with the pairwise Mann-Whitney test, the mild subclinical mastitic dairy cows had a significantly higher amounts of lactobacilli (P=0.0175), but lower E. coli (P=0.0002), S. aureus (Psubclinical mastitic group. The negative correlation between Lactobacillus and the pathogenic bacteria, as well as the SCC, was confirmed with Spearman correlation analysis. Data generated from the current study may hint to a close relationship between Lactobacillus and the health of bovine udder.

  7. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  8. Use of milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Arianna; Moscati, Livia; Fruganti, Gabriele; Pela, Michela; Scoccia, Eleonora; Valiani, Andrea; Maresca, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SM) is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy ewes worldwide, with negative impact on the animal health, farm income and public health. Animals with SM often remain untreated because the disease may not be revealed. Increase in somatic cell count (SCC) and positive bacteriology for mastitis pathogens in milk samples are indicative of SM but the evidence of only one of these alterations must suggest an uncertain SM (UM). UM is defined when positive bacteriological examination (Latent-SM) or SCC>500 000 cells/ml (non-specific-SM) are detected in milk. Nevertheless, SCC and bacteriological examination are expensive, time consuming and are not yet in use at the farm level in dairy ewes. Recently, a sensitive acute phase protein, amyloid A, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids including mammary secretion (milk amyloid A-MAA), has been investigated as a marker of mastitis in cows and, in a few studies, in sheep. The aim of this trial was to compare the concentration of MAA of single udder-halves in ewes with healthy udder-halves (HU-control group) and naturally occurring subclinical mastitis, both confirmed (SM group) and uncertain (UM groups: Latent-SM and non-specific-SM), for monitoring udder health. The reliability of a specific ELISA kit for the measurement of MAA was also tested. During a 3-month trial period, 153 udder halves were assigned to the experimental groups based on their health status: 25 with SM, 40 with UM (11 with latent-SM and 29 with non-specific-SM) and 88 HU. SCC and bacteriological analysis were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis groups. MAA concentrations in milk samples were measured using a specific commercially milk ELISA kit. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant (Psubclinical mastitis and increased SCC in sheep.

  9. Development of an experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis subclinical mastitis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagno, Mirta C; Vissio, Claudina; Reinoso, Elina B; Raspanti, Claudia; Yaciuk, Raúl; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2012-01-27

    Streptococcus uberis is a major environmental mastitis-causing pathogen. The infections are predominantly subclinical and are frequently undetected and untreated for extended periods of time. More information about the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis would be useful. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to reproduce an experimentally induced S. uberis subclinical mastitis in lactating goats aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation with S. uberis. Six Saanen goats in mid-lactation were inoculated with 1.7 × 10(8)cfu of S. uberis. Bacterial growth peaked in milk from challenged right mammary halves (RMH) at 4h PI. Shedding of viable bacteria showed a marked decrease at 20 h PI. Mean somatic cell counts in milk from the RMH peaked at 20 h PI. Inoculation with S. uberis was followed by a decrease in the mean total number of leukocytes. Signs and systemic symptoms were not evoked by intramammary inoculation. S. uberis could be isolated in tissue from all RMH. Histological examination of specimens of the RMH and lymph nodes of the goats showed an increased inflammatory response throughout the experiment. The histological findings correlated with the immunohistochemical detection of S. uberis in RMH. In conclusion, the experimental inoculation of S. uberis in lactating goats is capable of eliciting an inflammatory response and causing pathological changes, resulting in a subclinical mastitis. This investigation shows that goat might to represent a valuable model for the study of the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic effect of nisin Z on subclinical mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-09-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-treated (n = 46) and control (n = 44) groups. In the nisin-treated group, cows received an intramammary infusion of nisin at a dose of 2,500,000 IU once daily for 3 days while the control cows received no treatment. Milk samples were collected from the affected mammary quarters before treatment and 1 and 2 weeks after treatment for analyses of bacteria, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase). Results indicated that nisin therapy had bacteriological cure rates of 90.1% for Streptococcus agalactiae (10 of 11), 50% for Staphylococcus aureus (7 of 14), 58.8% for coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 of 17), and 65.2% for all cases (30 of 46). Meanwhile, only 15.9% (7 of 44) of untreated cows spontaneously recovered. NAGase activity in milk samples and the number of mammary quarters with a milk somatic cell count of > or =500,000/ml were significantly decreased after nisin treatment while no significant changes took place in the control group. Because of its therapeutic effects on bovine subclinical mastitis, as well as its safety in humans, nisin deserves further study to clarify its effects on mastitis caused by different pathogens.

  11. Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds

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    Trajčev M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and

  12. Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, H; Huijps, K; Lam, T J G M

    2011-01-01

    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other

  13. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie

    2008-01-01

    questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...... the affected breast or to discontinue breastfeeding altogether. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in six women is likely to experience one or more episodes of mastitis whilst breastfeeding. A small but clinically important proportion of women continue to receive inappropriate management advice from health...... professionals which, if followed, could lead them to unnecessarily deprive their infants prematurely of the known nutritional and immunological benefits of breast milk....

  15. Genomic and Phenomic Study of Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E.; Heller, Elimelech D.; Sela, Shlomo; Elad, Daniel; Edery, Nir; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a major etiological agent of intra-mammary infections (IMI) in cows, leading to acute mastitis and causing great economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Particular strains cause persistent IMI, leading to recurrent mastitis. Virulence factors of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) involved pathogenesis of mastitis as well as those differentiating strains causing acute or persistent mastitis are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify virulence markers in MPEC through whole genome and phenome comparative analysis. MPEC strains causing acute (VL2874 and P4) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis were compared to an environmental strain (K71) and to the genomes of strains representing different E. coli pathotypes. Intra-mammary challenge in mice confirmed experimentally that the strains studied here have different pathogenic potential, and that the environmental strain K71 is non-pathogenic in the mammary gland. Analysis of whole genome sequences and predicted proteomes revealed high similarity among MPEC, whereas MPEC significantly differed from the non-mammary pathogenic strain K71, and from E. coli genomes from other pathotypes. Functional features identified in MPEC genomes and lacking in the non-mammary pathogenic strain were associated with synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and other membrane antigens, ferric-dicitrate iron acquisition and sugars metabolism. Features associated with cytotoxicity or intra-cellular survival were found specifically in the genomes of strains from severe and acute (VL2874) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis, respectively. MPEC genomes were relatively similar to strain K-12, which was subsequently shown here to be possibly pathogenic in the mammary gland. Phenome analysis showed that the persistent MPEC was the most versatile in terms of nutrients metabolized and acute MPEC the least. Among phenotypes unique to MPEC compared to the non-mammary pathogenic strain were uric acid and D-serine metabolism. This study

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of a hand-held milk electrical conductivity meter compared to the California mastitis test for mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosgate, G T; Petzer, I M; Karzis, J

    2013-04-01

    Screening tests for mastitis can play an important role in proactive mastitis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of milk electrical conductivity (EC) to the California mastitis test (CMT) in commercial dairy cattle in South Africa using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. A total of 1848 quarter milk specimens were collected from 173 cows sampled during six sequential farm visits. Of these samples, 25.8% yielded pathogenic bacterial isolates. The most frequently isolated species were coagulase negative Staphylococci (n=346), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=54), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=42). The overall cow-level prevalence of mastitis was 54% based on the Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis. The CMT was more accurate than EC for classification of cows having somatic cell counts >200,000/mL and for isolation of a bacterial pathogen. BLC analysis also suggested an overall benefit of CMT over EC but the statistical evidence was not strong (P=0.257). The Bayesian model estimated the sensitivity and specificity of EC (measured via resistance) at a cut-point of >25 mΩ/cm to be 89.9% and 86.8%, respectively. The CMT had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 77.7%, respectively, when evaluated at the weak positive cut-point. EC was useful for identifying milk specimens harbouring pathogens but was not able to differentiate among evaluated bacterial isolates. Screening tests can be used to improve udder health as part of a proactive management plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Mapping of Halo Blight Resistance in Common Bean to Race 6 of the Globally Important Bacterial Pathogen

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    Andrew J. Tock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psph Race 6 is a globally prevalent and broadly virulent bacterial pathogen with devastating impact causing halo blight of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Common bean lines PI 150414 and CAL 143 are known sources of resistance against this pathogen. We constructed high-resolution linkage maps for three recombinant inbred populations to map resistance to Psph Race 6 derived from the two common bean lines. This was complemented with a genome-wide association study (GWAS of Race 6 resistance in an Andean Diversity Panel of common bean. Race 6 resistance from PI 150414 maps to a single major-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL; HB4.2 on chromosome Pv04 and confers broad-spectrum resistance to eight other races of the pathogen. Resistance segregating in a Rojo × CAL 143 population maps to five chromosome arms and includes HB4.2. GWAS detected one QTL (HB5.1 on chromosome Pv05 for resistance to Race 6 with significant influence on seed yield. The same HB5.1 QTL, found in both Canadian Wonder × PI 150414 and Rojo × CAL 143 populations, was effective against Race 6 but lacks broad resistance. This study provides evidence for marker-assisted breeding for more durable halo blight control in common bean by combining alleles of race-nonspecific resistance (HB4.2 from PI 150414 and race-specific resistance (HB5.1 from cv. Rojo.

  18. [Inflammatory and infectious breast mastitis outside of pregnancy and lactation: Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, E; Touboul, C; Kerdraon, O; Catteau-Jonard, S

    2015-12-01

    This work's objective was to define the various non-cancerous inflammatory and infectious mastitis, which may occur outside of pregnancy and lactation, and to identify recommendations for their care based on an exhaustive literature review. A literature review was conducted by consulting Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and international recommendations in French and English until 31st August 2014. Infectious mastitis (periareolar abscess) is the most common form of non-puerperal abscesses and it is recommended that a suction/drainage needle for abscesses under 5 cm, involving antibiotic therapy (grade C). For abscesses over 5 cm, there is no evidence to recommend a first surgery or suction/drainage. Inflammatory mastitis can be primary or secondary to a systemic disease (diabetes, collagen…; LE4). In case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, a steroid therapy or surgery may be indicated, without one or the other of these methods can be recommended. In case of plasma cell mastitis or ductal ectasia, no treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Enige speenpuntvereelting verkleint kans op mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2000-01-01

    Koeien die in de tweede of derde maand van de lactatie klinische mastitis kregen vertoonden meer speenpuntvereelting. Een goede afstelling van de melkmachine, de juiste tepelvoering, een goede voorbehandeling en het afnamemoment zijn belangrijke factoren voor de speenconditie.

  20. Mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses due to clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J; Kastelic, J P; Barkema, H W

    2015-03-01

    Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e., direct losses) or effects of the immune response triggered by intramammary infection (indirect losses). The distinction is important in terms of mastitis prevention and treatment. Regardless, the number of pathogens is often unknown (particularly in field studies), making it difficult to estimate direct losses, whereas indirect losses can be approximated by measuring the association between increased somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production. An alternative is to perform a mediation analysis in which changes in milk yield are allocated into their direct and indirect components. We applied this method on data for clinical mastitis, milk and SCC test-day recordings, results of bacteriological cultures (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and streptococci other than Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis), and cow characteristics. Following a diagnosis of clinical mastitis, the cow was treated and changes (increase or decrease) in milk production before and after a diagnosis were interpreted counterfactually. On a daily basis, indirect changes, mediated by SCC increase, were significantly different from zero for all bacterial species, with a milk yield decrease (ranging among species from 4 to 33g and mediated by an increase of 1000 SCC/mL/day) before and a daily milk increase (ranging among species from 2 to 12g and mediated by a decrease of 1000 SCC/mL/day) after detection. Direct changes, not mediated by SCC, were only different from zero for coagulase-negative staphylococci before diagnosis (72g per day). We concluded that mixed structural equation models were useful to estimate direct and indirect effects of the presence of clinical mastitis on milk yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, anti...

  2. Involvement of fungal species in bovine mastitis in and around Mathura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Pachauri

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in bovines of Mathura region. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples collected from seven different regions of Mathura were examined by cultural, morphological and biochemical methods. Results: Out of 100 milk samples processed 64 samples were found positive for fungal isolates. The most common isolates were Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that Candida spp and Aspergillus spp are the main fungi involved in bovine mastitis in this region. Good hygiene and sanitation practices of animal farm and judicious use of antibiotics will lower incidence of bovine mycotic mastitis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 393-395

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with an essential oil-based teat dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E Jane; Wilson, David J

    2016-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers. The bacterium was isolated from the teat dip and the teat dip container. The teat dip consisted of water, liquid soap, and several drops of essential oils (including tea tree, lavender, and peppermint). This case illustrates a potential problem that may arise as a result of the use of unconventional ingredients in teat dips. The use of alternative products by goat producers is likely to increase in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Efficacy of a new premilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination for the prevention of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Ivey, S J; Almeida, R A; Luther, D A; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Moorehead, H D; Dowlen, H H

    2001-06-01

    A teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination was evaluated in a natural exposure study in two dairy research herds. Premilking teat disinfection was compared with a negative control using a split-udder experimental design. In both herds, premilking and postmilking teat disinfections with the phenolic combination were significantly more effective in preventing new intramammary infection (IMI) than was postmilking teat disinfection only. Clinical mastitis and new IMI by Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Gram-negative pathogens, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were significantly lower in quarters of cows with teats predipped and postdipped than in quarters with teats postdipped only. No chapping or teat skin irritation was observed. Premilking teat disinfection with the phenolic combination in association with good udder preparation and postmilking teat disinfection can further reduce the occurrence of new IMI by numerous mastitis pathogens during lactation.

  5. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Lisa H.; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To da...

  6. Interventions for preventing mastitis after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepinsek, Maree A; Crowe, Linda; Michener, Keryl; Smart, Neil A

    2012-10-17

    Despite the health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation and duration rates continue to fall short of international guidelines. Many factors influence a woman's decision to wean; the main reason cited for weaning is associated with lactation complications, such as mastitis. To assess the effects of preventive strategies for mastitis and the subsequent effect on breastfeeding duration. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 August 2012). We included randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing mastitis in postpartum breastfeeding women. We independently identified relevant studies and assessed the trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data and information as appropriate. We included five trials (involving 960 women). In three trials of 471 women, we found no significant differences in the incidence of mastitis between use of antibiotics and no antibiotics (risk ratio (RR) 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 1.61; or in one trial of 99 women comparing two doses (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.02 to 9.18). We found no significant differences for mastitis in three trials of specialist breastfeeding education with usual care (one trial); anti-secretory factor cereal (one trial); and mupirocin, fusidic acid ointment or breastfeeding advice (one trial).Generally we found no differences in any of the trials for breastfeeding initiation or duration; or symptoms of mastitis. There was insufficient evidence to show effectiveness of any of the interventions, including breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies, regarding the occurrence of mastitis or breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. While studies reported the incidence of mastitis, they all used different interventions. Caution needs to be applied when considering the findings of this review as the conclusion is based on studies, often with small sample sizes. An urgent need for further adequately powered research is

  7. Breast Carcinoma Occurring from Chronic Granulomatous Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Mazlan; Shahrun Niza, Abdullah Suhaimi; Saladina Jaszle, Jasmin; Nani Harlina, Md Latar; Sellymiah, Adzman; Rohaizak, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressi...

  8. Diagnostics, incidence and course of nonpuerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.

    1985-02-01

    The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.

  9. Plant response to biotic stress: Is there a common epigenetic response during plant-pathogenic and symbiotic interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogli, Prince; Libault, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Plants constantly interact with pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed several regulatory mechanisms controlling these interactions. Among them, the plant defense system is activated not only in response to pathogenic, but also in response to symbiotic microbes. Interestingly, shortly after symbiotic microbial recognition, the plant defense system is suppressed to promote plant infection by symbionts. Research studies have demonstrated the influence of the plant epigenome in modulating both pathogenic and symbiotic plant-microbe interactions, thereby influencing plant survival, adaptation and evolution of the plant response to microbial infections. It is however unclear if plant pathogenic and symbiotic responses share similar epigenomic profiles or if epigenomic changes differentially regulate plant-microbe symbiosis and pathogenesis. In this mini-review, we provide an update of the current knowledge of epigenomic control on plant immune responses and symbiosis, with a special attention being paid to knowledge gap and potential strategies to fill-in the missing links. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Host range of an NPV and a GV isolated from the common cutworm, Agrotis segetum: pathogenicity within the cutworm complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourner, T.C.; Cory, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The term cutworm covers a range of species with a similar life history that can be very damaging pests on a wide range of crops. Attacks by cutworms are often made up of more than one species; thus, the most cost effective microbial control agent needs to be pathogenic for multiple species within

  11. Agglutinating antibodies against pathogenic Leptospira in healthy dogs and horses indicate common exposure and regular occurrence of subclinical infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Houwers; M.G.A. Goris (Marga); T.H. Abdoel (Theresia); J.A. Kas (Jeroen); S.S. Knobbe (Sandra); A.M. van Dongen (Astrid); F.E. Westerduin (Fenna); W.R. Klein (Wim); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn order to get insight in the level of exposure to pathogenic Leptospira under the moderate sea climate conditions in the Netherlands, healthy dogs and horses were tested for antibodies using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). 55% of 198 dogs tested had agglutinating antibodies

  12. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis, its etiology and diagnosis of antibiotic resistance of dairy farms in four municipalities of a tropical region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Kholif, Ahmed Eid; Rojas-Hernández, Saul; Elghandour, Mona Mohamed Mohamed Yasseen; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Bastida, Adrian Zaragoza; Velázquez-Reynoso, David; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Camacho-Díaz, Luis Miguel; Alonso-Fresán, María Uxúa; DiLorenzo, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    A region-wide survey was conducted in the tropical area of Tierra Caliente, State of Guerrero, Mexico to estimate the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis (SCM), distribution of mastitis pathogens, and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of different mastitis pathogens in dairy farms. In total, 1036 quarter milk samples were obtained from 259 cows at 87 different dairy farms. Collected quarter milk samples were submitted for California Mastitis Test (CMT), bacteriological examination, and testing for antimicrobial susceptibility. Overall prevalence of SCM in the studied area was 20.5 %. Prevalence in the different regions was as follows: 28 % in Arcelia municipality, 21 % in Tlalchapa municipality, 19.4 % in Pungarabato municipality, and 14.3 % in Finch Cutzamala municipality. Of all positive isolates, 97.5 % were Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, of all positive isolates, 37.5 % were Proteus vulgaris, 25 % Salmonella spp., 12.5 % Enterobacter aerogenes, and 10 % Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli were sensitive for netilmicin antimicrobial. However, E. coli was sensitive for pefloxacin and gentamicin with a sensitivity for pefloxacin for E. aerogenes, while Staphylococci were sensitive for gentamicin and dicloxacillin. It could be concluded that practices such as the implementation of mastitis control programs, improved milking hygiene together with an intramammary treatment with netilmicin, pefloxacin, and gentamicin antimicrobials should be considered for mastitis prevention in the study area of Tierra Caliente, in the tropical area of Guerrero, Mexico.

  13. Short communication: Antimicrobial efficacy of intramammary treatment with a novel biphenomycin compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli-induced mouse mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demon, Dieter; Breyne, Koen; Schiffer, Guido; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis undermines udder health, jeopardizes milk production, and entails prohibitive costs, estimated at $2 billion per year in the dairy industry of the United States. Despite intensive research, the dairy industry has not managed to eradicate the 3 major bovine mastitis-inducing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a newly formulated biphenomycin compound (AIC102827) was assessed against intramammary Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and E. coli infections, using an experimental mouse mastitis model. Based on its effective and protective doses, AIC102827 applied into the mammary gland was most efficient to treat Staph. aureus, but also adequately reduced growth of Strep. uberis or E. coli, indicating its potential as a broad-spectrum candidate to treat staphylococcal, streptococcal, and coliform mastitis in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheloud, J.F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infections are a serious problem for goat’s milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communication was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.

  15. Isolation, Biochemical and Molecular Identification, and In-Vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Bubaline Subclinical Mastitis in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Preethirani

    Full Text Available Buffaloes are the second largest source of milk. Mastitis is a major impediment for milk production, but not much information is available about bubaline mastitis, especially subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to (a investigate the application of various tests for the diagnosis of bubaline subclinical mastitis, (b identify the major bacteria associated with it, and (c evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacteria. To this end, 190 quarter milk samples were collected from 57 domesticated dairy buffaloes from organized (64 samples and unorganized (126 samples sectors. Of these, 48.4%, 40.0%, 45.8%, 61.1%, and 61.6% were positive for subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, California mastitis test, bromothymol blue test, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase test, respectively. As compared to the gold standard of somatic cell count, California mastitis test performed the best. However, a combination of the two methods was found to be the best option. Microbiological evaluation, both by biochemical methods as well as by monoplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, revealed that coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most predominant (64.8% bacteria, followed by streptococci (18.1%, Escherichia coli (9.8% and Staphylococcus aureus (7.3%. Most of the pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics, especially to β-lactam antibiotics. We propose that California mastitis test be combined with somatic cell count for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in domestic dairy buffaloes. Further, our results reveal high resistance of the associated bacteria to the β-lactam class of antibiotics, and a possible major role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in causing the disease in India.

  16. Isolation, Biochemical and Molecular Identification, and In-Vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Bubaline Subclinical Mastitis in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethirani, P L; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Sundareshan, S; Nuthanalakshmi, V; Deepthikiran, K; Sinha, Akhauri Y; Rathnamma, D; Nithin Prabhu, K; Sharada, R; Mukkur, Trilochan K; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2015-01-01

    Buffaloes are the second largest source of milk. Mastitis is a major impediment for milk production, but not much information is available about bubaline mastitis, especially subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the application of various tests for the diagnosis of bubaline subclinical mastitis, (b) identify the major bacteria associated with it, and (c) evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacteria. To this end, 190 quarter milk samples were collected from 57 domesticated dairy buffaloes from organized (64 samples) and unorganized (126 samples) sectors. Of these, 48.4%, 40.0%, 45.8%, 61.1%, and 61.6% were positive for subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, California mastitis test, bromothymol blue test, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase test, respectively. As compared to the gold standard of somatic cell count, California mastitis test performed the best. However, a combination of the two methods was found to be the best option. Microbiological evaluation, both by biochemical methods as well as by monoplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, revealed that coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most predominant (64.8%) bacteria, followed by streptococci (18.1%), Escherichia coli (9.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.3%). Most of the pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics, especially to β-lactam antibiotics. We propose that California mastitis test be combined with somatic cell count for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in domestic dairy buffaloes. Further, our results reveal high resistance of the associated bacteria to the β-lactam class of antibiotics, and a possible major role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in causing the disease in India.

  17. Use of on-farm data to guide treatment and control mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Olivier; Gaudout, Nicolas; Schmitt, Ellen; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Zadoks, Ruth

    Treatment of mastitis is the most common reason for use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle. The responsible use of antimicrobials could be strengthened by knowledge of predictors for cure, which would help to tailor treatment decisions. Ideally, to allow for widespread uptake, this would be

  18. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  19. Bactericidal and Anti-biofilm Effects of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide in Models of Intracellular and Biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzzaman, Nor F.; Chong, Stacy Q. Y.; Kamina M. Edmondson-Brown; Winnie Ntow-Boahene; Marjorie Bardiau; Liam Good

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is a common cause of mastitis, reducing milk yield, affecting animal welfare and causing huge economic losses within the dairy industry. In addition to the problem of acquired drug resistance, bacterial invasion into udder cells and the formation of surface biofilms are believed to reduce antibiotic efficacy, leading to treatment failure. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activities of enrofloxacin, an antibiotic that is commonly used in mastitis therapy ...

  20. Early mastitis diagnosis through topological analysis of biosignals from low-voltage alternate current electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhifei Zhang; Yang Song; Haochen Cui; Wu, Jayne; Schwartz, Fernando; Hairong Qi

    2015-08-01

    Mastitis is the most economically important disease of dairy cows worldwide, and it constantly plagues the dairy industry. A reliable biosensing method is thus imperative to detect this disease at its early stage and accurately identify the pathogen concentration level in order to better control the disease and consequently improve the quality of milk. Recent research indicates that shorter assay time and/or higher sensitivity can be achieved by integrating alternate current electrokinetics (ACEK) with biosensing. However, most existing ACEK devices use voltage levels around 10V at the risk of electrochemical reactions because a lower voltage may not effectively trigger the ACEK effect. Currently, there are no related works that can efficiently tackle the dilemma between avoiding electrochemical reaction and accelerating assay process. This paper adopts low-voltage (40~135mV) ACEK, which is safe but yields ambiguous biosignals within a short assay time, presenting great challenge to high-fidelity identification of pathogen concentration levels. This paper makes two distinctive contributions to the field of biosignal analysis. First, moving away from the traditional signal analysis in the time or spectral domain, we exploit the possibility of representing the biosignal through topological analysis that would reveal the intrinsic topological structure of point clouds generated from the biosignal. Second, in order to tackle another common challenge of biosignal analysis, i.e., limited sample size, we propose a so-called Gaussian-based decision tree (GDT), which can efficiently classify the biosignals even when the sample size is extremely small. Experimental results on the classification of five pathogen concentration levels using only 10 samples taken under various voltage levels demonstrate the robustness of the topological features as well as the advantage of GDT over some other conventional classifiers in handling small dataset. Our method reduces the voltage of

  1. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  2. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Conclusion Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows. PMID:25653501

  3. Short communication: Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Joaquim, S F; Richini-Pereira, V B; Langoni, H

    2017-01-01

    Cows are probably the main source of contamination of raw milk with Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary glands with subclinical mastitis can shed large numbers of Staph. aureus in milk. Because of the risk of this pathogen to human health as well as animal health, the aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staph. aureus (OS-MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) on a dairy farm. Milk samples were obtained from all quarters, showing an elevated somatic cell count by the California Mastitis Test. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 53% (61/115) of the milk samples, with 60 isolates identified as Staph. aureus (98.4%) and 1 isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.6%). The presence of the mecA gene was verified in 48.3% of Staph. aureus isolates. Of the Staph. aureus isolates, 23.3% were MRSA and 25.0% were OS-MRSA. The total of mastitis cases infected with MRSA was 12.2%. The detection of this large percentage of mastitis cases caused by MRSA and OS-MRSA is of great concern for the animals' health, because β-lactams are still the most important antimicrobials used to treat mastitis. In addition, Staph. aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis represent a public health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens.

  5. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimated in a one-year observational study. It was concluded that herds in the Netherlands varied substantially in their mastitis occurrence, indicating room for improvement of udder health. The relation...

  6. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  7. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Kumar R, Yadav BR and Singh RS 2011 Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic Sahiwal cattle. J. Biosci. 36 175–188] DOI 10.1007/s12038-011-9004-6. 1. Introduction. Mastitis is an infectious disease that is associated with massive financial losses in the dairy sector.

  8. Mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum en una paciente HIV negativa Mastitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo J. Palmero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente HIV negativa de 39 años con una mastitis por Mycobacterium fortuitum, sin antecedentes patogénicos previos. Fue tratada en base a las pruebas de susceptibilidad a antibióticos y quimioterápicos y a la evidencia empírica citada por la bibliografía, con kanamicina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se obtuvo la remisión completa de sus lesiones luego de 15 meses de tratamiento. Se comenta la capacidad de producir lesiones de esta micobacteria de crecimiento rápido, su diagnóstico y tratamiento.A case of a 39 year old HIV negative female patient with a Mycobacterium fortuitum mastitis without previous pathogenic history is reported. She was treated on the bases of drug-susceptibility testing and bibliographic empirical evidence with kanamycin, doxicicline, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol. A complete remission of her lesions was obtained after 15 months of treatment. Lesions due to this rapidly growing mycobacterium, diagnosis and treatment are commented.

  9. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis and correlation to phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artursson, Karin; Söderlund, Robert; Liu, Lihong; Monecke, Stefan; Schelin, Jenny

    2016-09-25

    Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Among the most commonly found virulence factors were genes encoding several hemolysin types, leukocidins D and lukM/lukF-P83, clumping factors A and B, fibrinogen binding protein and fibronectin-binding protein A. Some virulence factors e.g. fibronectin-binding protein B and Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G were less common. Genes coding for several staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were commonly found, especially in one major pulsotype. No beta-lactamase genes were found in any common pulsotype, while present in some rare pulsotypes, indicated to be of human origin. Production of TSST-1, enterotoxins, hemolysins and beta-lactamase could all be positively correlated to presence of the corresponding genes. This study reveals a number of genotypic differences and similarities among common and rare pulsotypes of S. aureus from cases of mastitis in Sweden. The results could help the design of diagnostic tools to guide on-farm interventions according to the expected impact on udder health from a specific S. aureus genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on 360 dairy cows (1440 quarters) to determine the prevalence of mastitis by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Staphylococci in ... Similar pattern of occurrence was recorded for both clinical and subclinical mastitis as the adults had 21.8% and 3.4 %, young adults had 19.8% and 0.4% and old cows ...

  11. Bovine Mastitis in Selected Districts of Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 397 lactating Boran cows in pastoral areas of Borana Zone, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of mastitis, major causes and ... The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher (p=0.00) among animals with tick infestation and those with history of previous exposure to mastitis ...

  12. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  13. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Alungal; M C Abdulla; R. Narayan

    2016-01-01

    A 25 year-old woman presented with a painful mass in the left breast, polyarthritis and erythema nodosum. Fine needle aspiration cytology led to a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis. Oral prednisolone rapidly improved the arthritis and the erythema nodosum. Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare, chronic inflammatory disease and only ten patients with granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthitis have been described.

  14. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alungal, J; Abdulla, M C; Narayan, R

    2016-09-09

    A 25 year-old woman presented with a painful mass in the left breast, polyarthritis and erythema nodosum. Fine needle aspiration cytology led to a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis. Oral prednisolone rapidly improved the arthritis and the erythema nodosum. Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare, chronic inflammatory disease and only ten patients with granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthitis have been described.

  15. Mammographic and sonographic findings of periductal mastitis : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Periductal mastitis arises from major ducts. Radiographic reports describing the phases of duct ectasia and secretory calcifications, have been published, but descriptions of the phases of periductal mastitis are rare. We report the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of periductal mastitis in a 30-year-old woman who presented with a breast lump.

  16. Bovine Mastitis in Selected Districts of Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 397 lactating Boran cows in pastoral areas of Borana Zone, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of mastitis, major causes and associated risk factors of mastitis using California mastitis test and bacteriology. The study showed an overall prevalence of 70.8%; out of which 12.4% ...

  17. Prevalence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and causes of mastitis in traditionally managed camels in selected pastoral areas in eastern Ethiopia were assessed. The prevalence of camel mastitis was determined by the California mastitis test (CMT) and by clinical examinations of the udder and milk samples. A total of 642 udder quarters from 161 camels ...

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P L; Leigh, J A; Bradley, A J; Archer, S C; Emes, R D; Green, M J

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. Copyright © 2015 Davies et al.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of bismuth subsalicylate on Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and other common enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Adam M; Park, Geun Woo; Lee, David; Boissy, Ying L; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) has antimicrobial properties, but few studies have addressed the mechanism of action. Furthermore, following BSS ingestion other bismuth salts form throughout the gastrointestinal tract including bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) that also act upon enteric pathogens. To further understand the antimicrobial activity of bismuth in infectious diarrhea, the antimicrobial effect of BSS and BiOCl on Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains and norovirus (NoV) were measured. Bacterial enteric pathogens in pure culture or in human fecal material were exposed to 35mg/ml BSS or BiOCl with or without a vehicle suspension. BSS and BiOCl treated samples were quantified and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. To measure the effect on NoV, reduction of infectious murine NoV (MNV), a surrogate for human NoV, and Norwalk virus RNA levels were measured by viral plaque assay and RT-qPCR, respectively. BSS and BiOCl reduced bacterial growth by 3-9 logs in all strains with majority resulting in populations of bismuth on bacterial membranes and within the bacterial organisms at 30 min post-treatment. At 8.8mg/ml BSS and BiOCl reduced infectivity of MNV significantly by 2.7 and 2.0 log after 24 h of exposure. In addition, both BSS and BiOCl slightly reduced the level of Norwalk replicon-bearing cells suggesting that bismuth may inhibit NoV in vivo. Collectively, our results confirm and build on existing data that BSS has antimicrobial properties against a wide-range of diarrhea-causing pathogens.

  20. A mouse mastitis model to study the effects of the intramammary infusion of a food-grade Lactococcus lactis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio, Cristina; Armas, Federica; Biasibetti, Elena; Frassanito, Paolo; Giovannelli, Carlo; Spuria, Liliana; D'Agostino, Claudia; Tait, Sabrina; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important microorganisms in the dairy industry and has "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status. L. lactis belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is encountered in a wide range of environments. Recently, the use of the intramammary infusion of a live culture of LAB has been investigated as a new antibiotic alternative for treating mastitis in dairy ruminants. Controversial results are described in literature regarding its efficacy and safety. In this study we conducted in-depth investigation of the mammary gland immune response induced by intramammary inoculum of a live culture of L. lactis LMG 7930 using the mouse mastitis model. Overnight cultures either of L. lactis (≈ 107 CFU) or of the mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus chromogenes (≈ 105 CFU) or S. aureus (≈ 102 CFU/ml) were injected into the mouse inguinal glands. A double injection, consisting of S. chromogenes first and then L. lactis, was also investigated. Bacterial recovery from the gland and inflammatory cell infiltration were assessed. L. lactis-treated and control glands were analysed for proinflammatory cytokine production. Microbiological results showed that L. lactis was able to survive in the mammary gland 24 h post infection, as were the mastitis pathogens S. chromogenes and S. aureus. L. lactis reduced S. chromogenes survival in the glands and increased its own survival ability by coexisting with the pathogen. Histology showed that L. lactis-treated glands presented variable histological features, ranging from undamaged tissue with no inflammatory cell infiltrate to severe PMN infiltrate with focal areas of tissue damage. S. aureus-treated glands showed the most severe histological grade of inflammation despite the fact that the inoculum size was the smallest. In contrast, most S. chromogenes-treated glands showed normal structures with no infiltration or lesions. Significant increases in IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also found in

  1. In vitro efficacy of teat antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paoli Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of teat disinfection is a widely accepted component of successful mastitis control programs by reducing the number of bacteria on the teat skin and healing teat lesions. For contagious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, post-milking teat disinfection remains a simple, effective and economical practice for prevention of new intramammary infections (IMIs of lactating dairy cows. Despite the universal acceptance of teat dipping as a method of mastitis control, variations in the susceptibility and resistance profile of mastitis pathogens among antiseptics have been described. Thus, here we sought to explore the in vitro efficacy of the followings antiseptics against S. aureus isolated from IMIs: chlorhexidine (2.0%, chlorine (2.5%, quarternary ammonium (4.0%, lactic acid (2.0% and iodine (0.6%. We used 50 S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMIs from 50 dairy herds located at Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States (Brazil. The antiseptics were evaluated at four different specific intervals (15, 30, 60 and 300 s. We found a higher activity for quarternary ammonium and chlorhexidine against S. aureus at all time-points, followed by iodine and then chlorine. Lactic acid treatment produced the worst results for all time-points and strains. Due to variations in the sensitivity and resistance profile of antiseptics against S. aureus isolated from IMIs, the effectiveness of the antiseptics against the major mastitis pathogens should be periodically evaluated in dairy farms in an attempt to reduce the rate of new IMIs in the herd.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of different sodium and potassium salts of carboxylic acid against some common foodborne pathogens and spoilage-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Pizarro, Jorge; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Umaña-Gamboa, Christian; Arias-Echandi, María Laura

    2017-09-22

    Cleaning and disinfection represent the most important activities associated with the elimination of dirt and microorganisms at food processing plants. Improper procedures may lead to cross contamination of food leading to its spoilage or even the transmission of foodborne pathogens. Several strategies have been used in order to achieve a good disinfection of surfaces and products; nevertheless, microbial resistance to common-use-products has developed lately. Due to this fact, the development of new non-toxic-food compatible chemical agents that reduce the impact of foodborne pathogens and spoilage causing microorganisms is desirable for the food industry. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different sodium and potassium salts of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid on the growth of common food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Growth curves were determined for Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes in contact with different concentrations of carboxylic acid salts. The inhibitory effect of both aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid salts, in accordance with concentration levels, was 100>50>25mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic salts was butanoic>hexanoic> octanoic>decanoic and, benzoic>gallic>caffeic acid salts for aromatic salts. In general, sodium salts were more inhibitory than potassium salts (p≤0.05). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Corticosteroid and Azithromycin in Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Marzieh; Salehi, Maryam; Kalbasi, Nader; Hakamifard, Atousa; Salehi, Hassan; Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi; Sharifian, Jalil

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. This study is a clinical trial research carried out in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2013 on granulomatous mastitis patients. It was administered 250 mg of Azithromycin per 12 hour and 60 mg of Prednisolone per day within 2 weeks. Next, they took 40 mg/day within 8 weeks, and this dosage was tapered during 6 months and the patients clinically and radiologically followed up. The studied patients were examined within 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, from the beginning of treatment. This study investigated granulomatous mastitis patients in Alzahra hospital in 2013. The mean age of these patients was 33.6 ± 8.9, and their age range was 18-56 years old. Among 26 studied patients, 24 persons (92.3%) according to follow-up the patients by physical examination and sonography responded to treatment of corticosteroid and Azithromycin. The remaining (7.7%) underwent surgery. Treatment periods in case of drug use were respectively, 8.5 ± 0.71 months. Treatment with corticosteroid and Azithromycin is an effective and appropriate treatment for IGM.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values

  5. The role of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Maćešić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most frequent diseases of dairy cows throughout the world, therefore it causes the greatest economic losses in dairy cattle industry. These losses are reflected through: reduced milk production, increased costs of medication and the other animal health services, reduced fertility, early culling of animals and the value of discarded milk. Mastitis is also important from the aspects of public health, milk processing and animal welfare. In the pathogenesis of mastitis the key role plays the innate immune response which is the first line of defence against the pathogen invasion of the udder. The innate immune response generates an inflammatory reaction which is the elementary response of an organism to the tissue trauma induced by any physical, chemical or biological causative agent, but primarily it is the protective mechanism of a vital significance which includes increased phagocytic activity, secretion of antimicrobial substances, fibrosis as well as the alterations in tissue structure of affected organ or body cavity. The release of a number of inflammatory mediators as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS is an important part of inflammatory response. In dairy cows, the metabolic challenge that occurred during the transition from dry period to early lactation may additionally increase the release of ROS which may contribute to development of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Oxidative stress is defined as a shift in the balance from cellular oxidation-reduction reactions towards oxidation, i.e. to the state of excessive release of oxidants when their removal by antioxidants is impaired and even insufficient. During peripartum period antioxidantive status of dairy cows is seriously impaired and consequently both the oxidative stress and inflammatory response may present the predisposing factors to their higher susceptibility to intramammary infections (IMI and mastitis. This association between oxidative stress

  6. The role of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Turk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most frequent diseases of dairy cows throughout the world, therefore it causes the greatest economic losses in dairy cattle industry. These losses are reflected through: reduced milk production, increased costs of medication and the other animal health services, reduced fertility, early culling of animals and the value of discarded milk. Mastitis is also important from the aspects of public health, milk processing and animal welfare. In the pathogenesis of mastitis the key role plays the innate immune response which is the first line of defence against the pathogen invasion of the udder. The innate immune response generates an inflammatory reaction which is the elementary response of an organism to the tissue trauma induced by any physical, chemical or biological causative agent, but primarily it is the protective mechanism of a vital significance which includes increased phagocytic activity, secretion of antimicrobial substances, fibrosis as well as the alterations in tissue structure of affected organ or body cavity. The release of a number of inflammatory mediators as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS is an important part of inflammatory response. In dairy cows, the metabolic challenge that occurred during the transition from dry period to early lactation may additionally increase the release of ROS which may contribute to development of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Oxidative stress is defined as a shift in the balance from cellular oxidation-reduction reactions towards oxidation, i.e. to the state of excessive release of oxidants when their removal by antioxidants is impaired and even insufficient. During peripartum period antioxidantive status of dairy cows is seriously impaired and consequently both the oxidative stress and inflammatory response may present the predisposing factors to their higher susceptibility to intramammary infections (IMI and mastitis. This association between oxidative stress

  7. Host responses associated with chronic staphylococcal mastitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Irene; Ferrian, Selena; Penadés, Mariola; García-Quirós, Ana; Pascual, Juan J; Selva, Laura; Viana, David; Corpa, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcal infection causes substantial economic losses in commercial rabbit production systems, and is associated with a wide variety of lesions, including chronic suppurative mastitis, which mainly affects breeding females. Most chronic staphylococcal infections in rabbits are caused by the ST121 lineage of Staphylococcus aureus, although other less common lineages, such as ST96 can also be involved. The aims of the present study were to characterise the host immune response in natural cases of mastitis in rabbits caused by S. aureus, to evaluate any relationship between peripheral and local immunity and to investigate the effect of different S. aureus genotypes on these immune responses. Adult multiparous female rabbits that were affected with chronic staphylococcal mastitis (n = 204) were enrolled into the study. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of mammary glands were undertaken, as well as flow cytometric analyses of blood. S. aureus isolates from the mammary glands were identified by multilocus sequence typing. Differences in the number of infiltrating cells were detected, depending on the type of pathology, with more immature lesions demonstrating greater cellularity, characterised by greater numbers of T lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. A relationship was seen between the cells in blood and mammary tissues, the most notable being the positive correlation between monocytes and tissue macrophages. When glands were infected with ST96 strains, fewer granulocytes (P < 0.01) and greater numbers of B cells (P < 0.01), T cells (P < 0.001), CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.001) and CD8(+) T cells (P < 0.01) were detected, compared with mammary glands that were infected by ST121 strains of S. aureus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBadet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases.

  9. Common and specific genomic sequences of avian and human extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli as determined by genomic subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Lisa K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH strategy was used with extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (EXPEC that cause avian colibacillosis (avian pathogenic E. coli or APEC and human urinary tract infections (uropathogenic E. coli or UPEC to determine if they possessed genes that were host and/or niche specific. Both APEC and UPEC isolates were used as tester and driver strains in 4 different SSHs in order to obtain APEC- and UPEC-specific subtraction fragments (SFs. Results These procedures yielded a total of 136 tester-specific SFs of which 85 were APEC-derived and 51 were UPEC-derived. Most of the APEC-derived SFs were associated with plasmids; whereas, the majority of UPEC-derived sequences matched to the bacterial chromosome. We further determined the distribution of these tester-derived sequences in a collection of UPEC and APEC isolates using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Plasmid-borne, APEC-derived sequences (tsh, cvaB, traR, traC and sopB were predominantly present in APEC, as compared to UPEC. Of the UPEC-derived SFs, those encoding hemolysin D and F1C major and minor fimbrial subunits were present only in UPEC. However, two UPEC-derived SFs that showed strong similarity to the uropathgenic-specific protein gene (usp occurred in APEC, demonstrating that usp is not specific to UPEC. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the genetic variability of ExPEC as well as genomic similarities between UPEC and APEC; it did not identify any single marker that would dictate host and/or niche specificity in APEC or UPEC. However, further studies on the genes that encode putative or hypothetical proteins might offer important insight into the pathogenesis of disease, as caused by these two ExPEC.

  10. A large scale mastitis control programme in Somerset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, G C; Watkins, J H; Gard, R P

    1975-10-18

    The results of a mastitis control programme operated in south west England for three years are given. Farmers participating in the full mastitis control group agreed to treat each cow at drying off with 500 mg benzathine cloxacillin in each quarter, to have their milking machines tested and to correct any faults, and to practise teat dipping. Data covering cell counts, milk production, milk quality and clinical mastitis, were assessed from herds taking part in the programme. Cell counts were analysed from all 507 herds taking part in the programme. Milk production records for the full mastitis control group (188 herds) over a three year period are discussed, and these results compared with milk production figures from Milk Marketing Board records from herds in the south west of England which were carrying out no specific mastitis control programme. The milk quality data compare the findings in 159 herds in the full mastitis control programme with those in 247 herds in the partial and no mastitis control groups. Cases of clinical mastitis during the three year period were recorded in 73 herds in the full mastitis control group. The problems of applying the control routines are presented with observations on clinical mastitis, bulk milk cell count, milk production and milk quality. After three years, herds in the programme had on average increased milk production by 75 gallons a cow, achieved a 14.6 per cent reduction in the incidence of clinical mastitis, and improved the milk total solids percentage by one milk quality payment class.

  11. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. Phylo-typing of clinical Escherichia coli isolates originating from bovine mastitis and canine pyometra and urinary tract infection by means of quadruplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müştak, Hamit Kaan; Günaydin, Elçin; Kaya, İnci Başak; Salar, Merve Özdal; Babacan, Orkun; Önat, Kaan; Ata, Zafer; Diker, Kadir Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis worldwide, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. Besides this, E. coli strains which belong to the extra-intestinal pathogenic group are also the major cause of urinary tract infections and pyometra in dogs. In this study, it was aimed to investigate phylo-groups/subgroups in 155 E. coli isolates obtained from acute bovine mastitis, 43 from urinary tract infections of dogs and 20 from canine pyometra by a formerly described triplex PCR and recently described new quadruplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Group A1 (n = 118; 76%) and B1 (n = 71; 46%) were found to be the most prevalent groups by triplex and quadruplex PCR assays in mastitis isolates, respectively. Phylo-typing of 43 urinary tract isolates also revealed that most of the isolates belonged to A1 (n = 23; 54%) by triplex and B2 (n = 36; 84%) by quadruplex PCR assays. The isolates assigned as group A1 (n = 17; 85%) by triplex PCR could not be classified by quadruplex PCR in pyometra isolates. The results support the hypothesis that E. coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases are environmental. Also, groups C, E and F were identified as new phylo-groups for the first time in acute bovine mastitis cases. The comparison of triplex PCR with quadruplex PCR results revealed that most of the groups assigned in triplex PCR were altered by quadruplex PCR assay.

  13. Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F; Aydin, S; Kaygusuzoglu, E; Yildiz, H; Erulas, F A; Ozkan, Y

    2008-07-01

    Hormone ghrelin and orotic acid accelerate wound healing as well as controlling inflammation and immunity. We have, therefore, investigated the serum and milk levels of ghrelin and orotic acid in dairy cows with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) subclinical mastitis. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin as well as orotic acid concentration were detected by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that ghrelin level in milk and serum was significantly higher in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis than that of dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. This was also the case when the orotic acid concentrations in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis were compared with those dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, ghrelin and orotic acid occur in particularly high concentrations in subclinical mastitis, and might, therefore, be required in greater amounts for tissue repair and may be also used as a indicator for subclinical mastitis.

  14. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  15. MASTITIS: PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen S., Hans; Médico Veterinario, MSC

    2013-01-01

    La mastitis es una enfermedad causada por microorganismos que invaden la ubre cuando los macroorganismos (los hombres) operan mal la máquina de ordeño, produciéndose un proceso inflamatorio leve o severo. La inflamación de la ubre se caracteriza por cambios en el tejido glandular y la leche. Cuando estos cambios son detectables mediante inspección y/o palpación, hablamos de mastitis clínica. Si no hay cambios detectables clínicamente, se recurre a métodos indirectos de campo o de laboratorio;...

  16. Antibacterial activity of seneciolactone isolated from Senecio scandens against some common gastrointestinal tract disease causing bacterial pathogens

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    Yi Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the antibacterial effect of seneciolactone isolated from the methanolic extract of Senecio scandens against five bacterial pathogens which are known to cause several gastrointestinal tract diseases. Disc diffusion assay and agar well diffusion assays were used to examine the antibacterial efficacy of this compound by measuring zones of inhibition and MIC/MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was involved to study the effect of this compound on cellular morphology of Shigella dysenteriae. Results revealed that seneciolactone exhibited moderate to potent antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains. Zones of inhibition and MIC/MBC values indicated that seneciolactone was most potent against S. dysenteriae followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. SEM results indicated that seneciolactone induced potent damage to the cell membrane of the tested bacteria. As compared to the untreated control which exhibited normal cellular morphology, the seneciolactone treated bacterial cells revealed severe damage to the cellular membrane particularly at the higher doses.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Rhynchostegium vagans A. Jaeger (moss against commonly occurring pathogenic microbes of Indian sub-tropics

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    Kavita Negi*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antimicrobial effect of organic extracts with a standard dose of Rhynchostegium vagans (R. vagans on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: R. vagans was extracted in solvents (ethanol and acetone and the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by using disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was observed by employing micro broth dilution method. Mode of inhibition of ethanolic extract against Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris (A. flavus var. columnaris was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: It was found that the ethanolic extract of R. vagans was the most potent with lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (3.91 to 61.25 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (3.91 to 500 µg/mL, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations were seen in A. flavus var. columnaris. Among microorganisms, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Erwinia chrysanthemi and Salmonella enterica and fungi (A. flavus var. columnaris and Aspergillus parasiticus var. globosus were found more sensitive. Ethanolic extract was found superior over the antibiotics (chloramphenicol and fluconazole. Conclusions: R. vagans exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms. The moss can be used as a broad spectrum herbal antimicrobial agent in pharmaceutics.

  18. Synergistic antibacterial action of β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside isolated from Desmostachya bipinnata leaves with antibiotics against common human pathogens

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    Shankar Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Desmostachya bipinnata (L. Stapf, Poaceae, or Kusha in Sanskrit, is a sacred grass used extensively in Indian Vedic practices. It is well known for its medicinal value and is used in traditional Indian medicine to treat microbial infection in combination with other herbs. An effort has been made to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds from the hydroalcoholic extract of D. bipinnata through bioassay guided fractionation, column chromatography. Their individual or combined antimicrobial properties were determined by the Resazurin Microtitre Assay, the checkerboard assay in combination with antibiotics, and by time kill curve analysis. β-Sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside was the bioactive compound identified to have the best antimicrobial activity (MIC 6-50 µg/ml and it works synergistically with most antibiotics, especially with ciprofloxacin. Time kill curves showed that BS kills most of the pathogens within 5-10 h. To our knowledge at its best, this is the first time report of antibacterial synergy of β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside from D. bipinnata.

  19. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  20. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study.

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    Mistry, Kunjal S; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-04-01

    To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus.

  1. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

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    Natapol Pumipuntu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA], and deoxyribonuclease (DNase test, for S. aureus identification in milk samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 224 subclinical bovine mastitis milk samples were collected from four provinces of Thailand and determined S. aureus using conventional method and also subjected to the screening test, MSA and DNase test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV among both tests were analyzed and compared to the tube coagulase test (TCT, as reference method. Immunological test by latex agglutination and molecular assay by determined spa gene were also used to identify and differentiate S. aureus. Results: A total of 130 staphylococci were isolated by selective media, Gram-stain, and catalase test. The number of S. aureus which identified using TCT, MSA and DNase test were 32, 102, and 74 isolates, respectively. All TCT results were correlated to results of latex agglutination and spa gene which were 32 S. aureus. MSA showed 100% sensitivity, 28.57% specificity, 31.37% PPV, and 100% NPV, whereas DNase showed 53.13% sensitivity, 41.84% specificity, 22.97% PPV, and 73.21% NPV. DNase test showed higher specificity value than MSA but the test presented 26.79% false negative results whereas no false-negative result from MSA when comparing to TCT. Conclusion: MSA had a tendency to be a good preference for screening S. aureus because of its high sensitivity and

  2. Screening method forStaphylococcus aureusidentification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumipuntu, Natapol; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Santajit, Sirijan; Tunyong, Witawat; Kong-Ngoen, Thida; Hinthong, Woranich; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA]), and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test, for S. aureus identification in milk samples. A total of 224 subclinical bovine mastitis milk samples were collected from four provinces of Thailand and determined S. aureus using conventional method and also subjected to the screening test, MSA and DNase test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) among both tests were analyzed and compared to the tube coagulase test (TCT), as reference method. Immunological test by latex agglutination and molecular assay by determined spa gene were also used to identify and differentiate S. aureus . A total of 130 staphylococci were isolated by selective media, Gram-stain, and catalase test. The number of S. aureus which identified using TCT, MSA and DNase test were 32, 102, and 74 isolates, respectively. All TCT results were correlated to results of latex agglutination and spa gene which were 32 S. aureus . MSA showed 100% sensitivity, 28.57% specificity, 31.37% PPV, and 100% NPV, whereas DNase showed 53.13% sensitivity, 41.84% specificity, 22.97% PPV, and 73.21% NPV. DNase test showed higher specificity value than MSA but the test presented 26.79% false negative results whereas no false-negative result from MSA when comparing to TCT. MSA had a tendency to be a good preference for screening S. aureus because of its high sensitivity and NPV. The result from this study will improve a choice to use a screening

  3. Characterization of Prototheca zopfii Genotypes Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis and Cow Barns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Hou, Rongguang; Zhang, Shiyao; Ding, Laidi; Han, Dandan; Deng, Zhaoju; Rahman, Abdur; Han, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Protothecal mastitis, caused mostly by Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii), is increasing in dairy herds and is being reported globally. The present study was aimed at studying the epidemiology of mastitis and at molecular characterization of P. zopfii isolates from dairy herds and their surroundings in three provinces of China using microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Samples from milk (n = 620) of mastitic cows and their barns sources (n = 410) including feces, feed, bedding materials and drinking water were analyzed. Among other pathogens recovered from mastitic milk, 84 (13.5%) of the isolates were identified as P. zopfii. All of the P. zopfii isolates recovered from milk were recognized as genotype 2, whereas 58 (73.4%) and 21 (26.6%) isolates from environmental sources were found to be P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to some antibiotics and antifungal agents, including amikacin (78.1%), streptomycin (58.5%), gentamicin (17.8%), amphotericin B (68.6%) and nystatin (64.4%). Additionally, the two genotypes displayed versatile patterns of susceptibility to different antimicrobials agents. Phylogeny of the genotypes on the basis of 18S SSU rDNA and 28S SSU rDNA was also investigated. The isolates of the two genotypes separated into different clades, and no interrelationship was observed among these as shown by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype 1 isolates from cow barn sources were non-pathogenic and may not present any risk of mastitis. We conclude that P. zopfii genotype 2 might play an important role in bovine mastitis in China.

  4. A novel, multiplex, real-time PCR–based approach for the detection of the commonly occurring pathogenic fungi and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are widely used to identify fungal and bacterial infections. There have been numerous reports of different, new, real-time PCR-based pathogen identification methods although the clinical practicability of such techniques is not yet fully clarified. The present study focuses on a novel, multiplex, real-time PCR-based pathogen identification system developed for rapid differentiation of the commonly occurring bacterial and fungal causative pathogens of bloodstream infections. Results A multiplex, real-time PCR approach is introduced for the detection and differentiation of fungi, Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The Gram classification is performed with the specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes recommended for LightCycler capillary real-time PCR. The novelty of our system is the use of a non-specific SYBR Green dye instead of labelled anchor probes or primers, to excite the acceptor dyes on the FRET probes. In conjunction with this, the use of an intercalating dye allows the detection of fungal amplicons. With the novel pathogen detection system, fungi, G + and G- bacteria in the same reaction tube can be differentiated within an hour after the DNA preparation via the melting temperatures of the amplicons and probes in the same tube. Conclusions This modified FRET technique is specific and more rapid than the gold-standard culture-based methods. The fact that fungi, G + and G- bacteria were successfully identified in the same tube within an hour after the DNA preparation permits rapid and early evidence-based management of bloodstream infections in clinical practice. PMID:24364823

  5. A novel, multiplex, real-time PCR-based approach for the detection of the commonly occurring pathogenic fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Ádám; Pető, Zoltán; Urbán, Edit; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Somogyvári, Ferenc

    2013-12-23

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are widely used to identify fungal and bacterial infections. There have been numerous reports of different, new, real-time PCR-based pathogen identification methods although the clinical practicability of such techniques is not yet fully clarified.The present study focuses on a novel, multiplex, real-time PCR-based pathogen identification system developed for rapid differentiation of the commonly occurring bacterial and fungal causative pathogens of bloodstream infections. A multiplex, real-time PCR approach is introduced for the detection and differentiation of fungi, Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The Gram classification is performed with the specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes recommended for LightCycler capillary real-time PCR. The novelty of our system is the use of a non-specific SYBR Green dye instead of labelled anchor probes or primers, to excite the acceptor dyes on the FRET probes. In conjunction with this, the use of an intercalating dye allows the detection of fungal amplicons.With the novel pathogen detection system, fungi, G + and G- bacteria in the same reaction tube can be differentiated within an hour after the DNA preparation via the melting temperatures of the amplicons and probes in the same tube. This modified FRET technique is specific and more rapid than the gold-standard culture-based methods. The fact that fungi, G + and G- bacteria were successfully identified in the same tube within an hour after the DNA preparation permits rapid and early evidence-based management of bloodstream infections in clinical practice.

  6. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris in their native and introduced range.

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    Philip J Lester

    Full Text Available When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris, which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand. We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range. Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  7. No Evidence of Enemy Release in Pathogen and Microbial Communities of Common Wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in Their Native and Introduced Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J.; Kapp, Eugene A.; Peng, Lifeng; Brenton-Rule, Evan C.; Buchanan, Joe; Stanislawek, Wlodek L.; Archer, Michael; Corley, Juan C.; Masciocchi, Maitè; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris), which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England) and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand). We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range). Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult. PMID:25798856

  8. Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of Lactobacilli isolated from breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Rebeca; Martín, Virginia; Maldonado, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2010-06-15

    Mastitis is a common infectious disease during lactation, and the main etiological agents are staphylococci, streptococci, and/or corynebacteria. The efficacy of oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 or Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713, two lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk, to treat lactational mastitis was evaluated and was compared with the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. In this study, 352 women with infectious mastitis were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Women in groups A (n = 124) and B (n = 127]) ingested daily 9 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU) of L. fermentum CECT5716 or L. salivarius CECT5713, respectively, for 3 weeks, whereas those in group C (n =101) received the antibiotic therapy prescribed in their respective primary care centers. Results. On day 0, the mean bacterial counts in milk samples of the 3 groups were similar (4.35-4.47 log(10) CFU/mL), and lactobacilli could not be detected. On day 21, the mean bacterial counts in the probiotic groups (2.61 and 2.33 log(10) CFU/mL) were lower than that of the control group (3.28 log(10) CFU/mL). L. fermentum CECT5716 and L. salivarius CECT5713 were isolated from the milk samples of women in the probiotic groups A and B, respectively. Women assigned to the probiotic groups improved more and had lower recurrence of mastitis than those assigned to the antibiotic group. Conclusions. The use of L. fermentum CECT5716 or L. salivarius CECT5713 appears to be an efficient alternative to the use of commonly prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier. NCT00716183.

  9. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  10. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  11. Rapid Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for identification of some common pathogens.

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    Linxiang Chen

    Full Text Available Conventional Sanger sequencing remains time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a rapid improved sequencing protocol of 16S rRNA for pathogens identification by using a new combination of SYBR Green I real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing with FTA® cards. To compare the sequencing quality of this method with conventional Sanger sequencing, 12 strains, including three kinds of strains (1 reference strain and 3 clinical strains, which were previously identified by biochemical tests, which have 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 Staphyloccocus aureus and 4 Escherichia coli, were targeted. Additionally, to validate the sequencing results and bacteria identification, expanded specimens with 90 clinical strains, also comprised of the three kinds of strains which included 30 samples respectively, were performed as just described. The results showed that although statistical differences (P<0.05 were found in sequencing quality between the two methods, their identification results were all correct and consistent. The workload, the time consumption and the cost per batch were respectively light versus heavy, 8 h versus 11 h and $420 versus $400. In the 90 clinical strains, all of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus strains were correctly identified, but only 26.7% of the Escherichia coli strains were recognized as Escherichia coli, while 33.3% as Shigella sonnei and 40% as Shigella dysenteriae. The protocol described here is a rapid, reliable, stable and convenient method for 16S rRNA sequencing, and can be used for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus identification, yet it is not completely suitable for discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella strains.

  12. Klebsiella species associated with bovine mastitis in Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Milka P; Rogers, Laura; Daley, Peter K; Keefe, Greg P; Whitney, Hugh G; Tahlan, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. is a common cause of bovine mastitis, but information regarding its molecular epidemiology is lacking from many parts of the world. On using mass spectrometry and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene, it was found that over a one year study, K. variicola and Enterobacter cloacae were misidentified as K. pneumoniae in a small number of clinical mastitis (CM) cases from Newfoundland. Results suggest that the currently used standard biochemical/phenotypic tests lack the sensitivity required to accurately discriminate among the three mentioned Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a single strain of K. variicola was associated with CM from one farm in the study as demonstrated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. To the best of our knowledge, K. variicola, which is normally found in the environment, has not been isolated previously from milk obtained from cows with CM. Therefore, it is possible that K. variicola was not detected in milk samples in the past due to the inability of standard tests to discriminate it from other Klebsiella species.

  13. Beta thalassemia in 31,734 cases with HBB gene mutations: Pathogenic and structural analysis of the common mutations; Iran as the crossroads of the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdieh, Nejat; Rabbani, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common single gene disorders worldwide. Nearly 80 to 90 million with minor beta thalassemia and 60-70 thousand affected infants are born annually worldwide. A comprehensive search on several databases including PubMed, InterScience, British Library Direct, and Science Direct was performed extracting papers about mutation detection and frequency of beta thalassemia. All papers reporting on the mutation frequency of beta thalassemia patients were selected to analyze the frequency of mutations in different regions and various ethnicities. Mutations of 31,734 individuals were identified. Twenty common mutations were selected for further analysis. Genotype-phenotype correlation, interactome, and in silico analyses of the mutations were performed using available bioinformatics tools. Secondary structure prediction was achieved for two common mutations with online tools. The mutations were also common among the countries neighboring Iran, which are responsible for 71% to 98% of mutations. Computational analyses could be used in addition to segregation and expression analysis to assess the extent of pathogenicity of the variant. The genetics of beta thalassemia in Iran is more extensively heterogeneous than in neighboring countries. Some common mutations have arisen historically from Iran and moved to other populations due to population migrations. Also, due to genetic drift, the frequencies of some mutations have increased in small populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression analysis in myotonic dystrophy: indications for a common molecular pathogenic pathway in DM1 and DM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Annalisa; Vallo, Laura; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Bonifazi, Emanuela; Amati, Francesca; Biancolella, Michela; Gambardella, Stefano; Mancinelli, Enzo; Angelini, Corrado; Meola, Giovanni; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    An RNA gain-of-function of expanded transcripts is the most accredited molecular mechanism for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2). To disclose molecular parallels and divergences in pathogenesis of both disorders, we compared the expression profile of muscle biopsies from DM1 and DM2 patients to controls. DM muscle tissues showed a reduction in the major skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLCN1) and transcription factor Sp1 transcript levels and an abnormal processing of the CLCN1 and insulin receptor (IR) pre-mRNAs. No essential differences were observed in the muscle blind-like gene (MBNL1) and CUG binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) transcript levels as well as in the splicing pattern of the myotubularin-related 1 (MTMR1) gene. Macroarray analysis of 96 neuroscience-related genes revealed a considerable similar expression profile between the DM samples, reflective of a common muscle pathology origin. Using a twofold threshold, we found six misregulated genes important in calcium and potassium metabolism and in mitochondrial functions. Our results indicate that the DM1 and DM2 overlapping clinical phenotypes may derive from a common trans acting mechanism that traps and influences shared genes and proteins. An RNA gain-of-function of expanded transcripts is the most accredited molecular mechanism for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2). To disclose molecular parallels and divergences in pathogenesis of both disorders, we compared the expression profile of muscle biopsies from DM1 and DM2 patients to controls. DM muscle tissues showed a reduction in the major skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLCN1) and transcription factor Sp1 transcript levels and an abnormal processing of the CLCN1 and insulin receptor (IR) pre-mRNAs. No essential differences were observed in the muscle blind-like gene (MBNL1) and CUG binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) transcript levels as well as in the splicing pattern of the myotubularin-related 1 (MTMR1) gene. Macroarray analysis of 96

  15. Economic aspects of mastitis: New developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large

  16. Expanding Disease Spectrum Associated With Puerperal Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg L. McAdoo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus and the β-hemolytic streptococci are the commonest causes of puerperal mastitis which tends to be a localized disease process. This report describes 2 cases attributable to these bacteria that resulted in extramammary involvement and augmented morbidity.

  17. Risk factors and therapy for goat mastitis in a hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors for goat mastitis in a hospital-based matched case-control study in a teaching veterinary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh and to describe the range of antimicrobial treatments applied in this situation. Cases of mastitis and controls were drawn from the hospital patient recording system, along with their risk factor status. Multiple imputation was applied to deal with the missing values in the data analysis. Mastitis occurred somewhat more in the rainy season, and comprised about 3% of all goats admitted to the hospital during January 2011-June 2014. Free-ranging farming system, poor body condition score and non-native goat breeds were significantly associated with case status. Treatment of clinical mastitis was variable and unsystematic, but the use of gentamicin was commonly recorded. The need for more prudent and evidence-based antimicrobial therapies is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Corticosteroid and Azithromycin in Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial research carried out in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran in 2013 on granulomatous mastitis patients. It was administered 250 mg of Azithromycin per 12 hour and 60 mg of Prednisolone per day within 2 weeks. Next, they took 40 mg/day within 8 weeks, and this dosage was tapered during 6 months and the patients clinically and radiologically followed up. The studied patients were examined within 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, from the beginning of treatment. Results: This study investigated granulomatous mastitis patients in Alzahra hospital in 2013. The mean age of these patients was 33.6 ± 8.9, and their age range was 18–56 years old. Among 26 studied patients, 24 persons (92.3% according to follow-up the patients by physical examination and sonography responded to treatment of corticosteroid and Azithromycin. The remaining (7.7% underwent surgery. Treatment periods in case of drug use were respectively, 8.5 ± 0.71 months. Conclusion: Treatment with corticosteroid and Azithromycin is an effective and appropriate treatment for IGM.

  19. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso: Epicoccum sorghinum is dominant in seedlings and appears as a common root pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Michaela S; Wulff, Ednar G; Zida, Elisabeth P; Thio, Ibié G; Néya, James B; Soalla, Romain W; Głazowska, Sylwia E; Andresen, Marianne; Topbjerg, Henrik B; Boelt, Birte; Lund, Ole S

    2016-10-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from seedlings, compared to 29 OTUs from seeds. The top-eight most abundant ascomycete OTUs from seedlings were annotated as: Epicoccum sorghinum, Fusarium thapsinum, four different Curvularia spp., Exserohilum rostratum and Alternaria longissima. These OTUs were also present in amplicons from seed samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates was compared to F. thapsinum by inoculation to seeds in vitro. Both fungal species caused significant inhibition of seedling growth (P<0.001) and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Extensive, dark necrosis in roots was a typical symptom of E. sorghinum, whereas wilting of leaves was caused primarily by F. thapsinum. This study provides the first molecular approach to characterize the seedling mycoflora of sorghum in Western Africa and suggests E. sorghinum as a common root pathogen. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A C; Capra, E; Morandi, S; Cremonesi, P; Pantoja, J C F; Langoni, H; de Vargas, A P C; da Costa, M M; Jagielski, T; Bolaños, C A D; Guerra, S T; Ribeiro, M G

    2017-06-01

    Prototheca species have increasingly been reported to be opportunistic pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy herds, and it poses an emergent problem because at present, there are no effective therapies for the treatment of protothecal mastitis. This study investigated the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from 75 cases of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. All strains were susceptible to guanidine in vitro with minimal algaecide concentrations ranging from 0·001 to 0·035%. Guanidine is known to have a high microbicidal effect and is considered to be a new generation microbicidal compound. It is not toxic to human mucous membranes and conjunctivas at low concentrations and has been used as a disinfectant in swimming pools and as an antiseptic for human wounds. The algicidal action of guanidine at low concentrations indicates that it could be an alternative disinfectant or antiseptic for cleaning of the dairy environment and milking equipment, in pre- and postdipping solutions, in the chemical dry therapy of bovine teats and even in the intramammary therapy of P. zopfii infections. This is the first report of the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on P. zopfii strains of animal origin. Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 is an opportunistic pathogen of bovine mastitis. To date, no effective therapies against protothecal mastitis have been developed. The in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 P. zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from cows revealed that all of the isolates were susceptible to the compound at low concentrations, which indicates that guanidine may be used as an antiseptic/disinfectant for dairy milking equipment, in pre- and postdipping solutions, and as a chemical dry therapy or an intramammary therapy. This study describes the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on P. zopfii for the first time. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Lívia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Stap...

  2. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alungal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year-old woman presented with a painful mass in the left breast, polyarthritis and erythema nodosum. Fine needle aspiration cytology led to a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis. Oral prednisolone rapidly improved the arthritis and the erythema nodosum. Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare, chronic inflammatory disease and only ten patients with granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthitis have been described.

  3. A cohort study of coagulase negative staphylococcal mastitis in selected dairy herds in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T J; Dohoo, I R; Donald, A W; Hariharan, H; Collins, K

    1992-01-01

    The epidemiology and importance of coagulase negative staphylococcal (CNS) mastitis in Prince Edward Island had not been documented. To investigate this, a cohort of 84 cows at seven farms were quarter sampled eight times over a lactation, commencing with samples taken prior to drying off in the previous lactation. Thirteen species of CNS were isolated. The quarter prevalence of CNS mastitis varied from 4.8% to 6.4% in the first five months of lactation and increased to 14.2 to 16.6% in the last four months of lactation. The geometric mean somatic cell counts (SCC) for quarters infected with CNS and uninfected quarters were 90 x 10(3) and 64 x 10(3) respectively (difference significant at p > 0.005). The two month new infection risk of CNS was 9.0% while the two month elimination risk was 74.4%. Infection with CNS did not alter the risk of subsequent infection with Staphylococcus aureus. The results from this project support the classification of CNS as a minor pathogen in mastitis control programs. PMID:1477796

  4. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2016-08-15

    The aetiology and epidemiology of outbreaks of clinical mastitis in sheep under extensive pastoral conditions are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of a clinical mastitis outbreak that affected more than 10% of 230 at-risk ewes on a sheep and grain producing property in south east Australia during drought conditions in 2009. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all affected ewes and plated on sheep blood agar for bacterial identification. M. haemolytica was isolated from 80% of the samples that yielded cultivable microorganisms and thus was the main microorganism responsible for the outbreak. Analysis of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed some evidence of clonality, suggesting the possibility of horizontal transmission, but there was also considerable diversity between the clusters of closely related isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of the M. haemolytica isolates revealed most of the isolates belonged to ST1 with no association between the PFGE and MLST fingerprints of the isolates. Resistance to neomycin, streptomycin and sulphafurazole was detected in some of the isolates, but they were all susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. This is the first published record of a comparison of the strains of M. haemolytica involved in a clinical mastitis outbreak in sheep and demonstrates the importance of this pathogen in sheep production systems, particularly during adverse climatic conditions and increased stocking rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia spp. isolated from bovine mastitis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condas, Larissa A Z; Ribeiro, Márcio G; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; de Vargas, Agueda P Castagna; Salerno, Tatiana; Giuffrida, Rogério; Langoni, Hélio; Melville, Priscila A; Biesdorf, Sônia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Gonoi, Tohru; Kastelic, John P; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-12-27

    Nocardia spp. infections can cause severe damage to the mammary gland due to suppurative pyogranulomatous lesions and lack of clinical cure in response to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Although Nocardia infections are considered relatively uncommon in cows, there has been an apparent worldwide increase in the incidence of bovine mastitis caused by Nocardia spp, perhaps due to environmental transmission of this ubiquitous pathogen. The objectives of present study were to determine: (i) species distribution of 80 Nocardia isolates involved in bovine mastitis (based on molecular methods); and (ii) antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all isolates from three geographical areas in Brazil. In this study, Nocardia nova (80%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia farcinica (9%). Additionally, Nocardia puris, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia veterana, Nocardia africana, and Nocardia arthritidis were detected using 16S rRNA sequencing. This is apparently the first report of N. puris, N. veterana, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. arthritidis and N. africana in association with bovine mastitis. Based on the disk diffusion test, isolates were most frequently resistant to cloxacillin (75%), ampicillin (55%) and cefoperazone (47%), whereas few Nocardia spp. were resistant to amikacin, cefuroxime or gentamicin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of on-farm data to guide treatment and control of mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Olivier; Gaudout, Nicolas; Schmitt, Ellen; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of mastitis is the most common reason for use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle. The responsible use of antimicrobials could be strengthened by knowledge of predictors for cure, which would help to tailor treatment decisions. Ideally, to allow for widespread uptake, this would be

  7. Sodium cloxacillin for treatment of mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W T; Maplesden, D C

    1975-12-01

    Sodium cloxacillin was used to treat 107 cows affected with acute mastitis and 138 affected with subclinical mastitis. Based on the application of conservative bacteriologic criteria, the cure rate was 53% for acute staphylococci mastitis and 65% for subclinical staphylococci mastitis. The cure rate for Streptococcus agalactiae infections was 91% in acute conditions and 92% in subclinical conditions. The cure rate was 73% for the acute infections and 88% in cases of subclinical infections when Streptococcus spp. "non ag" was the cause. Daily milk production had no effect on response rate. No adverse reactions due to treatment were reported by any investigator.

  8. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Griffin, Patricia M; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Lance, Susan; Tauxe, Robert; Henao, Olga L

    2014-04-18

    Foodborne disease continues to be an important problem in the United States. Most illnesses are preventable. To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. This report summarizes preliminary 2013 data and describes trends since 2006. In 2013, a total of 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospitalizations, and 80 deaths were reported. For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). FoodNet provides federal and state public health and regulatory agencies as well as the food industry with important information needed to determine if regulations, guidelines, and safety practices applied across the farm-to-table continuum are working.

  9. The sentinel tree nursery as an early warning system for pathway risk assessment: Fungal pathogens associated with Chinese woody plants commonly shipped to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, Anna Maria; Li, Hong-Mei; Eschen, Rene; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Vannini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of and invasion by alien plant pathogens represents the main cause of emerging infectious diseases affecting domesticated and wild plant species worldwide. The trade in living plants is the most common pathway of introduction. Many of the alien tree pathogens recently introduced into Europe were not previously included on any quarantine lists. To help determine the potential risk of pest introduction through trading of ornamental plants, a sentinel nursery was established in Beijing, China in 2008. The sentinel nursery planting included four of the most common ornamental woody species shipped to Europe including Ilex cornuta var. fortunae, Zelkova schneideriana, Fraxinus chinensis and Buxus microphylla. Symptoms developing on these species within the sentinel nursery were detected in 2013 and consisted of necrotic spots on leaves, canker and stem necrosis, shoot blight and shoot necrosis. Fungi associated with the trees and their symptoms included Alternaria alternata detected from all hosts; Diaporthe liquidambaris and Diaporthe capsici from bark and leaf necrosis of Zelkova schneideriana; Botryosphaeria dothidea and Nothophoma quercina from stem cankers on Fraxinus chinensis and leaf necrosis on Ilex cornuta; and Pseudonectria foliicola from leaf necrosis on Buxus microphylla. Next generation sequencing analysis from asymptomatic tissues detected eighteen OTU's at species level among which some taxa had not been previously recorded in Europe. These results clearly demonstrate that looking at trees of internationally traded species in the region of origin can reveal the presence of potentially harmful organisms of major forestry, landscape or crop trees. Results of this study also provide an indication as to how some disease agents can be introduced using pathways other than the co-generic hosts. Hence, sentinel nurseries represent one potential mechanism to address the current lack of knowledge about pests in the countries from where live plants are

  10. The sentinel tree nursery as an early warning system for pathway risk assessment: Fungal pathogens associated with Chinese woody plants commonly shipped to Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Vettraino

    Full Text Available Introduction of and invasion by alien plant pathogens represents the main cause of emerging infectious diseases affecting domesticated and wild plant species worldwide. The trade in living plants is the most common pathway of introduction. Many of the alien tree pathogens recently introduced into Europe were not previously included on any quarantine lists. To help determine the potential risk of pest introduction through trading of ornamental plants, a sentinel nursery was established in Beijing, China in 2008. The sentinel nursery planting included four of the most common ornamental woody species shipped to Europe including Ilex cornuta var. fortunae, Zelkova schneideriana, Fraxinus chinensis and Buxus microphylla. Symptoms developing on these species within the sentinel nursery were detected in 2013 and consisted of necrotic spots on leaves, canker and stem necrosis, shoot blight and shoot necrosis. Fungi associated with the trees and their symptoms included Alternaria alternata detected from all hosts; Diaporthe liquidambaris and Diaporthe capsici from bark and leaf necrosis of Zelkova schneideriana; Botryosphaeria dothidea and Nothophoma quercina from stem cankers on Fraxinus chinensis and leaf necrosis on Ilex cornuta; and Pseudonectria foliicola from leaf necrosis on Buxus microphylla. Next generation sequencing analysis from asymptomatic tissues detected eighteen OTU's at species level among which some taxa had not been previously recorded in Europe. These results clearly demonstrate that looking at trees of internationally traded species in the region of origin can reveal the presence of potentially harmful organisms of major forestry, landscape or crop trees. Results of this study also provide an indication as to how some disease agents can be introduced using pathways other than the co-generic hosts. Hence, sentinel nurseries represent one potential mechanism to address the current lack of knowledge about pests in the countries from

  11. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre J G M de Wit

    Full Text Available We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu (syn. Passalora fulva and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs, but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb, which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse. Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  12. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Okmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Oranav; Cos, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; DHillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Gamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Burg, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jerome; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-05-04

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70percent of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2percent in Cfu versus 3.2percent in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  13. The sentinel tree nursery as an early warning system for pathway risk assessment: Fungal pathogens associated with Chinese woody plants commonly shipped to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, Anna Maria; Li, Hong-Mei; Eschen, Rene; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of and invasion by alien plant pathogens represents the main cause of emerging infectious diseases affecting domesticated and wild plant species worldwide. The trade in living plants is the most common pathway of introduction. Many of the alien tree pathogens recently introduced into Europe were not previously included on any quarantine lists. To help determine the potential risk of pest introduction through trading of ornamental plants, a sentinel nursery was established in Beijing, China in 2008. The sentinel nursery planting included four of the most common ornamental woody species shipped to Europe including Ilex cornuta var. fortunae, Zelkova schneideriana, Fraxinus chinensis and Buxus microphylla. Symptoms developing on these species within the sentinel nursery were detected in 2013 and consisted of necrotic spots on leaves, canker and stem necrosis, shoot blight and shoot necrosis. Fungi associated with the trees and their symptoms included Alternaria alternata detected from all hosts; Diaporthe liquidambaris and Diaporthe capsici from bark and leaf necrosis of Zelkova schneideriana; Botryosphaeria dothidea and Nothophoma quercina from stem cankers on Fraxinus chinensis and leaf necrosis on Ilex cornuta; and Pseudonectria foliicola from leaf necrosis on Buxus microphylla. Next generation sequencing analysis from asymptomatic tissues detected eighteen OTU’s at species level among which some taxa had not been previously recorded in Europe. These results clearly demonstrate that looking at trees of internationally traded species in the region of origin can reveal the presence of potentially harmful organisms of major forestry, landscape or crop trees. Results of this study also provide an indication as to how some disease agents can be introduced using pathways other than the co-generic hosts. Hence, sentinel nurseries represent one potential mechanism to address the current lack of knowledge about pests in the countries from where live plants

  14. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  15. BRCA1: a new candidate gene for bovine mastitis and its association analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms and milk somatic cell score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhengrong; Chu, Guiyan; Dan, Yang; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya; Xu, Shangzhong; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is a very complex and common disease of dairy cattle and a major source of economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the bovine breast cancer 1, early onset gene (BRCA1) was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The main object of this study was to investigate whether the BRCA1 gene was associated with mastitis in cattle. Through DNA sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Created Restriction Site PCR (CRS-PCR) methods, three SNPs (G22231T, T25025A, and C28300A) were detected and twenty-four combinations of these SNPs were observed. The single SNP and their genetic effects on somatic cell score (SCS) were evaluated and a significant association with SCS was found in C28300A. The mean of genotype EE was significantly lower than those of genotypes EF and FF. The results of combined genotypes analysis of three SNPs showed that BBDDFF genotype with the highest SCS were easily for the mastitis susceptibility, whereas AACCEE genotype with the lowest SCS were favorable for the mastitis resistance. The information provided in the present study will be very useful for improving mastitis resistance in dairy cattle by marker-assisted selection.

  16. Disruption of the sigS gene attenuates the local innate immune response to Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse mastitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peton, Vincent; Breyne, Koen; Rault, Lucie; Demeyere, Kristel; Berkova, Nadia; Meyer, Evelyne; Even, Sergine; Le Loir, Yves

    2016-04-15

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen involved in ruminant mastitis and present worldwide. Clinical signs of S. aureus mastitis vary considerably and are largely dependent on strain-specific factors. A comparison of two S. aureus strains that reproducibly induced either severe (O11) or mild (O46) mastitis in ewes revealed that the transcriptional regulator sigS was mutated in O46 (Le Maréchal et al., 2011. PLoS One. 6 (11) e27354. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027354). In the present paper, we analysed the sigS sequence in 18 other S. aureus strains isolated from goat or ewe mastitis and found a 4-bp deletion similar to that of the O46 sigS gene in three strains associated with subclinical ewe mastitis. This sigS gene was disrupted in strain O11 (O11ΔsigS), so our aim was to investigate its involvement in the severity of infections in the context of mastitis. The wild type (wt) and mutant strains were then characterized in vitro to determine the involvement of sigS in the response S. aureus under various stress conditions, and assess its influence on the cytotoxicity of the pathogen, its invasive capacity and biofilm formation. The strains were compared in vivo in an experimental mouse mastitis model in which clinical signs and cytokine production were evaluated at 24h post-infection. While no significant differences in the effect on bacterial growth between O11 and O11ΔsigS were observed either in vitro or in vivo, a significantly weaker in vivo production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α was measured in the mammary glands infected with the mutant strain, suggesting that infection with O11ΔsigS induced an attenuated local innate immune response. These results suggest an impact of sigS disruption on S. aureus pathogenesis in a ruminant mastitis context. This disruption is probably involved in, and may partly explain, the milder symptoms previously observed in S. aureus O46-induced mastitis in ewes. Copyright

  17. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Løvendahl, Peter; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2015-01-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk...... appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases...... of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations...

  18. Radiodiagnostic aspects of non-puerperal mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.

  19. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.

  20. Efficacy of chlorhexidine as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Lewis, M J; Torre, P M; Matthews, K R; Dowlen, H H

    1990-08-01

    A natural exposure trial was conducted for 12 mo in a herd of 150 lactating Jersey cows to determine efficacy of a .35% chlorhexidine teat dip containing a glycerine emollient for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections. Right teats of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal and left teats were not dipped. The herd was free of Streptococcus agalactiae and had a low prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus. Most new major pathogen intramammary infections resulted from Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. New infections by Streptococcus species were significantly lower in teats dipped in chlorhexidine than in undipped teats. Overall efficacy of the chlorhexidine teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 50%. The experimental teat dip also reduced coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species infections 49.0% and Corynebacterium bovis infections 65.2%. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 54.0%. No irritation or chapping of teats dipped in the experimental teat dip was observed.

  1. Imaging features of tuberculous mastitis : Comparison with non-tuberculous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.

  2. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importance...

  3. Randomized clinical trial comparing ceftiofur hydrochloride with a positive control protocol for intramammary treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Cristina Simões; Tomazi, Tiago; Zoni, Mário Sérgio Ferreira; Moro, Elio; Veiga Dos Santos, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ceftiofur hydrochloride with a positive control protocol for intramammary treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 264 clinical mastitis cases on 11 commercial dairy farms were treated with intramammary infusions, once a day for 4 d using 1 of 2 treatments: (1) ceftiofur hydrochloride 125mg; or (2) control: tetracycline 200mg + neomycin 250mg + bacitracin 28mg + prednisolone 10mg. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most frequently isolated gram-positive pathogen from clinical mastitis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli were the most isolated gram-negative bacteria from clinical mastitis. No significant differences were observed between treatments regarding the overall clinical cure, bacteriological cure, and new infection. No effect of treatment regimen was observed when the bacterial group (gram-positive vs. gram-negative) was evaluated. The overall clinical cure was 0.79 for ceftiofur-treated cows and 0.74 for control-treated cows, whereas the overall bacteriological cure was 0.79 for ceftiofur-treated cows and 0.76 for control-treated cows. Furthermore, the new intramammary infection was 0.10 for cows treated with ceftiofur and 0.11 for cows treated with control. In conclusion, the use of intramammary ceftiofur hydrochloride for treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis has similar efficacy as a treatment regimen with a combination of antimicrobial agents (tetracycline + neomycin + bacitracin). Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast carcinoma occurring from chronic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Luqman; Suhaimi, Shahrun Niza Abdullah; Jasmin, Saladina Jaszle; Latar, Nani Harlina Md; Adzman, Sellymiah; Muhammad, Rohaizak

    2012-04-01

    Chronic granulomatous mastitis is known as a benign and relatively rare disorder that is often difficult to differentiate from breast carcinoma. We highlight the case of a 34-year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of right breast swelling and abscess for 8 years. These were proven to be chronic granulomatous mastitis by tissue biopsies on 3 different occasions. Her condition improved on similar courses of antibiotics and high-dose prednisolone. However, she subsequently developed progressive loss of vision due to an orbital tumour. She then underwent a craniotomy and left orbital decompression with excision of the tumour, which proved to be a metastatic carcinoma. A trucut biopsy of the right breast was then done and showed features consistent with an infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This case illustrates the possibility that chronic granulomatous mastitis could be a precursor for malignancy and the difficulty in differentiating one from the other. The possible mechanisms of development and the implications for future management are also discussed.

  5. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica granatum mesocarp, Nelumbo nucifera Leaf, Psidium guajava Leaf and Coffea Canephora Extract on Common Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Viral V; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; B H, Mithun Pai

    2014-07-01

    Alternative therapies are increasingly being explored as extensive use of synthetic chemicals has led to the emergence of substantial side effects. Phytomedicine has been well practiced as traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of oral diseases. It has gained importance of late as an alternative to the conventional therapy. Various plant and fruit extracts have been monitored recently to assess their potential against the common oral pathogens. Aim of this study was to assess in-vitro efficacy of pomegranate peel, lotus leaf, guava leaf and coffee extracts on oral microorganisms. Concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for each, followed by efficacy testing using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans. All the four extracts were found to be effective against S.mutans and S.mitis, with maximum efficacy against S.mutans and S.mitis displayed by pomegranate and lotus. Antifungal efficacy was demonstrated by coffee and pomegranate. Guava, lotus and coffee were effective against P.intermedia, while only coffee was found to be effective against P. gingivalis. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p coffee displayed significant anticariogenic effect while coffee was found to be most effective against periodontal pathogens as well as Candida albicans. RESULTS revealed that natural products may be used as economical and suitable adjuvant to synthetic medicines and compounds and their judicious use might not only help to inhibit the side effects of synthetic chemicals but also prove to be cost effective in developing economies.

  6. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  7. Non-puerperal mastitis masking pre-existing breast malignancy: Importance of follow-up imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jin Kyung; Woo, Jeong Joo; Lee, Seung A [Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast with common symptoms of pain, swelling, erythema, warmth, and fever. Diagnosis of mastitis is easily made on the basis of typical symptoms and ultrasonographic findings, such as diffusely increased echogenicity of the parenchyma and subcutaneous fat, or skin thickening. However, when it occurs in women middle-aged or older, associated malignancy should be considered. In our cases, we detected irregular hypoechoic malignant masses after the disappearance of inflammatory changes. Therefore, when non-puerperal women have inflammatory signs on their breast, follow-up imaging should be performed. In particular, in the case of persistent or growing palpability after the recovery of breast inflammation, percutaneous core biopsy and short-term follow-up with ultrasonography should be considered to exclude the associated malignancy.

  8. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...

  9. Prevalence of mastitis in smallholder dairy cattle in Pemba island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September 2010 to establish the prevalence of mastitis in smallholder dairy cattle in Pemba Island. The study also assessed factors contributing towards the increased occurrence of bovine mastitis in those dairy farms. Simple structured questionnaire survey, California ...

  10. Mastitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Sol, J.; Koene, M.G.J.; Schaaf, A.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in the Netherlands.

  11. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van Felix J.S.; Santman-Berends, Inge M.G.A.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in

  12. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, Felix J S; Santman-Berends, Inge M G A; Lam, Theo J G M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in

  13. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows from November, 2012 to July, 2013 in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis ...

  14. Sequencing of Escherichia coli that cause persistent and transient Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomes of two strains of Escherichia coli that cause bovine mastitis were sequenced. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis: strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection....

  15. Mycoplasma infection as disposing factor to Streptococcus dysgalactiae mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polner, A; Varga, Z; Antal, V D; Szabó, I; Antal, T; Stipkovits, L

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied a synergistic effect of an arginine hydrolising, but glucose negative mycoplasma strain (9293/3/2/1) and Streptococcus (Str.) dysgalactiae. Both agents, as mono-infections, caused only slight mastitis, but if the udder had been previously infected with mycoplasma, Str. dysgalactiae provoked very severe mastitis.

  16. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J E; Green, M J; Bradley, A J

    2009-06-01

    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statistical analysis, which included use of generalized linear mixed models. Significant covariates associated with an increased risk of CM were increasing parity, decreasing month of lactation, cows with very dirty udders, and quarters with only very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end. Thin and moderate smooth teat-end callosity scores were not associated with an increased risk for CM. Cows that recorded a somatic cell count >199,000 cells/mL and a milk protein percentage cow body condition score and incidence of CM. Of the cases of CM available for culture, 171 (26.7%) were confirmed as being caused by Escherichia coli and 121 (18.9%) confirmed as being caused by Streptococcus uberis. Quarters with moderate and very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were at significantly increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis before the next visit. Quarters with very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were significantly more likely to develop clinical Strep. uberis mastitis before the next visit. There were strong trends within the data to suggest an association between very dirty udders (an increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis) and teat-ends with no callosity ring present (an increased risk of clinical Strep. uberis mastitis). These results highlight the importance of individual quarter- and cow-level risk factors in determining the risk of CM associated with environmental pathogens during lactation.

  17. Use of on-farm data to guide treatment and control mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Olivier; Gaudout, Nicolas; Schmitt, Ellen; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of mastitis is the most common reason for use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle. The responsible use of antimicrobials could be strengthened by knowledge of predictors for cure, which would help to tailor treatment decisions. Ideally, to allow for widespread uptake, this would be achieved using data that are routinely available. To assess whether this is feasible in practice, farmers were invited to submit milk samples from mastitis cases to their veterinary practice for bacteriological culture. Among 624 culture-positive samples, 251 were positive for Streptococcus uberis. Using cow-level data, cases were classified as severe, first nonsevere, repeat, or subclinical. Additional data were collected at the cow level [somatic cell count (SCC), parity, lactation stage, milk yield, fat and protein contents, treatment] and at the herd level (housing, bedding, premilking teat disinfection, postmilking teat disinfection). Severe cases were overrepresented among heifers and animals in early lactation, and repeat cases were overrepresented in cows with 3 or more lactations. The probability of cure was higher among first- and second-parity animals than among older cows, and was higher in animals with a single elevated cow-level SCC than in animals with multiple high SCC records. Results obtained in the current study are similar to those previously described for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Thus, routinely available cow-level information can help to predict the outcome of antimicrobial treatment of the most common causes of gram-positive mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of organic oil mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovsky, N; Millett, D E; Wrobleski, D A

    1992-01-01

    The prevalent use of "medical grade" silicone oils, gels, and elastomers in medical practice has largely obscured the fact that other (illicit) materials also are still in use. Injection fluids used for tissue augmentations are sometimes composed of adulterated silicone oil formulations containing a variety of organic oils. The differential diagnosis between silicone mastitis and other organic oil mastitis in biopsy and mastectomy specimens cannot be resolved by oral history and histopathologic examination alone. In two of three specimens clinically and histopathologically diagnosed initially as silicone mastitis at the authors' institution, examination by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the principal organic oils were mineral oil and soy or olive oil. Only one specimen of mastitis contained silicone oil. In view of the significant prognostic as well as medicolegal implications of the pathologic diagnosis, the generic term "organic oil mastitis" should be used in the absence of additional objective data.

  19. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....

  20. Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs...... as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milk samples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations...... quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis....

  1. Incidencia y costo de la Mastitis en un establo del Municipio de Santa Ana, Sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach B., Francisco Arturo; Ayala Alvarez, Felix; Denogean Ballesteros, Francisco G.; Moreno Medina, Salomon; Gerlach B., Luis Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    With the objective to know the mastitis cost for milk producer, was developed this study, with duration of a year in a milk farm of the North region of Sonora. The cost of the clinical and subclinical mastitis was estimated, taking into account the milk production, treatment costs and commercial milk value. The information was recorded monthly, the incidence of subclinical mastitis was obtained using California MastitisTest (CMT) and clinical mastitis incidence was obtained from farm health r...

  2. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Moorehead, H; Lunn, P; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M

    2004-08-01

    Little research has focused on treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation. Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by interfering with enzymes essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Ceftiofur should be effective against a wide range of contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows, and to determine if extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Holstein and Jersey dairy cows (n = 88) from 3 dairy research herds were used. Cows were enrolled in the study based on milk somatic cell counts >400,000/mL and isolation of the same mastitis pathogen in 2 samples obtained 1 wk apart. Cows with one or more intramammary infections (IMI) were blocked by parity and DIM and allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 49 IMI), 5-d (n = 41 IMI), and 8-d (n = 38 IMI) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. Eighteen cows with 38 IMI were included as an untreated negative control group. A bacteriological cure was defined as a treated infected mammary quarter that was bacteriologically negative for the presence of previously identified bacteria at 14 and 28 d after the last treatment. Efficacy of ceftiofur therapy against all subclinical IMI was 38.8, 53.7, and 65.8% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Four of 38 (10.5%) IMI in control cows were cured spontaneously without treatment. All 3 ceftiofur treatment regimens were significantly better than the negative control, and the 8-d extended ceftiofur treatment regimen treatment group was significantly better than the standard 2-d treatment group. Pathogen groups had significantly different cure rates from one another. The cure

  3. Clinical and Cytological Spectrum of Granulomatous Mastitis and Utility of FNAC in Picking up Tubercular Mastitis: An Eight-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ail, Divya Achutha; Bhayekar, Pallavi; Joshi, Avinash; Pandya, Nidhi; Nasare, Anuja; Lengare, Pranoti; Narkhede, Ketan Ashok

    2017-03-01

    Granulomatous Mastitis (GM) is a rare, benign, inflammatory disease of the breast. It is a well known mimicker of malignancy, clinically and radiologically. Patients are often subjected to number of tests for the right diagnosis. Non-specific Granulomatous Mastitis (NGM) and Tubercular Mastitis (TBM) are chief among the various causes of GM. They are important to be diagnosed early as their treatment varies significantly. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is simple, patient friendly and primary investigation modality in cases of lump in breast. To find out the utility of FNAC in differentiating NGM and TBM. All cases of granulomatous mastitis diagnosed on cytology over eight years were retrospectively retrieved. The clinical and radiological history was obtained from the patient file. The slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain as well as Leishman stains. Special stains like Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) stain were used for fungus and Mycobacteriumtuberculosis respectively. Histopathological correlation of the available cases was done. Clinical presentation and cytological morphology of individual cases was studied in detail. Twenty one cases of GM obtained, of which 16 were NGM and five were TBM. Both diseases were common among young reproductive women who presented with unilateral breast lump of varying duration. Almost 25% of NGM and 60% of TBM has clinical suspicion of malignancy. About 30% had radiological suspicion of malignancy. Nearly 62.5% of NGM patients had painful swelling and none of tubercular mastitis patients had pain. About 31% of NGM patients underwent prior abscess drainage and 40% of TBM patients gave history of tuberculosis. Almost 6.25% of NGM and 60% of TBM had axillary lymphadenopathy. Cytologically epithelioid cells were identified in 100% of patients whereas, granulomas were seen in 62.5% and 80% of NGM and TBM smears respectively. Langhans giant cells were frequent among TBM and foreign body giant

  4. Cloning, Expression, and Immunogenicity of Fimbrial-F17A Subunit Vaccine against Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

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    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify and select new promising immunodominant antigens that have the ability to provide protective immunity against E. coli causing bovine mastitis. Recently we showed that f17a was found to be the most prevalent and crucial virulent factor among the pathogenic E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis. Here, in this report, the recombinant F17A based subunit vaccine adjuvant with MF59 was tested for immunogenicity against E. coli in a murine model. The vaccinated mice did not show any abnormal behavioral changes and histopathological lesions after vaccination. The specific antibody level against F17A was significantly higher in MF59-adjuvant-group, and also lasted for longer duration with a significant (P<0.01 production level of IgG1 and IgG2a. Moreover, we noted higher survival rate in mice injected with F17A-MF59-adjuvant group after challenging with the clinical E. coli strain. Our findings of bacterial clearance test revealed that elimination rate from liver, spleen, and kidney in MF59-adjuvant-group was significantly higher than the control group. Finally, the proportion of CD4+T cells was increased, while CD8+ was decreased in MF59-adjuvant group. In conclusion, the current study reveals the capability of F17A-MF59 as a potential vaccine candidate against pathogenic E. coli causing mastitis in dairy animals.

  5. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

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    Hansson Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder

  6. Mechanisms of Toll-like receptor 4 endocytosis reveal a common immune-evasion strategy used by pathogenic and commensal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yunhao; Zanoni, Ivan; Cullen, Thomas W.; Goodman, Andrew L.; Kagan, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Microbe-induced receptor trafficking has emerged as an essential means to promote innate immune signal transduction. Upon detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), CD14 induces an inflammatory endocytosis pathway that delivers Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) to endosomes. Although several regulators of CD14-dependent TLR4 endocytosis have been identified, the cargo selection mechanism during this process remains unknown. We reveal that, in contrast to classic cytosolic interactions that promoted the endocytosis of transmembrane receptors, TLR4 was selected as cargo for inflammatory endocytosis entirely through extracellular interactions. Mechanistically, the extracellular protein MD-2 bound to and dimerized TLR4 in order to promote this endocytic event. Our analysis of LPS variants from human pathogens and gut commensals revealed a common mechanism by which bacteria prevent inflammatory endocytosis. We suggest that evasion of CD14-dependent endocytosis is an attribute that transcends the concept of pathogenesis, and may be a fundamental feature of bacteria that inhabit eukaryotic hosts. PMID:26546281

  7. Common Mechanism of Cross-Resistance Development in Pathogenic Bacteria Bacillus cereus Against Alamethicin and Pediocin Involves Alteration in Lipid Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sunita; Mehla, Jitender; Kumar, Raj; Sood, S K

    2016-10-01

    To understand the mechanism of development of cross-resistance in food pathogen Bacillus cereus against an antimicrobial peptide pediocin and antibiotic alamethicin, the present study was designed. Pediococcus pentosaceus was taken as a source of pediocin, and it was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by cation exchange chromatography with 14.01-fold purity and 14.4 % recovery. B. cereus strains alamethicin-resistant strains (IC50 3.23 µg/ml) were selected from sensitive population with IC50 2.37 µg/ml. The development of resistance in B. cereus against alamethicin was associated with decrease in alamethicin-membrane interaction observed by in vitro assay. Resistant strain of B. cereus was found to harbour one additional general lipid as compared to sensitive strain, one amino group lacking phospholipid and one amino group containing phospholipid (ACP). In addition, ACP content was increased in resistant mutant (29.7 %) as compared to sensitive strain (14.56 %). The alamethicin-resistant mutant B. cereus also showed increased IC50 (58.8 AU/ml) for pediocin as compared to sensitive strain (IC50 47.8 AU/ml). Cross-resistance to pediocin and alamethicin in resistant mutant of B. cereus suggested a common mechanism of resistance. Therefore, this understanding could result in the development of peptide which will be effective against the resistant strains that share same mechanism of resistance.

  8. Common duckweed (Lemna minor) is a versatile high-throughput infection model for the Burkholderia cepacia complex and other pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Euan L S; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. This study presents evidence that Lemna minor (Common duckweed) is useful as a plant model for the Bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. To investigate the relationship between Bcc virulence in duckweed and Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth) larvae, a previously established Bcc infection model, a duckweed survival assay was developed and used to determine LD50 values. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.81) was found between the strains' virulence ranks in the two infection models, suggesting conserved pathways in these vastly different hosts. To broaden the application of the duckweed model, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and five isogenic mutants with previously established LD50 values in the larval model were tested against duckweed, and a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.93) was found between their raw LD50 values. Potential virulence factors in B. cenocepacia K56-2 were identified using a high-throughput screen against single duckweed plants. In addition to the previously characterized antifungal compound (AFC) cluster genes, several uncharacterized genes were discovered including a novel lysR regulator, a histidine biosynthesis gene hisG, and a gene located near the gene encoding the recently characterized virulence factor SuhB(Bc). Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this model in therapeutic applications, duckweed was rescued from Bcc infection by treating with bacteriophage at 6-h intervals. It was observed that phage application became ineffective at a timepoint that coincided with a sharp increase in bacterial invasion of plant tissue. These results indicate that common duckweed can serve as an effective infection model for the investigation of bacterial

  9. Common duckweed (Lemna minor is a versatile high-throughput infection model for the Burkholderia cepacia complex and other pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan L S Thomson

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (CF patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. This study presents evidence that Lemna minor (Common duckweed is useful as a plant model for the Bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. To investigate the relationship between Bcc virulence in duckweed and Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth larvae, a previously established Bcc infection model, a duckweed survival assay was developed and used to determine LD50 values. A strong correlation (R(2 = 0.81 was found between the strains' virulence ranks in the two infection models, suggesting conserved pathways in these vastly different hosts. To broaden the application of the duckweed model, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and five isogenic mutants with previously established LD50 values in the larval model were tested against duckweed, and a strong correlation (R(2 = 0.93 was found between their raw LD50 values. Potential virulence factors in B. cenocepacia K56-2 were identified using a high-throughput screen against single duckweed plants. In addition to the previously characterized antifungal compound (AFC cluster genes, several uncharacterized genes were discovered including a novel lysR regulator, a histidine biosynthesis gene hisG, and a gene located near the gene encoding the recently characterized virulence factor SuhB(Bc. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this model in therapeutic applications, duckweed was rescued from Bcc infection by treating with bacteriophage at 6-h intervals. It was observed that phage application became ineffective at a timepoint that coincided with a sharp increase in bacterial invasion of plant tissue. These results indicate that common duckweed can serve as an effective infection model for the investigation of bacterial

  10. Evaluation of the udder health status in subclinical mastitis affected dairy cows through bacteriological culture, somatic cell count and thermographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolami, A; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Corrò, M; Catania, S; Morgante, M

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is a big economic loss for farmers. The monitoring of subclinical mastitis is usually performed through Somatic Cell Count (SCC) in farm but there is the need of new diagnostic systems able to quickly identify cows affected by subclinical infections of the udder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of thermographic imaging compared to SCC and bacteriological culture for infection detection in cow affected by subclinical mastitis and possibly to discriminate between different pathogens. In this study we evaluated the udder health status of 98 Holstein Friesian dairy cows with high SCC in 4 farms. From each cow a sample of milk was collected from all the functional quarters and submitted to bacteriological culture, SCC and Mycoplasma spp. culture. A thermographic image was taken from each functional udder quarter and nipple. Pearson's correlations and Analysis of Variance were performed in order to evaluate the different diagnostic techniques. The most frequent pathogen isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and others. The Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was able to discriminate (psubclinical mastitis but seems to have a poor diagnostic value.

  11. Characteristics of Aerococcus viridans isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk SCC, yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shiyao; Khan, Saeed U; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. One-year sampling for subclinical mastitis composite milk was conducted based on monthly DHI data from September 2013 to August 2014, in a commercial herd located in Beijing, China. All samples were cultured and pathogens were identified using microbiology method. A. viridians isolates were further identified by API identification system and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing method. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test the antibiotic resistance of A. viridians against kinds of antimicrobial substance. SCC, milk yield, and milk composition data were from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) results. Results showed that a total of 279 (16.67%) A. viridans isolates were identified from among 1674 bacterial isolates cultured from milk samples with high SCC. The incidence of mastitis caused by A. viridans was the highest (48-53%) during the summer season. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to most of antimicrobial compounds tested, especially to β-lactams, but were found to be resistant (50-90%) to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. The average SCC of the A. viridans infected cows was significantly higher (1000.0 × 10 3  cells/mL) (P  0.05) by 1.86 kg/day. Reductions were also observed in fat content (P > 0.05), lactose (P  0.05), whereas protein content increased significantly (P subclinical mastitis wherein it exerts an effect on SCC, milk yield, and composition.

  12. Bovine Teat Microbiome Analysis Revealed Reduced Alpha Diversity and Significant Changes in Taxonomic Profiles in Quarters with a History of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean-Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq) to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq). Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis) were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively). Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively). Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc.), the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc.), and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus) and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the infectious episode

  13. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  14. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in milk from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, A R E O; Almeida, A C; Souza, C N; Silva, L M V; Ruas, A X A; Sanglard, D A; Júnior, A F M; Oliveira, A M E; Xavier, M A S

    2017-06-29

    The Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolated microorganism in ruminant animal species diagnostic with clinical or subclinical mastitis. Dairy herds with these diseases can transfer S. aureus into the milk supply, which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of femA gene, the genetic relationships among isolates of S. aureus obtained from milk originating from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis in nine rural properties in the northern of Minas Gerais State. To this end, 498 samples of bovine milk tested positive for the California mastitis test (CMT) were subjected to morphological methods and biochemical patterns for microbiological presumptive identification of S. aureus. The PCR test with the genetic marker femA was used to confirm the species S. aureus. All the 26 isolates presumptively identified as S. aureus amplified a fragment of 132 bp corresponding to the femA gene. The profile of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the disk-diffusion methodology and two isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. The drug multiresistence was found in 80.76% of the isolates. The determination of the genetic profile and the clonal relationship among the isolates was performed by the method of DNA RAPD-PCR polymorphism. The S. aureus isolates were divided into two groups with 26 distinct subgroups. The analysis of RAPD-PCR showed no genetic diversity among them, heterogeneous profile and absence of clonality.

  16. Occurrence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes in the State of Haryana (India

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    N. Sindhu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the occurrence and etiology of mastitis in traditionally managed buffaloes. A total of 5707 quarter milk samples from 2057 buffaloes were examined. Of these, 2948 (51.65% samples were found culturally positive. Among these, 1070 cases were from clinical mastitis and rest 1878 cases were positive for subclinical mastitis. As many as 3447 isolates were obtained from infected quarters. Out of these, 38.81% were Staphylococcus spp., 32.4% Streptococcus spp., 11.80% E. coli, 5.2% Corynebacterium spp., 1.36% Bacillus spp., 2.03% Klebsiella spp., 0.78% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.14% Proteus , 0.14% yeast. Staphylococcus spp. was predominant mastitogenic organisms followed by Streptococcus spp. Of the staphylococcal organisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent being present in the 63.15% of the isolates. Among streptococci, Streptococcus agalactiae were the predominant organisms followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The mixed infections were detected in 7.33% quarters in different combinations. Most common combination was of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. followed by Streptococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Results of Antibiotic sensitivity were variable.

  17. Cathelicidin production and release by mammary epithelial cells during infectious mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Tiziana; Cacciotto, Carla; Pisanu, Salvatore; Tedde, Vittorio; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Dore, Simone; Cannas, Agnese; Uzzau, Sergio; Rocca, Stefano; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2017-07-01

    Cathelicidins are well-characterized antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are present in significant amounts in mastitic milk. Neutrophils are believed to be the main producers of these AMPs, while the role of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in their production and release is still unclear. In this work, cathelicidin production patterns were investigated in mammary tissues of ewes infected by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, or Mycoplasma agalactiae, with a combined approach including immunohistochemistry, immune-colocalization, and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Our results confirm that MECs produce and release cathelicidins in response to different mastitis pathogens. As opposed to neutrophils, however, MECs do not seem to store the preformed protein precursor in their cytoplasm, but appear to synthesize and release it only upon exposure to the microorganisms. Cathelicidin production by MECs appears to occur before leukocyte influx in the milk, suggesting a role for these cells in the initial response of the mammary epithelium to microbial infection. Once in the milk, infiltrating neutrophils release massive amounts of cathelicidin by degranulation and production of neutrophil extracellular traps, acting as the main contributor for cathelicidin abundance in mastitic milk. Taken together, our results support the active contribution of MECs to cathelicidin production and release, and reinforce the value of cathelicidins as sensitive and pathogen-independent mastitis markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arnab; Guha, Chanchal; Biswas, Ujjwal; Jana, Partha Sarathi; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Samanta, Indranil

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , bla SHV , bla VIM , tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50) were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, bla CTX-M was detected in 18 (36%) isolates, and 6 (12%) harbored bla TEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried bla SHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10%) isolates harbored tet(A) gene, and 8 (16%) isolates carried tet(B) gene. No tet(C) gene was detected from the isolates. This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  19. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

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    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  20. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance....... The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...

  1. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateete, David Patrick; Kabugo, Usuf; Baluku, Hannington; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Kyobe, Samuel; Okee, Moses; Najjuka, Christine Florence; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2013-01-01

    Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human). Fifty eight (60%) Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21), Enterococci (16), Streptococci (13), Lactococci (5), Micrococci (2) and Arcanobacteria (1) were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25%) coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12), Klebsiella oxytoca (5), Proteus vulgaris (2), Serratia (2), Citrobacter (1), Cedecea (1) and Leclercia (1) were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35%) including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis) and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri). Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively) were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435, spa-type t645 corresponding to ST121) but

  3. Optoelectronic and photonic sensors of mastitis in cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Niemiec, T.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Kuczyńska, B.; Doroz, P.; Urbańska, K.; Szmidt, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2013-07-01

    Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland in animals under the influence of micro-organisms causing functional disorder of udder. Mastitis causes a variety of qualitative changes in the milk, which classified as mastitis milk, has a reduced value. A number of chemical procedures and lab instruments were developed to test for mastitis, of which the widest used are the California mastitis test and the somatic cell counter. This work presents the progress in development of new photonic sensors of mastitis using a conductometer, a spectrometer and a capillary head with local heating with improved measuring procedures. We showed that the significant increase in mastitis detection sensitivity is achieved by measuring the whey acidic instead of milk. The whey can be obtained from milk in a relatively simple and inexpensive chemical process. We correlated the conductivity measurement and the measurement of the number of somatic cells in the milk. The application of the measurement of optical transmission absorption in whey instead of the classic milk measurement increases the resolution of resistance measuring more than 3 times. However, the application of the method of capillary phase-transition to whey examination increases the resolution of measurement 15 times. The changes in resistance and time of the phase transitions are linearly correlated with the number of somatic cells.

  4. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  5. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pieterse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  6. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam

    to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from...... Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions...

  7. Differential glucocorticoid-induced closure of the blood-milk barrier during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Samantha K; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ahmadpour, Amir; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Wellnitz, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria invading the mammary gland can cause pathogen-dependent differences in the permeability of the blood-milk barrier leading to the differential paracellular transfer of blood and milk components. Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone (PRED) are known to increase the integrity of the blood-milk barrier and quickly restore the decreased milk quality associated with mastitis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intramammary PRED on the differential permeability of the blood-milk barrier during mastitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-one dairy cows, divided into 6 groups, were injected via a teat canal with LPS, LTA, LPS and PRED, LTA and PRED, saline (control), or PRED. Milk and blood samples were collected 0 to 8h after challenge and analyzed for somatic cell count, IgG, serum albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase in milk, or α-lactalbumin in plasma. Somatic cell count was similarly elevated in LPS- and LTA-challenged quarters and was reduced to control quarter levels only in LTA-challenged quarters with PRED administration. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was highly elevated in LPS quarters and only slightly elevated in LTA quarters, but decreased to control quarter levels with PRED administration. For serum albumin and IgG, only LPS quarters showed an elevation in concentration and PRED treatment reduced the concentration to control quarter level. We found no differences in α-lactalbumin concentrations in plasma in PRED-treated cows compared with cows that only received LPS or LTA. In conclusion, the pathogen-specific appearance of blood constituents in milk during mastitis demonstrates a differential activation of the blood-milk barrier that, in turn, can be manipulated by intramammary glucocorticoids. The results show that the administration of PRED during mastitis increases the blood-milk barrier integrity but has implications in reducing the

  8. Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautor, Eric; Cockfield, Joshua; Le Marechal, Caroline; Le Loir, Yves; Chevalier, Marlène; Robinson, D Ashley; Thiery, Richard; Lindsay, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field stud