Sample records for common issues encountered

  1. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty. (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley


    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  2. Encounters for common illnesses in general practice increased in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Lerniengre, M.B.T.; Reenen-Schimmel, van A.H.; Bor, J.H.J.; Bakx, J.C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Weel, van C.; Binsbergen, van J.J.


    Background. Obese patients are known to have more chronic medical conditions. Objective. To compare the frequency of encounter for episodes of the 10 most common illnesses in general practice between obese and non-overweight patients. Methods. Data were derived from the Continuous Morbidity

  3. Organised Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten


    The article introduces the special issue by presenting the concept of organised cultural encounters that are encounters organised to manage and/or transform problems perceived to originate in or include cultural differences. Inspired by Pratt’s conceptualisation of the contact zone, a critical...... perspective on the particular historical and spatial context of any encounter and how this context frames and mediates what takes place during an encounter is applied. While the articles of the issue present different varieties of organised cultural encounters, it is argued that they are not only of the same...

  4. Common Mental Health Issues (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi


    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  5. The National Long Term Care Demonstration: operational issues encountered in developing the research design. (United States)

    Carcagno, G J; Kemper, P


    This paper describes the design of the National Long Term Care Demonstration and its evaluation and discusses a number of operational issues encountered in the design process: simultaneous design of research and operations, identification of the target population, randomization, collection of comparable data, development of an assessment instrument, potential changes in existing programs, and termination planning.

  6. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  7. Encounters between workers sick-listed with common mental disorders and return-to-work stakeholders. Does workers' gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Christensen, Ulla; Diderichsen, Finn; Rugulies, Reiner

    Introduction: The aims of this paper were to examine how disabled workers assess encounters with return-to-work (RTW) stakeholders during sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMD) and to investigate gender differences in these assessments. Method: Data on contact with and assessment of

  8. Pharmacists' Assessment of the Difficulty and Frequency of Ethical Issues Encountered in Community Pharmacy Settings. (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Savic, Mirko


    Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP). The results of the analysis of 690 completely filled out instruments (response rate 78.49%) showed the difference between the ethical issues which always occurred ("A pharmacist is prevented from dispensing a medicine to the patient due to an administrative error in the prescription"), and the ones that pharmacists found most difficult ("A pharmacist dispenses a medicine he/she personally considers inadequate for the therapeutic treatment of the patient, in order to avoid any conflicts with the physician" and "A pharmacist is considering violating the rules and regulations in order to perform an act of humanity"). The majority of respondents (84.78%) were familiar with the Code of Ethics but the correlation between the familiarity and the perceived usefulness of the code in resolving problems in everyday practice was negative (ρ = -0.17, p ethical issues and their occurrence. Further empirical research is recommended in order to systematically identify the ethical issues faced by community pharmacists.

  9. Reflections on Ethics and Humanity in Pediatric Neurology: the Value of Recognizing Ethical Issues in Common Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Rosenbaum, Peter L


    Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice. We start with a few common situations with which many of us tend to struggle. We describe what we understand as ethics and how and why developments in technology, novel potential interventions, policies, and societal perspectives challenge us to think about and debate ethical issues. Individual patients are not a singular population; each patient has their own unique life situations, culture, goals, and expectations that need to be considered with a good dose of humanity and humility. We believe that using an ethical lens-by which we mean making an explicit effort to identify and consider these issues openly-will help us to achieve this goal in practice, education, and research.

  10. Everyday ethics: ethical issues and stress in nursing practice. (United States)

    Ulrich, Connie M; Taylor, Carol; Soeken, Karen; O'Donnell, Patricia; Farrar, Adrienne; Danis, Marion; Grady, Christine


    This paper is a report of a study of the type, frequency, and level of stress of ethical issues encountered by nurses in their everyday practice. Everyday ethical issues in nursing practice attract little attention but can create stress for nurses. Nurses often feel uncomfortable in addressing the ethical issues they encounter in patient care. A self-administered survey was sent in 2004 to 1000 nurses in four states in four different census regions of the United States of America. The adjusted response rate was 52%. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson correlations. A total of 422 questionnaires were used in the analysis. The five most frequently occurring and most stressful ethical and patient care issues were protecting patients' rights; autonomy and informed consent to treatment; staffing patterns; advanced care planning; and surrogate decision-making. Other common occurrences were unethical practices of healthcare professionals; breaches of patient confidentiality or right to privacy; and end-of-life decision-making. Younger nurses and those with fewer years of experience encountered ethical issues more frequently and reported higher levels of stress. Nurses from different regions also experienced specific types of ethical problems more commonly. Nurses face daily ethical challenges in the provision of quality care. To retain nurses, targeted ethics-related interventions that address caring for an increasingly complex patient population are needed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Management of Commonly Encountered Secondary Cleft Deformities of Face-A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob John


    Full Text Available Orofacial clefts are one of the commonest congenital deformities occurring due to disturbances during the embryological formation, development and growth of orofacial region. The treatment of cleft deformities in the early period of life is mandatory to address the aesthetic, functional and psychological problems affecting the child. A considerable number of surgical modalities for definitive correction of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip, nose, and eyelid deformities have been reported over the past half century. After the initial cleft repair, there is a long period of dramatic growth. This powerful variable of growth may ultimately distort the immediate surgical result. Hence, the correction of secondary deformities plays a very important part in the care of these patients. In this article we are enlisting some simple techniques to correct the commonly encountered secondary cleft deformities of face that gave acceptable results to the patients. These corrective surgeries not only improved the function and aesthetics but also increased the confidence level, satisfaction and overall quality of life of the patient.

  12. Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems. (United States)

    Ting, J Y; Brown, A F


    Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and

  13. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  14. Issues encountered in a qualitative secondary analysis of help-seeking in the prodrome to psychosis. (United States)

    Gladstone, Brenda M; Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M


    Primary data are rarely used explicitly as a source of data outside of the original research purpose for which they were collected. As a result, qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) has been described as an "invisible enterprise" for which there is a "notable silence" amongst the qualitative research community. In this paper, we report on the methodological implications of conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data focusing on parents' narratives of help-seeking activities in the prodrome to psychosis. We review the literature on QSA, highlighting the main characteristics of the approach, and discuss issues and challenges encountered in conducting a secondary analysis. We conclude with some thoughts on the implications for conducting a QSA in children's mental health services and research.

  15. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters. (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor


    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  16. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey. (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai


    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation.

  17. Development and Characterization of a High Throughput Screen to investigate the delayed Effects of Radiations Commonly Encountered in Space (United States)

    Morgan, W. F.

    Astronauts based on the space station or on long-term space missions will be exposed to high Z radiations in the cosmic environment In order to evaluate the potentially deleterious effects of exposure to radiations commonly encountered in space we have developed and characterized a high throughput assay to detect mutation deletion events and or hyperrecombination in the progeny of exposed cells This assay is based on a plasmid vector containing a green fluorescence protein reporter construct We have shown that after stable transfection of the vector into human or hamster cells this construct can identify mutations specifically base changes and deletions as well as recombination events e g gene conversion or homologous recombination occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation Our focus has been on those events occurring in the progeny of an irradiated cell that are potentially associated with radiation induced genomic instability rather than the more conventional assays that evaluate the direct immediate effects of radiation exposure Considerable time has been spent automating analysis of surviving colonies as a function of time after irradiation in order to determine when delayed instability is induced and the consequences of this delayed instability The assay is now automated permitting the evaluation of potentially rare events associated with low dose low dose rate radiations commonly encountered in space

  18. Common Ground in Cross Cultural Communication: Sequential and Institutional Contexts in Front Desk Service Encounters. (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi


    Looks at interactions between English-as-a-Second-Language students and English-speaking staff at the front desk of a language institute. Analysis focuses on the sequential organization of front desk encounters, revealing ways the participant's shared orientations to the organization and goals of these encounters facilitate native…

  19. MR imaging of the finger tendons: Normal anatomy and commonly encountered pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, Dina; Stanley, Anthony; Gentili, Amilcare; Hughes, Tudor; Chung, Christine B.


    MR imaging has emerged as a powerful tool in the evaluation of soft tissue structures such as the tendons of the hand and finger due to its excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilities. In the finger and hand, perhaps more than in any other location in the body, a detailed and intimate understanding of anatomy is crucial for lesion localization, directing clinical management and predicting long-term prognosis. These issues are of paramount importance to both the clinician and imager, both faced with the challenge of the complex anatomy and pathology associated with these delicate structures. The anatomy of the finger including intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, retinacular structures, and tendons will be discussed. The MR imaging features of common lesions of the tendons of the hand and finger will be reviewed

  20. Common cause failure and systems interactions issues - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.H.; Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Smith, A.M.


    Common cause failures (CCFs) and systems interactions (SIs) are two concerns which have received significant attention over the years. Although many large and varied efforts have been directed toward these concerns, their resolution is less than satisfactory. Problems continue to exist, both in terms of understanding the basic issues represented by these concerns, and the perceived need for protection against their potentially harmful effects. This paper presents the results of recent EPRI work to provide a basis of understanding of these issues. Based on that improved understanding, a more appropriate way of defining and approaching the underlying technical questions is suggested. The current means of addressing the CCF and SI concerns are discussed and areas of additional activity needed to allow a more effective resolution are identified

  1. The most common nonconformities encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong using ISO 15189 as accreditation criteria. (United States)

    Ho, Bella; Ho, Eric


    ISO 15189 was a new standard published in 2003 for accrediting medical laboratories. We believe that some requirements of the ISO 15189 standard are especially difficult to meet for majority of laboratories. The aim of this article was to present the frequency of nonconformities to requirements of the ISO 15189 accreditation standard, encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong, during 2004 to 2009. Nonconformities reported in assessments based on ISO 15189 were analyzed in two periods - from 2004 to 2006 and in 2009. They are categorized according to the ISO 15189 clause numbers. The performance of 27 laboratories initially assessed between 2004 and 2006 was compared to their performance in the second reassessment in 2009. For management requirements, nonconformities were most frequently reported against quality management system, quality and technical records and document control; whereas for technical requirements, they were reported against examination procedures, equipment, and assuring quality of examination procedures. There was no major difference in types of common nonconformities reported in the two study periods. The total number of nonconformities reported in the second reassessment of 27 laboratories in 2009 was almost halved compared to their initial assessments. The number of significant nonconformities per laboratory significantly decreased (P = 0.023). Similar nonconformities were reported in the two study periods though the frequency encountered decreased. The significant decrease in number of significant nonconformities encountered in the same group of laboratories in the two periods substantiated that 15015189 contributed to quality improvement of accredited laboratories.

  2. Quantifying the Effects of Gas-Rich Flyby Encounters on Galaxy Evolution (United States)

    Dumas, Julie; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan


    Recent work has shown that flyby encounters may be a common event in a galaxy's lifetime. Galaxy flybys are a one-time encounter when two halos interpenetrate, but unlike a galaxy merger, the two halos later detach. Relatively little work has been done to assess how flybys affect galaxy evolution. We present preliminary results of a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical + N-body simulations of gas-rich flyby encounters, concentrating on Milky Way-like primaries. We track the bulk changes in structure, star formation history, kinematics, and morphology over a broad span of flyby encounters.

  3. Monte-Carlo modelling of Ge detectors - frequently overlooked issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.; Tagziria, H.; Gasparro, J.; Hult, M.


    This work concentrates on issues that are commonly encountered, but difficult to define including detectors tilted with respect to the cylindrical axis and otherwise misaligned, deviations of the sensitive volume from a right-cylinder, e.g. a rounded edge of co-axial Ge detectors and errors in the available data about the relevant decay scheme. The paper concentrates on methods used to overcome these difficulties

  4. Key issues of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Rohde, J.; Gros, G.; Queniart, D.


    The general common safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and already some technical principles. Based on general safety approach, detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994 on key issues such as: system design and use of PSA; integrity of the primary circuit; external hazards; severe accidents and containment design; radiological consequences of reference accidents and low pressure core melt accidents. A selection of the detailed recommendations is presented in the full paper. (author)

  5. Availability and Usability of BHO Encounter Data in MAX 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  6. Erratum: Erratum to: Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment (United States)

    Long, GuiLu; Qin, Wei; Yang, Zhe; Li, Jun-Lin


    The article Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment, written by GuiLu Long, Wei Qin, Zhe Yang, and Jun-Lin Li, was originally published online without open access. After publication in volume 61, issue 3: 030311 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to The Author(s) 2017 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The original article has been corrected.

  7. Cultural geography. Different encounters, encountering difference


    Longhurst, Robyn


    In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...

  8. Challenges Encountered in the Compilation of an Advanced Shona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    turvitenskap, Seksjon for Leksikografi, Oslo, Norway. Abstract: This paper highlights the challenges encountered by the African Languages Lexical ... looks at: (a) the limitations of the current Shona orthography, the selection and codification of ... that were suggested, without getting too deeply involved in theoretical issues.

  9. Mobile encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing; Simonsen, Kirsten


    The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transport...... not only as a moving device but also as a social arena. Furthermore, the bus is simultaneously perceived as a public space, at once composite, contradictory and heterogeneous, and as a meeting place involving ‘Throwntogetherness’. The encounters analysed are bodily, emotional charged and outspoken meetings...

  10. Common problems encountered during certification of radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.F.


    The certification of radioactive materials containers is often an expensive, time-consuming process fraught with pitfalls for the unsuspecting applicant. In addition, the United States regulations governing containers for radioactive materials are changing, and the level of knowledge concerning engineering safety of the containers has expanded substantially. Further, as knowledge concerning design safety has grown, the methods of applying the regulations have changed. These changes are affecting both new and older container designs. In many cases, previously certified designs are no longer acceptable. One of the many ways to keep a finger on the pulse of the certification process is to look at the type of problems identified and the questions commonly asked during the review and evaluation of the packaging designs prior to certification. Based upon a recent study, the U.S. Department of Energy Packaging Certification Staff (PCS) has compiled, categorized, and summarized common problems and questions on container designs undergoing certification reviews. The study shows that the most common types of problems/questions are Structural and lack of Specific Information

  11. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment. (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K


    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability. (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin


    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  13. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management. (United States)

    Deeb, Asma; Akle, Mariette; Al Ozairi, Abdulla; Cameron, Fergus


    Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  14. Connection between encounter volume and diffusivity in geophysical flows (United States)

    Rypina, Irina I.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Pratt, Larry J.


    Trajectory encounter volume - the volume of fluid that passes close to a reference fluid parcel over some time interval - has been recently introduced as a measure of mixing potential of a flow. Diffusivity is the most commonly used characteristic of turbulent diffusion. We derive the analytical relationship between the encounter volume and diffusivity under the assumption of an isotropic random walk, i.e., diffusive motion, in one and two dimensions. We apply the derived formulas to produce maps of encounter volume and the corresponding diffusivity in the Gulf Stream region of the North Atlantic based on satellite altimetry, and discuss the mixing properties of Gulf Stream rings. Advantages offered by the derived formula for estimating diffusivity from oceanographic data are discussed, as well as applications to other disciplines.

  15. MDEP Design-Specific Common Position CP-EPRWG-02. Common position addressing Fukushima Daiichi-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A severe accident involving several units took place in Japan at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) in March 2011. The immediate cause of the accident was an earthquake followed by a tsunami coupled with inadequate provisions against the consequences of such events in the design. Opportunities to improve protection against a realistic design basis tsunami were not taken. As a consequence of the tsunami, safety equipment and the related safety functions were lost at the plant, leading to core damage in three units and subsequently to large radioactive releases (INES 7). Several studies have already been performed to better understand the accident progression and detailed technical studies are still in progress in Japan and elsewhere. In the meantime, on-going studies on the behaviour of NPPs in very severe situations, similar to Fukushima Daiichi, seek to identify potential vulnerabilities in plant design and operation; to suggest reasonably practicable upgrades; or to recommend enhanced regulatory requirements and guidance to address such situations. Likewise, agencies around the world that are responsible for regulating the design, construction and operation of EPR plants are engaged in similar activities. The MDEP EPR Working Group (EPRWG) members consist of members from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Finland, China, India and Sweden. Because not all of these countries have completed the regulatory review of their EPR applications yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for EPR plants, as well as common general expectations for new nuclear power plants, as related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident or Fukushima Daiichi-related issues. After the safety reviews of the EPR design applications that are currently in review are completed, the regulators will update this paper to reflect their safety conclusions regarding the EPR design and how the design could be

  16. Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    ) the memorability of the service encounter and (b) the extent to which what had happened had been subject to rehearsal with the purpose of telling others about it. These findings should be seen in relation to the literature’s view that customer satisfaction, not thinking, is a dominant predictor of word-of-mouth......This study examines the impact of thinking about a service encounter, after it has been completed, on telling others about it (i.e., word-of-mouth). The main finding was that encounter-related thinking boosted word-of-mouth. We also found that the think-talk association was mediated by (a....... Our results, however, indicate that satisfaction’s contribution to the variation in talking about the encounter was modest (and customer satisfaction played only a minor role in explaining why an encounter is thought about)....

  17. Important role of the nucleotide excision repair pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis in conferring protection against commonly encountered DNA-damaging agents. (United States)

    Kurthkoti, Krishna; Kumar, Pradeep; Jain, Ruchi; Varshney, Umesh


    Mycobacteria are an important group of human pathogens. Although the DNA repair mechanisms in mycobacteria are not well understood, these are vital for the pathogen's persistence in the host macrophages. In this study, we generated a null mutation in the uvrB gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis to allow us to compare the significance of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway with two important base excision repair pathways, initiated by uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg or MutM), in an isogenic strain background. The strain deficient in NER was the most sensitive to commonly encountered DNA-damaging agents such as UV, low pH, reactive oxygen species, hypoxia, and was also sensitive to acidified nitrite. Taken together with previous observations on NER-deficient M. tuberculosis, these results suggest that NER is an important DNA repair pathway in mycobacteria.

  18. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Deeb


    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  19. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  20. Effects of Soundscapes on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo


    Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  1. Drug-related police encounters across the globe: How do they compare? (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R


    Drug law enforcement subsumes the majority of drug policy expenditure across the globe. Fuelled by knowledge that much of this investment is ineffective or counter-productive there have been increasing calls for cross-national comparisons to identify where policing approaches differ and what types of approaches may be more effective. Yet, to date cross-national comparison of drug law enforcement has proven a methodologically hazardous affair. Using a new drug policing module added to the 2017 Global Drug Survey, this study seeks to provide the first cross-national comparison of the incidence, nature and intensity of illicit drug-related police encounters amongst people who use drugs. The Global Drug Survey was administered in late 2016. Across 26 countries including Australia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, the UK and the USA a total of 45,942 people who had recently used drugs completed the drug policing module. Key variables assessed included the incidence and frequency of drug-related police encounters in the last 12 months that involved: a) being stopped and searched; b) encountering a drug detection dog; c) being given a caution or warning; d) being charged and arrested; and e) paying a bribe. Multi-level models were used to control for pre-existing national differences in drug use prevalence and non-drug specific policing (including the total number of police personnel in each country). Drug-related police encounters were most commonly reported in Italy and Scotland. Conversely, police encounters were most likely to lead to arrest in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The type and locations of encounters further differed across countries, with for example stop and search most reported in Greece and Colombia, and encounters with drug detection dogs most reported in Scotland, Italy, UK and Australia. Multi-level models showed that the incidence of reported policing encounters continued to differ significantly across countries after controlling for pre

  2. Common management issues in pediatric patients with mild bleeding disorders. (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah H


    Type 1 von Willebrand disease and mild platelet function defects are among the most common disorders seen by pediatric hematologists. The management and prevention of bleeding in these patients can be challenging, as there are limited published data to guide clinical practice, and a complete lack of randomized clinical trials. Desmopressin (DDAVP) and antifibrinolytics are the mainstays of treatment in these patients, yet the optimal dosing and timing of these agents to prevent or resolve bleeding, while minimizing adverse side effects, is sometimes unclear. DDAVP-induced hyponatremia is a particularly under-recognized complication in children with bleeding disorders who undergo surgery. Clinicians need to be aware of local measures that are equally important in treating problems such as epistaxis and surgical bleeding. This review will discuss the published literature and provide practical suggestions regarding four common management issues in the care of children and adolescents with mild bleeding disorders: epistaxis, heavy menstrual bleeding, dental extractions, and tonsillectomy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Tourism and its discontents : Suri-tourist encounters in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.


    Encounters between foreign tourists and people of different cultural background become very common in a globalized world. The nature of this exchange in cultural terms relates questions of identity construction and the emergence or creation of difference. This article addresses tourist-'native'

  4. Ulysses at jupiter: an overview of the encounter. (United States)

    Smith, E J; Wenzel, K P; Page, D E


    In February 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft flew through the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter. The primary objective of the encounter was to use the gravity field of Jupiter to redirect the spacecraft to the sun's polar regions, which will now be traversed in 1994 and 1995. However, the Ulysses scientific investigations were well suited to observations of the Jovian magnetosphere, and the encounter has resulted in a major contribution to our understanding of this complex and dynamic plasma environment. Among the more exciting results are (i) possible entry into the polar cap, (ii) the identification of magnetospheric ions originating from Jupiter's ionosphere, lo, and the solar wind, (iii) observation of longitudinal asymmetries in density and discrete wave-emitting regions of the lo plasma torus, (iv) the presence of counter-streaming ions and electrons, field-aligned currents, and energetic electron and radio bursts in the dusk sector on high-latitude magnetic field lines, and (v) the identification of the direction of the magnetic field in the dusk sector, which is indicative of tailward convection. This overview serves as an introduction to the accompanying reports that present the preliminary scientific findings. Aspects of the encounter that are common to all of the investigations, such as spacecraft capabilities, the flight path past Jupiter, and unique aspects of the encounter, are presented herein.

  5. Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, D.W.; Thomas, W.R.


    This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation of these reactors. Finally, a more thorough search and evaluation of common-cause events is required to account for combinations of unique design features and operation that might otherwise not be included in the PSA. It is expected that most of these modeling issues also would be encountered when modeling some of the other more unique reactor and nonreactor facilities that are part of the DOE nuclear materials production complex. 9 refs., 2 figs

  6. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.


    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  7. Low Back Pain - Management Perspective Of A commonly Encountered Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parharaj S S


    Full Text Available Low Back pain is a very common symptom affecting the general population, incurring a huge annual societal cost. In spite of this, it remains very commonly misdiagnosed and maltreated. The majority of benign chronic low back pain patients suffer from a combination of myofascial frozen back syndrome with or without an overly of psychosocioeconomic factors. Neural compression causes are less frequent. A though evaluation of the patient to select the most rational therapeutic approach is necessary. In majority of the patients, a well planned out rehabilitation programme is useful. Surgery is indicated in a minority with neural compression or spinal instability, motivation is essential as rehabilitation and surgery have a high failure rate in inadequately motivated patients with psychosocioeconomic dysfunction.

  8. Issues, controversies, and clinical utility of combined PET/CT imaging: what is the interpreting physician facing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, T.M.; Casagranda, B.; Townsend, D.W.; Meltzer, C.C.


    Objective: This article identifies the most commonly encountered issues of combined PET/CT and shows the wide variability in perceived possible solutions to these issues. This article will serve as a catalyst to stimulate discussion between experts in both radiology and nuclear medicine. Conclusion: Combining a PET tomography and CT scanner into a single unit amounts to advantages that are not merely additive, but synergistic. Even PET/CT skeptics will embrace the technology after becoming acquainted with the possibilities and will accept the reality that there is no return to PET only

  9. Common Ground in Cross-Cultural Communication: Sequential and Institutional Contexts in Front Desk Service Encounters


    Kidwell, Mardi


    How do native and nonnative English-speaking participants understand one another in front desk service encounters? Specifically, what are the resources that enable them to transact their business at the desk? In this paper, I use the notion of "shared background" to show how participants at the front desk of a university-sponsored English language program rely on the sequential and institutional contexts in which their talk is produced to accomplish their service activities. In particular, I ...

  10. Madagascar Conservation & Development Volume 5, Issue 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development

    fect detection when monitoring this species, an issue especially relevant when ... tant d'introduire des co variables pour expliquer l'occupation .... 'groups encountered per hour of search' in different areas of the marsh to the group encounter rate from an area where density .... The method only requires presence records.

  11. Common issues found in operating safety peer review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meijing; Zhang Fengping


    The 3rd stage of the safety culture promotion in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is characterized by establishing learning organization and continuous self-improvement. Peer Review was used as an effective tool by a lot of NPPs to improve the overall management and performance. This Paper provided the WANO Peer Review Methodology, the common issues found, the recommendation or suggestions to correct the area for improvement. It may be beneficial to other NPP which planning to have Peer Review or Self Evaluation. (authors)

  12. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters. (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng


    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  13. Error monitoring issues for common channel signaling (United States)

    Hou, Victor T.; Kant, Krishna; Ramaswami, V.; Wang, Jonathan L.


    Motivated by field data which showed a large number of link changeovers and incidences of link oscillations between in-service and out-of-service states in common channel signaling (CCS) networks, a number of analyses of the link error monitoring procedures in the SS7 protocol were performed by the authors. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far and include the following: (1) results of an exact analysis of the performance of the error monitoring procedures under both random and bursty errors; (2) a demonstration that there exists a range of error rates within which the error monitoring procedures of SS7 may induce frequent changeovers and changebacks; (3) an analysis of the performance ofthe SS7 level-2 transmission protocol to determine the tolerable error rates within which the delay requirements can be met; (4) a demonstration that the tolerable error rate depends strongly on various link and traffic characteristics, thereby implying that a single set of error monitor parameters will not work well in all situations; (5) some recommendations on a customizable/adaptable scheme of error monitoring with a discussion on their implementability. These issues may be particularly relevant in the presence of anticipated increases in SS7 traffic due to widespread deployment of Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) and Personal Communications Service (PCS) as well as for developing procedures for high-speed SS7 links currently under consideration by standards bodies.

  14. Common skin problems in the community and primary care. (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirsty


    Skin problems can be hard to diagnose, leaving clinicians frustrated and patients incorrectly treated, but rashes and lesions can be markers of systemic disease and infections. However, by using simple history-taking and mnemonics, safety and correct diagnoses can be achieved. This article will consider some common problems encountered in primary and community care, issues that need to be excluded, resources that will help with diagnosis and some management guidelines. This is not an exhaustive guide, and advice should be sought from learned colleagues in specific cases. Pressure area care and the use of compression bandaging will not be discussed unless it is of relevance to the subject of rashes and lesions.

  15. Innovative generativity of digital service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    The research question examined in this chapter is how service encounters, based on digital interfaces, differ from face-to-face (f2f) encounters in terms of potential innovative generativity. New computer technologies facilitating big data processing and the development of advanced recommender...... systems and the recent developments of artificial intelligence with respect to cognitive and affective computing will certainly enhance the potential for innovations to be created on the basis of digital service encounters. However, the empathetic understanding of the needs and wants of the service users...... that can be part of the f2f service encounters cannot automatically result from digital service encounters. Digital tools can be developed and used to supplement the impressions that f2f encounters initiate. However, human interpretations and even human f2f encounters will also be needed to maintain...

  16. Making Worlds: the commons and the practice of the encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Draper


    Full Text Available The texts explains the work dynamics of Making Worlds, a collective devoted to develop the practice of the commons in New York. Besides giving an idea of the context of emergence of the group within the first year of Occupy Wall Street, it analyzes its form of organization and the activities it carries out.

  17. Special Issue Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this special issue focuses on work in the South African context, ... practice) with youth addresses the key imperatives of (un)employment, age, ... patterns of male control over sexual encounters and women's sexuality are emergent ... in the paper by Ngabaza, Bojarczuk, Masuku and Roelfse, titled, 'Empowering young.

  18. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig


    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  19. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations


    Todres, Jonathan


    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter - though they may not identify - victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case...

  20. The Role of Individualism/Collectivism in Critical Classroom Encounters: A Four Country Study (United States)

    Frankel, Robert; Swanson, Scott R.; Sagan, Mariusz


    Internationalization raises the issue of whether, and to what extent, the inherent culture of a country may have particular influence on the nature of service interactions, and on education (i.e., student-professor interactions) specifically. Thus the service encounter in the classroom becomes a subject of increasing importance and interest with…

  1. Engineering challenges encountered in the design of the ELMO BUMPY TORUS proof-of-principle fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillow, C.F.; Imster, H.F.


    This paper first provides a summary of the history and current status of the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) fusion concept. A brief description of the EBT-P is then provided in which the many unique features of this fusion device are highlighted. This description will provide the technical background for the following discussions of some of the more challenging mechanical engineering problems encountered to date in the evolution of the EBT-P design. The problems discussed are: optimization of the device primary structure design, optimization of the superconducting magnet x-ray shield design, design of the liquid helium supply and distribution system, and selection of high vacuum seals and pumps and their protection from the high power microwave environment. The common challenge in each of these design issues was to assure adequate performance at minimum cost

  2. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens' experiences of police encounters. (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba


    We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Sfair, R.; Winter, O. C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital e Planetologia, CEP 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)


    The Centaur population is composed of minor bodies wandering between the giant planets that frequently perform close gravitational encounters with these planets, leading to a chaotic orbital evolution. Recently, the discovery of two well-defined narrow rings was announced around the Centaur 10199 Chariklo. The rings are assumed to be in the equatorial plane of Chariklo and to have circular orbits. The existence of a well-defined system of rings around a body in such a perturbed orbital region poses an interesting new problem. Are the rings of Chariklo stable when perturbed by close gravitational encounters with the giant planets? Our approach to address this question consisted of forward and backward numerical simulations of 729 clones of Chariklo, with similar initial orbits, for a period of 100 Myr. We found, on average, that each clone experiences during its lifetime more than 150 close encounters with the giant planets within one Hill radius of the planet in question. We identified some extreme close encounters that were able to significantly disrupt or disturb the rings of Chariklo. About 3% of the clones lose their rings and about 4% of the clones have their rings significantly disturbed. Therefore, our results show that in most cases (more than 90%), the close encounters with the giant planets do not affect the stability of the rings in Chariklo-like systems. Thus, if there is an efficient mechanism that creates the rings, then these structures may be common among these kinds of Centaurs.

  4. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.


    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  5. Implementing risk-stratified screening for common cancers: a review of potential ethical, legal and social issues. (United States)

    Hall, A E; Chowdhury, S; Hallowell, N; Pashayan, N; Dent, T; Pharoah, P; Burton, H


    The identification of common genetic variants associated with common cancers including breast, prostate and ovarian cancers would allow population stratification by genotype to effectively target screening and treatment. As scientific, clinical and economic evidence mounts there will be increasing pressure for risk-stratified screening programmes to be implemented. This paper reviews some of the main ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) raised by the introduction of genotyping into risk-stratified screening programmes, in terms of Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. Two alternative approaches to data collection, storage, communication and consent are used to exemplify the ELSI issues that are likely to be raised. Ultimately, the provision of risk-stratified screening using genotyping raises fundamental questions about respective roles of individuals, healthcare providers and the state in organizing or mandating such programmes, and the principles, which underpin their provision, particularly the requirement for distributive justice. The scope and breadth of these issues suggest that ELSI relating to risk-stratified screening will become increasingly important for policy-makers, healthcare professionals and a wide diversity of stakeholders. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  6. Common cause failure analysis methodology for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Cate, C.L.; Fussell, J.B.


    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complex system reliability analysis. This paper extends existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods presented here aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  7. The Art of the Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Vautrin


    Full Text Available As the archives from the second half of Grotowski’s life were made available, this text focuses on the Polish master’s conceptions of theatre where he describes theatre as the art of the encounter. This paper simultaneously places this proposition in the context of questions of a specific time period, and reveals how this encounter is the anathema that will revert viewpoints both about the art of acting and the creation of theatrical relations. These researches on theatre as the art of the encounter continue today through the Open Program, one of the two groups of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, and, notably, their creations around American poet Allen Ginsberg, an author whose poetry intends, in a similar way, to encounter the other and the world.

  8. Encounter with comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.


    This paper reports on an international armada of six spacecraft which encountered the comet Halley and performed in-situ measurements. These encounters led to the discovery of a number of cometary plasma physics phenomena. Another important result was that a value for the average density of the cometary nucleus could be estimated, which is found to be compatible with snow ball models for the nucleus

  9. Joint Common Architecture Demonstration (JCA Demo) Final Report (United States)


    Table 2, were selected for their differences in a Processor, Real-Time Operating System ( RTOS ) and I/O. Table 2. ARES OE Specifications   16 MIS...environments. 4. Integration on OE 1 Integration on OE 1 encountered minor issues due to a lack of RTOS conformance to the FACE Operating System Segment...Integration Issues on OE 1 Issue Resolution Recommendation Difference in header file naming convention between RTOS Modified delivered software to

  10. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    Studies into cultural encounters have predominantly taken point of departure in ‘problematic encounters’, in which researchers and participants see cultural difference as an obstacle on the road to harmonious relationships (e.g. in ‘the clash of civilisations,’ or in migration/integration studies......). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... and cultures. A prominent feature of the organisation is organised cultural encounters between Northern (predominantly Danish) volunteers and Africans, which takes place at ‘training centres’ both in Denmark and in African countries, such as Kenya or Tanzania. In this paper I will outline the theoretical...

  11. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed


    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  12. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.


    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  13. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... in households, and provides important clues about the potentiality to anchor energy strategies and plans in the social context of local households....

  14. Encounters between degenerate stars and extrasolar comet clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineault, S.; Poisson, E.


    Under the assumption that the presence of comet clouds around otherwise normal stars is a common occurrence in the Galaxy, the observational consequences of random penetration encounters between the general Galactic population of degenerate stars and these comet clouds is considered. The only case considered is where the compact stars is a single star. For this scenario, encounters involving neutron stars (NSs) result in impact rates 1000-10,000 times slower than in the model of Tremaine and Zytkow (1986). The rate for white dwarfs (WDs) is larger than the one for NSs by a factor of about 30 times the ratio of the degenerate star number densities. The mean impact rate is significantly increased if the number of comets in a cloud is nearly independent of the mass of the central star. It is concluded that some of the observed gamma-ray bursts may be caused by accretion of comets onto NSs and that this scenario, but with a WD as the accretor, probably contributes to the optical flash background rate. 38 refs

  15. Nature and frequency of exchanges on medications during primary care encounters. (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse


    To describe the exchanges, related to discussion of all medications during primary care medical consultations. Descriptive study of audio recordings of 422 medical encounters. Coding was done with MEDICODE, a validated instrument developed to analyse verbal exchanges on medications. The unit of analysis is the medication. An average of 3.9 medications (S.D.=2.8; range 1-21) are discussed per interview and 4.2 themes are broached for each drug (S.D.=2.6; range 1-17). "Active Discussed", "Represcribed" and "Newly Prescribed" drugs account for 43.1, 16.3 and 10.6%, respectively of all medications discussed. Themes most often discussed are Name, Instructions, Observed Main Effect, Class, Reasons for Taking the Drug, General Use of the Medication, Expected Effect on Symptoms, Form of the Medication, Indications Another Consultation Needed, and Alternative Medication. The least often discussed themes include clinically significant ones such as Possible Adverse Effects, Observed Adverse Effects, Expression of Attitudes and Emotions with regard to the medication, Compliance and Warnings. The average number of themes discussed differed between medications that were prescribed during the encounter, either New prescriptions or Represcribed drugs, compared to medications that were only discussed during the encounter. Our results show that medication discussions are heterogeneous and vary with the status of the medication and the theme. Also, the nature and extent of the discussions about medications do not support the shared-decision making model. Though it is too soon to make specific recommendations about discussions on medications, it seems clear that information-sharing about medications during medical encounters is a process that extends beyond any single encounter. Although communication skills are now part of most medical curriculums, there is an obvious need to put forth the concept of patient medication knowledge-building over multiple physician-patient encounters and

  16. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter


    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  17. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan


    /implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected...

  18. Resource-driven encounters among consumers and implications for the spread of infectious disease (United States)

    Flynn, Jason M.


    Animals share a variety of common resources, which can be a major driver of conspecific encounter rates. In this work, we implement a spatially explicit mathematical model for resource visitation behaviour in order to examine how changes in resource availability can influence the rate of encounters among consumers. Using simulations and asymptotic analysis, we demonstrate that, under a reasonable set of assumptions, the relationship between resource availability and consumer conspecific encounters is not monotonic. We characterize how the maximum encounter rate and associated critical resource density depend on system parameters like consumer density and the maximum distance from which consumers can detect and respond to resources. The assumptions underlying our theoretical model and analysis are motivated by observations of large aggregations of black-backed jackals at carcasses generated by seasonal outbreaks of anthrax among herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. As non-obligate scavengers, black-backed jackals use carcasses as a supplemental food resource when they are available. While jackals do not appear to acquire disease from ingesting anthrax carcasses, changes in their movement patterns in response to changes in carcass abundance do alter jackals' conspecific encounter rate in ways that may affect the transmission dynamics of other diseases, such as rabies. Our theoretical results provide a method to quantify and analyse the hypothesis that the outbreak of a fatal disease among herbivores can potentially facilitate outbreaks of an entirely different disease among jackals. By analysing carcass visitation data, we find support for our model's prediction that the number of conspecific encounters at resource sites decreases with additional increases in resource availability. Whether or not this site-dependent effect translates to an overall decrease in encounters depends, unexpectedly, on the relationship between the maximum distance of detection and

  19. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine


    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  20. Patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome: an analysis based on narrative and feminist theory. (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Simrén, Magnus; Ringström, Gisela; Jakobsson Ung, Eva


    This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder with symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits, the cause of which is not completely known. Treatments options are limited, and healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome have been described as unsatisfying and frustrating for both patients and professional healthcare providers. Furthermore, the influence of power on healthcare encounters has long been recognised, especially regarding the disadvantaged position of those suffering from functional illness which cannot be identified by commonly used tests or investigations. We interviewed 10 patients during 2014, all attending an outpatient clinic and suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome. Relying on narrative and feminist theory, we explored how they actively negotiate professional discourse communicated to them in the clinical encounter. The patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome were mostly described as negative, and often induced feelings of confusion and self-doubt. Positive encounters were described as being listened to, believed and taken seriously. Narrators found it especially problematic when healthcare professionals described irritable bowel syndrome as a minor disorder with primarily stress or psychological aetiology and put the responsibility for recovery onto the patient. Patients' actively negotiated such professional discourse by presenting a counternarrative describing their own suffering and strengths, experienced healthcare shortcomings and possible organic aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome described how they often felt a need to protect their positive identities in the face of trivialisation and disbelief by healthcare professionals. A deepened understanding of patients' experiences of healthcare

  1. [A tale of two encounters]. (United States)

    Chanel, Marie-Paule

    The moving testimony of a patient shows the impact which a successful encounter can have. Beyond the positive clinical consequences, her rediscovered motivation and pleasure are the essential drivers which have guided her along the pathway of reconstruction. A tale of two encounters which have marked her life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders


    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  4. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers? (United States)

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike


    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  5. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl


    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  6. Common Group Problems: A Field Study. (United States)

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others


    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  7. Commentary: Pediatric eHealth Interventions: Common Challenges During Development, Implementation, and Dissemination (United States)

    Steele, Ric G.; Connelly, Mark A.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Ritterband, Lee M.


    Objective To provide an overview of common challenges that pediatric eHealth researchers may encounter when planning, developing, testing, and disseminating eHealth interventions along with proposed solutions for addressing these challenges. Methods The article draws on the existing eHealth literature and the authors’ collective experience in pediatric eHealth research. Results and conclusions The challenges associated with eHealth interventions and their proposed solutions are multifaceted and cut across a number of areas from eHealth program development through dissemination. Collaboration with a range of individuals (e.g., multidisciplinary colleagues, commercial entities, primary stakeholders) is the key to eHealth intervention success. To ensure adequate resources for design, development, and planning for sustainability, a number of public and private sources of funding are available. A study design that addresses ethical concerns and security issues is critical to ensure scientific integrity and intervention dissemination. Table I summarizes key issues to consider during eHealth intervention development, testing, and dissemination. PMID:24816766

  8. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker


    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  9. The space of togetherness--a caring encounter. (United States)

    Holopainen, Gunilla; Kasén, Anne; Nyström, Lisbet


    Encounters in relation to the nurse-patient relationship are often discussed within nursing and caring literature without a reflection on the actual meaning of the concept. Assuming that an encounter is essential for nursing care, this article seeks to create a deeper understanding of the concept through a hermeneutic approach to texts by the philosophers Buber and Marcel. Presence, recognition, availability and mutuality seem to be essential prerequisites for an encounter. As these prerequisites are fulfilled within and between human beings who encounter each other, it is possible to speak of a space of togetherness, a mutual existence, where life's mystery shines forth and caring is realized. The challenge lies in creating these encounters within nursing care. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. MDEP AP1000WG Design-Specific Common Position CP-AP1000WG-02. Common position addressing Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A severe accident involving several units took place in Japan at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) in March 2011. The immediate cause of the accident was an earthquake followed by a tsunami coupled with inadequate provisions against the consequences of such events in the design. Opportunities to improve protection against a realistic design basis tsunami had not been taken. As a consequence of the tsunami, safety equipment and the related safety functions were lost at the plant, leading to core damage in three units and subsequently to large radioactive release. Several studies have already been performed to better understand the accident progression and detailed technical studies are still in progress in Japan and elsewhere. In the meantime, on-going studies on the behaviour of nuclear power plants in very severe situations, similar to Fukushima Daiichi, seek to identify potential vulnerabilities in plant design and operation; to suggest reasonably practicable upgrades; or to recommend enhanced regulatory requirements and guidance to address such situations. Likewise, agencies around the world that are responsible for regulating the design, construction and operation of AP1000 R plants are engaged in similar activities. The MDEP AP1000 R Working Group (AP1000 WG) members consist of members from Canada, China, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the regulatory review of their AP1000 R applications have not been completed by all of these Countries yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for AP1000 R plants as related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident or Fukushima Daiichi-related issues. In seeking common position, regulators will provide input to this paper to reflect their safety conclusions regarding the AP1000 R design and how the design could be enhanced to address Fukushima Daiichi issues. The common preliminary approaches are organized into five sections

  11. Dealing with Moms and Dads: Family Dilemmas Encountered by Youth Program Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Griffith


    Full Text Available The leaders of youth programs encounter a range of challenging situations that involve youth’s parents or families. This qualitative study obtained data on the variety and nature of these family-related “dilemmas of practice.” Longitudinal interviews with leaders of 10 high quality programs for high-school-aged youth yielded narrative information on a sample of 32 family dilemmas that they had encountered. Grounded theory analysis identified four categories of family dilemmas: 1 problems at home that become a concern to the leader, 2 parents’ expectations are incongruent with program norms or functioning, 3 parents do not support youth’s participation in the program or an aspect of the program, and 4 communicating with parents on sensitive matters. Each of these categories of dilemmas entailed distinct considerations and underlying issues that effective leaders need to be able to understand.

  12. Inclusion as heterotopia: Spaces of encounter between people with and without intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Meininger


    Full Text Available The public space to which - in line with common definitions of inclusion - persons with intellectual disability are designated often turns out to be a space of discrimination. The aim of this study is to identify spaces of encounter. Michel Foucault's concept of heterotopia - 'other spaces' - and its subsequent interpretations are used as an analytical tool for evaluating efforts to include persons with intellectual disability in society. In Foucault's work 'space' refers to geographical places and to 'sites' that can be defined by sets of relations. Among these spaces are 'counter-sites' like large scale residential facilities for people with intellectual disability. Though policies of deinstitutionalisation aim at erasure of these places of exclusion, the results are often disappointing, largely because these policies ignore the analysis of power dynamics that install exclusionary processes and structures. Recent interpretations of the concept of heterotopia position the 'other places' in the middle of ordinary life as social spaces of encounter and dialogue between the 'normal' and the 'abnormal'. Characteristics and practical conditions of such spaces of encounter are explored. These interpretations open up a new conceptualisation of inclusion in terms of niches in which encounter and dialogue are cultivated and an alternative social ordering can be exercised.

  13. Ownership, allocating and balancing issues for natural gas in the common stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onn, W.D.


    The contentious issues of ownership, allocation and balancing of natural gas in the common stream were discussed. The potential influence of recent developments such as the construction of new pipelines, the NCL/Solex dispute at Taylor, B.C., and the political and regulatory responses to these developments were cited as examples of how the issues could be resolved. Currently some 80 per cent of Canada's natural gas production is transported by the Nova Pipeline System, a system comprising 21,700 km of pipeline, 938 receipt and 166 delivery points in Alberta. Gas in the system is co-mingled and receipts and deliveries are balanced on an energy basis. Agreements currently in place do not provide for recognizing the added value of natural gas liquid (NGL) components. It is believed that increased NGL value can only be provided by modification of the current system. Key elements in modifying the system were discussed at some length. These include component tracking, ownership and control of NGL by producer or shippers on the Nova System, and the role of straddle plants in a modified system. Various scenarios, some including participation of straddle plants, others that do not include them, have been proposed. The position of stake holders and other implications of the suggested changes to the current system were also reviewed

  14. Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    When a digital service encounter develops differently than anticipated, the client becomes a user. This transformation reveals the ambiguous nature of digital service encounter being neither well-functioning tools, nor having the same sensitivity to and tolerance for service failures as in human ...

  15. Post discharge issues identified by a call-back program: identifying improvement opportunities. (United States)

    Ojeda, Patricia I; Kara, Areeba


    The period following discharge from the hospital is one of heightened vulnerability. Discharge instructions serve as a guide during this transition. Yet, clinicians receive little feedback on the quality of this document that ties into the patients' experience. We reviewed the issues voiced by discharged patients via a call-back program and compared them to the discharge instructions they had received. At our institution, patients receive an automated call forty-eight hours following discharge inquiring about progress. If indicated by the response to the call, they are directed to a nurse who assists with problem solving. We reviewed the nursing documentation of these encounters for a period of nine months. The issues voiced were grouped into five categories: communication, medications, durable medical equipment/therapies, follow up and new or ongoing symptoms. The discharge instructions given to each patient were reviewed. We retrieved data on the number of discharges from each specialty from the hospital over the same period. A total of 592 patients voiced 685 issues. The numbers of patients discharged from medical or surgical services identified as having issues via the call-back line paralleled the proportions discharged from medical and surgical services from the hospital during the same period. Nearly a quarter of the issues discussed had been addressed in the discharge instructions. The most common category of issues was related to communication deficits including missing or incomplete information which made it difficult for the patient to enact or understand the plan of care. Medication prescription related issues were the next most common. Resource barriers and questions surrounding medications were often unaddressed. Post discharge issues affect patients discharged from all services equally. Data from call back programs may provide actionable targets for improvement, identify the inpatient team's 'blind spots' and be used to provide feedback to clinicians.

  16. Termite: Emulation Testbed for Encounter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno


    Full Text Available Cutting-edge mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are equipped with various infrastructureless wireless interfaces, such as WiFi Direct and Bluetooth. Such technologies allow for novel mobile applications that take advantage of casual encounters between co-located users. However, the need to mimic the behavior of real-world encounter networks makes testing and debugging of such applications hard tasks. We present Termite, an emulation testbed for encounter networks. Our system allows developers to run their applications on a virtual encounter network emulated by software. Developers can model arbitrary encounter networks and specify user interactions on the emulated virtual devices. To facilitate testing and debugging, developers can place breakpoints, inspect the runtime state of virtual nodes, and run experiments in a stepwise fashion. Termite defines its own Petri Net variant to model the dynamically changing topology and synthesize user interactions with virtual devices. The system is designed to efficiently multiplex an underlying emulation hosting infrastructure across multiple developers, and to support heterogeneous mobile platforms. Our current system implementation supports virtual Android devices communicating over WiFi Direct networks and runs on top of a local cloud infrastructure. We evaluated our system using emulator network traces, and found that Termite is expressive and performs well.

  17. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette


    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  18. Relationship between Teach-back and patient-centered communication in primary care pediatric encounters. (United States)

    Badaczewski, Adam; Bauman, Laurie J; Blank, Arthur E; Dreyer, Benard; Abrams, Mary Ann; Stein, Ruth E K; Roter, Debra L; Hossain, Jobayer; Byck, Hal; Sharif, Iman


    We proposed and tested a theoretical framework for how use of Teach-back could influence communication during the pediatric clinical encounter. Audio-taped pediatric primary care encounters with 44 children with asthma were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System to measure patient-centered communication and affective engagement of the parent. A newly created Teach-back Loop Score measured the extent to which Teach-back occurred during the clinical encounter; parental health literacy was measured by Newest Vital Sign. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between Teach-back and features of communication. Focus groups held separately with clinicians and parents elicited perceptions of Teach-back usefulness. Teach-back was used in 39% of encounters. Visits with Teach-back had more patient centered communication (p=0.01). Adjusting for parent health literacy, parent age, and child age, Teach-back increased the odds of both patient centered communication [proportional AOR (95% CI)=4.97 (4.47-5.53)]and negative affect [AOR (95% CI)=5.39 (1.68-17.31)]. Focus group themes common to clinicians and parents included: Teach-back is effective, could cause discomfort, should be used with children, and nurses should use it. Teach-back was associated with more patient-centered communication and increased affective engagement of parents. Standardizing Teach-back use may strengthen patient-centered communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters. (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yueh; Lan, Yi-Ting


    Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients' perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients' overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly affects patient satisfaction, which represents a

  20. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters (United States)


    Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly

  1. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ching-Sheng


    service encounter directly affects patient satisfaction, which represents a direct effect; and (B service quality and patient trust are used as intervening variables to affect patient satisfaction, which represents an indirect effect. Due to differences in the scale, resources and costs among medical institutions of different levels, it is a most urgent and concerning issue of how to control customers’ demands and preferences and adopt correct marketing concepts under the circumstances of intense competition in order to satisfy the public and build up a competitive edge for medical institutions.

  2. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi


    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  3. Cosmopolitan encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian


    This study contributes to the growing research on everyday cosmopolitanism in diverse societies. We employ a cosmopolitan encounters framework to explore the reflexive openness people perform and the ethical reasoning they draw on to get along with each other. In particular, we look beyond....... The ethical framework we propose is grounded in reflexive acts of sharing going beyond notions of giving and performing hospitality within a host/guest dyad....

  4. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0 (United States)


    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  5. MMS Encounters with Reconnection Diffusion Regions in the Earth's Magnetotail (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Alm, L.; Dors, I.; Payne, D.; Rogers, A. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Phan, T.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Kletzing, C.


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) fleet of four spacecraft traversed the Earth's magnetotail in May through August of 2017 with an apogee of 25 Re, and encountered diffusion regions characteristic of symmetric reconnection. This presentation will describe in-situ measurements of large electric fields, strong electron cross-tail and Hall currents, and electron velocity distributions (frequently crescent-shaped) that are commonly observed in these regions. Positive electromagnetic energy conversion is also typical. The characteristics of symmetric reconnection observations will be contrasted with those of asymmetric reconnection that MMS observed previously at the dayside magnetopause.

  6. Beyond the interface: Encountering artifacts in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Bannon, Liam


    did studies in Scandinavia, one primarily in North America. As both of us are concerned with making more useful and usable computer applications we decided to look further for frameworks to help us. In this paper we shall try to expose some of the problems that we encountered in our joint effort...... in their interactions with technology. He became uncomfortable with the gap between current cognitive theories and their utility in designing better interfaces to computer systems. The other person has a background in software engineering and computer systems design. In her search for a deeper understanding of  issues...... in HCi, she came across the cognitive science framework, but she felt that its methods did not provide much help for concrete design in real life situations. In many ways our personal histories reflect some of the developments within the HCI area - the search for more theoretical frameworks...

  7. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  8. Gender issues in translation




    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  9. The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative? (United States)

    Keeports, David


    Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common…

  10. Processing changes across reading encounters. (United States)

    Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K


    Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.

  11. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A. Popescu


    Full Text Available This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  12. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices. (United States)

    Popescu, Beatrice A


    This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  13. Dental Encounter System (DES) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  14. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's ...

  15. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat


    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.

  16. Fragmented Encounters, Social Slippages: Lin Huiyin's "In Ninety-Nine Degree Heat"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Prado-Fonts


    Full Text Available The article reads Lin Huiyin’s short story “In Ninety-Nine Degree Heat” (1934 in relation to the context of 1930s China, as an innovative literary work which combines elements from both the Chinese and the Western traditions, and as a text which informs readers not only of the problematic of class and gender issues in 1930s Chinese society but also of the context of the liuxuesheng who returns to China –like Lin Huiyin herself. Focusing on questions like otherness, representation, and encounters, the essay analyzes how the episodic narrative structure of Lin’s short story echoes social and representational discourses in post-May Fourth China, at the same time that it explores issues such as social inequality, otherness and alienation, which were crucial to the liuxuesheng, and which reflect Lin’s own experience as a returned and alienated liuxuesheng at the time.

  17. Moving Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Deslandes


    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  18. Customer-sales employee encounters: a dyadic perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, van W.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.


    Although researchers have suggested that the performance of the salesperson during sales encounters is critical, many of the underlying mechanisms that govern the interaction between salespersons and customers are still unclear. In this research, we investigate sales encounters from a new approach

  19. Classroom Issues with Series Tests (United States)

    Sadek, Jawad; Euler, Russell


    We find infinite series in calculus to be one of the most confusing topics our students encounter. In this note, we look at some issues that our students find difficult or ambiguous involving the Ratio Test, the Root Test, and also the Alternating Series Test. We offer some suggestions and some examples, which could be a supplement to the set of…

  20. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters


    Lee, Linda


    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  1. Roles of scientists as policy advisers on complex issues: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B.; Vasileiadou, Eleftheria; Devilee, Jeroen; Lebret, Erik; Petersen, Arthur C.

    Background and Aims: Policymakers frequently encounter complex issues, and the role of scientists as policy advisers on these issues is not always clearly defined. We present an overview of the interdisciplinary literature on the roles of scientific experts when advising policymakers on complex

  2. Roles of scientists as policy advisers on complex issues : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.; Knol, A.B.; Vasileiadou, E.; Devilee, J.; Lebret, E.; Petersen, A.C.


    Background and Aims Policymakers frequently encounter complex issues, and the role of scientists as policy advisers on these issues is not always clearly defined. We present an overview of the interdisciplinary literature on the roles of scientific experts when advising policymakers on complex

  3. A Lakatosian Encounter (United States)

    Chick, Helen


    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  4. Festival as embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Neergaard, Maja de


    This article is part of a project on Paradoxical Spaces: Encountering the Other in public space which explores how cultural difference is experienced, practiced and negotiated in public space. Specifically, it explores the ‘multicultural’ festival Kulturhavn taking place yearly along the harbour...... of Copenhagen. Multicultural festivals are seen as places for on-going identity negotiations, where individuals and groups define meaningful concepts of identity along with notions of exclusion. In the paper, we adopt a performative approach abandoning the distinction between bodies and space and embracing...... ideas of ‘embodiment’ and ‘rhythm’. We explore participant engagement emphasizing bodily practices as well as sensuous experiences, but also differential processes and orientalist images produced in, and through, encounters. Among the range of activities at the festival, we focus on three: food; dance...

  5. Cultural Psychiatry: A Spotlight on the Experience of Clinical Social Workers' Encounter with Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mental Health Clients. (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Band-Winterstein, Tova


    Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Exclusion vs. grace and compassion. (2) Mental health: A professional or cultural arena? (3) Mental health help-seeking changing processes. This study shows that the attitude in the Haredi community toward mental health therapy undergoes a process of change. It is important to strengthen this process, together with preserving existing community informal structures of help.

  6. Transformative Theatre: A Promising Educational Tool for Improving Health Encounters With LGBT Older Adults. (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Luz, Clare; Hall, Dennis; Gardner, Penny; Hennessey, Chris Walker; Lammers, Lynn


    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) older adults are often unaware or fearful of aging services that contribute to greater vulnerability, isolation, and risk when services are needed. In addition, they may perceive or experience bias in health care encounters. Providers may not recognize their own biases or their impact on such encounters. In response, a group of LGBT community activists, aging professionals, researchers, and a theatre ensemble developed an interactive theatre experience, described herein, that portrays challenges faced by LGBT older adults needing services. Goals included raising awareness among LGBT older adults and providers about issues such as the limited legal rights of partners, limited family support, and fear of being mistreated as a result of homophobia. Evaluations and feedback reflected the potential of interactive theatre to engage people in sensitive discussions that can lead to increased awareness, reduced bias, practice change, and ultimately improved care for LGBT older adults.

  7. Issues involved in translating technical texts from English into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues involved in translating technical texts from English into Northern Sotho. ... some of the problems encountered by the translator, such as the lack of equivalent technical terms in the target language. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Co-creation of Innovations in ICT based service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Henten, Anders


    Innovations in services often emanate from service encounters (i.e. the touch points between the service producers and the customers). Two different types of service encounters are dealt with: face-to-face and ICT-based service encounters. The aim of the chapter is to examine the specific...

  9. Value creation and knowledge development in tourism experience encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis


    It has been argued that service encounters between front-line employees and users support the development of knowledge about users' needs. However, the potential for this often remains unused, not least in tourism. This article argues that if tourism service encounters are changed into ‘experience...... encounters’ by integrating them into the tourism experience to which they are related, this will create added experiential value for tourists and increase the creation of knowledge about users. This is illustrated in an innovation field experiment in a retro design boutique hotel in which service encounters...... were developed into experience encounters. The experiment illustrates the potential that experience encounters have to create knowledge and value, but also suggests some barriers that need to be overcome....


    Kaptsov, V A


    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  11. Administrative encounters in general practice: low value or hidden value care? (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal J; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena C


    To determine the frequency of general practice administrative encounters, and to determine whether they represent low value care. Secondary analysis of data from the Bettering Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) dataset. 1 568 100 GP-patient encounters in Australia, 2000-01 to 2015-16. An annual nationally representative random sample of about 1000 GPs, who each recorded the details of 100 consecutive encounters with patients. Proportions of general practice encounters that were potentially low value care encounters (among the patient's reasons for the encounter was at least one administrative, medication, or referral request) and potentially low value care only encounters (such reasons were the sole reason for the encounter). For 2015-16, we also examined other health care provided by GPs at these encounters. During 2015-16, 18.5% (95% CI, 17.7-19.3%) of 97 398 GP-patient encounters were potentially low value care request encounters; 7.4% (95% CI, 7.0-7.9%) were potentially low value care only encounters. Administrative work was requested at 3.8% (95% CI, 3.5-4.0%) of GP visits, 35.4% of which were for care planning and coordination, 33.5% for certification, and 31.2% for other reasons. Medication requests were made at 13.1% (95% CI, 12.4-13.7%) of encounters; other health care was provided at 57.9% of medication request encounters, counselling, advice or education at 23.4%, and pathology testing was ordered at 16.7%. Referrals were requested at 2.8% (95% CI, 1.7-3.0%) of visits, at 69.4% of which additional health care was provided. The problems managed most frequently at potentially low value care only encounters were chronic diseases. Most patients requested certificates, medications and referrals in the context of seeking help for other health needs. Additional health care, particularly for chronic diseases, was provided at most GP administrative encounters. The MBS Review should consider the hidden value of these encounters.

  12. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng


    from these encounters. Un-paralyzing reflexivity means to include the awkward, the emotional, and admit the non-rational aspects of our ethnographic experiences; such inclusive reflexivity is incredibly insightful. Research limitations/implications – Inclusive reflexivity not only allows room...

  13. Cultural influences on the physician-patient encounter: The case of shared treatment decision-making. (United States)

    Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram; Whelan, Tim; O'Brien, Mary Ann


    In this paper we discuss the influence of culture on the process of treatment decision-making, and in particular, shared treatment decision-making in the physician-patient encounter. We explore two key issues: (1) the meaning of culture and the ways that it can affect treatment decision-making; (2) cultural issues and assumptions underlying the development and use of treatment decision aids. This is a conceptual paper. Based on our knowledge and reading of the key literature in the treatment decision-making field, we looked for written examples where cultural influences were taken into account when discussing the physician-patient encounter and when designing instruments (decision aids) to help patients participate in making decisions. Our assessment of the situation is that to date, and with some recent exceptions, research in the above areas has not been culturally sensitive. We suggest that more research attention should be focused on exploring potential cultural variations in the meaning of and preferences for shared decision-making as well as on the applicability across cultural groups of decision aids developed to facilitate patient participation in treatment decision-making with physicians. Both patients and physicians need to be aware of the cultural assumptions underlying the development and use of decision aids and assess their cultural sensitivity to the needs and preferences of patients in diverse cultural groups.

  14. 'Wouldn't it be easier if you continued to be a guy?' - a qualitative interview study of transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals. (United States)

    von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin; Milton, Camilla; Ericsson, Ingrid; Strömberg, Lars


    To describe transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals during the sex reassignment process. Transsexual persons are individuals who use varying means to alter their natal sex via hormones and/or surgery. Transsexual persons may experience stigma, which increases the risk of psychological distress. Mistreatments by healthcare professionals are common. Qualitative studies addressing transsexual persons' experiences of healthcare are scarce. Qualitative descriptive design. A Swedish non-clinical convenience sample was used, consisting of six persons who had been diagnosed as transsexual, gone through sex reassignment surgery or were at the time of the interview awaiting surgery. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, and data were analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Three categories and 15 subcategories were identified. The encounters were perceived as good when healthcare professionals showed respect and preserved the transsexual person's integrity, acted in a professional manner and were responsive and built trust and confidence. However, the participants experienced that healthcare professionals varied in their level of knowledge, exploited their position of power, withheld information, expressed gender stereotypical attitudes and often used the wrong name. They felt vulnerable by having a condescending view of themselves, and they could not choose not to be transsexual. They felt dependent on healthcare professionals, and that the external demands were high. Transsexual persons are in a vulnerable position during the sex reassignment surgery process. The encounters in healthcare could be negatively affected if healthcare professionals show inadequate knowledge, exploit their position of power or express gender stereotypical attitudes. A good encounter is characterised by preserved integrity, respect, responsiveness and trust. Improved education on transgender issues in nursing and medical education is

  15. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues. (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F


    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.

  16. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management. (United States)

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv


    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The most common nonconformities encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong using ISO 15189 as accreditation criteria


    Ho, Bella; Ho, Eric


    Introduction: ISO 15189 was a new standard published in 2003 for accrediting medical laboratories. We believe that some requirements of the ISO 15189 standard are especially diffi cult to meet for majority of laboratories. The aim of this article was to present the frequency of nonconformities to requirements of the ISO 15189 accreditation standard, encountered during the assessments of medical laboratories in Hong Kong, during 2004 to 2009. Materials and methods: Nonconformities reported ...

  18. A Decolonizing Encounter: Ward Churchill and Antonia Darder in Dialogue. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 430 (United States)

    Orelus, Pierre W., Ed.


    "A Decolonizing Encounter" examines the effects of western colonialism on historically marginalized and colonized populations living both in the West and the "third world". Specifically, it explores crucial issues such as the decolonizing of schools and communities of color; the decentralization of power of the capitalist and…

  19. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.


    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  20. Fuel Behavior Modeling Issues Associated with Future Fast Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacout, A.M.; Hofman, G.L.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Kim, Y.S.


    Major issues of concern related to advanced fast reactor fuel behavior are discussed here with focus on phenomena that are encountered during irradiation of metallic fuel elements. Identification of those issues is part of an advanced fuel simulation effort that aims at improving fuel design and reducing reliance on conventional approach of design by experiment which is both time and resource consuming. (authors)

  1. Close stellar encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.


    Stellar encounters are expected to produce a variety of interesting objects in the cores of globular clusters, either through the formation of binaries by tidal capture, or direct collisions. Here, I describe several attempts to observe the products of stellar encounters. In particular, the use of color maps has demonstrated the existence of a color gradient in the core of M15, which seems to be caused by a population of faint blue objects concentrated towards the cluster center. (author)

  2. Shouting in a Desert: Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910 : Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kruithof (Maryse)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ ‘‘Shouting in a desert’ Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam’ concentrates on the shifts and developments in the Dutch mission discourse within the period from 1850 to 1910. It explores the Dutch missionary encounter with local communities and is conducted

  3. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan


    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  6. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.


    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  7. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaccino, J.


    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  8. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders


    customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy...... between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two...

  9. Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.


    With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...

  10. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas


    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  12. Commentary: pediatric eHealth interventions: common challenges during development, implementation, and dissemination. (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Steele, Ric G; Connelly, Mark A; Palermo, Tonya M; Ritterband, Lee M


    To provide an overview of common challenges that pediatric eHealth researchers may encounter when planning, developing, testing, and disseminating eHealth interventions along with proposed solutions for addressing these challenges. The article draws on the existing eHealth literature and the authors' collective experience in pediatric eHealth research. The challenges associated with eHealth interventions and their proposed solutions are multifaceted and cut across a number of areas from eHealth program development through dissemination. Collaboration with a range of individuals (e.g., multidisciplinary colleagues, commercial entities, primary stakeholders) is the key to eHealth intervention success. To ensure adequate resources for design, development, and planning for sustainability, a number of public and private sources of funding are available. A study design that addresses ethical concerns and security issues is critical to ensure scientific integrity and intervention dissemination. Table I summarizes key issues to consider during eHealth intervention development, testing, and dissemination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  13. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith


    Full Text Available Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encountering whales played a key role in the International Whaling Commission (IWC Scientific Committee from its beginning in the early 1950s, as well as in the US in implementing its Marine Mammal Protection Act beginning in the early 1970s. The development of methods of collecting and interpreting sighting and catch data was intimately interwoven with the development of themanagement of whaling and cetacean by-catches in fisheries throughout the world, but especially within the context of the Scientific Committees of the IWC and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO. Although overfishing of whales was initially identified through the use of sighting rate data, catch rate data provided the IWC’s Committee its first firm footing for management advice. However, it was sighting rate data that ultimately became the basis for the scientific advice on whaling and for management advice in other settings. This led to the development of large scale cetacean sighting programmes, such as the IWC’s International Decade of Cetacean Researchsurveys in Antarctic aboard Japanese ships, the North Atlantic Sighting Surveys (NASS aboard Norwegian, Icelandic, Spanish, Greenlandic and Faroese vessels and aircraft (coordinated by NAMMCO through its Scientific Committee from 1995, and surveys under the US’s Marine Mammal Protection Act and the European Union’s Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS programme. Fishery independent cetacean sighting surveys

  14. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia. (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik


    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  15. Tracing Cold War in Post-Modern Management's Hot Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)


    textabstractTracing Cold War in post-modern managerial science and ideology one encounters hot issues linking contemporary liberal dogmas and romanticized view of organizational leadership to the dismantling of a welfare state disguised as a liberation of an individual employee, empowerment of an

  16. Qualification issues: the rest of the iceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Luna, R.E.


    Reactor safety has been a primary concern since the beginning of commercial power reactor development. But only since the IEEE became actively involved (circa-1970), through IEEE-323-1971 and its predecessor drafts, has the qualification of selected Class 1 equipment been formalized and intensified. Currently EPRI and the USNRC are funding significant qualification research programs. However, these current research topics address only a few of the issues and there are more to come. A review of recent achievements and a discussion of some issues still to be encountered are presented

  17. The issues that class teachers encounter during application of science and technology teaching curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ugras


    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the challenges class teachers face in the curriculum implementation and whether these challenges differ in relation to teachers’ gender, level of education, department they graduated from and teaching experience. For this purpose; a questionnaire was developed by the researcher. Items of the questionnaire were selected from the related literature and validated by a group of expert in the field. A pilot study was conducted to assess the clarity of the questionnaire items. The internal reliability of the final version of questionnaire was calculated by using Cronbach’s Alpha Formula and found be high (α=0.85. The participants of this research included 342 class teachers who were teaching 4th and 5th class in 57 different elementary schools in 2010-2011 academic years in Bingol and Diayrbakir cities. The results of the survey were considered by using SPSS packet program. In the analyzing of data obtained from this study, frequency, arithmetic average, t-test and variance analysis were used. From the obtained data, it was determined that the 4th and 5th class teachers encounter different problems in science and technology teaching program, especially in performance homework, sourcing and lesson time topics.

  18. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard


    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘o...... approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, their respective culinary adventures work to re-affirm a social hierarchy in their favor....

  19. Management issues in automated audit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Hochberg, J.G.; Wilhelmy, S.K.; McClary, J.F.; Christoph, G.G.


    This paper discusses management issues associated with the design and implementation of an automated audit analysis system that we use to detect security events. It gives the viewpoint of a team directly responsible for developing and managing such a system. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) as a case in point. We examine issues encountered at Los Alamos, detail our solutions to them, and where appropriate suggest general solutions. After providing an introduction to NADIR, we explore four general management issues: cost-benefit questions, privacy considerations, legal issues, and system integrity. Our experiences are of general interest both to security professionals and to anyone who may wish to implement a similar system. While NADIR investigates security events, the methods used and the management issues are potentially applicable to a broad range of complex systems. These include those used to audit credit card transactions, medical care payments, and procurement systems.

  20. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson


    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  1. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter) (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard


    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  2. An investigation of how university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists experience ethical issues. (United States)

    Riendeau, Catherine; Parent-Houle, Valérie; Lebel-Gabriel, Marie Eve; Gauvin, Patrick; Liu, Le Yu; Pearson, Isabelle; Hunt, Matthew R


    Qualitative study using interpretive description methodology. The purpose of this study was to better understand how ethical issues are experienced by university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists. In clinical practice, sports teams are associated with a range of ethical issues. Issues commonly reported in the literature include confidentiality, return-to-play decisions, conflicts of interest, advertising, doping, and use of local anesthetic. To date, there has been limited examination of how athletic therapists and physical therapists involved with sports teams experience these ethical issues, and limited exploration of how these ethical issues, when encountered, are shaped by therapists' professional roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 athletic or physical therapists working with sports teams in 5 Canadian provinces. The data were analyzed inductively, using a recursive approach and constant comparative techniques. Four key themes were developed relating to the participants' experiences of ethical issues: establishing and maintaining professional boundaries, striving for respectful and effective collaboration, seeking answers to ethical concerns, and living with the repercussions of challenging decisions. While many ethical issues reported by participants resemble those faced by sports medicine physicians, they are experienced in distinctive ways, due to differences in professional roles and identities. Issues concerning professional boundaries were also more prominent for the study participants than the literature has reported them to be for sports medicine physicians. Effective communication and enhanced collaboration appear to be key elements in managing these ethical challenges.

  3. The Impact of Value-Orientations on Cross-cultural Encounters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encounters and mediation in the Tanzanian educational system. The purpose of the article is to give an emic perspective on value-orientations in crosscultural encounters and mediation situations in the educational system, to improve understanding of the conflictive aspects of these encounters. To achieve this purpose, the ...

  4. Bridging Identity Gaps : Supporting Identity Performance in Citizen Service Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; McPhail, Brenda; Smith, Karen Louise


    administrative processes and the quality and swiftness of the service they receive. As we bring to light in this paper, this “fitting in” with rigid bureaucratic procedures and IT systems interestingly requires a substantial collaborative effort between the receiver(s) of the service and a complex constellation...... of surrounding stakeholders and intermediaries. This collaboration and the performing of multiple identities raises challenges for the design of e-government systems aimed at supporting physical and digital citizen service provision, as well as issues regarding privacy, citizenship, and public service quality......This paper explores in situ citizen service encounters in government offices. Drawing upon ethnographically informed fieldwork in Canada and Denmark, we discuss the challenges to supporting citizens in constructing and performing identities in public service settings. Our data suggests...

  5. Control Centre operations as the focus for building station teamwork - issues and resource impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.; Lane, L.; Davey, E.


    Effective teamwork among station work groups is essential for plant production and safety in all phases of plant operation. To achieve effective teamwork, all contributing work groups must have ongoing access to and share a common perspective on station work priorities, and recognize how their individual contributions fit with and support the contributions of other groups in support of the larger station goals. Achieving and maintaining this alignment in perspective across all workgroups can be a challenge in large organizations. This paper discusses the experience at Darlington in building and maintaining station teamwork among the station workgroups in support of day-to-day plant operations. The issues encountered and the resource impacts of specific teamwork supporting practices adopted are outlined. (author)

  6. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin (United States)

    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.


    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  7. Recurring Issues Encountered by Distance Educators in Developing and Emerging Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton R. Wright


    Full Text Available This article explores a number of challenges faced by e-learning or distance educators in developing and emerging countries, provides a context for many of the challenges, and outlines some measures devised to overcome them. These educators must determine a sound rationale for employing online learning, recognize that technology is only part of the educational transformation process, address the lack of infrastructure and the cost of Internet bandwidth and equipment, counter the cultural imperialism of courseware from Western nations, deal with limited educational resources, place a greater emphasis on quality assurance systems and change negative perceptions of distance education, respond to the needs and concerns of both students and faculty, access or develop up-to-date educational resources, and consider the implementation of mobile learning. The continued growth and success of distance education in developing and emerging nations will depend on the extent to which issues covered in this article are addressed as they bear on the quality of the learning experience provided to students.

  8. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem. (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro


    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  9. A comparison of ethical issues in nursing practice across nursing units. (United States)

    Park, Mihyun; Jeon, Sang Hee; Hong, Hyun-Ja; Cho, Sung-Hyun


    The complexity and variety of ethical issues in nursing is always increasing, and those issues lead to special concerns for nurses because they have critical impacts on nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to gather comprehensive information about ethical issues in nursing practice, comparing the issues in different types of nursing units including general units, oncology units, intensive care units, operating rooms, and outpatient departments. The study used a descriptive research design. Ethics/human rights issues encountered by nurses in their daily nursing practice were identified by using the Ethical Issues Scale. The study sample included 993 staff nurses working in a university hospital in South Korea. This study was approved by the University Institutional Review Board. Completed questionnaires were returned sealed with signed informed consent. The most frequently and disturbingly encountered issues across nursing units were "conflicts in the nurse-physician relationship," "providing care with a possible risk to your health," and "staffing patterns that limit patient access to nursing care." The findings of this study showed that nurses from different nursing units experienced differences in the types or frequency of ethical issues. In particular, intensive care units had the greatest means of all the units in all three component scales including end-of-life treatment issues, patient care issues, and human rights issues. Nurses experienced various ethical challenges in their daily practice. Of the ethical issues, some were distinctively and frequently experienced by nurses in a specific unit. This study suggested that identifying and understanding specific ethical issues faced by nurses in their own areas may be an effective educational approach to motivate nurses and to facilitate nurses' reflection on their experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Creating illusions of past encounter through brief exposure. (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Marsh, Elizabeth J


    Titchener (1928) suggested that briefly glancing at a scene could make it appear strangely familiar when it was fully processed moments later. The closest laboratory demonstration used words as stimuli, and showed that briefly glancing at a to-be-judged word increased the subject's belief that it had been presented in an earlier study list (Jacoby & Whitehouse, 1989). We evaluated whether a hasty glance could elicit a false belief in a prior encounter, from a time and place outside of the experiment. This goal precluded using word stimuli, so we had subjects evaluate unfamiliar symbols. Each symbol was preceded by a brief exposure to an identical symbol, a different symbol, or no symbol. A brief glance at an identical symbol increased attributions to preexperimental experience, relative to a glance at a different symbol or no symbol, providing a possible mechanism for common illusions of false recognition.

  11. Medical Issues: Breathing (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  12. Overspecialized and undertrained? Patient diversity encountered by medical students during their internal medicine clerkship at a university hospital. (United States)

    Melderis, Simon; Gutowski, Jan-Philipp; Harendza, Sigrid


    During the four-month internal medicine clerkship in their final year, undergraduate medical students are closely involved in patient care. Little is known about what constitutes their typical learning experiences with respect to patient diversity within the different subspecialties of internal medicine and during on call hours. 25 final year medical students (16 female, 9 male) on their internal medicine clerkship participated in this observational single-center study. To detail the patient diversity encountered by medical students at a university hospital during their 16-week internal medicine clerkship, all participants self-reported their patient contacts in the different subspecialties and during on call hours on patient encounter cards. Patients' chief complaint, suspected main diagnosis, planned diagnostic investigations, and therapy in seven different internal medicine subspecialties and the on call medicine service were documented. 496 PECs were analysed in total. The greatest diversity of chief complaints (CC) and suspected main diagnoses (SMD) was observed in patients encountered on call, with the combined frequencies of the three most common CCs or SMDs accounting for only 23% and 25%, respectively. Combined, the three most commonly encountered CC/SMD accounted for high percentages (82%/63%), i.e. less diversity, in oncology and low percentages (37%/32%), i.e. high diversity, in nephrology. The percentage of all diagnostic investigations and therapies that were classified as "basic" differed between the subspecialties from 82%/94% (on call) to 37%/50% (pulmonology/oncology). The only subspecialty with no significant difference compared with on call was nephrology for diagnostic investigations. With respect to therapy, nephrology and infectious diseases showed no significant differences compared with on call. Internal medicine clerkships at a university hospital provide students with a very limited patient diversity in most internal medicine

  13. Live Aircraft Encounter Visualization at FutureFlight Central (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Chinn, Fay; Monheim, Spencer; Otto, Neil; Kato, Kenji; Archdeacon, John


    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have developed an aircraft data streaming capability that can be used to visualize live aircraft in near real-time. During a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA Airborne Collision Avoidance System flight series, test sorties between unmanned aircraft and manned intruder aircraft were shown in real-time at NASA Ames' FutureFlight Central tower facility as a virtual representation of the encounter. This capability leveraged existing live surveillance, video, and audio data streams distributed through a Live, Virtual, Constructive test environment, then depicted the encounter from the point of view of any aircraft in the system showing the proximity of the other aircraft. For the demonstration, position report data were sent to the ground from on-board sensors on the unmanned aircraft. The point of view can be change dynamically, allowing encounters from all angles to be observed. Visualizing the encounters in real-time provides a safe and effective method for observation of live flight testing and a strong alternative to travel to the remote test range.

  14. Science Teachers Taking their First Steps toward Teaching Socioscientific Issues through Collaborative Action Research (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Yang, Jung-eun


    This study presents two science teachers, Catherine and Jennifer, who took their first steps toward teaching socioscientific issues through collaborative action research. The teachers participated in the collaborative action research project because they wanted to address socioscientific issues but had limited experience in teaching them. The research questions included what kinds of challenges the teachers encountered when implementing socioscientific issues and to what extent they resolved the challenging issues as participating in collaborative action research. The primary data source consisted of audiotapes of regular group meetings containing information on the process of constructing and implementing lesson plans and reflecting on their teaching of socioscientific issues. We also collected classroom videotapes of the teachers' instruction and audiotapes of students' small group discussions and their worksheets. The findings indicated that when addressing socioscientific issues in the classes, the teachers encountered several challenging issues. We categorized them into four: (1) restructuring classroom dynamics and culture, (2) scaffolding students' engagement in socioscientific issues, (3) dealing with values, and (4) finding their niche in schools. However, this study showed that collaborative action research could be a framework for helping the teachers to overcome such challenges and have successful experiences of teaching socioscientific issues. These experiences became good motivation, to gradually develop their understanding of teaching socioscientific issues and instructional strategies for integrating the knowledge and skills that they had accumulated over the years.

  15. Binary encounter electron production in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Shingal, R.


    The binary encounter electrons are produced by hard collisions between the target electrons and the energetic projectiles. Richard et al. found the measured double differential cross section for BEe production at zero degree laboratory scattering angle, in collisions of F q+ with H 2 and He targets, to increase as the charge state of the projectile was decreased. The binary encounter electron production has recently been a subject of detailed investigations. We have calculated the differential elastic scattering cross sections of electrons from several ions incorporating the exchange contribution of the continuum and the bound orbitals in addition to the static potential. The double differential binary encounter electron production cross sections are presented using the impulse approximation

  16. Encounters of The Solar System With Molecular Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, J. T.


    The solar system has penetrated about 5 -- 10 giant molecular clouds over its history, and passes within 5 parsecs of a star-forming nebula every 100 million years or so. Numerical simulations of the effect of such encounters in perturbing the Oort cloud of comets are carried out using standard n-body computational techniques. It is found that the ingress of comets into the inner planetary system during such encounters amounts to factors of ∼100 over the average. During an encounter the impact rate of comets onto Earth increases by a comparable factor. The of ages of impact craters on the Earth is shown to be consistent with predictions from the model

  17. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen


    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  18. On boredom: a close encounter with encapsulated parts of the psyche. (United States)

    Bergstein, Avner


    The psychoanalytical literature has numerous scattered references to the analyst's experience of boredom, especially amongst writers working with primitive mental states. In the present paper, the author tries to gather some of these references in an attempt to integrate the various facets of this widespread phenomenon, and reflect on some clinical issues and dilemmas it raises. It is suggested that the experience of boredom in analysis may be a reaction to an encounter with a hidden, encapsulated part of the psyche, a bidimensional area of experience in which mental activity has been suspended, and experience remains meaningless. This is a barren area of lack, an encounter with the autistic core of the psyche. However, boredom may also be an experiential expression of despair, a re-living of primitive object relations with an emotionally non-existent primary object. Through bringing the emptiness and desolation into analysis, the individual makes room for the empty, blunt, dead inner object which resides within him, and that needs to be integrated into the psyche. This inner object is a vital part of the patient's inner world, part of his history, and can neither be erased nor filled in order to eradicate the emptiness. This is illustrated by clinical material from patients along the spectrum of autism, autistic reaction following trauma and autistic barriers in neurotic patients.

  19. Reliability issues in PACS (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.


    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  20. Ethical issues in physiotherapy--reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice. (United States)

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues as they are understood and experienced by Danish physiotherapists in outpatient, private practice. A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analyzed, using a phenomenological hermeneutic framework. One main theme emerged: The ideal of being beneficent toward the patient. Here, the ethical issues uncovered in the interviews were embedded in three code-groups: 1) ethical issues related to equality; 2) feeling obligated to do one's best; and 3) transgression of boundaries. In an ethical perspective, physiotherapy in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized by asymmetrical power encounters where the parties are in close physical and emotional contact, practiced physiotherapy has many ethical issues embedded. Some physiotherapists meet these issues in a professional manner, but others meet them in unconscious or unprofessional ways. An explicit ethical consciousness among Danish physiotherapists in private practice seems to be needed. A debate of how to understand and respect the individual physiotherapist's moral versus the ethics of the profession needs to be addressed.

  1. Personal Albums and Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    as discussions of representational ethics in relation to anthropological and colonial photography, this article examines the exhibition The Photo Albums at the Dutch National Maritime Museum. Typically, the photo collections of maritime museums include many photographs that represent cultural encounters...

  2. Controversy over Issue Preclusion in Russia’s Criminal Procedure: Can Common Law Offer a Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Rovnov


    Full Text Available Even though Russia’s new Code of Criminal Procedure of 2001 had from the very beginning contained the article titled ‘Preclusive Effects,’ it was not until a decision by the Constitutional Court of 2008 that the doctrine of issue preclusion was, in its proper sense, reinstated in Russian criminal law, barring facts definitively established in a civil trial from relitigation in criminal proceedings. Despite heavy criticism that came down on the Constitutional Court for what was seen by law enforcement agents as unwarranted judicial activism, the Russian Parliament soon amended the article in line with the interpretation offered by the Court. This, however, did not end the controversy as critics raised a valid point: an automatic transfer of facts from civil proceedings with a priori more lenient requirements of proof is likely to distort outcomes, harming defendants, the prosecution, and, ultimately, societal interests. This article will turn for apotential solution to common law, which has been able to avoid this problem by clearly distinguishing between different standards of proof applicable in civil v. criminal litigations. It will be shown, using the United States as an example, how courts can effectively use issue preclusion to pursue a number of legitimate objectives, such as consistency of judgments and judicial economy, with due account for the interests of parties in proceedings. At the same time, issue preclusion appears an inappropriate and ineffective means to combat arbitrariness of the judiciary – the end which Russia’s Constitutional Court and law makers arguably had in mind when introducing the doctrine into Russian law.

  3. Service Encounter Related Process Quality, Patient Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Mekoth


    Full Text Available This study identifies some of the critical service encounters thatthe outpatients undergo in a health care facility and investigateswhether the service encounter related process quality as perceivedby the patients leads to patient satisfaction, repeat visit, and recommendationintentions. Personal visits, observations, and enquiriesat the outpatient center have been conducted to identifythe various service encounters that outpatients undergo in thehospital. Exit interviews of the outpatients have been conductedto identify service encounter related process quality variableswhich determine patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions.A preliminary scale to measure service encounter related processquality was developed and its factor structure and internal consistencyreliability were established. The study reveals that boththe physician quality and laboratory quality have been found tobe significantly related to patient satisfaction. However, quite interestingly,courtesy shown by the registration or outpatient staff,perceived length of waiting time, or even the salient aspects of theservicescape, did not influence patient satisfaction.

  4. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.


    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  5. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.


    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  6. Preliminary Exploration of Encounter During Transit Across Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Phillip David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kubicek, Deborah Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is utilizing the Probability Effectiveness Methodology (PEM) tools, particularly the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) to support the DNDO Architecture and Planning Directorate’s (APD) development of a multi-region terrorist risk assessment tool. The effort is divided into three stages. The first stage is an exploration of what can be done with PATRIOT essentially as is, to characterize encounter rate during transit across a single selected region. The second stage is to develop, condition, and implement required modifications to the data and conduct analysis to generate a well-founded assessment of the transit reliability across that selected region, and to identify any issues in the process. The final stage is to extend the work to a full multi-region global model. This document provides the results of the first stage, namely preliminary explorations with PATRIOT to assess the transit reliability across the region of southern Africa.

  7. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks. (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A


    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered. (United States)

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha


    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  9. Trace DNA Sampling Success from Evidence Items Commonly Encountered in Forensic Casework. (United States)

    Dziak, Renata; Peneder, Amy; Buetter, Alicia; Hageman, Cecilia


    Trace DNA analysis is a significant part of a forensic laboratory's workload. Knowing optimal sampling strategies and item success rates for particular item types can assist in evidence selection and examination processes and shorten turnaround times. In this study, forensic short tandem repeat (STR) casework results were reviewed to determine how often STR profiles suitable for comparison were obtained from "handler" and "wearer" areas of 764 items commonly submitted for examination. One hundred and fifty-five (155) items obtained from volunteers were also sampled. Items were analyzed for best sampling location and strategy. For casework items, headwear and gloves provided the highest success rates. Experimentally, eyeglasses and earphones, T-shirts, fabric gloves and watches provided the highest success rates. Eyeglasses and latex gloves provided optimal results if the entire surfaces were swabbed. In general, at least 10%, and up to 88% of all trace DNA analyses resulted in suitable STR profiles for comparison. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies. (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G


    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.

  11. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment


    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly


    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  12. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters. (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L


      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track PEs, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site

  13. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.


    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities (United States)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.


    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  15. Initiating Service Encounter-based Innovation by Word-of-Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan


    Purpose – This paper aims to set up a natural experiment as action research and to develop a framework of cognitive distance of informants to improve the initiation of service encounter-based innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Natural experiment as action research in one Scandinavian case...... transcriptions of interviews and transcriptions. Research limitations/implications – Only one Scandinavian company and a limited number of informants were activated. Also, the time period only included the initiation phase of service encounter-based innovation. Practical implications – Three different strategies...... in an emerging innovation field, open/user-driven innovation. Theory from business marketing, service encounter and innovation is also used....

  16. Reuse of samples: ethical issues encountered by two institutional ethics review committees in Kenya. (United States)

    Langat, Simon K


    There is growing concern about the reuse and exploitation of biological materials (human tissues) for use in research worldwide. Most discussions about samples have taken place in developed countries, where genetic manipulation techniques have greatly advanced in recent years. There is very little discussion in developing countries, although collaborative research with institutions from developed countries is on the increase. The study sought to identify and describe ethical issues arising in the storage, reuse and exportation of samples in a developing country. Research protocols presented to two Ethics Review Committees in Kenya during a period of two years were reviewed. A record was made of the protocol title, sample collected, request for storage, reuse or exportation and whether or not subject consent was sought. The findings indicated that about 25% out of the 388 protocols sought permission for reuse and only half of those actually informed subjects of the contemplated re-use. Less than 20% requested storage and again, about half of them sought consent from subjects. There is an indication that investigators do not see the need to seek consent for storage, reuse and exportation of samples. It is proposed that these issues should be addressed through policy interventions at both the national and global levels.

  17. Influence of temporal context on value in the multiple-chains and successive-encounters procedures. (United States)

    O'Daly, Matthew; Angulo, Samuel; Gipson, Cassandra; Fantino, Edmund


    This set of studies explored the influence of temporal context across multiple-chain and multiple-successive-encounters procedures. Following training with different temporal contexts, the value of stimuli sharing similar reinforcement schedules was assessed by presenting these stimuli in concurrent probes. The results for the multiple-chain schedule indicate that temporal context does impact the value of a conditioned reinforcer consistent with delay-reduction theory, such that a stimulus signaling a greater reduction in delay until reinforcement has greater value. Further, nonreinforced stimuli that are concurrently presented with the preferred terminal link also have greater value, consistent with value transfer. The effects of context on value for conditions with the multiple-successive-encounters procedure, however, appear to depend on whether the search schedule or alternate handling schedule was manipulated, as well as on whether the tested stimuli were the rich or lean schedules in their components. Overall, the results help delineate the conditions under which temporal context affects conditioned-reinforcement value (acting as a learning variable) and the conditions under which it does not (acting as a performance variable), an issue of relevance to theories of choice.

  18. "It´s incredible how much I´ve had to fight." Negotiating medical uncertainty in clinical encounters. (United States)

    Lian, Olaug S; Robson, Catherine


    Clinical encounters related to medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are associated with high levels of conflict between patients and doctors. Collaborative difficulties are fused by the medical uncertainty that dominates these consultations. The main aim of this study is to explore the interactional dynamics of clinical encounters riddled by medical uncertainty, as experienced by people living with long-term medically unexplained fatigue in Norway. A qualitative thematic analysis of written texts from 256 study participants. We found that patients experience being met with disbelief, inappropriate psychological explanations, marginalisation of experiences, disrespectful treatment, lack of physical examination and damaging health advice. The main source of their discontent is not the lack of biomedical knowledge, but doctors who fail to communicate acknowledgement of patients' experiences, knowledge and autonomy. War metaphors are emblematic of how participants describe their medical encounters. The overarching storyline depicts experiences of being caught in a power struggle with doctors and health systems, fused by a lack of common conceptual ground. When physical symptoms cannot be detected, explained and managed by biomedical knowledge and technology, good doctor-patient partnerships are crucial. Without clearly acknowledging patients' perspectives and capabilities in clinical practice, such partnerships cannot be achieved.

  19. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  20. The Identity Crisis. Security, Privacy and Usability Issues in Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpár, G.; Hoepman, J.H.; Siljee, B.I.J.


    This paper studies the current "identity crisis" caused by the substantial security, privacy and usability shortcomings encountered in existing systems for identity management. Some of these issues are well known, while others are much less understood. This paper brings them together in a single,

  1. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mojalli


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions:: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

  2. Exploring the effects of individual customer incivility encounters on employee incivility: the moderating roles of entity (in)civility and negative affectivity. (United States)

    Walker, David D; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Skarlicki, Daniel P


    Incivility between customers and employees is common in many service organizations. These encounters can have negative outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. To date, researchers have tended to study incivility as an aggregated and accumulated phenomenon (entity perspective). In the present study, we examined incivility as it occurs during a specific service encounter (event perspective) alongside the entity perspective. Using a mixed-method multilevel field study of customer service interactions, we show that individual customer incivility encounters (i.e., events) trigger employee incivility as a function of the employee's overall accumulated impression of the (in)civility in his or her customer interactions, such that the effects are more pronounced among employees who generally perceive their customer interactions to be more versus less civil. We also find that these interactive effects occur only among employees who are lower (vs. higher) in negative affectivity. Our results show that, in order to expand the understanding of customer incivility, it is important to study the incivility encounter, the social context in which negative customer interactions occur, and individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  3. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability (United States)

    Chick, Helen


    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  4. Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups. (United States)

    Ernest, Eric V; Brazelton, Tom B; Carhart, Elliot D; Studnek, Jonathan R; Tritt, Patricia L; Philip, Genghis A; Burnett, Aaron M


    abdominal pain and behavioral/psych increased. Bimodal distributions for overdose were seen with one spike in the toddler and another in the adolescent population. Seizures were most common in the age group associated with febrile seizure. Sepsis was seen most often in the youngest patients and its prevalence decreased with age. There are statistically significant variations in the frequency of paramedic student primary impressions as a function of age in the pediatric population. Emphasizing paramedic student exposure to the most common pathologies encountered in each age group, in the context of the psychological and physiological milestones of each age, may improve paramedic student pediatric practice. Ernest EV , Brazelton TB , Carhart ED , Studnek JR , Tritt PL , Philip GA , Burnett AM . Prevalence of unique pediatric pathologies encountered by paramedic students across age groups. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(4):386-391.

  5. MDEP Common Position CP-DICWG-13. Common position on spurious actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    would be those which are plausible and that have not been previously addressed. For example, a potential spurious actuation may not be of concern if the cause was the failure of multiple independent systems. As such, the potential for this spurious actuation may be considered implausible. However, a potential spurious actuation due to a single system failing may be considered plausible, particularly if it relies on the failed system to prevent itself from causing the spurious actuation. Spurious actuations are a cross-cutting safety issue that can affect multiple disciplines. Adequate resolution to this issue may necessarily involve personnel with expertise in safety analysis, human factors, I and C, electrical, probabilistic analysis, etc. Therefore, evaluating spurious actuations necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach to ensure that the consequences of spurious actuations on plant safety are fully understood and accounted for. This common position addresses the I and C review role. Other technical disciplines will need to establish their roles in addressing this issue. The Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG) has agreed that a common position on this topic is warranted given the increase of use of Digital I and C in new reactor designs, its safety implications, and the need to develop a common understanding from the perspectives of regulatory authorities. This action follows the DICWG examination of the regulatory requirements of the participating members and of relevant industry standards and IAEA documents. The DICWG proposes a common position based on its recent experience with the new reactor application reviews and operating plant issues

  6. Spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley encounter: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.


    A summary of the present volume is presented in which the separate disciplines are drawn together to give an overview of the spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley interaction. Specific recommendations are made as to how the work of the Plasma Environment Working Group might continue to contribute to the GIOTTO program during encounter and post-encounter data analysis. 28 references, 3 tables

  7. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued. (United States)



  8. Issue of External Migration in Turkish Cinema: Socio-Cultural Encounters, Identity Conflict and Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Osmanoğlu


    Full Text Available The problem of migration that emerged during the 1950s in Turkey as one of the most important sources of urban problems still continues today. Particularly emerging as a result of social and economic factors, migration paves the way for diverse transformations in social and cultural spheres. Especially recent happenings such as large migration flows in the Middle East, Asia and Africa and the dramatic process of civil war in Syria necessitate the detailed analysis of the issue of migration. Internal and external migration are important themes narrated by Turkish cinema. Directors and producers have not stayed neutral to this phenomenon that had deep effects on social life and narrated this issue in their movies in different eras. is study examines the movies Otobüs (1974, El Kapısı (1974 and 40m2 Almanya (1986 with philosophical, sociological and psychological dimensions based on the methods of cinematic dramaturgy and discourse analysis. It is observed that the problems of East-West dichotomy, alienation and otherization are stressed in these movies. The aim for choosing this subject matter as an object of study is to analyze the ways external immigration is represented in the Turkish cinema before the 1990s and thus to remind that Turkish citizens were once upon a time migrants “on others’ doors” and have experienced the similar tragedies lived by the Syrian refugees today, and hence to contribute to the development of empathy towards the Syrian refugees.

  9. The Power of Citizens and Professionals in Welfare Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    relationships with welfare workers. However, other factors impact these interactions; factors which often pull in different directions. Welfare encounters are thus influenced by bureaucratic principles and market values as well. Consequently, this book engages with both Weberian (bureaucracy) and Foucauldian...... (market values/NPM) studies when investigating the powerful welfare encounter. The book is targeted Academics, post-graduates, and undergraduates within sociology, anthropology and political science....

  10. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance. (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S


    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.

  11. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia


    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.

  12. Challenges in the professional care encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    in the review. Data were extracted and the findings were categorized and themed on the basis of similarity of meaning and aggregated to produce a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. The review process resulted in 55 findings and 14 categories. The categories generated six themes: Psychological reactions...... to keep the patients happy as they try to avoid conflicts. The imagination and thoughts of what might happen in the encounter are based on the nursing students’ personal life experiences. They uses their close relatives as keys to the express empathy in the establishment of the nurse-patient relation...... are challenged by their personal boundaries in the professional care encounter and they experience a great psychological impact Patient contact is an unavoidable and complex component in the nursing education. The students have not yet built up a professional filter and are exposed to a wealth of emotional...

  13. Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: a review and model. (United States)

    Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L


    Increasing the cultural competence of physicians is one means of responding to demographic changes in the USA, as well as reducing health disparities. However, in spite of the development and implementation of cultural competence training programs, little is known about the ways cultural competence manifests itself in medical encounters. This paper will present a model of culturally competent communication that offers a framework of studying cultural competence 'in action.' First, we describe four critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter--communication repertoire, situational awareness, adaptability, and knowledge about core cultural issues. We present a model of culturally competent physician communication that integrates existing frameworks for cultural competence in patient care with models of effective patient-centered communication. The culturally competent communication model includes five communication skills that are depicted as elements of a set in which acquisition of more skills corresponds to increasing complexity and culturally competent communication. The culturally competent communication model utilizes each of the four critical elements to fully develop each skill and apply increasingly sophisticated, contextually appropriate communication behaviors to engage with culturally different patients in complex interactions. It is designed to foster maximum physician sensitivity to cultural variation in patients as the foundation of physician-communication competence in interacting with patients.

  14. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu


    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  15. Measurements in Accounting: Issues and Choices Determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the common measurements in accounting, addressing the issues in general terms, including the circumstances and situations that determine each accounting measurement choice .To drive these issues, references were made to extant literature on common measurement bases and while each ...

  16. Early Career Mentoring for Translational Researchers: Mentee Perspectives on Challenges and Issues (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E.; Collier, Peter J.; Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Logan, Kay; McCracken, Karen; Morris, Cynthia


    Background and purposes The education and training of early career biomedical translational researchers often involves formal mentoring by more experienced colleagues. This study investigated the nature of these mentoring relationships from the perspective of mentees. The objective was to understand the challenges and issues encountered by mentees in forming and maintaining productive mentoring relationships. Method Three focus groups (n=14) were conducted with early career researchers who had mentored career development awards. Thematic analysis identified, categorized, and illustrated the challenges and issues reported by mentees. Results The range of mentee challenges was reflected in five major categories: 1) network—finding appropriate mentors to meet various needs; 2) access—structuring schedules and opportunities to receive mentoring; 3) expectations—negotiating the mechanics of the mentoring relationship and its purpose; 4) alignment—managing mentor-mentee mismatches regarding interests, priorities, and goals; and 5) skills and supports—developing the institutional supports to be successful. Conclusions Mentoring relationships created for academic training and career development contend with tasks common to many other relationships, namely recognizing compatibility, finding time, establishing patterns, agreeing to goals, and achieving aims. Identifying challenges faced by mentees can facilitate the development of appropriate trainings and supports to foster mentoring relationships in academic and career settings. PMID:25010230

  17. Attributions of Intentions and Fairness Judgments regarding Interracial Peer Encounters (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Kelly, Megan Clark; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah Simon


    To investigate how adolescents interpret ambiguous actions in hypothetical interracial peer encounters, we conducted a study in which 8th- and 11th-grade students (N = 837) evaluated 4 interracial peer encounters in which the intentions of the protagonist were ambiguous. The sample was evenly divided by gender and included both African American…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dalem


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, and to discover the causes of such difficulties. Speaking English has been a vital importance in international communication. Speaking fluent English is a common problem among the nonnative speakers. The second language learners have gone through a variety of cases to learn how to speak not only correct grammar and using the right vocabulary but with correct accent and pronunciation. Many obstacles, therefore, have been known as the predictors of such a problem among the language learners.  According to the review of literature, appropriate speaking instruction was found to be the learners' priority and a field in which they need more attention. In this paper the writer highlight the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, which are considered to be the most urgent for every teacher, such as fear of mistakes, shyness, anxiety, lack of confidence and lack of motivation. This paper can be useful to teachers to consider their language learners' speaking needs in English language teaching and learning context.

  19. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt


    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  20. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik


    Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

  1. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance. (United States)

    Magen, Zipora


    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  2. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier (United States)

    Lazarus, E.


    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  3. N-Body simulations of tidal encounters between stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.D.; Ramamani, N.; Alladin, S.M.


    N-Body simulations have been performed to study the tidal effects of a primary stellar system on a secondary stellar system of density close to the Roche density. Two hyperbolic, one parabolic and one elliptic encounters have been simulated. The changes in energy, angular momentum, mass distribution, and shape of the secondary system have been determined in each case. The inner region containing about 40% of the mass was found to be practically unchanged and the mass exterior to the tidal radius was found to escape. The intermediate region showed tidal distension. The thickness of this region decreased as we went from hyperbolic encounters to the elliptic encounter keeping the distance of closest approach constant. The numerical results for the fractional change in energy have been compared with the predictions of the available analytic formulae and the usefulness and limitations of the formulae have been discussed. (author)

  4. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob


    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive...... the link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses...... on the encounter between expatriates and local employees of a Danish subsidiary in England. The findings show that identity making may be actualized by competition for resources and recognition. This can be done by investing certain objects such as the symbolic application of language with certain identifications...

  5. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview (United States)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.


    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  6. Hotspots on Io During the Ganymede 2 Encounter (United States)


    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft imaged Io at high spectral resolution at a range of 439,000 km (275,000 miles) during the G2 encounter on 6 September 1996. This image shows, on the right, Io as seen by NIMS, centered on 150 W longitude. The image on the left shows the same view point from Voyager data (from the encounters in 1979 and 1980). The NIMS image can be compared to the NIMS hotspot image from the G1 orbit (June 1996) to monitor changes on Io. The most dramatic feature of the G2 image is the hotspot at Malik Patera. Preliminary analysis of the data yields a temperature of at least 1000 K (727 C) for this hotspot, an increase of more than 300 K from the G1 encounter. In the overlap area of the G1 and G2 images all the hotspots seen during the G1 encounter are also seen in the G2 image. Other hotspots were seen, including one at the Pele plume origin site. This image is at the 4 micron band to best view the Malik hotspot. Most of the other hotspots are best seen at longer wavelengths. NIMS is continuing to observe Io to monitor volcanic activity throughout the Galileo mission.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL

  7. Seven common mistakes in population genetics and how to avoid them. (United States)

    Meirmans, Patrick G


    As the data resulting from modern genotyping tools are astoundingly complex, genotyping studies require great care in the sampling design, genotyping, data analysis and interpretation. Such care is necessary because, with data sets containing thousands of loci, small biases can easily become strongly significant patterns. Such biases may already be present in routine tasks that are present in almost every genotyping study. Here, I discuss seven common mistakes that can be frequently encountered in the genotyping literature: (i) giving more attention to genotyping than to sampling, (ii) failing to perform or report experimental randomization in the laboratory, (iii) equating geopolitical borders with biological borders, (iv) testing significance of clustering output, (v) misinterpreting Mantel's r statistic, (vi) only interpreting a single value of k and (vii) forgetting that only a small portion of the genome will be associated with climate. For every of those issues, I give some suggestions how to avoid the mistake. Overall, I argue that genotyping studies would benefit from establishing a more rigorous experimental design, involving proper sampling design, randomization and better distinction of a priori hypotheses and exploratory analyses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pipeline negotiations as a challenging setting for organised cultural encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    has linked together countries, cultures, identities, ultimately challenging, reorganizing and renegotiating them. Starting from these premises, the following paper intends to show how Canadian Mackenzie Valley represents a unique contact zone for the development of cultural encounters, where different...... with often competing interests and positions - the practice of public hearings can be approached as a form of organized cultural encounter, whose “implied purposes” are to deal with more or less substantial cultural differences and to provide a wider cultural understanding of each different position. Through......Within the context of resource extraction, cultural encounters have been historically performed in the way of more or less antagonistic social interactions, ranging from outright domination to more empowerment-oriented relations. Throughout the last decades, the building of pipelines in particular...

  9. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander


    Trish L Varao Sousa; Jonathan S A Carriere; Dan eSmilek


    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage part...

  10. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  11. Web-based versus face-to-face interprofessional team encounters with standardized patients. (United States)

    Lempicki, Kelly A; Holland, Christine S


    Challenges exist in developing interprofessional education (IPE) activities including coordinating schedules and obtaining appropriate space for teams to work. Virtual worlds have been explored as a means to overcome some of these challenges. We sought to develop a web-based interprofessional team interaction with a standardized patient (SP), as compared to a face-to-face SP interaction, focusing on the competency area of interprofessional communication. Interprofessional teams of students were randomized to complete a web-based or face-to-face SP encounter. The web-based encounter was conducted via video conference that students accessed using their own electronic device. Interprofessional communication was evaluated by faculty observers and the SPs. Participants of the web-based encounter also completed a perceptions questionnaire. Interprofessional communication was rated as average/above average by the authors and SPs. Perceptions of the web-based encounter were mixed with not all students willing to complete such an encounter again despite finding it enjoyable and a positive learning experience. The need for adequate preparation was identified, including the opportunity to review the patient case before the encounter. The web-based SP encounter afforded students the opportunity to utilize communication technology to provide patient-centered care while collaborating as an interprofessional team. Video conferencing presents an opportunity to bypass some logistical challenges in scheduling IPE experiences and can be implemented as a co-curricular activity, avoiding course revisions. Additional studies are needed to further explore student and patient perspectives and clarify when, and with what level of trainees, the experiences are most valuable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan


    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  13. Oil spill encounter rate: A means of estimating advancing skimmer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.


    A high rate of oil spill recovery can only be achieved if the spilled oil can be collected fast enough for the skimming and pumping systems to operate at their rated capacity. For advancing skimmers, recovery capacity depends on the rate at which the skimming system encounters the oil slick. For these systems, encounter rate depends on skimming speed, sweep width, and the amount of oil available, in this case measured in terms of slick thickness. The computation of the spill encounter rate is described, and a chart is provided that permits the user to determine encounter rate for candidate skimming systems by inspection. Furthermore, a contingency planning worksheet for advancing skimmers is provided that allows the user to evaluate a particular response system. The resulting data can be used to determine the oil slick area that can be covered in a period of time, the volume of oil that can be expected to be recovered in that time based on oil spill planning scenarios, the pumping capacity required for skimming and transfer systems, and the storage requirements for recovered oil. Finally, suggestions are presented on how computations of oil spill encounter rate can be used to make important decisions in procuring advancing skimmers for specific applications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Encountering spiritual tourism in Kathmandu


    Børø, Nora


    Spiritual tourism as a phenomenon is increasing worldwide. Many have conducted research looking at the intersection between religion and tourism, but few have focused on the host community within these encounters. Many Western tourists arrive in Kathmandu to go on retreats', and to participate in yoga and meditation classes. The majority of these are particularly interested in various forms of Buddhist practice and traditions. In this thesis I have studied how N...

  15. Managing ethical issues in patient care and the need for clinical ethics support. (United States)

    Doran, Evan; Fleming, Jennifer; Jordens, Christopher; Stewart, Cameron L; Letts, Julie; Kerridge, Ian H


    To investigate the range, frequency and management of ethical issues encountered by clinicians working in hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a convenience sample of 104 medical, nursing and allied health professionals in two NSW hospitals. Some respondents did not provide data for some questions, therefore the denominator is less than 105 for some items. Sixty-two (62/104; 60%) respondents reported occasionally to often having ethical concerns. Forty-six (46/105; 44%) reported often to occasionally having legal concerns. The three most common responses to concerns were: talking to colleagues (96/105; 91%); raising the issue in a group forum (68/105; 65%); and consulting a relevant guideline (64/105; 61%). Most respondents were highly (65/99; 66%) or moderately (33/99; 33%) satisfied with the ethical environment of the hospital. Twenty-two (22/98; 22%) were highly satisfied with the ethical environment of their department and 74 (74/98; 76%) were moderately satisfied. Most (72/105; 69%) respondents indicated that additional support in dealing with ethical issues would be helpful. Clinicians reported frequently experiencing ethical and legal uncertainty and concern. They usually managed this by talking with colleagues. Although this approach was considered adequate, and the ethics of their hospital was reported to be satisfactory, most respondents indicated that additional assistance with ethical and legal concerns would be helpful. Clinical ethics support should be a priority of public hospitals in NSW and elsewhere in Australia.

  16. Common pitfalls to avoid during workover operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, R.R.


    Remedial well work has been, and will continue to be, an integral part of oil company operations. More than 16,000 workover operations were performed during 1993 in the US. The economic impact from workover operations is usually immediate due to flowlines, tank batteries and other equipment being in place and ready for service prior to the workover. Similarly, problems encountered during workover operations contribute an immediate negative impact to project economics. Guidelines for common mistake avoidance are presented. They will be especially helpful for those individuals not well trained in workover preparation and supervision

  17. Protoplanetary disc response to distant tidal encounters in stellar clusters (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Booth, R. A.


    The majority of stars form in a clustered environment. This has an impact on the evolution of surrounding protoplanetary discs (PPDs) due to either photoevaporation or tidal truncation. Consequently, the development of planets depends on formation environment. Here, we present the first thorough investigation of tidally induced angular momentum loss in PPDs in the distant regime, partly motivated by claims in the literature for the importance of distant encounters in disc evolution. We employ both theoretical predictions and dynamical/hydrodynamical simulations in 2D and 3D. Our theoretical analysis is based on that of Ostriker (1994) and leads us to conclude that in the limit that the closest approach distance xmin ≫ r, the radius of a particle ring, the fractional change in angular momentum scales as (xmin/r)-5. This asymptotic limit ensures that the cumulative effect of distant encounters is minor in terms of its influence on disc evolution. The angular momentum transfer is dominated by the m = 2 Lindblad resonance for closer encounters and by the m = 1, ω = 0 Lindblad resonance at large xmin/r. We contextualize these results by comparing expected angular momentum loss for the outer edge of a PPD due to distant and close encounters. Contrary to the suggestions of previous works, we do not find that distant encounters contribute significantly to angular momentum loss in PPDs. We define an upper limit for closest approach distance where interactions are significant as a function of arbitrary host to perturber mass ratio M2/M1.

  18. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil


    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  19. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  20. Factors Affecting Recruitment and Attrition in Randomised Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pregnancy-Related Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Close


    Full Text Available Background. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs investigating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM for pregnancy-related issues have encountered issues with recruitment and attrition. Little is known about the cause of these issues. Methods. Data was gathered from an antenatal CAM randomised controlled trial. During foetal anomaly appointments, women meeting inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the trial. Numbers of women invited and eligible were recorded. Reasons for noninterest were noted and analysed. Focus groups exploring trial experience of participants were also conducted. Findings. Of the 428 women invited to participate, 376 were eligible and just under a quarter participated. Reasons for nonparticipation included concerns about CAM and lack of interest in participation in research. Other factors negatively affecting recruitment included recruitment timing, competition for participants, limited support from staff, and inadequate trial promotion. Factors encouraging recruitment included being interested in research and seeking pain relief. Reasons for dropping out were time constraints, travel issues, work commitments, and pregnancy issues. Several women in the sham and usual care group dropped out due to dissatisfaction with treatment allocation. Conclusion. CAM researchers must explore problems encountered with recruitment and attrition so that evidence-based implementation strategies to address the issues can be developed.

  1. Self. Propagating | a strategy of encounter |

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Lorraine Fletcher


    Full Text Available This piece mobilises both creative non-fiction and ficto-criticism to expose the necessary terrains of narrativity as a Country of the Lived,  making visible the redactive cartography of the PhD in telling Indigenous selfhood, and mobilising an argument for authentic encounter under the comfortable maps of form.

  2. BodyHeat Encounter: Performing Technology in Pedagogical Spaces of Surveillance/Intimacy (United States)

    Fels, Lynn; Ricketts, Kathryn


    What occurs when videographer and performer encounter each other through the lens of a camera? This collaborative performative inquiry focuses on embodiment and emergent narrative as realized through an encounter between technology and the visceral body--a relational body that smells, touches, sees, hears and feels the emergent world through…

  3. Hispanic Medical Organizations' Support for LGBT Health Issues. (United States)

    Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie


    Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.

  4. Male Fertility Issues (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  5. Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI (United States)


    Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography...westward flow in the North Equatorial Current (NEC) encounters tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt... Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether appreciable energy/momentum is lost from the large-scale NEC flow to smaller scales and

  6. Satisfaction with the outpatient encounter - A comparison of patients' and physicians' views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbelt, Linda C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; Godfried, Mieke H.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare patients' and physicians' visit-specific satisfaction in an internal medicine outpatient setting, and to explain their respective views. DESIGN: Patients' and physicians' background characteristics were assessed prior to outpatient encounters. Immediately after the encounter,

  7. Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik


    Quota sampling has been suggested as a potentially good method for Internet-based research and has been used by several researchers working with Internet samples. However, very little is known about the issues or concerns in using a quota sampling method in Internet research. The purpose of this article was to present the practical issues using quota sampling in an Internet-based study. During the Internet study, the research team recorded all recruitment issues that arose and made written notes indicating the possible reasons for the problems. In addition, biweekly team discussions were conducted for which written records were kept. Overall, quota sampling was effective in ensuring that an adequate number of midlife women were recruited from the targeted ethnic groups. However, during the study process, we encountered the following practical issues using quota sampling: (1) difficulty reaching out to women in lower socioeconomic classes, (2) difficulty ensuring authenticity of participants' identities, (3) participants giving inconsistent answers for the screening questions versus the Internet survey questions, (4) potential problems with a question on socioeconomic status, (5) resentment toward the research project and/or researchers because of rejection, and (6) a longer time and more expense than anticipated.

  8. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David


    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... of texts and audiences. Based on a critique of the “participatory paradigm,” a paradigm that situates the locus of agency in the structural opposition between senders and users, in the norms of rational deliberation or in the figure of the activist, gaps are identified which can be filled by adopting...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure...

  9. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff. (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu


    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'.

  10. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology


    O'Neill, Rachel


    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  11. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.


    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  12. Selective common and uncommon imaging manifestations of blunt nonaortic chest trauma: when time is of the essence. (United States)

    Altoos, Rola; Carr, Robert; Chung, Jonathan; Stern, Eric; Nevrekar, Dipti


    This is a pictorial essay in which we review and illustrate a variety of thoracic injuries related to blunt trauma. Non-aortic blunt thoracic trauma can be divided anatomically into injuries of the chest wall, lungs, pleura, mediastinum, and diaphragm. Some injuries involve more than one anatomic compartment, and multiple injuries commonly coexist. This article provides common imaging findings and discussion of both common and uncommon but critical thoracic injuries encountered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  14. Special cluster issue on tribocorrosion of dental materials (United States)

    Mathew, Mathew T.; Stack, Margaret M.


    Tribocorrosion affects all walks of life from oil and gas conversion to biomedical materials. Wear can interact with corrosion to enhance it or impede it; conversely, corrosion can enhance or impede wear. The understanding of the interactions between physical and chemical phenomena has been greatly assisted by electrochemical and microscopic techniques. In dentistry, it is well recognized that erosion due to dissolution (a term physicists use to denote wear) of enamel can result in tooth decay; however, the effects of the oral environment, i.e. pH levels, electrochemical potential and any interactions due to the forces involved in chewing are not well understood. This special cluster issue includes investigations on the fundamentals of wear-corrosion interactions involved in simulated oral environments, including candidate dental implant and veneer materials. The issue commences with a fundamental study of titanium implants and this is followed by an analysis of the behaviour of commonly used temporomandibular devices in a synovial fluid-like environment. The analysis of tribocorrosion mechanisms of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys in artificial saliva with different pHs is addressed and is followed by a paper on fretting wear, on hydroxyapatite-titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with protein (bovine serum albumin). The effects of acid treatments on tooth enamel, and as a surface engineering technique for dental implants, are investigated in two further contributions. An analysis of the physiological parameters of intraoral wear is addressed; this is followed by a study of candidate dental materials in common beverages such as tea and coffee with varying acidity and viscosity and the use of wear maps to identify the safety zones for prediction of material degradation in such conditions. Hence, the special cluster issue consists of a range of tribocorrosion contributions involving many aspects of dental tribocorrosion, from analysis of physiological

  15. Sustainability of common pool resources


    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio


    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  16. Antiservice Within the Medical Service Encounter: Lessons for Radiologists Beyond Service Recovery. (United States)

    Hill, Paul Armstrong; Hill, Ronald Paul


    Recent modifications in the metrics for reimbursement have reinforced the importance of radiology service-delivery experiences of patients. Evaluating current radiology practices calls for reflection on the various touch points with patients, as well as their overall satisfaction. If problems occur during encounters, service failure, or lack of satisfactory medical experiences can be transformed through service recovery, whereby patients-as-customers are given chances to voice their concerns, and health care providers across the spectrum can work together to resolve problematic issues. This paper takes a systemic view of the patient experience as embedded in the care continuum, recognizing that different beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of members of the health care team can negatively affect or sabotage patient satisfaction. Although radiologists are only one of many roles in the care continuum, recommendations are discussed for how they can integrate service satisfaction as a pervasive communal goal among all health care team members. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A qualitative description of service providers' experiences of ethical issues in HIV care. (United States)

    Sabone, Motshedisi B; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Matshediso, Ellah; Shaibu, Sheila; Ntsayagae, Esther I; Corless, Inge B; Cuca, Yvette P; Holzemer, William L; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Baez, Solymar S Soliz; Rivero-Mendz, Marta; Webel, Allison R; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Reid, Paula; Johnson, Mallory O; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reyes, Darcel; Nokes, Kathleen; Wantland, Dean; Nicholas, Patrice K; Lingren, Teri; Portillo, Carmen J; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Long-Middleton, Ellen


    Managing HIV treatment is a complex multi-dimensional task because of a combination of factors such as stigma and discrimination of some populations who frequently get infected with HIV. In addition, patient-provider encounters have become increasingly multicultural, making effective communication and provision of ethically sound care a challenge. This article explores ethical issues that health service providers in the United States and Botswana encountered in their interaction with patients in HIV care. A descriptive qualitative design was used to collect data from health service providers and patients using focused group discussions. This article is based on responses from health service providers only. Participants and context: This article is based on 11 focused group discussions with a total sample of 71 service providers in seven US sites and one Botswana site. Ethical considerations: Ethical review boards at all the study sites reviewed the study protocol and approved it. Ethical review boards of the study's coordinating centers, Rutgers University and the University of California at San Francisco, also approved it. The study participants provided a written informed consent to participate. HIV service providers encountered ethical challenges in all the four Beauchamp and Childress' biomedical ethics of respect for patients' autonomy, beneficence, justice, and nonmaleficence. The finding that HIV service providers encounter ethical challenges in their interaction with patients is supported by prior studies. The ethical challenges are particularly prominent in multicultural care and resource-constrained care environments. Provision of HIV care is fraught with ethical challenges that tend to pose different issues depending on a given care environment. It is important that strong partnerships are developed among key stakeholders in HIV care. In addition, health service providers need to be provided with resources so they can provide quality and ethically sound

  18. Ruling the Commons. Introducing a new methodology for the analysis of historical commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine de Moor


    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in recent years, the evolution of commons over the long run remains an under-explored area within commons studies. During the last years an international team of historians have worked under the umbrella of the Common Rules Project in order to design and test a new methodology aimed at advancing our knowledge on the dynamics of institutions for collective action – in particular commons. This project aims to contribute to the current debate on commons on three different fronts. Theoretically, it explicitly draws our attention to issues of change and adaptation in the commons – contrasting with more static analyses. Empirically, it highlights the value of historical records as a rich source of information for longitudinal analysis of the functioning of commons. Methodologically, it develops a systematic way of analyzing and comparing commons’ regulations across regions and time, setting a number of variables that have been defined on the basis of the “most common denominators” in commons regulation across countries and time periods. In this paper we introduce the project, describe our sources and methodology, and present the preliminary results of our analysis.

  19. When carbon nanotubes encounter the immune system: desirable and undesirable effects. (United States)

    Dumortier, Hélène


    The role of our immune system is to bring efficient protection against invasion by foreign elements, not only pathogens but also any material it may be in contact with. Nanoparticles may enter the body and encounter the immune system either intentionally (e.g. administration for biomedical application) or not (e.g. respiratory occupational exposure). Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to get a thorough knowledge of the way they interact with immune cells and all related consequences. Among nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of special interest because of their tremendous field of applications. Consequently, their increasing production, processing and eventual incorporation into new types of composites and/or into biological systems have raised fundamental issues regarding their potential impact on health. This review aims at giving an overview of the known desirable and undesirable effects of CNTs on the immune system, i.e. beneficial modulation of immune cells by CNTs engineered for biomedical applications versus toxicity, inflammation and unwanted immune reactions triggered by CNTs themselves. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...... between Muslims and Christians and analyse the different moral orders involved and how – following these orders – the participants are expected to deal with differences. Main focus is on how the participants are expected to deal with a requirement of staying the same (as Christian or Muslim) while...

  1. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico


    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  2. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value (United States)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  3. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters (United States)


    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  4. A basic decision-making approach to common ethical issues in consultation-liaison psychiatry. (United States)

    Wright, Mark T; Roberts, Laura Weiss


    Ethical dilemmas are found throughout the daily work of C-L psychiatrists. Unfortunately, most psychiatrists have no more training in ethics than their nonpsychiatric colleagues. Psychiatric consults spurred by ethical dilemmas can provoke anxiety in psychiatrists and leave anxious colleagues without the clear recommendations they seek. C-L psychiatrists, and probably all psychiatrists, need more training in clinical ethics. C-L psychiatrists do not need to become clinical ethicists, but competence in handling the ethical issues most commonly seen in C-L work is needed. The 2008 ABPN guidelines for specialists in psychosomatic medicine mention specific ethics topics important in C-L work, and ways of attaining competence in these areas have been discussed in the C-L literature. The four cases discussed here illustrate the high level of complexity often seen in situations in which ethical dilemmas arise in C-L psychiatry. Given the sometimes furious pace of hospital work, it can be easy for C-L psychiatrists to be seduced by the idea of the quick, focused consult that simply responds to a simple question with a simple answer. Because cases involving ethical dilemmas often involve multiple stakeholders, each with his or her own set of concerns, a brief consult focused only on the patient often leads to errors of omission. A wider approach, such as that suggested by the Four Topics Method, is needed to successfully negotiate ethical dilemmas. Busy C-L psychiatry services may struggle at first to find the time to do the type of global evaluations discussed here, but increasing familiarity with approaches such as the Four Topics Method should lead to quicker ways of gathering and processing the needed information.

  5. Multiple Codes, Multiple Impressions: An Analysis of Doctor-Client Encounters in Nigeria (United States)

    Odebunmi, Akin


    Existing studies on doctor-client interactions have largely focused on monolingual encounters and the interactional effects and functions of the languages used in the communication between doctors and their clients. They have neither, to a large extent, examined the several codes employed in single encounters and their pragmatic roles nor given…

  6. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.


    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both

  7. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  8. Pharmacy users' expectations of pharmacy encounters: a Q-methodological study. (United States)

    Renberg, Tobias; Wichman Törnqvist, Kristina; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kettis Lindblad, Asa; Tully, Mary P


    Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general health-care trends such as increased patient involvement and public health initiatives. In addition, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients' expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understanding how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently. To identify and describe different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter among pharmacy clients. Q methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retains complete patterns of responses and organizes these into factors of operant subjectivity. Eighty-five regular prescription medication users recruited at Swedish community pharmacies and by snowballing. Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, and organized into two groups. Factors that emphasized the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and supply of individual's own drugs. Factors that emphasized personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical health-care and lifestyle support. The systematic Q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights into how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints may be important for developing and prioritizing among efficient pharmacy services. Clients' expectations do not correspond with trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Avoiding humiliations in the clinical encounter. (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne


    To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed.

  10. Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling (United States)

    Fewster, R.M.; Buckland, S.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Borchers, D.L.; Jupp, P.E.; Laake, J.L.; Thomas, L.


    The dominant source of variance in line transect sampling is usually the encounter rate variance. Systematic survey designs are often used to reduce the true variability among different realizations of the design, but estimating the variance is difficult and estimators typically approximate the variance by treating the design as a simple random sample of lines. We explore the properties of different encounter rate variance estimators under random and systematic designs. We show that a design-based variance estimator improves upon the model-based estimator of Buckland et al. (2001, Introduction to Distance Sampling. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 79) when transects are positioned at random. However, if populations exhibit strong spatial trends, both estimators can have substantial positive bias under systematic designs. We show that poststratification is effective in reducing this bias. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa.

  12. Use, misuse and extensions of "ideal gas" models of animal encounter. (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Waser, Peter M


    Biologists have repeatedly rediscovered classical models from physics predicting collision rates in an ideal gas. These models, and their two-dimensional analogues, have been used to predict rates and durations of encounters among animals or social groups that move randomly and independently, given population density, velocity, and distance at which an encounter occurs. They have helped to separate cases of mixed-species association based on behavioural attraction from those that simply reflect high population densities, and to detect cases of attraction or avoidance among conspecifics. They have been used to estimate the impact of population density, speeds of movement and size on rates of encounter between members of the opposite sex, between gametes, between predators and prey, and between observers and the individuals that they are counting. One limitation of published models has been that they predict rates of encounter, but give no means of determining whether observations differ significantly from predictions. Another uncertainty is the robustness of the predictions when animal movements deviate from the model's assumptions in specific, biologically relevant ways. Here, we review applications of the ideal gas model, derive extensions of the model to cover some more realistic movement patterns, correct several errors that have arisen in the literature, and show how to generate confidence limits for expected rates of encounter among independently moving individuals. We illustrate these results using data from mangabey monkeys originally used along with the ideal gas model to argue that groups avoid each other. Although agent-based simulations provide a more flexible alternative approach, the ideal gas model remains both a valuable null model and a useful, less onerous, approximation to biological reality.

  13. Looking at complicating non-biological issues in women with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaturaka


    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing number of women acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has resulted in a ′feminization′ of the epidemic. In this article we are reviewing whether females are disadvantaged in the epidemic, due to factors independent of the biological differences in sexes. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with key words ′Women′, ′Gender,′ and ′HIV′ in any field. The search was restricted to articles published in English within the last 10 years (1999-2009. Data were coded independently by two reviewers from 94 selected sources. The coded data were categorized under five commonly encountered concepts; violence, poverty, gender norms, prevention-/treatment-related issues, and Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART. Results: The link between inter-partner violence (IPV and HIV risk for women is observed by many authors. In assessing the link between poverty and HIV, indicators such as food insufficiency and income inequality may be better indicators compared to wealth itself. Although women are disadvantaged with male-dominated gender norms, evidence suggests that the traditional norms are changing in many societies. A positive association between living in urban communities, education, and better HIV knowledge has been observed in females, although it is not always synonymous with reduced risk behavior. Conclusions: Women are still disadvantaged in many HIV-related issues such as poverty, violence, and gender norms. At least in Africa, there is evidence of a positive change in spheres of education and gender norms. However, the situation in Asia is largely unexplored.

  14. 47 CFR 24.249 - Payment issues. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment issues. 24.249 Section 24.249 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS... issues. (a) Timing. On the day that a PCS entity files its prior coordination notice (PCN) in accordance...

  15. A Survey Instrument for Measuring the Experiential Value of Employee-Tourist Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    In this paper, we develop and test a survey instrument that aims at estimating the experiential value of employee-tourist encounters in destination-based tourism companies, as well as the characteristics of encounters that affect such experiential value. We suggest that such an instrument can...... for their visitors, rather than simply delivering service quality....

  16. 36 CFR 251.93 - Resolution of issues. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of issues. 251.93... issues. (a) Authorized Forest Service officers shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with the... meetings is to discuss any issues or concerns related to the authorized use and to reach a common...

  17. Family Home Childcare Providers: A Comparison of Subsidized and Non-Subsidized Working Environments and Employee Issues (United States)

    Shriner, Michael; Schlee, Bethanne M.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.


    Federal and State Governments provide childcare subsidies for low-income working families. This study compares the encountered issues and working environments of family home providers of subsidized and non-subsidized childcare. Questionnaires were distributed throughout a southeastern state in the United States to 548 family home childcare…

  18. An Analysis of Technological Issues Emanating from Faculty Transition to a New Learning Management System (United States)

    Sanga, Mapopa William


    This case study investigated the process 119 faculty members underwent as they transitioned from using Desire to Learn (D2L) learning management system (LMS), to using Canvas LMS. Other than analyzing technological issues faculty members encountered while navigating various aspects of the Canvas interface, the study also analyzed technological…

  19. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; van Meeteren, Marijke M; van Dijk, Marloes; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T; Bouvy, Marcel L; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset


    To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed based on an observation protocol for the following information: content of encounter, initiator of a theme and pharmacy staff's communication style. In total, 119 encounters were recorded which concerned 42 first prescriptions, 16 first refill prescriptions and 61 follow-up refill prescriptions. During all encounters, discussion was mostly initiated by pharmacy staff (85%). In first prescription encounters topics most frequently discussed included instructions for use (83%) and dosage instructions (95%). In first refill encounters, patient experiences such as adverse effects (44%) and beneficial effects (38%) were regularly discussed in contrast to follow-up refills (7% and 5%). Patients' opinion on medication was hardly discussed. Pharmacy staff in outpatient pharmacies generally provide practical information, less frequently they discuss patients' experiences and seldom discuss patients' perceptions and preferences about prescribed medication. This study shows there is room for improvement, as communication is still not according to professional guidelines. To implement professional guidelines successfully, it is necessary to identify underlying reasons for not following the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Reality of Encounters with Local Life in Other Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Kim


    Full Text Available Equipped with mobile technologies, travelers increasingly seek opportunities to encounter the real lives of the people residing in the focal destination. With this trend of pursuing local life experience, this study investigated how international visitors recognize the lives of people in the focal destination, and whether this recognition is related to satisfaction. Reviews for Teheran’s Grand Bazaar from an online review site,, showed that visitors’ local encounters were linked with favorable emotions (good, interesting, and worthwhile. To lend support to the contact hypothesis, which posits that intercultural experiences can lead to more favorable evaluations of the host community; the visitors who recognized direct and indirect encounters with local life indicated higher satisfaction. Even if brief, the experience of local life appeared to create more intimate feelings for the focal destination. Interestingly, the number of past travel experiences, which was captured by the number of reviews written by the reviewer, was found to have a negative association with satisfaction. We draw further implications for the travelers as well as the local community.

  1. Practical issues in treatment of appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, C.C.


    Appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and an appendectomy is still the gold standard of treatment. In spite of the high incidence, variance in diagnostic and treatment modalities remains an issue among surgeons. In this thesis several practical issues in the diagnosis and treatment

  2. 47 CFR 27.1170 - Payment Issues. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment Issues. 27.1170 Section 27.1170 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands § 27.1170 Payment Issues. Prior to...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1186 - Payment issues. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment issues. 27.1186 Section 27.1186 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1186 Payment issues. Payment of cost...

  4. The importance of motivation, weapons, and foul odors in driving encounter competition in carnivores. (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Wilmers, Christopher C; Elbroch, L Mark; Golla, Julie M; Wittmer, Heiko U


    Encounter competition is interference competition in which animals directly contend for resources. Ecological theory predicts the trait that determines the resource holding potential (RHP), and hence the winner of encounter competition, is most often body size or mass. The difficulties of observing encounter competition in complex organisms in natural environments, however, has limited opportunities to test this theory across diverse species. We studied the outcome of encounter competition contests among mesocarnivores at deer carcasses in California to determine the most important variables for winning these contests. We found some support for current theory in that body mass is important in determining the winner of encounter competition, but we found that other factors including hunger and species-specific traits were also important. In particular, our top models were "strength and hunger" and "size and hunger," with models emphasizing the complexity of variables influencing outcomes of encounter competition. In addition, our wins above predicted (WAP) statistic suggests that an important aspect that determines the winner of encounter competition is species-specific advantages that increase their RHP, as bobcats (Lynx rufus) and spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis) won more often than predicted based on mass. In complex organisms, such as mesocarnivores, species-specific adaptations, including strategic behaviors, aggressiveness, and weapons, contribute to competitive advantages and may allow certain species to take control or defend resources better than others. Our results help explain how interspecific competition shapes the occurrence patterns of species in ecological communities. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters. (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard


    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  6. Potentials and pitfalls of the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringskou, Lea Thomsen; Gravesen, David Thore

    Our research offers a qualitative, in depth-perspective on the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools in Denmark. In our presentration we will, in a cross-cultural perspective, reappraise the roles of leisure-time pedagogues and discuss the potentials and pitfalls of the encou......Our research offers a qualitative, in depth-perspective on the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools in Denmark. In our presentration we will, in a cross-cultural perspective, reappraise the roles of leisure-time pedagogues and discuss the potentials and pitfalls...... of the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools. In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. To a considerable extent, the reform can be understood in response to receding results in international tests (Knudsen 2010). The official aim of the reform is to challenge all pupils, regardless...... the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools?...

  7. Common “transmission block” in understanding cardiovascular physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee-Ming Cheng


    Full Text Available We obtained responses from 69 medical and 65 pharmacy students who had cardiovascular (CVS physiology taught in the previous academic year. A real-time response exercise using an online game-based learning platform (Kahoot! ( was conducted during a lecture class using true/false questions that cover certain core aspects of CVS physiology. Comments will be made on some of the common, incomplete understanding of CVS conceptual mechanisms. Some follow-up thoughts on our role as physiology educators in fine-tuning our teaching as we encounter persistent mistakes among our students' learning physiology.

  8. ‘Didaktik meets Curriculum’ revisited: historical encounters, systematic experience, empirical limits


    Hopmann, Stefan


    From a personal perspective, the article focuses on the points of contact between Didaktik and curriculum theory within a continental European perspective, where Didaktik is more commonly used than curriculum for describing the issues under scrutiny. By highlighting these points of contact between a continental European description of Didaktik and an Anglo-American description in curriculum, it also looks into the future, discussing some probable developments within education.Keywords: didact...

  9. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc


    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  10. An issue encountered in solving problems in electricity and magnetism: curvilinear coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gülçiçek, Çağlar; Damlı, Volkan


    In physics lectures on electromagnetic theory and mathematical methods, physics teacher candidates have some difficulties with curvilinear coordinate systems. According to our experience, based on both in-class interactions and teacher candidates’ answers in test papers, they do not seem to have understood the variables in curvilinear coordinate systems very well. For this reason, the problems that physics teacher candidates have with variables in curvilinear coordinate systems have been selected as a study subject. The aim of this study is to find the physics teacher candidates’ problems with determining the variables of drawn shapes, and problems with drawing shapes based on given variables in curvilinear coordinate systems. Two different assessment tests were used in the study to achieve this aim. The curvilinear coordinates drawing test (CCDrT) was used to discover their problems related to drawing shapes, and the curvilinear coordinates detection test (CCDeT) was used to find out about problems related to determining variables. According to the findings obtained from both tests, most physics teacher candidates have problems with the ϕ variable, while they have limited problems with the r variable. Questions that are mostly answered wrongly have some common properties, such as value. According to inferential statistics, there is no significant difference between the means of the CCDeT and CCDrT scores. The mean of the CCDeT scores is only 4.63 and the mean of the CCDrT is only 4.66. Briefly, we can say that most physics teacher candidates have problems with drawing a shape using the variables of curvilinear coordinate systems or in determining the variables of drawn shapes. (paper)

  11. Ada issues in implementing ART-Ada (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel


    Due to the Ada mandate of a number of government agencies, interest in deploying expert systems such as Ada has increased. Recently, several Ada-based expert system tools have been developed. According to a recent benchmark report, these tools do not perform as well as similar tools written in C. While poorly implemented Ada compilers contribute to the poor benchmark result, some fundamental problems of the Ada language itself have been uncovered. Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the deployment of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force.

  12. Dyadic Interactions in Service Encounter: Bayesian SEM Approach (United States)

    Sagan, Adam; Kowalska-Musiał, Magdalena

    Dyadic interactions are an important aspects in service encounters. They may be observed in B2B distribution channels, professional services, buying centers, family decision making or WOM communications. The networks consist of dyadic bonds that form dense but weak ties among the actors.

  13. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border


    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea


    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  14. Ways of understanding the encounter with head and neck cancer patients in the hospital dental team--a phenomenographic study. (United States)

    Röing, Marta; Hirsch, J-M; Holmström, Inger


    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Fifty percent of the patients can be cured by surgery, radiotherapy or a combination approach. Head and neck cancer is life-threatening, and treatment may leave the patient with visible facial disfigurements and impairment of functions such as speech and eating. This affects not only the patient, but may arouse difficult feelings in the treatment staff. Dental personnel are involved in all facets of treatment, yet they have no specific training in cancer care. The aim of this study was to describe the variation in ways dental personnel understand and experience the encounter with head and neck cancer patients, as the way of understanding a certain phenomenon is judged to be fundamental to the way we act and form our beliefs. Twenty members of hospital dental teams were interviewed. The interviews focused on experiences of the encounter with head and neck cancer patients. A qualitative research approach, phenomenography, was used in analysing the interviews. The encounter was perceived in three qualitatively different ways: as an act of caring, as a serious and responsible task and as an overwhelming emotional situation. The results indicate that hospital dental personnel are not able to lean on education and professional training in finding ways of dealing with situations with strong emotional impact. This has implications for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer, as well as education of dental personnel.

  15. Ethical dilemmas encountered by small animal veterinarians: characterisation, responses, consequences and beliefs regarding euthanasia. (United States)

    Kipperman, Barry; Morris, Patricia; Rollin, Bernard


    Small animal veterinarians' opinions were investigated regarding the frequency and nature of ethical dilemmas encountered, beliefs regarding euthanasia and balancing client and animal interests, prevalence and value of ethics training and proposals to mitigate the stressful effects of ethical dilemmas. The majority (52 per cent) of 484 respondents in the USA indicated via an online survey experiencing an ethical dilemma regarding the interests of clients and those of their patients at least weekly. Scenarios involving client financial concerns were commonly reported causes of ethical conflicts. While only 20 per cent of respondents indicated that other practitioners prioritise patient interests, 50 per cent of respondents characterised their own behaviour as prioritising patients. Most respondents (52 per cent) reported that ethical dilemmas are the leading cause, or are one of many equal causes, of work-related stress. Less experienced practitioners, general practitioners and associate veterinarians were more likely to encounter situations they defined as ethical dilemmas, and female respondents were more likely to find ethical dilemmas stressful. Most small animal veterinarians experience ethical dilemmas regularly, which contribute to moral stress. Results suggested that most small animal practitioners believe that greater awareness of moral stress and providing training in ethical theories and tools for coping with ethical dilemmas can ameliorate moral stress. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Operational issues of present ATLAS strip detector

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoob, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    Current results from the successful operation of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation is presented. This note reports on the operation of the detector including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents from bulk damage due to non-ionising radiation, there have been a small number of significant changes effecting detector operation since the contribution to the previous conference in the series [1]. The main emphasis is given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the many months of data-taking (the LHC delivered 47 pb

  17. 75 FR 48409 - Establishment of the Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... to the Board on issues related to the common carrier obligation with respect to the rail... advice on issues pertaining to the common carrier obligation with respect to the rail transportation of... Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface...

  18. Physician assistant program education on spirituality and religion in patient encounters. (United States)

    Berg, Gina M; Whitney, Melissa P; Wentling, Callie J; Hervey, Ashley M; Nyberg, Sue


    To describe educational practices of physician assistant (PA) programs regarding spirituality and religion discussions during patient encounters. Patients want their health care provider to be aware of their spiritual and religious beliefs. This topic is addressed in physician and nursing education but may not be included in PA programs. Data regarding curriculum were collected via electronic survey emailed to 143 PA programs across the United States. Thirty-eight programs responded for a response rate of 27%. Most (68.4%) program respondents reported students' desire to be trained to discuss spirituality and religion, yet 36.8% do not offer this training. Just over half (69.2%) would consider adding curriculum to teach students to discuss spirituality, but the majority (92.3%) would not add curriculum to discuss religion during patient encounters. PA programs offer training to discuss spirituality in patient encounters but not to discuss religiosity. Programs may want to consider adding some curriculum to increase PAs awareness of spirituality and religion needs of patients.

  19. Daily Encounter Cards-Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments. (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R


    Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups ( P  evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs.

  20. Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. E. Renner


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is not a discrete event but an unfolding sequence of damage to the central nervous system. Not only the acute phase but also the subacute and chronic period after injury, i.e., during inpatient rehabilitation, is characterized by multiple neurotransmitter alterations, cellular dysfunction, and medical complications causing additional secondary injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances also influence neurological outcome and are easily overlooked as they often present with diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, depression, poor concentration, or a decline in overall cognitive function; these are also typical sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, neurological complications such as hydrocephalus, epilepsy, fatigue, disorders of consciousness, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, or psychiatric-behavioural symptoms may mask and/or complicate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine disturbances, delay appropriate treatment and impede neurorehabilitation. The present review seeks to examine the interrelation between neuroendocrine disturbances with neurological complications frequently encountered after moderate to severe TBI during rehabilitation. Common neuroendocrine disturbances and medical complications and their clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Beyond cultural competency: Bourdieu, patients and clinical encounters. (United States)

    Lo, Ming-Cheng M; Stacey, Clare L


    In response to widely documented racial and ethnic disparities in health, clinicians and public health advocates have taken great strides to implement 'culturally competent' care. While laudable, this important policy and intellectual endeavour has suffered from a lack of conceptual clarity and rigour. This paper develops a more careful conceptual model for understanding the role of culture in the clinical encounter, paying particular attention to the relationship between culture, contexts and social structures. Linking Bourdieu's (1977) notion of 'habitus' and William Sewell's (1992) axioms of multiple and intersecting structures, we theorise patient culture in terms of 'hybrid habitus'. This conceptualisation of patient culture highlights three analytical dimensions: the multiplicity of schemas and resources available to patients, their specific patterns of integration and application in specific contexts, and the constitutive role of clinical encounters. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research as well as reforms of cultural competency training courses.

  2. MDEP Design-Specific Common Position CP-APR1400WG-01. Common position addressing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The MDEP APR1400 Working Group (APR1400WG) members consist of members from Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates, and the United States. A main objectives of MDEP is to encourage convergence of code, standard and safety goals with exploring the opportunities for harmonization of regulatory practice and cooperation on safety review of APR-1400 specific designs. This common position addressing is aimed at sharing knowledge, information and experience on safety improvement related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident or Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident-related issues amongst APR-1400 WG member states to achieve the MEDP goal. Because not all of these Regulators have completed the regulatory review of their APR1400 applications yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for APR1400 plants, as well as common general expectations for new nuclear power plants, as related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident or Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident-related issues. While some asymmetry exists among those of three Regulators in terms of design, regulatory practice and licensing milestone sharing information and common understanding on post-Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident enhancement would be promote resilient design for countering beyond design extreme external event like Fukushima Daiichi NPP nuclear disaster. This common position paper aims at identifying characteristics of post-Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident enhancements putting in place by each country and setting common position to achieve balanced and harmonized APR-1400 design. After the safety reviews of the APR1400 design applications that are currently in review are completed, the regulators will update this paper to reflect their safety conclusions regarding the APR1400 design and how the design could be enhanced to address Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident-related issues. The common preliminary approaches are organised into

  3. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions. (United States)

    Parish, James M


    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  4. Physician as partner or salesman? Shared decision-making in real-time encounters. (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eisikovits, Zvi


    The results of recent research have led to the increased advocacy of shared decision-making regarding medical treatment. Nonetheless, only a limited number of studies have focused on the process of decision-making in real-time encounters. The present paper aims to document and analyze this process. Specifically, we assess whether these decisions are the result of partnership or of persuasive tactics based on power and hierarchical relationships. We will describe and analyze different strategies used by pediatric gastroenterologists in breaking bad news encounters, as well as their consequences. The analysis is based on a multi-method, multi-participant phenomenological study on breaking bad news to adolescents and their families regarding a chronic illness. It included 17 units of analysis (actual encounters and 52 interviews with physicians, parents and adolescents). Data were collected from three hospitals in Northern Israel using observations and audiotapes of diagnosis disclosure encounters and audio-taped interviews with all participants. The analysis identified eight different presentation tactics used in actual encounters during which physicians made various use of language, syntax and different sources of power to persuade patients to agree with their preferred treatment choice. The tactics included various ways of presenting the illness, treatment and side effects; providing examples from other success or failure stories; sharing the decision only concerning technicalities; and using plurals and authority. The findings suggest that shared decision-making may be advocated as a philosophical tenet or a value, but it is not necessarily implemented in actual communication with patients. Rather, treatment decisions tend to be unilaterally made, and a variety of persuasive approaches are used to ensure agreement with the physician's recommendation. The discussion is focused on the complexity of sharing a decision, especially in the initial bad news encounter

  5. Occupational health and safety issues among nurses in the Philippines. (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Cabrera, Suzanne L; Gee, Gilbert C; Fujishiro, Kaori; Tagalog, Eularito A


    Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety.

  6. Occupational Health and Safety Issues Among Nurses in the Philippines (United States)

    de Castro, A. B.; Cabrera, Suzanne L.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Tagalog, Eularito A.


    Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety. PMID:19438081

  7. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah


    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  8. Curricular analysis of competency-based osteopathic medical education: application of a matrix for quality enhancement to a standardized patient encounter example. (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Tucker-Potter, Stacy; Sargentini, Neil J


    With the formal adoption of the seven core competencies, the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation instructed osteopathic medical educators to guide curricular development with these goals in mind. Tools to facilitate and monitor these purposes have been under development separately at each of the nation's colleges of osteopathic medicine. To demonstrate the utility of a checklist-based curriculum assessment tool, the Matrix for Quality Enhancement, as developed at Kirksville (Mo) College of Osteopathic Medicine-A.T. Still University. APPLICATION of the Matrix is illustrated using examples selected from our analysis of a set of 16 standardized patient encounters provided as part of a first-year basic science course in medical microbiology. Encounters were developed to improve student understanding of infectious disease entities while also providing a variety of clinical experiences. Feedback on professionalism and humanistic behaviors was also provided. A novel aspect of the Matrix is the inclusion of a component dealing with patient safety. Adding standardized patient encounters to the medical microbiology teaching program at Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine was an effective means of integrating educational experiences with the seven core competencies, the requirements of Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-PE (Performance Evaluation), and patient safety issues. The Matrix is a valuable tool for evaluating or developing curricular components that maintain osteopathic integrity while working toward standards for medical education specified by the commission.

  9. Actions of female sex workers who experience male condom failure during penetrative sexual encounters with clients in Cape Town: Implications for HIV prevention strategies (United States)


    Background Condom failure has always been found to coexist with condom usage, especially among sex workers. Objective To describe the actions of female sex workers when they are faced with situations of condom failure. Methods Using the survey design, the participants were selected through the snowball sampling method. Their responses were obtained using a structured questionnaire. A total of 100 questionnaires were analysed. Results With respect to the immediate actions of sex workers after condom failure, 36% of the respondents continued with the sexual encounter after noticing that the condom was broken. Another 36% stopped immediately when they noticed that the condom had failed, but replaced the condom; 13% of the participants stopped the sexual encounter completely; 3% applied vaginal spermicidal foam; and 5% of the respondents stopped immediately and took a douche when they had the chance. For the actions within the next 24 hours of experiencing condom failure with a client, 53% of the participants did nothing; 4% sought counsel from a professional; 3% of the respondents took alcohol or drugs to forget the incident, 25% went to the clinic for assistance and 8% offered other responses. Conclusion While continuing the sexual encounter without replacing the condom, taking alcohol and drugs or doing nothing could increase the risk of contracting HIV; however, actions like stopping the sexual encounter completely and visiting a clinic or a professional could make a difference between staying HIV negative or seroconverting. There is a need for targeted intervention to address issues of inappropriate behaviours after experiencing condom failure. PMID:29568633

  10. ACES M and S: Unmitigated Factorial Encounter Study on DAA/TCAS Interoperability (United States)

    Thipphavong, David; Cone, Andrew; Park, Chunki; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor


    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting and guidance systems. This presentation contains the results of two combinatorial encounter analysis studies using NASA's SAA Control fast-time simulation capability for this purpose. In these studies, encounters between two aircraft were simulated one at a time for the full factorial combination of encounter geometries (e.g., encounter angle, CPA offset) and aircraft performance (e.g., ownership and intruder ground speeds and vertical rates). The first study analyzes the relationships (e.g., timeline) between the different alerting-safety regions in the SC-228 MOPS (in order of increasing severity): 1) DAA warning alert, 2) well clear recovery (WCR) guidance, 3) DAA-Collision Avoidance (CA), and 4) TCAS RA. This study will focus primarily on encounter situations in which TCAS RA occurs prior to any of the other alerting-safety boundaries. In particular, this study will investigate whether using vertical distance or vertical distance at closest point of approach (i.e., vertical miss distance or VMD) is more appropriate for the definition of the DAA-CA region. In addition, cases where transitions between different regions skip an intermediate region will be analyzed. The second study in this presentation explores a proposal to use an altitude rate error threshold to determine if vertical maneuvers are acceptable for DAA WCR guidance against non-cooperative intruders. This study incorporates the radar from the Honeywell sensor model and examines a series of

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar encounters with long-period comets (Feng+, 2015) (United States)

    Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.


    We have conducted simulations of the perturbation of the Oort cloud in order to estimate the significance of known encounters in generating long-period comets. We collected the data of stellar encounters from three sources: (Bailer-Jones, 2015, Cat. J/A+A/575/A35, hereafter BJ15), Dybczynski & Berski (2015MNRAS.449.2459D), and Mamajek et al. (2015ApJ...800L..17M). Following BJ15, we use the term 'object' to refer to each encountering star in our catalogue. A specific star may appear more than once but with different data, thus leading to a different object. (1 data file).

  12. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cutting Balloon Papillotomy for Removal of Common Bile Duct Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Gumus, Burcak


    We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones. Percutaneous papillary dilatation was planned to remove the common bile duct stones. Papilla was dilated through the percutaneous approach with an 8-mm peripheral cutting balloon instead of a standard balloon. All the stones were pushed successfully into the duodenum with a saline flush. No complications were encountered. Use of a peripheral cutting balloon for dilatation of the papilla seems to be safe and effective because it has the advantage of controlled incision and dilatation of the target at low pressures.

  13. Moving from Good Ideas in Educational Systems Change to Sustainable Program Implementation: Coming to Terms with Some of the Realities (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.


    Proponents of systemic changes in education commonly encounter ethical, theoretical, and pragmatic challenges in moving from possibility to implementation of their vision of change. Although ethical and theoretical issues are critically important to a successful change initiative, pragmatic issues relevant to assuring program implementation have…

  14. Designing future products: what difficulties do designers encounter and how can their creative process be supported? (United States)

    Bonnardel, Nathalie


    To remain competitive, companies must regularly offer new products to consumers. A major challenge for designers is therefore to come up with design solutions and define products that are both new and adapted to future users and usages. Although classic methods and ergonomic recommendations are useful in most run-of-the-mill design contexts, they are of limited benefit when the design situation requires greater creativity. This paper therefore addresses issues related to product design by pursuing a triple objective: (1) highlight the difficulties encountered by designers in imagining and conceiving new products, (2) find out which conditions could help designers come up with creative ideas for innovative products, and (3) suggest methods and tools to support designers' creative process and help them take other stakeholders' needs and expectations into consideration.

  15. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes? (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Infertility is ... one-third of infertility cases are caused by male reproductive issues, one-third by female reproductive issues, ...

  16. A preliminary study on travel health issues of medical students undertaking electives. (United States)

    Goldsmid, John M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Sharples, Nadine


    With the inclusion of elective programs, often overseas, in many medical courses, it was decided that a preliminary retrospective analysis of health problems associated with these programs in medical students from the University of Tasmania would be desirable. A questionnaire covering general travel health issues was distributed to all medical students in the University of Tasmania, on return from their elective. They were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it on an anonymous and voluntary basis. In addition, student elective submissions were consulted for information relating to their chosen destination. Results of the study indicate that general practitioners were the most common source of pretravel advice for Tasmanian medical students. Overall, 64% of students experienced some sort of health problem of which travelers' diarrhea was the most common. Most problems were mild and self-limiting, but a number of serious infections were recorded, including acute leptospirosis, paratyphoid, and Staphylococcus aureus cellulitis. Of particular concern were the reports of assault and sexual harassment recorded by several students. Elective programs are an important part of many medical courses. With the widespread destinations chosen by students, it is important that they be given adequate pretravel health advice. Most of the health problems encountered by students from the University of Tasmania were mild, but exposure to serious infections was recorded. It is thus imperative that students take out travel health insurance and that they are counseled on how to avoid dangerous situations while abroad.

  17. Reflexivity: The Creation of Liminal Spaces--Researchers, Participants, and Research Encounters. (United States)

    Enosh, Guy; Ben-Ari, Adital


    Reflexivity is defined as the constant movement between being in the phenomenon and stepping outside of it. In this article, we specify three foci of reflexivity--the researcher, the participant, and the encounter--for exploring the interview process as a dialogic liminal space of mutual reflection between researcher and participant. Whereas researchers' reflexivity has been discussed extensively in the professional discourse, participants' reflexivity has not received adequate scholarly attention, nor has the promise inherent in reflective processes occurring within the encounter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rha

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking.Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations.The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326 and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105 encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646 encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others.Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.

  19. Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds; A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Budding, Karin


    Information about reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds from 1953 through 2009 has been compiled to document the nature and scope of risks to aviation from volcanic activity. The information, gleaned from a variety of published and other sources, is presented in database and spreadsheet formats; the compilation will be updated as additional encounters occur and as new data and corrections come to light. The effects observed by flight crews and extent of aircraft damage vary greatly among incidents, and each incident in the compilation is rated according to a severity index. Of the 129 reported incidents, 94 incidents are confirmed ash encounters, with 79 of those having various degrees of airframe or engine damage; 20 are low-severity events that involve suspected ash or gas clouds; and 15 have data that are insufficient to assess severity. Twenty-six of the damaging encounters involved significant to very severe damage to engines and (or) airframes, including nine encounters with engine shutdown during flight. The average annual rate of damaging encounters since 1976, when reporting picked up, has been approximately 2 per year. Most of the damaging encounters occurred within 24 hours of the onset of ash production or at distances less than 1,000 kilometers from the source volcanoes. The compilation covers only events of relatively short duration for which aircraft were checked for damage soon thereafter; documenting instances of long-term repeated exposure to ash (or sulfate aerosols) will require further investigation. Of 38 source volcanoes, 8 have caused 5 or more encounters, of which the majority were damaging: Augustine (United States), Chaiten (Chile), Mount St. Helens (United States), Pacaya (Guatemala), Pinatubo (Philippines), Redoubt (United States), Sakura-jima (Japan), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, United Kingdom). Aircraft have been damaged by eruptions ranging from small, recurring episodes to very large

  20. Dental case manager encounters: the association with retention in dental care and treatment plan completion. (United States)

    Lemay, Celeste A; Tobias, Carol; Umez-Eronini, Amarachi A; Brown, Carolyn; McCluskey, Amanda; Fox, Jane E; Bednarsh, Helene; Cabral, Howard J


    Little is known about dental case managers as few programs have been scientifically evaluated. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of dental case manager on retention in dental care and completion of treatment plans, while specifically exploring the number of dental case manager encounters. Fourteen programs enrolled people with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in dental care and a longitudinal study between 2007 and 2009. The 758 participants had a total of 2715 encounters with a dental case manager over twelve months: 29% had a single encounter; 21% had two; 27% had 3-4 and; 23% had 5-29 encounters. Adjusting for baseline characteristics, participants receiving more encounters were significantly more likely to complete their Phase 1 treatment plan, be retained in dental care, and experience improvements in overall oral health status. Organizations considering efforts to improve the oral health of vulnerable, hard-to-engage populations should consider these findings when planning interventions. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Preliminary Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochenderfer, M. J; Kuchar, J. K; Espindle, L. P; Gertz, J. L


    ...) and which may not be in contact with air traffic control. In response to the need to develop a model of these types of encounters, Lincoln Laboratory undertook an extensive radar data collection and modeling effort...

  2. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Curtis, Andrew J; Abdelmalik, Philip


    This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic) of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association) workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals), including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  3. Grassroots Leadership: Encounters with Power Dynamics and Oppression (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna


    This article focuses on the nature of power dynamics that faculty and staff grassroots leaders encounter as they attempt to create change. I identified five distinctive types of power dynamics--"oppression," "silencing," "controlling," "inertia," and "micro-aggressions" from the most overt to more subtle and covert forms. Staff experience multiple…

  4. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Muslim and Christian female doctors encounter with sexual harassment. It was also found that sexual harassment cut across all age groups. The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from their patients.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.


    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  7. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.


    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  8. Social Workers' Reflections on the Therapeutic Encounter With Elder Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Alon, Sara


    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore social workers' reflections on their experience of the therapeutic encounter with victims and perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect. The research questions were as follows: How do social workers tune themselves toward the therapeutic encounter with elder abuse? How do they position themselves vis-à-vis the clients? How do social workers describe the meaning of the intervention both for the clients and for themselves? What is the added value of the therapeutic encounter in this field for the social workers? Participants were 17 experienced women social workers, who worked with abusers and with abused and neglected older adults in Israel. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were later transcribed and content analyzed. Two main themes emerged from the findings, emphasizing two key aspects of the social workers' reflective process experienced during the therapeutic encounter: (a) focus on the client: "This is the journey of their lives"-reflection on the therapeutic "journey"; (b) focus on the social worker's inner and professional world: "'There is nothing to be done' is no longer in my vocabulary"-a personal and professional maturation process. The social workers expressed a positive attitude toward their elder clients. A unique dialogue developed in the therapeutic encounter, whereby the social workers considered any change as valuable if it allowed the elders a sense of control and self-worth, whereas the social workers were enriched by the elders' life experience, and matured both personally and professionally. Thus, both sides benefited from this reciprocal relationship. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Common Technologies for Environmental Research Infrastructures in ENVRIplus (United States)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel


    Environmental and geoscientific research infrastructures (RIs) are dedicated to distinct aspects of the ocean, atmosphere, ecosystems, or solid Earth research, yet there is significant commonality in the way they conceive, develop, operate and upgrade their observation systems and platforms. Many environmental Ris are distributed network of observatories (be it drifting buoys, geophysical observatories, ocean-bottom stations, atmospheric measurements sites) with needs for remote operations. Most RIs have to deal with calibration and standardization issues. RIs use a variety of measurements technologies, but this variety is based on a small, common set of physical principles. All RIs have set their own research and development priorities, and developed their solution to their problems - however many problems are common across RIs. Finally, RIs may overlap in terms of scientific perimeter. In ENVRIplus we aim, for the first time, to identify common opportunities for innovation, to support common research and development across RIs on promising issues, and more generally to create a forum to spread state of the art techniques among participants. ENVRIplus activities include 1) measurement technologies: where are the common types of measurement for which we can share expertise or common development? 2) Metrology : how do we tackle together the diversified challenge of quality assurance and standardization? 3) Remote operations: can we address collectively the need for autonomy, robustness and distributed data handling? And 4) joint operations for research: are we able to demonstrate that together, RIs are able to provide relevant information to support excellent research. In this process we need to nurture an ecosystem of key players. Can we involve all the key technologists of the European RIs for a greater mutual benefit? Can we pave the way to a growing common market for innovative European SMEs, with a common programmatic approach conducive to targeted R&D? Can we

  10. Why do some adolescents encounter everyday events that increase their civic interest whereas others do not? (United States)

    Stattin, Håkan; Hussein, Oula; Özdemir, Metin; Russo, Silvia


    Using a longitudinal design, we asked 2 age cohorts of adolescents (15- and 18-year-olds) whether they, during the last year, had experienced events that had increased their civic interest and about details of their experiences. Based on self-determination theory, we predicted that the adolescents who reported having experienced events of this kind had already been more interested and had had more positive feelings about politics much earlier in time, and that this original interest would have increased more over time, than that of other adolescents. Second, we proposed that the adolescents who had encountered events that triggered their civic interest would have been engaged in behaviors that reflected their needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, much earlier in time, and that, over time, they would have increased these behaviors more than other adolescents. These 2 predictions were largely confirmed. As for the content of the events the adolescents reported, many of them concerned national and international issues experienced as threatening, and that challenged the adolescents' beliefs and morality. Overall, a previous interest in politics and engagement in exploratory behaviors that reflect the adolescents' psychological needs seem to play crucial roles in understanding why adolescents in their everyday life encounter events that trigger their civic interest. Further, the findings show that having had everyday experiences that trigger the adolescents' civic interests are associated with a later increase in political interest more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  12. Healthcare Engagement and Encounters in a Rural State: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Singh


    many medications, rushed encounters, and providers with poor bedside manner. ‘Engagement in Health’ dimension included the theme of Self-management Process such as taking things one day at a time, taking medication daily, and good stress management. The second theme was Barriers to Engagement and included issues regarding inclement weather, lack of sidewalks, stress, lack of time and the financial constraints for eating healthy, going to a gym, and/or problems with payer source. Participants also described a number of technological tools they utilized to engage with their healthcare including appointment reminders, health-based websites, symptom trackers, online portal systems for health care records, and online bill pay. Many used apps on smart phones to track calories and exercise as well as online community groups to encourage fitness. Conclusions: The results from this study highlighted some of the gaps in healthcare for rural areas. A large number of participants indicated a lack of trust of their providers and only a few had any communicative interaction with their pharmacist. Future studies could evaluate training designed to teach healthcare providers and pharmacists how to engage patients in their own care. Use of technology by healthcare providers might be another way to improve healthcare engagement. Conflict of Interest "We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties". Acknowledgements: This study was funded by the University of Wyoming College of Health Sciences (UW CHS Faculty Seed Grant awarded to first author Dr. Singh in April 2015. Interim results of this study have been presented at the Health Literacy Research Conference (HARC in November 2015. Treatment of Human Subjects

  13. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate. (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori


    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  14. Advocacy: Emphasizing the Uncommon about the Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra N.


    The author describes key issues and uncommon concerns about the Common Core State Standards that fit within two categories: philosophical and pedagogical. Philosophically, Common Core State K-12 Standards should not be expected to be mastered at a specific grade level but based on developmental readiness. Pedagogically, Common Core State Standards…

  15. Border Injuries: An Analysis of Prehospital Demographics, Mechanisms, and Patterns of Injuries Encountered by USBP EMS Agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. (United States)

    Baker, Russell A


    Study Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), use, injury mechanisms, prehospital assessments, and injuries among those receiving aid from the United States Border Patrol (USBP) in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. This is a time-series, retrospective analysis of all prehospital data for injuries among patients receiving care from USBP EMS on the US Mexico border in the El Paso sector from February 6, 2014 to February 6, 2016. A total of 473 documented EMS encounters occurred in this two-year period and demonstrated a male gender predominance (male 63%; female 37%) with the most prominent ages between 22-40 years old. The most prevalent EMS call types were medical (55%) and trauma (42%). The most common chief complaints were an injured or painful extremity (35%) and rash (13%). The most common USBP EMS provider primary impression was traumatic injury (34%), followed by fever/infection (17%) and extremity injury (7%); however, the most common secondary impression was also extremity injury (20%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall (26%) and motor vehicle accident (MVA; 22%). The USBP EMS was the first provider on scene in 96% of the MVAs. The author reports on injury patterns, mechanisms, chief complaints, EMS impressions, as well as demographics of patients reporting to USBP EMS. A knowledge of these injury patterns will be useful to EMS administrators and physicians along the US Mexico border. Baker RA . Border injuries: an analysis of prehospital demographics, mechanisms, and patterns of injuries encountered by USBP EMS agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):431-436.

  16. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)


    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  17. Light Water Reactor Generic Safety Issues Database (LWRGSIDB). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The IAEA Conference on 'The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future' in 1991 was a milestone in nuclear safety. The objective of this conference was to review nuclear power safety issues for which achieving international consensus would be desirable, to address concerns on nuclear safety and to formulate recommendations for future actions by national and international authorities to advance nuclear safety to the highest level. Two of the important items addressed by this conference were ensuring and enhancing safety of operating plants and treatment of nuclear power plants built to earlier safety standards. Some of the publications related to these two items that have been issued subsequent to this conference are: A Common Basis for Judging the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards, INSAG-8 (1995), the IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-O12, Periodic Safety Review of Operational Nuclear Power Plants (1994) and IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 12, Evaluation of the Safety of Operating Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards: A Common Basis for Judgement (1998). Some of the findings of the 1991 conference have not yet been fully addressed. An IAEA Symposium on Reviewing the Safety of Existing Nuclear Power Plants in 1996 showed that there is an urgent need for operating organizations and national authorities to review those operating nuclear power plants which do not reach the high safety levels of the vast majority of plants and to undertake improvements with assistance from the international community if required. Safety reviews of operating nuclear power plants take on added importance in the context of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and its implementation. In order to perform safety reviews and to reassess the safety of operating nuclear power plants in a uniform manner, it is imperative to have an internationally accepted reference. Existing guidance needs to be complemented by a list of safety issues which have been encountered and

  18. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the effect of concentrated language encounter method in developing sight word recognition skill in primary school pupils in cross river state. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Primary One pupils' reading level, English sight word recognition skill. It also examine the extent to which the ...

  19. Exploring Festival Performance as a State of Encounter (United States)

    O’Grady, Alice; Kill, Rebekka


    This article outlines the activities of the research network "Festival Performance as a State of Encounter", which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council as part of the Beyond Text strategic programme. The network was formulated in 2008, and a range of different events were organized over the course of two years to…

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...

  1. Revisiting Rossion and Pourtois with new ratings for automated complexity, familiarity, beauty, and encounter. (United States)

    Forsythe, Alex; Street, Nichola; Helmy, Mai


    Differences between norm ratings collected when participants are asked to consider more than one picture characteristic are contrasted with the traditional methodological approaches of collecting ratings separately for image constructs. We present data that suggest that reporting normative data, based on methodological procedures that ask participants to consider multiple image constructs simultaneously, could potentially confounded norm data. We provide data for two new image constructs, beauty and the extent to which participants encountered the stimuli in their everyday lives. Analysis of this data suggests that familiarity and encounter are tapping different image constructs. The extent to which an observer encounters an object predicts human judgments of visual complexity. Encountering an image was also found to be an important predictor of beauty, but familiarity with that image was not. Taken together, these results suggest that continuing to collect complexity measures from human judgments is a pointless exercise. Automated measures are more reliable and valid measures, which are demonstrated here as predicting human preferences.

  2. Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: a threshold for shared decision making? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål


    To identify and characterize physicians' statements that contained evidence of clinically relevant decisions in encounters with patients in different hospital settings. Qualitative analysis of 50 videotaped encounters from wards, the emergency room (ER) and outpatient clinics in a department of internal medicine at a Norwegian university hospital. Clinical decisions could be grouped in a temporal order: decisions which had already been made, and were brought into the encounter by the physician (preformed decisions), decisions made in the present (here-and-now decisions), and decisions prescribing future actions given a certain course of events (conditional decisions). Preformed decisions were a hallmark in the ward and conditional decisions a main feature of ER encounters. Clinical decisions related to a patient-physician encounter spanned a time frame exceeding the duration of the encounter. While a distribution of decisions over time and space fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, it makes the decision making process hard to access for patients. In order to plan when and how to involve patients in decisions, physicians need increased awareness of when clinical decisions are made, who usually makes them, and who should make them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Physician Communication Style on Overweight Patients’ Perceptions of Length of Encounter and Physician Being Rushed (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Pål; Østbye, Truls; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; Tulsky, James A.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Pollak, Kathryn I.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Little is known about how patients and physicians perceive time and the extent to which they perceive the physician being rushed during encounters. One aim of this paper is to examine whether patient and physician characteristics and physician communication influence patient perception of the duration of the encounter and their perception of physicians being rushed. Another aim is to examine the relationship between patient and physician perceptions of physicians feeling rushed. METHODS We audiorecorded 461 encounters of overweight or obese patients with 40 primary care physicians and included 320 encounters in which weight was discussed. We calculated time spent with physician and coded all communication about weight using the Motivational Interview Treatment Integrity scale (MITI). Patients completed post-visit questionnaires in which they reported the estimated duration of the encounter and how rushed they thought the physician was during the encounter. Physicians reported how rushed they felt. RESULTS Patients estimated encounters to be longer than they actually were by an average of 2.6 minutes (SD=11.0). When physicians used reflective statements when discussing weight, patients estimated the encounter to be shorter than when physicians did not use reflective statements (1.17 versus 4.56 minutes more than actual duration). Whites perceived the encounter as shorter than African Americans (1.45 versus 4.28 minutes more than actual duration). Physicians felt rushed in 66% of visits; however, most patients did not perceive this. Internists were perceived to be more rushed than family physicians. CONCLUSIONS There is wide variation in patients’ ability to estimate the length of time they spend with their physician. Some physician and patient characteristics were related to patient perceptions of the length of the encounter. Reflective statements might lead patients to perceive encounters as shorter. Physicians, especially family

  4. MDEP Common Position No EPR-01 - Common positions on the EPR instrumentation and controls design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the EPR Working Group (EPRWG) of the Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is to identify common positions among the regulators reviewing the EPR Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) Systems in order to: 1. Promote understanding of each country 's regulatory decisions and basis for the decisions, 2. Enhance communication among the members and with external stakeholders, 3. Identify areas where harmonization and convergence of regulations, standards, and guidance can be achieved or improved, and 4. Supports standardization of new reactor designs. Since January 2008, the EPR I and C Technical Expert Subgroup (TESG) members met five times to exchange information regarding their country 's review of the EPR I and C design. The EPR I and C TESG consists of regulators from China, Canada, Finland, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The information exchange includes presentation of each country 's review status and technical issues, sharing of guidance documents, and sharing of regulatory decision documents. The TESG focused on the following four core areas of the EPR I and C design: 1. I and C System Independence (particularly for data communications), 2. Level of Defense and Diversity (back-up systems), 3. Qualification/quality of digital platforms, 4. Categorization/classification of systems and functions. As meetings were conducted, some areas were emphasized more depending on the significance of the issues for each country. During the TESG interactions, it became apparent that there were aspects of the EPR design where the countries had common agreement. On November 2, 2009, three of the subgroup countries, France, Finland and the United Kingdom, issued a joint regulatory position on the EPR I and C design as result of the 'Groupe Permanent' meeting in France. This statement of common positions expands upon that joint regulatory position

  5. What influences the quality of educational encounters between trainer and trainee in vocational training for general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, PM; Ket, P; Dusman, H; Schuling, J; Van der Vleuten, CPM; Tan, LHC

    This study of educational encounters between a trainer and a trainee in vocational training for general practice investigates the quality of the encounter. The study focuses on the relation between the quality of the encounter and elements such as presence of feedback, duration, use of media, etc. A

  6. Mechanical Integrity Issues at MCM-Cs for High Reliability Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, H.A.; Tarbutton, T.J.; Becka, G.A.; Uribe, F.; Monroe, S.; Burchett, S.


    During the qualification of a new high reliability low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) multichip module (MCM), two issues relating to the electrical and mechanical integrity of the LTCC network were encountered while performing qualification testing. One was electrical opens after aging tests that were caused by cracks in the solder joints. The other was fracturing of the LTCC networks during mechanical testing. Through failure analysis, computer modeling, bend testing, and test samples, changes were identified. Upon implementation of all these changes, the modules passed testing, and the MCM was placed into production

  7. Introduction: Regionalising the Common Fisheries Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob


    The idea of putting together a special issue of MAST on the issue of regionalisation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), was born in late 2010. Having participated in an EU funded research project looking into how an eco-system based approach to fisheries management could be operationalised...... in the European Union (EU) with particular focus on regionalisation, we found that the coming reform of the CFP would be a good opportunity to make a substantial contribution on the topic of regionalisation, which we felt ought to be a central component of the reform discussions....

  8. Space proliferation versus space-type dissemination: from semantic issues to political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard-Sborowsky, Florence


    The space and ballistic capabilities relationships are regularly revisited in forums on international security, in particular about Iran and North Korea cases. The term 'space proliferation' is commonly used by analogy with nuclear proliferation. However, is this analogy relevant? Beyond the semantic aspects, this shift raises political issues that this paper will consider. The study of the assumptions regarding the analysis of nuclear and missile proliferation and their space counterparts will highlight some approximations and presuppositions, such as the amalgam between sounding rockets, launchers and missiles technologies, in order to suggest new thinking of these sensitive issues. (author)

  9. Formation of massive clouds and dwarf galaxies during tidal encounters (United States)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Thomasson, Magnus; Elmegreen, Debra M.


    Gerola et al. (1983) propose that isolated dwarf galaxies can form during galaxy interactions. As evidence of this process, Mirabel et al. (1991) find 10(exp 9) solar mass clouds and star formation complexes at the outer ends of the tidal arms in the Antennae and Superantennae galaxies. We describe observations of HI clouds with mass greater than 10(exp 8) solar mass in the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163/NGC 2207. This pair is important because we believe it represents an early stage in the formation of giant clouds during an encounter. We use a gravitational instability model to explain why the observed clouds are so massive and discuss a two-dimensional N-body simulation of an encounter that produces giant clouds.

  10. Internet advertisements for public sexual encounters among men who have sex with men: are safe behaviors communicated? (United States)

    Downing, Martin J


    Public and commercial sex venues typically provide easy access to sexual encounters that are often anonymous and, therefore, may facilitate HIV/STD transmission among those men who attend. Recently, researchers have suggested that men who have sex with men may be using the Internet to search for sexual encounters to occur within sex venues. The current study explored the extent to which men who advertise for public or commercial sexual encounters initially communicate to potential partners their safe-sex intentions. Advertisements for sexual encounters (n = 99) were collected from a publicly accessible website and examined for content related to venue type, sexual behavior, and indications of sexual safety or risk. Word frequencies were calculated to provide a closer investigation of how individuals negotiate safe sex within these communications. The findings revealed that approximately half of the men who advertised for sex in a public or commercial sex venue failed to communicate to potential partners in their initial advertisement a desire to be safe during sexual encounters involving oral and anal practices. Additionally, a small percentage of men advertised specifically for risky encounters (e.g., barebacking). Together, these findings suggest that men do use the Internet to coordinate public sexual encounters, some of which may be unprotected from HIV/STD transmission. Future research should address the process of condom negotiation among men who initially meet their male sex partners on the Internet for subsequent encounters in sex venues.

  11. Cyber security issues in online games (United States)

    Zhao, Chen


    With the rapid development of the Internet, online gaming has become a way of entertainment for many young people in the modern era. However, in recent years, cyber security issues in online games have emerged in an endless stream, which have also caused great attention of many game operators. Common cyber security problems in the game include information disclosure and cyber-attacks. These problems will directly or indirectly cause economic losses to gamers. Many gaming companies are enhancing the stability and security of their network or gaming systems in order to enhance the gaming user experience. This article has carried out the research of the cyber security issues in online games by introducing the background and some common cyber security threats, and by proposing the latent solution. Finally, it speculates the future research direction of the cyber security issues of online games in the hope of providing feasible solution and useful information for game operators.

  12. Test Anxiety, Computer-Adaptive Testing and the Common Core (United States)

    Colwell, Nicole Makas


    This paper highlights the current findings and issues regarding the role of computer-adaptive testing in test anxiety. The computer-adaptive test (CAT) proposed by one of the Common Core consortia brings these issues to the forefront. Research has long indicated that test anxiety impairs student performance. More recent research indicates that…

  13. Issues of Commonality. Volume II. Issue Analysis. (United States)


    assumed phase-out rate, it should be noted that sae eight years may elapse between the canpletion of the C-141 fleet phase-out and the start of the C-5...PA .. aI .4. JTID 4.,o44, :&W Ia. F.,N. 4140 d-l-,n PAW te£ IT tOO.Nq Cob0.4410 ,00110 P4W43 0 10* 030,,, . ADVANCED TECHNOL.OGY ENGINE STUDIES...Aircraft: Prospects and Current Perceptions," Lockheed-Georgia Company, presented at SAE 10th Inter- national Forum for Air Cargo, Amsterdam, September

  14. MDEP Design-Specific Common Position CP-ABWRWG-01. Common position addressing issues related to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    20 km from the site. Today, there is still a large exclusion zone around the site. Numerous studies have been performed to better understand the accident progression and detailed technical studies are still in progress in Japan and elsewhere. On-going studies on the behaviour of NPPs in severe situations, similar to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, seek to identify potential vulnerabilities in plant design and operation, to suggest reasonably practicable upgrades, or to recommend enhanced regulatory requirements and guidance to address such situations. Likewise, agencies around the world that are responsible for regulating the design, construction and operation of ABWR plants are engaged in similar activities. The ABWRWG members have made efforts to ensure that the descriptions of the March 2011 events at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP presented in this paper reflect current knowledge and understanding of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In addition this paper has undergone factual accuracy checks by ABWR industry stakeholders. The MDEP Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) Working Group (ABWRWG) members, referred to herein as 'regulators', consist of members of the nuclear regulatory organisations from Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and the United States. Because not all of these countries have completed regulatory reviews of ABWR applications yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for ABWR plants, as well as common general expectations for new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP), as related to lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident or Fukushima-related issues. As the safety reviews of the ABWR design applications that are currently on-going are progressed, the regulators will consider what additional work is required and may consider the need to update this paper. Otherwise, as additional information becomes available it will be added as further appendices to the paper. The common

  15. What did we find? Common Ground!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete


    Within the field of planning, an important task is the creation of a common understanding of the issues at hand. Over the course of 7 years, we have been studying how architectural and anthropological methods can contribute to this. Our studies interchange between experimental practice and theory....

  16. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires. (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T


    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters.

  17. The uranium institute transport working group: a common approach to global issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Colle, C.


    With more than 442 nuclear power plants in operation all over the world delivering clean and safe electricity on a daily basis, nuclear energy is and will undoubtedly be one of the most promising way to cope with present and future economic, demographic, and environmental challenges. Nuclear materials transportation business links the various nuclear actors: research institutes, utilities, fuel cycle industries, and waste management agencies. As pipelines or tankers for the petroleum industry, transportation gives nuclear energy its consistency. Still, conversely to other industrial areas, transportation volumes and figures are rather low in the nuclear business. For instance, transport of dangerous goods in France represents around 15 million packages per year. Out of this, only 15,000 or 0.1 % are nuclear fuel cycle materials. When applied to the USA, this figure is even more striking: 100 million of dangerous goods containers are shipped each year. Only 10,000 pertains to nuclear fuel cycle materials. Even so, in our world of economic and cultural globalization, transport of nuclear materials is no longer a domestic issue. It crosses boundaries and appeals to various areas ranging from safety to communication. That is why the Uranium Institute decided, in 1995, to set up a working group dedicated to transport issues. This paper covers the Uranium Institute Transport Working Group, from its creation to its most recent achievements. (author)

  18. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M


    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meteorology Associated with Turbulence Encounters During NASA's Fall-2000 Flight Experiments (United States)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.


    Initial flight experiments have been conducted to investigate convectively induced turbulence and to test technologies for its airborne detection. Turbulence encountered during the experiments is described with sources of data measured from in situ sensors, groundbased and airborne Doppler radars, and aircraft video. Turbulence measurements computed from the in situ system were quantified in terms of RMS normal loads (sigma(sub Delta n)), where 0.20 g is less than or equal to sigma(sub Delta n) is less than or equal to 0.30 g is considered moderate and sigma(sub Delta n) is greater than 0.30 g is severe. During two flights, 18 significant turbulence encounters (sigma(sub Delta) is greater than or equal to 0.20 g) occurred in the vicinity of deep convection; 14 moderate and 4 severe. In all cases, the encounters with turbulence occurred along the periphery of cumulus convection. These events were associated with relatively low values of radar reflectivity, i.e. RRF is less than 35 dBz, with most levels being below 20 dBz. The four cases of severe turbulence occurred in precipitation and were centered at the interface between a cumulus updraft turret and a downwind downdraft. Horizontal gradients of vertical velocity at this interface were found to be strongest on the downwind side of the cumulus turrets. Furthermore, the greatest loads to the aircraft occurred while flying along, not orthogonal to, the ambient environmental wind vector. During the two flights, no significant turbulence was encountered in the clear air (visual meteorological conditions), not even in the immediate vicinity of the deep convection.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...

  1. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks (United States)

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur


    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  2. Fabricated Childhoods: Uncanny Encounters with the More-than-Human (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy


    This article is based on uncanny encounters with Julia deVille's exhibit, "Phantasmagoria". Inspired by Deleuzian-informed research practices, the author experiments with provoking practices to defy dominant developmental notions of childhood. This article reworks a humanist ontology by bringing together the discursive, the material, the…

  3. Musical Instrument-Associated Health Issues and Their Management. (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Minami, Taro; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Tomizawa, Yasuko


    Playing musical instruments can bring joy to people, but can also cause a wide variety of health issues that range from mild disorders to potentially fatal conditions. Although sports medicine is an established medical subspecialty, relatively few studies have investigated the health issues associated with musical instruments. Here we present an overview of these health issues. These include infections due to microorganisms, allergic reactions, as well as mechanical injuries from sustained high pressures within the oral, mediastinal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities. For example, wind instruments can potentially harbor thousands of pathogenic organisms. If several players share the same instrument, these instruments present potential hazards in the spread of infections. A fatal case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a bagpiper is particularly noteworthy. Similarly, a case of gastrointestinal anthrax in an animal-hide drummer is a reminder of this rare but highly fatal disease. Although not fatal, hearing-related disorders, neuromuscular issues, musculoskeletal problems, and contact dermatitis are also very common among instrumentalists. This review aims to illuminate these under-recognized health issues by highlighting both the common conditions and the rare but fatal cases.

  4. The third person in the room: frequency, role, and influence of companions during primary care medical encounters. (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa M; Scatena, Lisa; Steiner, John F; Albertson, Gail A; Lin, C T; Cyran, Lisa; Ware, Lindsay; Anderson, Robert J


    We wanted to characterize patient accompaniment to medical encounters and to explore the rationale and influence of the companion on the primary care medical encounter. This was a descriptive study. Academic general internal medicine physicians, patients, and patient companions participated. We measured the frequency of waiting and examination room companions, the reasons for accompaniment, the influence on the encounter, and the overall helpfulness of the companion as assessed by patients and companions. We also determined the physicianamprsquos assessment of the companionamprsquos influence, helpfulness, and behavior during the encounter. Companions were in the examination room for 16% of visits; 93% were family members. The rationales for waiting and examination room companions were to help with transportation, provide emotional support, and provide company. Examination room companions helped communicate concerns to the physician, remember the physicianamprsquos advice, make decisions, and communicate their own concerns to the physician. Patients believed that examination room companions influenced 75% of medical encounters, mainly by improving communication between physician and patient. Physicians agreed that examination room companions favorably influenced physician and patient understanding (60% and 46% of encounters, respectively). Patients indicated that waiting and examination room companions were very helpful for 71% and 83% of visits, respectively. Companions frequently accompany patients to their primary care medical encounters. They are often family members, and they assume important roles in enhancing patient and physician understanding.

  5. Challenges teachers encounter in teaching English reading to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a descriptive survey designed to investigate challenges teachers encounter in teaching English reading in the uThungulu District schools in the province of KwaZulu Natal. This study comprised ... Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24, resulting in descriptive data.

  6. Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track (United States)

    Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.


    A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to…

  7. Telephone Encounters Predict Future High Financial Expenditures in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study. (United States)

    Click, Benjamin; Anderson, Alyce M; Ramos Rivers, Claudia; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Hashash, Jana G; Dunn, Michael A; Schwartz, Marc; Swoger, Jason; Barrie, Arthur; Szigethy, Eva; Regueiro, Miguel; Schoen, Robert E; Binion, David G


    Telephone activity is essential in management of complex chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Telephone encounters logged in the electronic medical record have recently been proposed as a surrogate marker of disease activity and impending health care utilization; however, the association between telephone calls and financial expenditures has not been evaluated. We performed a 3-year prospective observational study of telephone encounters logged at a tertiary referral IBD center. We analyzed patient demographics, disease characteristics, comorbidities, clinical activity, and health care financial charges by telephone encounter frequency. Eight hundred one patients met inclusion criteria (52.3% female; mean age, 44.1 y), accounted for 12,669 telephone encounters, and accrued $70,513,449 in charges over 3 years. High telephone encounter frequency was associated with female gender (P=0.003), anxiety/depression (Pfinancial charges the following year after controlling for demographic, utilization, and medication covariates. Increased telephone encounters are associated with significantly higher health care utilization and financial expenditures. Increased call frequency is predictive of future health care spending. Telephone encounters are a useful tool to identify patients at risk of clinical deterioration and large financial expense.

  8. Properties of Polymer-Composite Used as Fills of Asian Lacquerware: Issues on Restoration Processes of Lacquered Objects from Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Solenn Le Hô


    Full Text Available One of the common problems encountered in lacquerware issued from cultural heritage is the appearance of lifting areas and some losses of material. Composite systems made of commercial polymer and different fills were tested as filling agents for the cracking, splitting, and losses compensation of Asian lacquer. For that purpose, the stability of traditional and modern commercially available materials usually used in the restoration practice of historical lacquerware was assessed. Their thermomechanical and chemical properties and surface state were evaluated by a set of techniques (TGA, DMA, mechanical test, contact angle value, and microtopography. There is a drastic change of the behavior of the interface between fill and Asian lacquer, dependent on the nature of the composite fillers. So the evaluation of materials and processes for the restoration of Asian lacquer were emphasized. The commercial Paraloid B72 used with glass microspheres as additives appeared to be the most stable of all of the investigated fillers.

  9. PKI Implementation Issues: A Comparative Study of Pakistan with some Asian Countries


    Malik, Nasir Mahmood; Khalil, Tehmina; Khalid, Samina; Malik, Faisal Munir


    The paper includes Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), its need and requirements and introduction of some renowned PKI products. However, the major thrust of this work is that how PKI can enhance security of various systems. The paper is intended to serve as a guide on how to adequately prepare for some of the challenges that may be encountered especially in developing countries like Pakistan. The detail of PKI implementation issues is also included in the paper along with future challenges rega...

  10. Giant left atrium encountered during right-sided thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Advani

    Full Text Available Giant left atrium is an uncommon pathology to encounter during bedside chest ultrasound, but is an important structure to be aware of when considering thoracentesis. This cardiac structure could easily be mistaken for loculated pleural fluid. This case also supports growing evidence that expert users can safely perform thoracentesis without completely reversing therapeutic anticoagulation. Keywords: Giant left atrium, Thoracentesis, Rheumatic heart disease, Ultrasound

  11. Intercultural Reflection through the "Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters": Students' Accounts of Their Images of Alterity (United States)

    Méndez García, María del Carmen


    The Council of Europe's "Autobiography of Intercultural Encounter" (AIE) is a tool to develop intercultural competence (IC) in education by encouraging users to reflect upon and learn from momentous intercultural encounters they have experienced face to face. Its parallel resource, the "Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters…

  12. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelMalik Philip


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals, including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  13. At Issue: Academic Integrity, an Annotated Bibliography (United States)

    Pricer, Wayne F.


    Academic integrity is central to the heart of any academic institution, yet the topic is a complex one. This bibliography addresses the subjects of copyright and plagiarism. Resources for exploring common campus copyright and fair use issues seek to answer common, frequently misunderstood questions such as what exactly does "copyright" mean? What…

  14. North America Wound, Ostomy, and Continence and Enterostomal Therapy Nurses Current Ostomy Care Practice Related to Peristomal Skin Issues. (United States)

    Colwell, Janice C; McNichol, Laurie; Boarini, Joy

    The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues. Descriptive study. Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. The collection of data occurred in conjunction with an educational program on peristomal skin complications and practice issues and solicited the participant's perception on the incidence and frequency of peristomal skin issues as well as on practice patterns. Participants attended an educational program. They were also asked to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions on ostomy care management via an audience response system followed by discussion of each item and their responses. This descriptive study reports on the answers to the questions as well as the pertinent discussion points. Participants estimated that approximately 77.70% of their patients developed peristomal skin issues. The most commonly encountered problem was irritant contact dermatitis (peristomal moisture-associated skin damage). Contributing factors were inappropriate use of a pouching system owing to lack of follow-up after hospital discharge. Reported interventions for the prevention and management of peristomal skin issues included preoperative stoma site marking, use of a convex pouching system, and barrier rings. However, subsequent discussion revealed that the frequency of use of these products varied considerably. Participants identified shortened hospital stays, absence of preoperative stoma marking, and limited outpatient follow-up as contributing to development of peristomal skin problems. WOC and ET nurses estimate that more than three-quarters of persons living with an ostomy develop peristomal skin problems. Multiple interventions for managing these problems were identified, but some variability in management approaches emerged.

  15. Ethical issues in studying submissions to a medical journal. (United States)

    Olson, C M; Glass, R M; Thacker, S B; Stroup, D F


    A protocol to prospectively study characteristics of meta-analyses submitted to a weekly medical journal raised several ethical issues. In submitting a manuscript for publication, authors do not implicitly consent to have their work used for research. Authors must be free to refuse to consent, without it affecting their chances for publication. Systematically analyzing data on manuscript characteristics might influence the decision to publish. Having investigators who are not on the editorial staff or peer reviewers extract the manuscripts' characteristics breaks the confidentiality of the author-editor-reviewer relationship. In response to these issues, we added a statement to our journal's instructions for authors that submitted manuscripts may be systematically analyzed to improve the quality of the editorial or peer review process. Authors had to actively consent to participate, but editors and external reviewers were unaware of which authors were participating. The manuscript characteristics were not shared with authors, editors, or external reviewers. The investigators were blinded to each manuscript's author and institution. After we addressed ethical issues encountered in studying manuscripts submitted to a medical journal, 99 of 105 authors submitting a meta-analysis during the study's first 24 months agreed to participate.

  16. Deviation of the binary encounter electron energy from simple conservation laws in ion-atom and in ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroneberger, K.; Kuzel, M.; Maier, R.; Schosnig, M.; Fiedler, C.; Tobisch, M.; Jung, M.; Suarez, S.; Groeneveld, K.O.


    We have measured electron energy spectra from fast (0.4-2.0 MeV/u) light projectiles (H + , He + , H 2 + , H 3 + , H 0 ) impinging on gaseous (He, Ar and Kr) and solid (C, Cu, Au, 600 A) targets under observation angles of 0 ≤qslantΘ≤qslant50 and Θ=110 , 120 , 180 . Major interest was directed upon the position of the binary encounter and electron loss peaks, which are commonly assumed to follow simple kinematics. However, our measurements confirm recent results which show that the peaks are significantly shifted towards lower energies. For comparison we calculated double differential electron emission cross sections with different theoretical approaches. ((orig.))

  17. Uncertainty representation and combination: new results with application to nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destercke, S.


    It often happens that the value of some parameters or variables of a system are imperfectly known, either because of the variability of the modelled phenomena, or because the available information is imprecise or incomplete. Classical probability theory is usually used to treat these uncertainties. However, recent years have witnessed the appearance of arguments pointing to the conclusion that classical probabilities are inadequate to handle imprecise or incomplete information. Other frameworks have thus been proposed to address this problem: the three main are probability sets, random sets and possibility theory. There are many open questions concerning uncertainty treatment within these frameworks. More precisely, it is necessary to build bridges between these three frameworks to advance toward a unified handling of uncertainty. Also, there is a need of practical methods to treat information, as using these frameworks can be computationally costly. In this work, we propose some answers to these two needs for a set of commonly encountered problems. In particular, we focus on the problems of: 1) Uncertainty representation 2) Fusion and evaluation of multiple source information 3) Independence modelling, the aim being to give tools (both of theoretical and practical nature) to treat uncertainty. Some tools are then applied to some problems related to nuclear safety issues. (author)

  18. Imaging Obsearvations of Jupiter's Sodium Magneto-Nebula During the Ulysses Encounter. (United States)

    Mendillo, M; Flynn, B; Baumgardner, J


    Jupiter's great sodium nebula represents the largest visible structure traversed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its encounter with the planet in February 1992. Ground-based imaging conducted on Mount Haleakala, Hawaii, revealed a nebula that extended to at least +/-300 Jovian radii (spanning approximately 50 million kilometers); it was somewhat smaller in scale and less bright than previously observed. Analysis of observations and results of modeling studies suggest reduced volcanic activity on the moon lo, higher ion temperatures in the plasma torus, lower total plasma content in the torus, and fast neutral atomic clouds along the Ulysses inbound trajectory through the magnetosphere. Far fewer neutrals were encountered by the spacecraft along its postencounter, out-of-ecliptic trajectory.

  19. Problems Encountered by Primary School Teachers in the Teaching of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgım KILIÇ


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the problems encountered by primary school teachers and to makesuggestions to solve the problems. This is a descriptive study and also a case study. A questionnaire form wasused for data collection. The surveys were administered on the elementary education teachers working underAnkara Province Directorate of the Ministry of Education in 2006 – 2007 academic year. The data collectedwere analyzed using SPSS program and statistical analyses were carried out. It was concluded that theprimary school teachers’ music education was not sufficient and that they had encountered problems inimproving themselves with regard to music education. A number of suggestions were made in line with theresults obtained.

  20. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.


    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  1. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good (United States)

    Haslett, K. Mark


    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

  2. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications (United States)

    Soeder, James F.


    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  3. Crowdsourcing for Context: Regarding Privacy in Beacon Encounters via Contextual Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello-Ogunu Emmanuel


    Full Text Available Research shows that context is important to the privacy perceptions associated with technology. With Bluetooth Low Energy beacons, one of the latest technologies for providing proximity and indoor tracking, the current identifiers that characterize a beacon are not sufficient for ordinary users to make informed privacy decisions about the location information that could be shared. One solution would be to have standardized category and privacy labels, produced by beacon providers or an independent third-party. An alternative solution is to find an approach driven by users, for users. In this paper, we propose a novel crowdsourcing based approach to introduce elements of context in beacon encounters.We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach through a user study, where participants use a crowd-based mobile app designed to collect beacon category and privacy information as a scavenger hunt game. Results show that our approach was effective in helping users label beacons according to the specific context of a given beacon encounter, as well as the privacy perceptions associated with it. This labeling was done with an accuracy of 92%, and with an acceptance rate of 82% of all recommended crowd labels. Lastly, we conclusively show how crowdsourcing for context can be used towards a user-centric framework for privacy management during beacon encounters.

  4. Casuistry as common law morality. (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert


    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  5. Clinical application of pharmacogenetics: focusing on practical issues. (United States)

    Chang, Matthew T; McCarthy, Jeanette J; Shin, Jaekyu


    Recent large-scale genetic-based studies have transformed the field of pharmacogenetics to identify, characterize and leverage genetic information to inform patient care. Genetic testing can be used to alter drug selection, optimize drug dosing and prevent unnecessary adverse events. As precision medicine becomes the mainstay in the clinic, it becomes critical for clinicians to utilize pharmacogenetics to guide patient care. One primary challenge is identifying patients where genetic tests that can potentially impact patient care. To address this challenge, our review highlights many practical issues clinicians may encounter: identifying candidate patients and clinical laboratories for pharmacogenetic testing, selecting highly curated resources to help asses test validity, reimbursing costs of pharmacogenetic tests, and interpreting of pharmacogenetic test results.

  6. Issues engulfed Saudi Arabia construction workers (United States)

    Al-Emad, N. H.; Rahman, I. A.


    This paper presents an exploratory study conducted in Makkah city to uncover issues faced by construction workers from the construction leaders’ perspective. Eleven construction leaders/experts were interviewed to unleash their experiences on handling the foreign workers working in Makkah construction projects. Most of the experts are senior management staffs with more than 10 years’ working experience in Saudi Arabia construction industry. The interviews were carried out in semi structured mode where all the information was captured manually and also electronically. The identified issues were sorted based on its commonality into 10 clusters. Hence in each cluster, the numbers of issue considered by the experts are reflecting the importance of that particular cluster. The result of the clusters according to the number of issues mentioned by the experts are safety issues, restricted government regulation, demotivated issues, lack of quality workers, poor living quality, communication barriers, adaption issues, poor attitudes, lack of logistical arrangements and lack of education. With these identified issues it will assist the construction players in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia in dealing with their workers.

  7. Formation of Tidally Induced Bars in Galactic Flybys: Prograde versus Retrograde Encounters (United States)

    Łokas, Ewa L.


    Bars in disk galaxies can be formed by interactions with other systems, including those of comparable mass. It has long been established that the effect of such interactions on galaxy morphology depends strongly on the orbital configuration, in particular the orientation of the intrinsic spin of the galactic disk with respect to its orbital angular momentum. Prograde encounters modify the morphology strongly, including the formation of tidally induced bars, while retrograde flybys should have little effect on morphology. Recent works on the subject reached conflicting conclusions, one using the impulse approximation and claiming no dependence on this angle in the properties of tidal bars. To resolve the controversy, we performed self-consistent N-body simulations of hyperbolic encounters between two identical Milky Way-like galaxies assuming different velocities and impact parameters, with one of the galaxies on a prograde and the other on a retrograde orbit. The galaxies were initially composed of an exponential stellar disk and an NFW dark halo, and they were stable against bar formation in isolation for 3 Gyr. We find that strong tidally induced bars form only in galaxies on prograde orbits. For smaller impact parameters and lower relative velocities, the bars are stronger and have lower pattern speeds. Stronger bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that thicken their vertical structure. The encounters also lead to the formation of two-armed spirals with strength inversely proportional to the strength of the bars. We conclude that proper modeling of prograde and retrograde encounters cannot rely on the simplest impulse approximation.

  8. Research on the influence that communication in psychiatric encounters has on treatment. (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Pincus, Harold Alan


    The purpose of this article is to inform mental health professionals about the empirical literature on medical and psychiatric encounters and the influence of communicative behaviors on specific encounter outputs and treatment outcomes. A comprehensive review of the health communications literature from 1950 to 2001, using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, was conducted to identify relevant articles on the communication skills of psychiatrists and other physicians. These searches were augmented by personal correspondence with experts on changes in practice patterns in psychiatry and on medical and psychiatric communications research. A review of references within each article and information from the experts identified other relevant articles. Selection was then narrowed to include reports of studies that used structured written instruments that captured relevant physician and patient perceptions of the physician-patient relationship, content analysis of audio- or videotapes of communication in medical or psychiatric encounters, or interaction analysis systems used to categorize audio- or videotaped communicative behaviors in medical or psychiatric encounters. Twenty-five articles in medicine and 34 articles in psychiatry were selected. Medical communication researchers have observed associations between physicians' communicative skills and patients' satisfaction, patients' adherence to treatment recommendations, treatment outputs, and patients' willingness to file malpractice claims. The research has also shown that primary care physicians can be more responsive to patients' concerns without lengthening visits. In psychiatry, the literature can be organized into four discrete categories of research: negotiated treatment and the customer approach, therapeutic alliance, Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of patients' speech, and content analysis of psychiatric interviews.

  9. Preg-robbing of Gold by Carbonaceous Materials Encountered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing of gold from refractory ores containing carbonaceous materials (CM) poses challenges due to the ability of the CM to preg-rob dissolved gold. Depending on the type and maturity of CM encountered, preg-robbing of aurocyanide ion can lead to reduction in gold recovery ranging from a few percentages to more ...

  10. Linked analysis for definition of nurse advice line syndrome groups, and comparison to encounters. (United States)

    Magruder, Steven F; Henry, J; Snyde, M


    Nurse advice call centers are a potentially important source of data for syndromic surveillance purposes. For this reason, researchers at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic States (KPMAS) have been collaborating to develop methods to use this data within the ESSENCE II Syndromic Surveillance System in the National Capital Region. The objective of this report is to present a general method for finding syndrome groups in data sources that can be linked to physician encounters and to determine effective advice call syndrome groups for use with KPMAS advice data. Advice calls are linked to physician encounters and stratified by patient age. They are placed in groups according to a maximum positive predictive value criterion. The groups are evaluated by correlating the resulting syndrome time series against physician encounter data. Potentially useful advice syndrome groups are found for respiratory, lower gastrointestinal (GI), and total GI syndromes for each age stratum. The time series of the advice data for respiratory, lower GI, and upper GI syndromes accurately predict the physician encounter time series for the corresponding syndromes for each age stratum.

  11. Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khene, D.


    Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

  12. Encounter success of free-ranging marine predator movements across a dynamic prey landscape. (United States)

    Sims, David W; Witt, Matthew J; Richardson, Anthony J; Southall, Emily J; Metcalfe, Julian D


    Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the north-east Atlantic Ocean to examine active habitat selection in the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus. The relative success of shark searches across this landscape was examined by comparing prey biomass encountered by sharks with encounters by random-walk simulations of 'model' sharks. Movements of transmitter-tagged sharks monitored for 964 days (16754 km estimated minimum distance) were concentrated on the European continental shelf in areas characterized by high seasonal productivity and complex prey distributions. We show movements by adult and sub-adult sharks yielded consistently higher prey encounter rates than 90% of random-walk simulations. Behavioural patterns were consistent with basking sharks using search tactics structured across multiple scales to exploit the richest prey areas available in preferred habitats. Simple behavioural rules based on learned responses to previously encountered prey distributions may explain the high performances. This study highlights how dynamic prey landscapes enable active habitat selection in large predators to be investigated from a trophic perspective, an approach that may inform conservation by identifying critical habitat of vulnerable species.

  13. Daily Encounter Cards—Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J.; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J.; Frank, Jason R.


    ABSTRACT Background  Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. Objective  The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Methods  Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Results  Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups (P < .001). A generalizability analysis demonstrated the majority of score variation was due to differences in DECs. The reliability with a single rater was 0.95. Conclusions  The CCERR is a reliable and valid tool to evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs. PMID:27777675

  14. Application of the binary-encounter theory to proton impact double ionization of atoms. [Cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Roy, B N [Bihar Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics


    Proton impact double ionisation of He has been investigated in the double-encounter model of Gryzinski (Phys. Rev.; 138A:305, 322 and 336 (1965)). The binary-encounter expressions developed by Vriens (Proc. Phys. Soc.; 89:13 (1966), Ibid 90:935 (1967)) along with an accurate quantum-mechanical velocity distribution for the bound electrons in both encounters have been used to obtain double-ionisation cross sections. These results have been compared with the experimental observations and earlier calculations by Gryzinski's method. The variation of sigmasub(+)/sigmasub(++) (single-ionisation cross section/double-ionisation cross section) with incident proton energy is also found to be in qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed variation.

  15. A systematic review of religious beliefs about major end-of-life issues in the five major world religions. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; El-Jawahri, Areej R; Litzow, Mark R; Syrjala, Karen L; Parnes, Aric D; Hashmi, Shahrukh K


    The objective of this study was to examine the religious/spiritual beliefs of followers of the five major world religions about frequently encountered medical situations at the end of life (EoL). This was a systematic review of observational studies on the religious aspects of commonly encountered EoL situations. The databases used for retrieving studies were: Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus. Observational studies, including surveys from healthcare providers or the general population, and case studies were included for review. Articles written from a purely theoretical or philosophical perspective were excluded. Our search strategy generated 968 references, 40 of which were included for review, while 5 studies were added from reference lists. Whenever possible, we organized the results into five categories that would be clinically meaningful for palliative care practices at the EoL: advanced directives, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, physical requirements (artificial nutrition, hydration, and pain management), autopsy practices, and other EoL religious considerations. A wide degree of heterogeneity was observed within religions, depending on the country of origin, level of education, and degree of intrinsic religiosity. Our review describes the religious practices pertaining to major EoL issues and explains the variations in EoL decision making by clinicians and patients based on their religious teachings and beliefs. Prospective studies with validated tools for religiosity should be performed in the future to assess the impact of religion on EoL care.

  16. Strange culinary encounters::stranger fetichism in "Jamie's Italian escape" and "Gordon's great escape"


    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard


    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main...

  17. Reconsidering Children's Encounters with Nature and Place Using Posthumanism (United States)

    Malone, Karen


    This article explores and reconsiders the view of children's encounters with place as central to a place-based pedagogy that seeks to dismantle rather than support constructions of a nature-culture binary. I unpack the current fervour for reinserting the child in nature and nature-based education as a significant phenomenon in environmental and…

  18. Avoidance and Engagement: Issue Competition in Multiparty Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Pedersen, Christoffer; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre


    parties. The main implications of the theoretical framework are tested in a set of statistical time-series analyses of party interaction in Denmark covering more than 50 years, 24 major issues and 21 elections. These analyses offer support to the ideas that parties are more responsive to the issue agendas...... of parties from their own party family than to the issue agendas of non-family parties and that large mainstream parties are more responsive than niche parties to the common issue agenda of the other parties in the party system....

  19. Some Common Issues and the Application of more Favorable Criminal Law for Crimes against the Person according to the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper examines the main common issues of crimes against the person, and some other situations of more favorable criminal law enforcement. The innovations consist in the conducted examination and the views expressed on some situations in which the more favorable criminal law should be applied. The main change with a strong preventive feature is to introduce the two institutions, namely, the renunciation of applying the punishment and postponing the punishment, which generally is given a favoring regime to physical or legal entities being at their first conflict with the law or in the case of committing crimes whose seriousness is reduced. The paper continues other papers published in the field, and it can be useful both to academics and practitioners in the domain of preventing and combating crime of this kind.

  20. Development and evaluation of targeted psychological skills training for oncology nurses in managing stressful patient and family encounters. (United States)

    Traeger, Lara; Park, Elyse R; Sporn, Nora; Repper-DeLisi, Jennifer; Convery, Mary Susan; Jacobo, Michelle; Pirl, William F


    To reduce workplace stress by developing a brief psychological skills training for nurses and to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in decreasing burnout and stress. Intervention development and evaluation. Outpatient chemotherapy unit at a comprehensive cancer center. 26 infusion nurses and oncology social workers. Focus groups were conducted with nurses. Results informed the development and evaluation of training for nurses. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale post-training. Burnout and stress. Focus groups indicated strong commitment among nurses to psychosocial care and supported the idea that relationships with patients and families were sources of reward and stress. Stressors included factors that interfered with psychosocial care such as difficult family dynamics, patient behaviors and end-of-life care issues. Psychological skills training was developed to address these stressors. Evaluations suggested that the program was feasible and acceptable to nurses. At two months, participants showed reductions in emotional exhaustion (p = 0.02) and stress (p = 0.04). Psychological skills training for managing difficult encounters showed feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefit in reducing emotional exhaustion and stress. Brief training that targets sources of clinical stress may be useful for nurses in outpatient chemotherapy units. Specific stressors in relationships with patients and families present challenges to nurses' therapeutic use of self. Targeted psychological skills training may help nurses problem-solve difficult encounters while taking care of themselves. System-level strategies are needed to support and promote training participation.

  1. HIV-positive migrants’ encounters with the Swedish health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdiyar, Manijeh; Andersson, Rune; Hjelm, Katarina


    of access and adversity’ was identified as the core category of the study. Three additional categories were ‘appreciation of free access to treatment’, ‘the impact of the Swedish Disease Act on everyday life’, and ‘encountering discrimination in the general health care system’. The main finding indicated......Background: There is limited knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive migrants and their experiences in the Swedish health care system. It is necessary to increase our knowledge in this field to improve the quality of care and social support for this vulnerable group of patients....... Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of HIV-positive migrants and their encounters with the health care system in Sweden. Design: This is a Grounded Theory study based on qualitative interviews with 14 HIV-positive migrants living in Sweden, aged 29–55 years. Results: ‘A hybrid...

  2. Room with a View: Ethical Encounters in Room 13 (United States)

    Grube, Vicky


    In this article, the author describes ethical encounters in Room 13, a schoolroom where children made what they wanted, posed their own questions, and ran an art room like a small business. In Room 13 children had the responsibility to maintain all aspects of the art studio. Specific decisions fell to an annually elected management team, a small…

  3. Issues and remedies for secondary system of PWR/VVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, Francis; Odar, Suat; Rochester, Dewey


    Secondary side degradation of steam generators (SG) and Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) in the secondary system have been for a long time important issues in PWR and VVER types of Nuclear Power Plants. With the evolution of the design, the most important issues are progressively moving from secondary side corrosion of Alloy 600 SG tubing, which is being replaced, to a larger variety of risks associated with potential inadequate chemistries. As far as FAC of carbon steel is concerned, the evolution of treatment selection for minimizing corrosion products transport toward the SG, as well as progressive replacement of components in the feedwater train, decreases the risk of dramatic failures which have occurred in the past. After having briefly explained the reason for the past problems encountered in the secondary system of PWR and VVER, this paper evaluates the risk associated with various impurities or contaminants that may be present in the secondary system and how to mitigate them in the most appropriate, efficient, economical and environmental friendly way. The covered species are sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate and sulfur compounds, fluorides, organic compounds, silica, oxygen, lead, ion exchange resins. This paper also proposes the best remedies for mitigating the new issues that may be encountered in operating plants or units under construction. These are mainly: - Selecting a steam water treatment able to minimize the quantity of corrosion products transported toward the SG; - Mitigating the risk of Flow Induced Vibration by a proper control of deposits in sensitive areas; - Minimizing the risk of concentration of impurities in local areas where they may induce corrosion; - Avoiding the presence of abnormal quantities of some species in SG, such as the detrimental presence of lead and ion exchange resin debris or the controversial presence of organic compounds; - Optimizing costs of maintenance activities (SG mechanical, chemical cleaning

  4. The significance of belief and expectancy within the spiritual healing encounter. (United States)

    Wirth, D P


    Historically, traditional cultures recognized the importance of belief and expectancy within the healing encounter and created complex rituals and ceremonies designed to elicit or foster the expectancy and participation of both the healer and patient, as well as the community as a whole. This holistic approach to health care was a fundamental component in the spiritual healing rituals of virtually all traditional native cultures. The focus of the current study was to assess the impact of healer and patient expectations on mental and physical health parameters following a spiritual healing session. A pre-post methodological design which incorporated extensive psychophysiological health outcome measures along with independent medical diagnoses was utilized. The study was conducted in a northern California suburb of Marin County utilizing an American-born spiritual healer trained in the Philippines. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the pre-treatment and post-treatment scores for all fourteen dependent variables examined. The data also demonstrated a significant difference between the high versus low expectancy subjects for both patient and healer groups, as well as a significant relationship between high expectancy in patients and healer and the effectiveness of the spiritual healing encounter. The results of the study therefore suggest that high healer and patient expectancy may be important elements which can serve as both predictors as well as facilitators of the healing process. The degree of bonding or communication between the healer and patient was postulated as an important factor in this regard. Due to the fact that a majority of the conditions reported (75%) were organic disorders that would not commonly disappear within the 3 week time frame of the study, the significant results obtained suggest that spiritual healing in combination with traditional allopathic medicine may have the potential to be an

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Hearing Threshold Shift in Subjects during First Encounter with Occupational Impulse Noise. (United States)

    Grondin, Yohann; Bortoni, Magda E; Sepulveda, Rosalinda; Ghelfi, Elisa; Bartos, Adam; Cotanche, Douglas; Clifford, Royce E; Rogers, Rick A


    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most significant occupational health issue worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with hearing threshold shift in young males undergoing their first encounter with occupational impulse noise. We report a significant association of SNP rs7598759 (p hearing loss, we tested down-regulation of nucleolin in cochlear sensory cells HEI-OC1 under oxidative stress conditions and report increased sensitivity to cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug with ototoxic side effects. Additional SNPs were found with suggestive association (p < 5 x 10(-4)), of which 7 SNPs were located in genes previously reported to be related to NIHL and 43 of them were observed in 36 other genes previously not reported to be associated with NIHL. Taken together, our GWAS data and in vitro studies reported herein suggest that nucleolin is a potential candidate associated with NIHL in this population.

  6. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan


    (Chilie), Eyfjallajökull (Iceland). The common point of all those eruptions is that all eruption clouds had the external water input. This input was as phreatomagmatic style eruption, ice plugged-vent clearing-vulcanian, heavy rain fall on eruption cloud or on eruptive vent, typhoon, ice grain in eruptive cloud, etc. We will show water input, case by case, to those eruptions belonging to severity index 4. Besides, we will also present other damages created by volcanic ash-aircraft encounters basing on their eruption styles as a result of advanced statistical methods.

  7. End-of-Life Issues in the United States after Terri Schiavo: Implications for Social Work Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel Montero


    Full Text Available The very public death of Terri Schiavo in 2005 alerted Americans to what is a growing ethical, medical, and social crisis: the status of end-of-life issues and decisions in the United States. Currently, Oregon is the only state to give terminally ill patients the right to end their lives, with physicians’ help, if they so choose. Public opinion data from 1977 to the present show that Americans support greater rights for individuals facing end-of-life decisions--up to and including physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. This paper considers the status of end-of-life issues in the United States after Terri Schiavo’s death and examines the opportunities for advocacy by social workers who serve clients and families encountering this complex and controversial issue.

  8. Y. Laberge on Raphael-Hernadez and Steen’s AfroAsian encounters: Culture, History, Politics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Heike Raphael-Hernadez and Shannon Steen,  Eds. AfroAsian encounters: Culture, History, Politics. New York: New York University Press, 2006.  xxiii + 342 p. An overlooked, interdisciplinary, often innovative book, Afroasian encounters: Culture, History, Politics offers a collection of seventeen new essays related to the African-Asian intersections, cosmopolitanism and cross-cultural theories. In terms of emerging disciplines, we already had Atlantic studies (or "Trans-Atlantic studies", an i...

  9. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van


    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  10. Encountering Worlds: Performing In/As Philosophy in the Ecological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Florêncio


    Full Text Available Within the context of the ‘Anthropocene’, the current geological epoch marked by the impact of human activity on terrestrial ecosystems and geological formations, this article considers the ways in which the ecological blurring of boundaries between ‘Nature’ and ‘Culture’ might affect existing ontologies of performance. Departing from Richard Bauman’s definition of performance as both communication and enactment, we will use the postulates of Graham Harman’s Object-Oriented Ontology to speculate on what performance might mean beyond the human/nonhuman divide.  Ultimately, it will be claimed, performance, understood as both enactment and unveiling, is at the core of all encounters between all bodies and irrespective of their perceived nature. As a result, the world must once again be thought as theatrum mundi, as a stage where bodies always encounter one another through the contingency of the personae they play, personae that nonetheless are unable to exhaust the full being of the bodies behind them.

  11. Challenges encountered during postgraduate program in orthodontics: An online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanish Singh Shinh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics requires profound and disciplined training over a considerable period. Given the rigorous nature of the program, it is but logical to assume that the students can encounter some difficulties during the course. The aim of the present study was to gather detailed first-hand information from the postgraduate students of all the practical challenges they encounter in academic programme of orthodontics in India. Materials and Methods: Utilizing a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through a web-based self-administered questionnaire, the sample population consisted of 799 orthodontic postgraduate students in India and 39 questions were put forward to them. Conclusion: Results showed that even while keeping the basics intact, every course should aim at inputs to help make the academic climate productive, less stressful and student-centric. Change in teaching technology, methodology and structure is needed in training our postgraduate students, to promote a more congenial academic climate.

  12. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism. (United States)

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth


    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. An archival analysis of stall warning system effectiveness during airborne icing encounters (United States)

    Maris, John Michael

    An archival study was conducted to determine the influence of stall warning system performance on aircrew decision-making outcomes during airborne icing encounters. A Conservative Icing Response Bias (CIRB) model was developed to explain the historical variability in aircrew performance in the face of airframe icing. The model combined Bayes' Theorem with Signal Detection Theory (SDT) concepts to yield testable predictions that were evaluated using a Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) multivariate technique applied to two archives: the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident database, and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident databases, both covering the period January 1, 1988 to October 2, 2015. The CIRB model predicted that aircrew would experience more incorrect response outcomes in the face of missed stall warnings than with stall warning False Alarms. These predicted outcomes were observed at high significance levels in the final sample of 132 NASA/NTSB cases. The CIRB model had high sensitivity and specificity, and explained 71.5% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance of aircrew decision-making outcomes during the icing encounters. The reliability and validity metrics derived from this study suggest indicate that the findings are generalizable to the population of U.S. registered turbine-powered aircraft. These findings suggest that icing-related stall events could be reduced if the incidence of stall warning Misses could be minimized. Observed stall warning Misses stemmed from three principal causes: aerodynamic icing effects, which reduced the stall angle-of-attack (AoA) to below the stall warning calibration threshold; tail stalls, which are not monitored by contemporary protection systems; and icing-induced system issues (such as frozen pitot tubes), which compromised stall warning system effectiveness and airframe envelope protections. Each of these sources of missed stall warnings could be addressed by Aerodynamic Performance

  14. arXiv Gravitational wave energy emission and detection rates of Primordial Black Hole hyperbolic encounters

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, Juan


    We describe in detail gravitational wave bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) hyperbolic encounters. The bursts are one-time events, with the bulk of the released energy happening during the closest approach, which can be emitted in frequencies that could be within the range of both LIGO (10-1000Hz) and LISA ($10^{-6}-1$ Hz). Furthermore, we correct the results for the power spectrum of hyperbolic encounters found in the literature and present new exact and approximate expressions for the peak frequency of the emission. Note that these GW bursts from hyperbolic encounters between PBH are complementary to the GW emission from the bounded orbits of BHB mergers detected by LIGO, and help breaking degeneracies in the determination of the PBH mass, spin and spatial distributions.

  15. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014


    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Poskrebysheva


    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF often can be a rather difficult task. Proper selection of therapy and strict adherence to the recommendations is vital in these patients. Unfortunately, in practice we often encounter with free interpretation of the recommendations, which leads to tactical errors and reduce the effectiveness of treatment. This article deals with the most common tactical errors, and contains recommendations for the management of patients with CHF, which can be very useful to the practitioner.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Poskrebysheva


    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF often can be a rather difficult task. Proper selection of therapy and strict adherence to the recommendations is vital in these patients. Unfortunately, in practice we often encounter with free interpretation of the recommendations, which leads to tactical errors and reduce the effectiveness of treatment. This article deals with the most common tactical errors, and contains recommendations for the management of patients with CHF, which can be very useful to the practitioner.

  18. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian


    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... 2.Murray, Alan V.

  19. 'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the hermeneutical dialectic of belonging and distanciation 'Shakespeare in the Bush' is an account of an anthropologist's hermeneutical experience among the Tiv people of Nigeria that serves as an illustration o f a hermeneutical circle which results in transforming ...

  20. Severe accident issue resolution -- definition and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.


    The purpose of this discussion is to introduce the session on the Progress on the Resolution of Severe Accident Issues. There has been much work in the area of resolution of severe accident issues over the past few years. This work has been focused on those issues most important to risk as assessed by comprehensive studies such as NUREG-1150. In particular, issues associated with early containment failure have been analyzed. These efforts to resolve issues have been hampered by the fact that open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes has not always been well defined. The term open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes conjures tip different images for the regulator, the accident analyst, the physicist, and the probabalist. In fact it is common to have as many different images of issue resolution as there are people in the room. This issue is complicated by the fact that the uncertainty in severe accident issues is enormous. (When convolved, the quantitative uncertainty in an integrated analysis due to severe accident issues can span several orders of magnitude.) In this summary, hierarchy is presented in an attempt to add some perspective to the resolution of issues in the face of large uncertainties. Recommendations are also made for analysts communicating in the area of issue resolution

  1. An Investigation of Agility Issues in Scrum Teams Using Agility Indicators (United States)

    Pikkarainen, Minna; Wang, Xiaofeng

    Agile software development methods have emerged and become increasingly popular in recent years; yet the issues encountered by software development teams that strive to achieve agility using agile methods are yet to be explored systematically. Built upon a previous study that has established a set of indicators of agility, this study investigates what issues are manifested in software development teams using agile methods. It is focussed on Scrum teams particularly. In other words, the goal of the chapter is to evaluate Scrum teams using agility indicators and therefore to further validate previously presented agility indicators within the additional cases. A multiple case study research method is employed. The findings of the study reveal that the teams using Scrum do not necessarily achieve agility in terms of team autonomy, sharing, stability and embraced uncertainty. The possible reasons include previous organizational plan-driven culture, resistance towards the Scrum roles and changing resources.

  2. Why should I talk about emotion? Communication patterns associated with physician discussion of patient expressions of negative emotion in hospital admission encounters. (United States)

    Adams, Kristen; Cimino, Jenica E W; Arnold, Robert M; Anderson, Wendy G


    To describe hospital-based physicians' responses to patients' verbal expressions of negative emotion and identify patterns of further communication associated with different responses. Qualitative analysis of physician-patient admission encounters audio-recorded between August 2008 and March 2009 at two hospitals within a university system. A codebook was iteratively developed to identify patients' verbal expressions of negative emotion. We categorized physicians' responses by their immediate effect on further discussion of emotion - focused away (away), focused neither toward nor away (neutral), and focused toward (toward) - and examined further communication patterns following each response type. In 79 patients' encounters with 27 physicians, the median expression of negative emotion was 1, range 0-14. Physician responses were 25% away, 43% neutral, and 32% toward. Neutral and toward responses elicited patient perspectives, concerns, social and spiritual issues, and goals for care. Toward responses demonstrated physicians' support, contributing to physician-patient alignment and agreement about treatment. Responding to expressions of negative emotion neutrally or with statements that focus toward emotion elicits clinically relevant information and is associated with positive physician-patient relationship and care outcomes. Providers should respond to expressions of negative emotion with statements that allow for or explicitly encourage further discussion of emotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A transcultural study of Jordanian nursing students' care encounters within the context of clinical education. (United States)

    Nahas, V


    Clinical education is an integral part of nursing education. Clinical teachers are the vital link in this teaching-learning process. The quality and quantity of student-teacher interactions in the clinical area can either facilitate or hinder students' learning. This paper presents a part of a larger study that discovered, described, explained and compared Australian and Jordanian nursing students' caring and non-caring encounters with their clinical teachers within the context of clinical education. The study was guided by Leininger's theory of culture care universality and diversity and Leininger's ethnonursing research method was utilised. The informants consisted of 12 key informants and 35 general informants. Three major themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (1) clinical teacher's caring behaviours; (2) student-teacher caring encounters; and (3) caring encounter consequences. Under these themes, care constructs emerged which gave light to the Jordanian nursing students' care meanings, expressions and values within their cultural environment, social structures and world view. The overall findings revealed that Jordanian nursing students found their clinical experiences as beneficial when their encounters with the clinical teacher were conducted through mothering, translating, sustaining, negotiating and transforming processes.

  4. Nurses' use of pliable and directed strategies when encountering children in child and school healthcare. (United States)

    Harder, Maria; Enskär, Karin; Golsäter, Marie


    Nurses in Swedish child and school healthcare need to balance their assignment of promoting children's health and development based on the national health-monitoring programme with their responsibility to consider each child's needs. In this balancing act, they encounter children through directed and pliable strategies to fulfil their professional obligations. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which nurses use different strategies when encountering children during their recurrent health visits throughout childhood. A quantitative descriptive content analysis was used to code 30 video recordings displaying nurses' encounters with children (3-16 years of age). A constructed observation protocol was used to identify the codes. The results show that nurses use pliable strategies (58%) and directed strategies (42%) in encounters with children. The action they use the most within the pliable strategy is encouraging (51%), while in the directed strategy, the action they use most is instructing (56%). That they primarily use these opposing actions can be understood as trying to synthesize their twofold assignment. However, they seem to act pliably to be able to fulfil their public function as dictated by the national health-monitoring programme, rather than to meet each child's needs.

  5. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan


    Single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assays have been a powerful approach to study various aspects on the mechanism of DNA replication for more than a decade. This technique depends on flow-induced force on a bead attached to a surface-tethered DNA. The difference in the elastic property between double-strand DNA (long) and single-strand DNA (short) at low regime force allows the observation of the beads motion when the dsDNA is converted to ssDNA by the replisome machinery during DNA replication. Here, I aim to develop an assay to track in real-time the encounter of the bacteriophage T7 replisome with abasic lesion site inserted on the leading strand template. I optimized methods to construct the DNA substrate that contains the abasic site and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image the encounter of the T7 replisome with abasic site and to characterize how the interactions between the helicase and the polymerase could influence the polymerase proofreading ability and its direct bypass of this highly common DNA damage type.

  6. Ethical and Moral Courage is Distress among Professional Nurses: A Workplace Issue. (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine


    Ethics and moral issues do impact the manner in which professional nurses perform their major duties. Moral distress often conflict with an ethical appropriate course of action that is known, but cannot be implemented. This distress has been associated with job dissatisfaction, burnout, early retirement, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of direct patient care, and others just leaving the profession altogether. In the workplace, institutions must make an assertive effort in providing resources and addressing situations that cause personal anxiety and depression that adversely affects total patient care. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) has addressed ethical issues and moral distress in practices that support nurses with moral courage, when encountering ethical conflicts. Ask, Affirm, Assess and Act are the 4 A's that AACN believes should be a part of an organization's strategic plan to create a healthy workplace environment.

  7. Protoplanetary disc truncation mechanisms in stellar clusters: comparing external photoevaporation and tidal encounters (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Ih, J.; Facchini, S.; Haworth, T. J.


    Most stars form and spend their early life in regions of enhanced stellar density. Therefore the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) hosted by such stars are subject to the influence of other members of the cluster. Physically, PPDs might be truncated either by photoevaporation due to ultraviolet flux from massive stars, or tidal truncation due to close stellar encounters. Here we aim to compare the two effects in real cluster environments. In this vein we first review the properties of well studied stellar clusters with a focus on stellar number density, which largely dictates the degree of tidal truncation, and far ultraviolet (FUV) flux, which is indicative of the rate of external photoevaporation. We then review the theoretical PPD truncation radius due to an arbitrary encounter, additionally taking into account the role of eccentric encounters that play a role in hot clusters with a 1D velocity dispersion σv ≳ 2 km/s. Our treatment is then applied statistically to varying local environments to establish a canonical threshold for the local stellar density (nc ≳ 104 pc-3) for which encounters can play a significant role in shaping the distribution of PPD radii over a timescale ˜3 Myr. By combining theoretical mass loss rates due to FUV flux with viscous spreading in a PPD we establish a similar threshold for which a massive disc is completely destroyed by external photoevaporation. Comparing these thresholds in local clusters we find that if either mechanism has a significant impact on the PPD population then photoevaporation is always the dominating influence.

  8. Proton therapy in ophthalmology: status report and problems encountered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, P.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Courdi, A.; Herault, J.; Teissier, E.; Pignol, J.P.; Bondiau, P.Y.


    The proton therapy facility of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice began of ocular tumors in June 1991. Up to October 1995, a total number of 600 patients were treated. An overview of the cases treated during the first 4 years of activity is given and the main problems encountered in the field, possibly interacting with the accuracy and reliability of the dose distribution, are listed. (author)

  9. Neural Correlates of Racial Ingroup Bias in Observing Computer-Animated Social Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Katsumi


    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the role of group membership in the neural correlates of social cognition, the mechanisms associated with processing non-verbal behaviors displayed by racially ingroup vs. outgroup members remain unclear. Here, 20 Caucasian participants underwent fMRI recording while observing social encounters with ingroup and outgroup characters displaying dynamic and static non-verbal behaviors. Dynamic behaviors included approach and avoidance behaviors, preceded or not by a handshake; both dynamic and static behaviors were followed by participants’ ratings. Behaviorally, participants showed bias toward their ingroup members, demonstrated by faster/slower reaction times for evaluating ingroup static/approach behaviors, respectively. At the neural level, despite overall similar responses in the action observation network to ingroup and outgroup encounters, the medial prefrontal cortex showed dissociable activation, possibly reflecting spontaneous processing of ingroup static behaviors and positive evaluations of ingroup approach behaviors. The anterior cingulate and superior frontal cortices also showed sensitivity to race, reflected in coordinated and reduced activation for observing ingroup static behaviors. Finally, the posterior superior temporal sulcus showed uniquely increased activity to observing ingroup handshakes. These findings shed light on the mechanisms of racial ingroup bias in observing social encounters, and have implications for understanding factors related to successful interactions with individuals from diverse backgrounds.

  10. Cross-cultural care encounters in paediatric care: minority ethnic parents' experiences. (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar


    Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Common Spatialities: The Production of the Multitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Jalón Oyrazún


    Full Text Available The Gezi Park barricades in Istanbul, the OWS occupation of Zucotti Park in New York City, the tents of the Indignados movement in Spain, the London Blackberry riots and the seizure of Tahrir Square in Cairo to demand the overthrow of a dictator. As new forms of social coexistence and relationships are being configured, and new spaces for encounter and conflict are produced, architecture feels that essential questions regarding its activity are being addressed in each and every one of these situations. And yet we seem unable to relate to them and grasp their significance as we repeatedly turn to old metaphors and tools. If modern architecture pursues the modern liberal state techniques of management and administration of life, then recent forms of political action, which claim a new relation to the sensible, demand – and might help develop – a new understanding of architecture. We are moving from technical and disciplinary knowledge towards a critical practice that integrates with the action of the multitude. Starting from a definition of commons as the production of the multitude, we seek not only to understand the spatial dimension of this production, but also to acknowledge space as common

  12. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.


    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  13. Being Disoriented: Uncertain Encounters with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Parrey


    Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.

  14. Angular distribution of binary encounter electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.; Richard, P.; Grabbe, S.


    The double differential cross section, DDCS, of the binary encounter electrons (BEe) in 1 MeV/u F q+ + H 2 (q = 4, 6, 8, 9) is measured from 0 to 70 degrees with respect to the beam direction. At 0 degrees the data confirm the decrease of the cross section with increasing projectile charge state. At larger observation angles, the data are in fair agreement with the prediction proposed by Shingal et al. where the ratio of the DDCS for 6+ ions to bare ions is less than 1 for θ lab > 30 degrees and greater than 1 for θ lab q+ . We also observed that the energies of the BEe peak are charge state, q, independent at 0 degrees observation angle, but q dependent at larger observation angles

  15. Chromatic and anisotropic cross-recurrence quantification analysis of interpersonal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.F.A; van der Steen, Stephanie; Guevara Guerrero, Marlenny; Hoekstra, Lisette; van Dijk, Marijn; Webber, Charles; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    Cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) is a powerful nonlinear time-series method to study coordination and cooperation between people. This chapter concentrates on two methodological issues related to CRQA on categorical data streams, which are commonly encountered in the behavioral

  16. Difficulties Encountered by Academicians in Academic Research Processes in Universities (United States)

    Yalçin, Sinan; Altun Yalçin, Sema


    This present research, aimed to determine the occasions, which the academicians encountered during the academic research process and how these affect the research process, was prepared as a case study pattern among the qualitative research methods. 34 academicians, who were working in a university in Turkey, participated in the research. The data…

  17. With an Open Mind: Openness to Experience Moderates the Effect of Interethnic Encounters on Support for Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert


    to new experiences, react more positively/less negatively to interethnic encounters. We test this conjecture on two surveys collected in Denmark and Canada. In line with our expectations, the analyses suggest that openness positively moderates the effect of interethnic encounters on immigration attitudes...

  18. Environment-Gene interaction in common complex diseases: New approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Toscano, Jr.


    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 different environmental chemicals that are in use as high production volume chemicals confront us in our daily lives. Many of the chemicals we encounter are persistent and have long half-lives in the environment and our bodies. These compounds are referred to as Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPS. The total environment however is broader than just toxic pollutants. It includes social capital, social economic status, and other factors that are not commonly considered in traditional approaches to studying environment-human interactions. The mechanism of action of environmental agents in altering the human phenotype from health to disease is more complex than once thought. The focus in public health has shifted away from the study of single-gene rare diseases and has given way to the study of multifactorial complex diseases that are common in the population. To understand common complex diseases, we need teams of scientists from different fields working together with common aims. We review some approaches for studying the action of the environment by discussing use-inspired research, and transdisciplinary research approaches. The Genomic era has yielded new tools for study of gene-environment interactions, including genomics, epigenomics, and systems biology. We use environmentally-driven diabetes mellitus type two as an example of environmental epigenomics and disease. The aim of this review is to start the conversation of how the application of advances in biomedical science can be used to advance public health.

  19. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.


    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  20. MRI information for commonly used otologic implants: review and update. (United States)

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Tubbs, Rhonda; Chen, Douglas A; Shellock, Frank G


    To review information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues for commonly used otologic implants. Manufacturing companies, National Library of Medicine's online database, and an additional online database ( A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database with focus on MRI issues for otologic implants was performed. The MRI information on implants provided by manufacturers was reviewed. Baha and Ponto Pro osseointegrated implants' abutment and fixture and the implanted magnet of the Sophono Alpha 1 and 2 abutment-free systems are approved for 3-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) systems. The external processors of these devices are MR Unsafe. Of the implants tested, middle ear ossicular prostheses, including stapes prostheses, except for the 1987 McGee prosthesis, are MR Conditional for 1.5-Tesla (and many are approved for 3-Tesla) MR systems. Cochlear implants with removable magnets are approved for patients undergoing MRI at 1.5 Tesla after magnet removal. The MED-EL PULSAR, SONATA, CONCERT, and CONCERT PIN cochlear implants can be used in patients undergoing MRI at 1.5 Tesla with application of a protective bandage. The MED-EL COMBI 40+ can be used in 0.2-Tesla MR systems. Implants made from nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials are MR Safe. Knowledge of MRI guidelines for commonly used otologic implants is important. Guidelines on MRI issues approved by the US Food and Drug Administration are not always the same compared with other parts of the world. This monograph provides a current reference for physicians on MRI issues for commonly used otologic implants.

  1. FERC perspectives on nuclear fuel accounting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDanal, M.W.


    The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the treatment of nuclear fuel and problems that have evolved in industry practices in accounting for fuel. For some time, revisions to the Uniform System of Accounts have been considered with regard to the nuclear fuel accounts. A number of controversial issues have been encountered on audits, including treatment of nuclear fuel enrichment charges, costs associated with delays in enrichment services, the treatment and recognition of fuel inventories in excess of current or projected needs, and investments in and advances to mining and milling companies for future deliveries of nuclear fuel materials. In an effort to remedy the problems and to adapt the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's accounting to more easily provide for or point out classifications for each problem area, staff is reevaluating the need for contemplated amendments to the Uniform System of Accounts

  2. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  3. Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult.

  4. Encounters with service professionals experienced by children from families with alcohol problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti


    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore encounters with service professionals experienced in childhood and adolescence by children who grew up with parental alcohol abuse. We focused on their accounts from situations indicating children’s struggles or parental drinking problems. Methods: Semi......-structured qualitative interview study was conducted with retrospective data from nine adults. Systematic text condensation was used to understand childhood experiences from encounters with professionals. Results: Participants believed that professionals rarely recognised their parents’ drinking problems. The children...... parental drinking. Even when problems were obvious, participants felt that professionals took no further action. Medical and social problems were managed within very confined perspectives. Conclusions: Specific commitment to confront cultural taboos is needed to attend to children’s unmet needs...

  5. It Security Issues Within the Video Game Industry




    IT security issues are an important aspect for each and every organization within the video game industry. Within the video game industry alone, you might not normally think of security risks being an issue. But as we can and have seen in recent news, no company is immune to security risks no matter how big or how small. While each of these organizations will never be exactly the same as the next, there are common security issues that can and do affect each and every video game company. In or...

  6. Strange Encounter: Depicting An “Other” Reality for Young Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Chengcheng


    Full Text Available This article explores fantastic encounters between humans and non-humans inChinese and Japanese Children’s literature. Naoko Awa’s collection of short storiesThe Fox’s Window and Other Stories is closely read to elucidate narrative features ofwhat I call as “strange encounter”, the magic realistic human-animal encounter inChinese and Japanese cultural context. Chinese supernatural literature and culturaltradition of yaoguai, which have been assimilated into Japanese culture (Japaneseyōkai, are referred to throughout my discussion.  Todorov’s approach to thefantastic, Judith Zeitlin’s study of Strange Tales of Liaozhai Studio, and RosemaryJackson’s study of fantasy are drawn upon to illuminate the meaning of encountersbetween men and animals. I argue that magic realism as a relatively new genrefor young readers, not only reflects the author’s individual creative experienceof the fantastic but also partakes in the sense of an “other” reality that resonatesthroughout a cultural community. Perjumpaan Ganjil: Gambaran suatu Realitas “Liyan” bagi Pembaca Muda.Artikel ini membahas perjumpaan fantastis antara ‘manusia’ dan ‘non-manusia’ didalam sastra anak Cina dan Jepang. Antologi cerita pendek karangan Naoko Awa TheFox’s Window and Other Stories akan dikupas untuk memaparkan fitur naratif yangdisebut sebagai ‘perjumpaan aneh’ (strange encounter, perjumpaan magis-realis antaramanusia dengan binatang dalam konteks kebudayaan Cina dan Jepang. Karya sastrasupernatural Cina dan keberadaan yaoguai yang telah diasimilasi dalam kebudayaanJepang (disebut youkai menjadi sebuah referensi penting dalam artikel ini. Pendekatanfantasi dari Todorov, studi Judith Zeitlin tentang Strange Tales of Liaozhai Studio,dan studi fantasi dari Rosemary Jackson digunakan untuk memperjelas arti dariperjumpaan antara manusia dan binatang. Magis-realis sebagai sesuatu yang baru bagi pembaca muda tidak hanya merefleksikan pengalaman

  7. Should we assess clinical performance in single patient encounters or consistent behaviors of clinical performance over a series of encounters? A qualitative exploration of narrative trainee profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, M.; Dielissen, P.W.; Timmerman, A.; Ram, P.; Maiburg, B.; Muris, J.; Vleuten, C. van der


    BACKGROUND: A variety of tools have been developed to assess performance which typically use a single clinical encounter as a source for making competency inferences. This strategy may miss consistent behaviors. We therefore explored experienced clinical supervisors' perceptions of behavioral

  8. The Tourism Encounter in Community-Based Tourism in Northern Thailand: Empty Meeting Ground or Space for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dolezal


    Full Text Available This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell’s (1992 idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978, two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism encounter, this article suggests moving away from binaries towards understanding the space of the tourism encounter and its potential for change. Building on empirical research conducted in Ban Mae Kampong, a CBT village in Northern Thailand, findings suggest that CBT shows signs of resident-host interactions that are based on understanding and learning rather than exploitation. While also in CBT friendships and meaning take time to emerge and the ‘Other’ is used as attraction, villagers’ agency and control over tourism are acknowledged. This paper therefore calls for a revisiting of the theoretical grounding that influences our understanding of the tourism encounter and argues for an investigation of community power relations in connection to the tourism encounter and its potential for residents’ empowerment in CBT.

  9. Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment (United States)

    Long, GuiLu; Qin, Wei; Yang, Zhe; Li, Jun-Lin


    In this paper, a realistic interpretation (REIN) of the wave function in quantum mechanics is briefly presented. We demonstrate that in the REIN, the wave function of a microscopic object is its real existence rather than a mere mathematical description. Specifically, the quantum object can exist in disjointed regions of space just as the wave function is distributed, travels at a finite speed, and collapses instantly upon a measurement. Furthermore, we analyze the single-photon interference in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using the REIN. Based on this, we propose and experimentally implement a generalized delayed-choice experiment, called the encounter-delayed-choice experiment, where the second beam splitter is decided whether or not to insert at the encounter of two sub-waves along the arms of the MZI. In such an experiment, the parts of the sub-waves, which do not travel through the beam splitter, show a particle nature, whereas the remaining parts interfere and thus show a wave nature. The predicted phenomenon is clearly demonstrated in the experiment, thus supporting the REIN idea.

  10. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr


    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  11. An encounter between psychology and religion: humanistic psychology and the Immaculate Heart of Mary nuns. (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert


    In the 1960s, humanistic psychology changed the relationship between psychology and religion by actively asserting the value of individual experience and self-expression. This was particularly evident in the encounter group movement. Beginning in 1967, Carl Rogers conducted a series of encounter groups, in order to promote "self-directed change in an educational system," for the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, a religious order in California running an educational system. William Coulson, one of Rogers's associates in the project, later charged that the encounter groups undermined the religious order and played a major contributing part in the breakup of the order in 1970. The article examines these charges, situating the incident within the context of the changes occurring in religious life and in psychology in the 1960s. The article concludes that an already existing conflict the nuns had with the conservative Cardinal McIntyre of Los Angeles led to the departure of some 300 nuns from the order, who began the Immaculate Heart Community, an organization existing today. Nevertheless, encounter groups proved to be a psychological technology that helped to infuse a modern psychological--specifically, a humanistic psychological--perspective into contemporary religious life. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Consequences of Service Encounter Failure in Shopping Centers: A Study with Visually Impaired Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Felipe da Costa Coelho


    Full Text Available The advent of the Brazilian Law on the Inclusion of People with Disabilities, in 2015, has brought a series of implications for marketing researchers, since it concerns the rights to include people with disabilities in public and private consumption spaces, such as shopping malls. Despite the growth of these consumer spaces in Brazil, several failures in service encounters are frequent, especially when consumers are visually impaired. Therefore, this study aims to understand the consequences of service encounters failures in shopping malls for the consumer with visual disabilities. To reach this goal, we used a qualitative approach of phenomenological nature. Data were collected through direct and naturalistic observations and conduct of nine face-to-face interviews with visually impaired consumers. Through content analysis of the results, we concluded that there is a diversity of failures occurred in service encounters, such as excessive piety of sellers to consumers, contempt and the sudden change in the service script. For this reason, the consequences of service encounter failure were from the verbal confrontation and the withdrawal of the transaction to the word-of-mouth and negative expressions of frustration in virtual social networks. This article also presents managerial and academic contributions for marketing researchers.

  13. Reading the copepod personal ads : increasing encounter probability with hydromechanical signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ


    Females of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis react to chemical exudates of male conspecifics with little hops, quite distinct from their normal smooth uniform swimming motion. These hops possibly serve to create a hydrodynamical signal in the surrounding water, to increase encounter

  14. The art collectives: microcosm and commons engine of the arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marín García


    Full Text Available The collective artistic activity can be seen as a metaphor for the small-scale cultural commons. In its processes and strategies can be traced many of the key issues and conflicts that make the keys of the commons in regard to the arts, as cultural and intangible. The artistic groups are also essential elements for building assets/goods and resources that make up the cultural structure, very particular local contexts, while having great potential as builders of larger scale networks. After a brief discussion of these issues is presented an initiative of a collaborative platform project, CCCV, starting from the reality of a local context arises the objective of generating a network-file-laboratory to create and share knowledge about the collective culture.

  15. Construct validity of the reporter-interpreter-manager-educator structure for assessing students' patient encounter skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Arendrup, Henrick; Lindhardt, Bjarne O.


    PURPOSE: The aim of this study, done in Denmark, was to explore the construct validity of a Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME)-structured scoring format for assessing patient encounter skills. METHOD: The authors developed a RIME-structured scoring form and explored its construct validity...... in a two-step procedure. The first step (implemented in 2009) was a randomized, controlled, experimental study in which the performance of three groups (16 fourth-year medical students, 16 sixth-year medical students, and 16 interns) was assessed in two simulated patient encounters. The second step...... (carried out during 2009-2010) was an observational study of patient encounter skills where clinician examiners used the scoring form in end-of-clerkship oral examinations of three consecutive cohorts of a total of 547 fourth-year medical students. RESULTS: In the experimental study, RIME scores showed...

  16. Issues and Strategies in Solving Multidisciplinary Optimization Problems (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya


    Optimization research at NASA Glenn Research Center has addressed the design of structures, aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engines. The accumulated multidisciplinary design activity is collected under a testbed entitled COMETBOARDS. Several issues were encountered during the solution of the problems. Four issues and the strategies adapted for their resolution are discussed. This is followed by a discussion on analytical methods that is limited to structural design application. An optimization process can lead to an inefficient local solution. This deficiency was encountered during design of an engine component. The limitation was overcome through an augmentation of animation into optimization. Optimum solutions obtained were infeasible for aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engine problems. Alleviation of this deficiency required a cascading of multiple algorithms. Profile optimization of a beam produced an irregular shape. Engineering intuition restored the regular shape for the beam. The solution obtained for a cylindrical shell by a subproblem strategy converged to a design that can be difficult to manufacture. Resolution of this issue remains a challenge. The issues and resolutions are illustrated through a set of problems: Design of an engine component, Synthesis of a subsonic aircraft, Operation optimization of a supersonic engine, Design of a wave-rotor-topping device, Profile optimization of a cantilever beam, and Design of a cylindrical shell. This chapter provides a cursory account of the issues. Cited references provide detailed discussion on the topics. Design of a structure can also be generated by traditional method and the stochastic design concept. Merits and limitations of the three methods (traditional method, optimization method and stochastic concept) are illustrated. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the

  17. Desistance from Delinquency through Social Encounters with Significant Others: Case Studies of Japanese Juvenile Criminals


    SHIRAI, Toshiaki; SATOMI, Akira; KONDO, Junya


    In order to clarify how young people stop delinquency, we conducted life history analysis, survey study and case studies. The findings indicate that, first, the encounter with significant persons can make them stop delinquency through the capacity to tolerate their depression and, second, the psychologists can play a role of the significant other using the framework of rehabilitation institutions. The encounter with significant others offers intrinsic motivation and the readiness for their pe...

  18. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products


    Özdemir, Güven


    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  19. Ethical issues in nanomedicine: Tempest in a teapot? (United States)

    Allon, Irit; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Dekel, Raz; Solbakk, Jan-Helge; Weltring, Klaus-Michael; Siegal, Gil


    Nanomedicine offers remarkable options for new therapeutic avenues. As methods in nanomedicine advance, ethical questions conjunctly arise. Nanomedicine is an exceptional niche in several aspects as it reflects risks and uncertainties not encountered in other areas of medical research or practice. Nanomedicine partially overlaps, partially interlocks and partially exceeds other medical disciplines. Some interpreters agree that advances in nanotechnology may pose varied ethical challenges, whilst others argue that these challenges are not new and that nanotechnology basically echoes recurrent bioethical dilemmas. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the ethical issues related to nanomedicine and to reflect on the question whether nanomedicine generates ethical challenges of new and unique nature. Such a determination should have implications on regulatory processes and professional conducts and protocols in the future.

  20. Short and long-lasting behavioral consequences of agonistic encounters between male Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Penn, Jill; Lucey, Kenia; Popovic, David; Kravitz, Edward A


    In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain. The results demonstrated that single fights induced important behavioral changes in both combatants and resulted in the formation of short-term loser and winner effects. These decayed over several hours, with the duration depending on the level of familiarity of the opponents. Repeated defeats induced a long-lasting loser effect that was dependent on de novo protein synthesis, whereas repeated victories had no long-term behavioral consequences. This suggests that separate mechanisms govern the formation of loser and winner effects. These studies aim to lay a foundation for future investigations exploring the molecular mechanisms and circuitry underlying the nervous system changes induced by winning and losing bouts during agonistic encounters.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This near encounter data set consists of electron and ion counting rate data from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1 while the spacecraft...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This far encounter data set consists of electron and ion counting rate data from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 2 while the spacecraft...

  3. Basic Concepts for rethinking environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ladron de Guevara, Francisco Jose; Valencia Cuellar, Jorge


    This article presents a review of the fundamental concepts from which environmental problems have been explained and solved during the last decades. Environment is understood as an encounter between nature and culture that is a social construct that reflects the interaction between human beings and the biophysical space in which they live. On the other hand, development is conceived as the ability that societies have to develop their potentialities, being a notion of a totalizing and ethical political nature, which incorporates the biophysical and social heritage of a certain society. Regarding the concept of culture, it must be said that it is built upon the basis that this is an adaptive strategy of the human species. Finally, the relationships between the concepts of culture, environment and development are studied in order to formulate a new perspective for rethinking the environmental issue, so that, in turn, it could be used to redirect survival strategies that human beings currently apply in their interaction with the environment.


    Briller, Sherylyn H.; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Thurston, Celia S.; Meert, Kathleen L.


    Many childhood deaths in the United States occur in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and parents have special needs in this death context. As an interdisciplinary research team, we discuss conceptual and design issues encountered in creating a new instrument, the Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment–PICU, for assessing parents’ needs in this setting. Using a qualitative approach, our team previously explored how the culture and related ways of providing care in one urban Midwestern children’s hospital PICU affected parents’ bereavement needs and experiences. We describe using this qualitative foundation in the development of a new quantitative instrument to more widely validate and measure bereaved parents’ needs around the time of a child’s death across multiple PICUs. We highlight a series of issues that warrant consideration in designing a research instrument for this vulnerable population including setting and context, format and content, temporality, recruitment, and content expertise. PMID:22953511

  5. Ethical Issues related to First Time Patient Encounters – reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance...... reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well....... to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting...

  6. Alien encounter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of...

  7. Using systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs to assess medical students’ skills in clinical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Bergus


    Full Text Available George R Bergus1–3, Jerold C Woodhead4, Clarence D Kreiter2,51Performance Based Assessment Program, Office of Student Affairs and Curriculum, 2Department of Family Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAIntroduction: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is widely used to assess the clinical performance of medical students. However, concerns related to cost, availability, and validity, have led educators to investigate alternatives to the OSCE. Some alternatives involve assessing students while they provide care to patients – the mini-CEX (mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise and the Long Case are examples. We investigated the psychometrics of systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs, in which physicians are supplemented by lay trained observers, as a means of assessing the clinical performances of medical students.Methods: During the pediatrics clerkship at the University of Iowa, trained lay observers assessed the communication skills of third-year medical students using a communication checklist while the students interviewed and examined pediatric patients. Students then verbally presented their findings to faculty, who assessed students’ clinical skills using a standardized form. The reliability of the combined communication and clinical skills scores was calculated using generalizability theory.Results: Fifty-one medical students completed 199 observed patient encounters. The mean combined clinical and communication skills score (out of a maximum 45 points was 40.8 (standard deviation 3.3. The calculated reliability of the SOCE scores, using generalizability theory, from 10 observed patient encounters was 0.81. Students reported receiving helpful feedback from faculty after 97% of their observed clinical encounters.Conclusion: The SOCE can

  8. Encounters with immigrant customers: perspectives of Danish community pharmacy staff on challenges and solutions. (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M


    To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. A questionnaire was distributed to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.27-8.04). Forty-two per cent (n = 35) perceived that immigrant customers put pressure on pharmacy staff resources, while 27% (n = 23) found that the immigrant customer group make work more interesting. More pharmacists than assistants agreed on the latter (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.04-11.33). Within the past 14 days, 86% (n = 72) experienced that their advice and counselling were not understood by immigrant customers, whereas 49% (n = 41) experienced lack of understanding by ethnic Danes; and 30% (n = 25) had consciously refrained from counselling an immigrant, whereas 19% (n = 16) had done so with an ethnic Dane. Use of under-aged children as interpreters during the past month was reported by 79% of respondents. Regarding suggestions on how to improve encounters with immigrant customers, most respondents listed interventions aimed at patients, general practitioners and pharmaceutical companies. Community pharmacy staff report poorer quality in their encounters with immigrant customers, including sub-optimal counselling and frequent use of under-aged children as

  9. Transnational organizing: Issue professionals in environmental sustainability networks. (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard


    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how 'issue professionals' operate in two-level professional and organizational networks to control issues. This two-level network provides the context for action in which professionals do their institutional work. The two-level network carries information about professional incentives and also norms about how issues should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how transnational organizing happens, and how we can best identify attempts at issue control.

  10. Modeling close encounters with massive asteroids: a Markovian approach. An application to the Vesta family (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Roig, F.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Nesvorný, D.


    Context: Nearly all members of the Vesta family cross the orbits of (4) Vesta, one of the most massive asteroids in the main belt, and some of them approach it closely. When mutual velocities during such close encounters are low, the trajectory of the small body can be gravitationally deflected, consequently changing its heliocentric orbital elements. While the effect of a single close encounter may be small, repeated close encounters may significantly change the proper element distribution of members of asteroid families. Aims: We develop a model of the long-term effect of close encounters with massive asteroids, so as to be able to predict how far former members of the Vesta family could have drifted away from the family. Methods: We first developed a new symplectic integrator that simulates both the effects of close encounters and the Yarkovsky effect. We analyzed the results of a simulation involving a fictitious Vesta family, and propagated the asteroid proper element distribution using the probability density function (pdf hereafter), i.e. the function that describes the probability of having an encounter that modifies a proper element x by Δx, for all the possible values of Δx. Given any asteroids' proper element distribution at time t, the distribution at time t+T may be predicted if the pdf is known (Bachelier 1900, Théorie de la spéculation; Hughes 1995, Random Walks and Random Environments, Vol. I). Results: We applied our new method to the problem of V-type asteroids outside the Vesta family (i.e., the 31 currently known asteroids in the inner asteroid belt that have the same spectral type of members as the Vesta family, but that are outside the limits of the dynamical family) and determined that at least ten objects have a significant diffusion probability over the minimum estimated age of the Vesta family of 1.2 Gyr (Carruba et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 819). These objects can therefore be explained in the framework of diffusion via repeated close

  11. Issues Identified During September 2016 IBM OpenMP 4.5 Hackathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, David F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In September, 2016 IBM hosted an OpenMP 4.5 Hackathon at the TJ Watson Research Center. Teams from LLNL, ORNL, SNL, LANL, and LBNL attended the event. As with the 2015 hackathon, IBM produced an extremely useful and successful event with unmatched support from compiler team, applications staff, and facilities. Approximately 24 IBM staff supported 4-day hackathon and spent significant time 4-6 weeks out to prepare environment and become familiar with apps. This hackathon was also the first event to feature LLVM & XL C/C++ and Fortran compilers. This report records many of the issues encountered by the LLNL teams during the hackathon.

  12. Distributed Issues for Ada Real-Time Systems (United States)


    NUMBERS Distributed Issues for Ada Real - Time Systems MDA 903-87- C- 0056 S. AUTHOR(S) Thomas E. Griest 7. PERFORMING ORGANiZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8...considerations. I Adding to the problem of distributed real - time systems is the issue of maintaining a common sense of time among all of the processors...because -omeone is waiting for the final output of a very large set of computations. However in real - time systems , consistent meeting of short-term

  13. Bimolecular encounters and re-encounters (cage effect) of a spin-labeled analogue of cholestane in a series of n-alkanes: effect of anisotropic exchange integral. (United States)

    Vandenberg, Andrew D; Bales, Barney L; Salikhov, K M; Peric, Miroslav


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the nitroxide spin probe 3β-doxyl-5α-cholestane (CSL) are studied as functions of the molar concentration, c, and the temperature, T, in a series of n-alkanes. The results are compared with a similar study of a much smaller spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT). The Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) rate constants, K(ex), of CSL are similar in hexane, octane, and decane and are about one-half of those for pDT in the same solvents. They are also about one-half of the Stokes-Einstein-Perrin prediction. This reduction in HSE efficiency is attributed to an effective steric factor, f(eff), which was evaluated by comparing the results with the Stokes-Einstein-Perrin prediction or with pDT, and it is equal to 0.49 ± 0.03, independent of temperature. The unpaired spin density in CSL is localized near one end of the long molecule, so the exchange integral, J, leading to HSE, is expected to be large in some collisions and small in others; thus, J is modeled by an ideal distribution of values of J = J(0) with probability f and J = 0 with probability (1 - f). Because of rotational and translation diffusion during contact and between re-encounters of the probe, the effective steric factor is predicted to be f(eff) = f(1/2). Estimating the fraction of the surface of CSL with rich spin density yields a theoretical estimate of f(eff) = 0.59 ± 0.08, in satisfactory agreement with experiment. HSE is well described by simple hydrodynamic theory, with only a small dependence on solvent-probe relative sizes at the same value of T/η, where η is the viscosity of the solvent. This result is probably due to a fortuitous interplay between long- and short-range effects that describe diffusion processes over relatively large distances. In contrast, dipole-dipole interactions (DD) as measured by the line broadening, B(dip), and the mean time between re-encounters within the cage, τ(RE), vary significantly

  14. The Global Common Good and the Future of Academic Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve G. Shaker


    Full Text Available In this epilogue to the special issue of Higher Learning Research Communications dedicated to higher education, community engagement, and the public good, Shaker addresses the unifying concept presented across the issue: the common good. For Shaker, this special issue responds to UNESCO’s call for educational institutions and educators to rethink education in the contemporary era and focuses on how academic endeavors can, do, and should act in service to a global common good. The essay stresses the academic workforce needs to be reimagined concurrently with rethinking the systems of education that will ensure the world and society “to which we aspire.” Faculty in all their diversity are the central and essential ingredient to a successful global educational response to the challenges of an equitable and just global society will create and disseminate the knowledge society needs. To close, Shaker notes publications such as this bring these conversations into sharper focus to align and connect them so that a rethought approach to higher education might generate discernible results within the relatively short time available.

  15. Doctors for tribal areas: Issues and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Mavalankar


    Full Text Available Health parameters of tribal population had always been a concern for India's march towards Millennium development Goals (MDG's. Tribal population contributes 8.6% of total population, in spite of efforts and commitment of Government of India towards MGD, India lagged far behind from achieving and optimal health of tribal population will be a concern for achieving Sustainable development Goals SDG's also. Some of the common health problems of the tribal population face are deficiency of essential components in diet like energy malnutrition, protein calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Goiter, Gastrointestinal disorders, particularly dysentery and parasitic infections are very common. High prevalence of genetic disorders like sickle cell anemia and others are endemic in few tribes of India. Tribal Health is further compounded issues by social issues like excessive consumption of alcohol, poor access to contraceptive, substance abuse and gender based violence. Besides other reasons, like poor budget allocation, difficult to reach, poor access to health care facility, severe shortage of qualified health workers and workforce led to poor governance of health sector in tribal areas. Present view point reflects on the issues of inadequacy of doctors in tribal area and suggests possible solutions.

  16. The Retrieval of Information in an Elementary School Library Media Center: An Alternative Method of Classification in the Common School Library, Amherst, Massachusetts. (United States)

    Cooper, Linda


    Discusses the problems encountered by elementary school children in retrieving information from a library catalog, either the traditional card catalog or an OPAC (online public access catalog). An alternative system of classification using colors and symbols is described that was developed in the Common School (Amherst, Massachusetts). (Author/LRW)

  17. Interim communities between singularities: encounters of delicacy, artistic creation and difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araújo Silva


    Full Text Available This article is an outcome of the dissertation “Poetics and marginality: the Project Cidadãos Cantantes experience” that focused on the chorus collective experience, in the project focusing the formation of groupality, the ways of being together or coexisting, and presents an analysis of these procedures. This Project was created on 1992 in the interface of antimanicomial movement. It consists in two workshops: a scenic chorus workshop and a workshop of dance and body expression. Through the project, the authors elaborated a narrative that leads the analyses of the mentioned experience. It is understood that promoting encounters between any kind of people, with or without psychic suffering - and not grouped based on a definition or diagnosis, the project can bring people in a desiring and cooperatively manner-. Therefore, the relationships developed during the project’s workshops strengthen the production of guided encounters in power, in the creation and respect for differences.

  18. Basic education in communist Hungary. A commons approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Gyuris


    Full Text Available In commons research, the study of the ‘knowledge commons’ has emerged as a new field of interest over the last few years. Our paper begins by providing a brief overview of the state of research in the field, and proceeds by discussing some crucial but relatively underconceptualised issues. The difference between information and knowledge, and the ambiguities surrounding the claim that all sorts of knowledge can be considered part of the commons, are the focal point here. We also pay close attention to education, arguing that it is not a common good, but rather a common-pool resource institution that ensures that some forms of knowledge can be governed as a commons. With regard to these issues, the article provides a case study, one in which we analyse basic education in Communist Hungary, and look for evidence of the commons design principles as outlined in Elinor Ostrom’s IAD Framework. Given the complex nature of basic education, we investigate it from three points of view: as a service, as a set of physical structures (e.g. school buildings, and as a complex of organizational structures (e.g. legal and financial arrangements. On the basis of empirical findings we argue that basic education in the Stalinist epoch did not correspond to Ostromian design principles. Basic education, therefore, was not managed in an equitable way, and its geographical accessibility was uneven. During the ‘technocratic’ Communism of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the education system underwent important changes. However, though the circle of those who had some impact on the governance of education expanded, most individuals involved with the education system were still excluded. As a result, the commons approach did not become stronger in general, nor did spatial unevenness with respect to access to basic education decrease. The paper finishes with a brief conclusion of our findings and a discussion of some questions for future research.

  19. Encountering Gender in Student Life at UDSM: Chrester Tells Her ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article tells the life history of a young female student, Chrester, as she enjoyed her life while encountering gender contradictions throughout her student life during 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s at the University of Dar es Salaam. The narration covers the age of naiveté as well as her mature age as a senior student.

  20. Transformation of a wave energy spectrum from encounter to absolute domain when observing from an advancing ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    directly in the encounter domain. The encounter domain is that observed from a ship when it advances in a seaway, whereas the absolute domain is that corresponding to making observations from a fixed point in the inertial frame. Spectrum transformation can be uniquely carried out if the ship sails ”against...

  1. Opportunity to discuss ethical issues during clinical learning experience. (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Gonella, Silvia; Destrebecq, Anne; Mansutti, Irene; Terzoni, Stefano; Morsanutto, Michela; Altini, Pietro; Bevilacqua, Anita; Brugnolli, Anna; Canzan, Federica; Ponte, Adriana Dal; De Biasio, Laura; Fascì, Adriana; Grosso, Silvia; Mantovan, Franco; Marognolli, Oliva; Nicotera, Raffaela; Randon, Giulia; Tollini, Morena; Saiani, Luisa; Grassetti, Luca; Dimonte, Valerio


    Undergraduate nursing students have been documented to experience ethical distress during their clinical training and felt poorly supported in discussing the ethical issues they encountered. Research aims: This study was aimed at exploring nursing students' perceived opportunity to discuss ethical issues that emerged during their clinical learning experience and associated factors. An Italian national cross-sectional study design was performed in 2015-2016. Participants were invited to answer a questionnaire composed of four sections regarding: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) previous clinical learning experiences, (3) current clinical learning experience quality and outcomes, and (4) the opportunity to discuss ethical issues with nurses in the last clinical learning experience (from 0 - 'never' to 3 - 'very much'). Participants and research context: Participants were 9607 undergraduate nursing students who were attending 95 different three-year Italian baccalaureate nursing programmes, located at 27 universities in 15 Italian regions. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with the Human Subject Research Ethics Committee guidelines after the research protocol was approved by an ethics committee. Overall, 4707 (49%) perceived to have discussed ethical issues 'much' or 'very much'; among the remaining, 3683 (38.3%) and 1217 (12.7%) students reported the perception of having discussed, respectively, 'enough' or 'never' ethical issues emerged in the clinical practice. At the multivariate logistic regression analysis explaining 38.1% of the overall variance, the factors promoting ethical discussion were mainly set at the clinical learning environment levels (i.e. increased learning opportunities, self-directed learning, safety and nursing care quality, quality of the tutorial strategies, competences learned and supervision by a clinical nurse). In contrast, being male was associated with a perception of less opportunity to discuss ethical issues

  2. Mechanical design of a high field common coil magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, S; Dietderich, D R; Gourlay, S A; Gupta, R; McInturff, A; Millos, G; Scanlan, R M


    A common coil design for high field 2-in-1 accelerator magnets has been previously presented as a "conductor-friendly" option for high field magnets applicable for a Very Large Hadron Collider. This paper presents the mechanical design for a 14 tesla 2-in-1 dipole based on the common coil design approach. The magnet will use a high current density Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor. The design addresses mechanical issues particular to the common coil geometry: horizontal support against coil edges, vertical preload on coil faces, end loading and support, and coil stresses and strains. The magnet is the second in a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of the common coil design approach. (9 refs).

  3. Investigating Effect of Service Encounter, Value, and Satisfaction on Word of Mouth: An Outpatient Service Context. (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chun


    This study investigates the relationships among service encounter, service value, patient satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM) intention from the viewpoint of interactive marketing. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 372 questionnaires were obtained and 350 of these questionnaires were valid (94.09%), and a structural equation model was used to analyze the data. This study proposed seven hypotheses, and five of the seven hypotheses were supported. Service encounters indirectly affect their patient WOM through service value and satisfaction. Therefore, service value and satisfaction play a crucial mediating role in linking service encounters and WOM. This study determined WOM intentions in an outpatient service context and provides crucial business implications for teaching hospitals to enable them to improve their service quality and achieve a sustainable operation.

  4. Investigating Effect of Service Encounter, Value, and Satisfaction on Word of Mouth: An Outpatient Service Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Hsu


    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationships among service encounter, service value, patient satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM intention from the viewpoint of interactive marketing. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 372 questionnaires were obtained and 350 of these questionnaires were valid (94.09%, and a structural equation model was used to analyze the data. This study proposed seven hypotheses, and five of the seven hypotheses were supported. Service encounters indirectly affect their patient WOM through service value and satisfaction. Therefore, service value and satisfaction play a crucial mediating role in linking service encounters and WOM. This study determined WOM intentions in an outpatient service context and provides crucial business implications for teaching hospitals to enable them to improve their service quality and achieve a sustainable operation.

  5. MDEP Generic Common Position No DICWG-03. Common position on verification and validation throughout the life cycle of digital safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Verification and validation (V and V) is essential throughout the life cycle of nuclear power plant safety systems. This common position applies to V and V activities for digital safety systems throughout their life cycles. This encompasses both the software and hardware of such systems. The Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG) has agreed that a common position on this topic is warranted given the use of Digital I and C in new reactor designs, its safety implications, and the need to develop a common understanding from the perspectives of regulatory authorities. This action follows the DICWG examination of the regulatory requirements of the participating members and of relevant industry standards and IAEA documents. The DICWG proposes a common position based on its recent experience with the new reactor application reviews and operating plant issues

  6. Changes in heart rate associated with contest outcome in agonistic encounters in lobsters. (United States)

    Hernáindez-Falcón, Jesús; Basu, Alo C; Govindasamy, Siddhartan; Kravitz, Edward A


    Agonistic contests between lobsters housed together in a confined space progress through encounters of increasing intensity until a dominance relationship is established. Once this relationship is established, losing animals continually retreat from the advances of winners. These encounters are likely to consume much energy in both winning and losing animals. Therefore, one might expect involvement of many physiological systems before, during and after fights. Here, we report effects of agonistic encounters on cardiac frequency in winning and losing adult lobsters involved in dyadic interactions. The results show that: (i) small but significant increases in heart rate are observed upon chemical detection of a conspecific; (ii) during agonistic interactions, further increases in heart rate are seen; and (iii) ultimate winners exhibit greater increases in heart rate lasting longer periods of time compared to ultimate losers. Heart rate in winners remains elevated for at least 15 min after the contests have ended and animals have been returned to their home tanks. Reduced effects are seen in second and third pairings between familiar opponents. The sustained changes in heart rate that we observe in winning lobsters may result from hormonal modulation of cardiac function related to the change in social status brought about by contest outcome.

  7. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip


    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  8. The structure of service quality perceptions for multiple-encounter services. (United States)

    Andaleeb, Syed Saad; Kara, Ali


    The objective of this study was to examine a complex service environment-hospitals-to suggest how service quality could be reframed and measured for multiple-encounter service situations more effectively. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 371 patients completed the survey instrument. Service quality measures were guided by the literature but allowed to flow from the respondents at the preliminary stage. Confirmatory factor analysis, along with structural equation modeling, was used to test the hypothesized relationships among key actors' performance metrics (KAPMs). Patient satisfaction is significantly influenced by perceived service quality based on KAPMs. For multiple-encounter services, service quality dimensions and measures ought to be tied to KAPMs. Primary actors-ie, doctors-need knowledge and skills about patient psychology, negotiation, handling difficult patients, and, importantly, "putting the customer first." Sensitivity training on such matters should be provided. The secondary actors are the nurses who have more frequent contact with the patients. Nurses need to be perceived as "patient advocates." Effective advocacy begins with prompt and caring services to build trust. The tertiary actors in their support role also ought to be integrated into becoming vital part of the service provided.

  9. Encounters With Health-Care Providers and Advance Directive Completion by Older Adults. (United States)

    Koss, Catheryn


    The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) requires hospitals, home health agencies, nursing homes, and hospice providers to offer new patients information about advance directives. There is little evidence regarding whether encounters with these health-care providers prompt advance directive completion by patients. To examine whether encounters with various types of health-care providers were associated with higher odds of completing advance directives by older patients. Logistic regression using longitudinal data from the 2012 and 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Participants were 3752 US adults aged 65 and older who reported not possessing advance directives in 2012. Advance directive was defined as a living will and/or durable power of attorney for health care. Four binary variables measured whether participants had spent at least 1 night in a hospital, underwent outpatient surgery, received home health or hospice care, or spent at least one night in a nursing home between 2012 and 2014. Older adults who received hospital, nursing home, or home health/hospice care were more likely to complete advance directives. Outpatient surgery was not associated with advance directive completion. Older adults with no advance directive in 2012 who encountered health-care providers covered by the PSDA were more likely to have advance directives by 2014. The exception was outpatient surgery which is frequently provided in freestanding surgery centers not subject to PSDA mandates. It may be time to consider amending the PSDA to cover freestanding surgery centers.

  10. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform. (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly


    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Hainick, Yanir; Sari, Re'em; Rossi, Elena M.


    We study the tidal disruption of binaries by a massive point mass (e.g., the black hole at the Galactic center), and we discuss how the ejection and capture preference between unequal-mass binary members depends on which orbit they approach the massive object. We show that the restricted three-body approximation provides a simple and clear description of the dynamics. The orbit of a binary with mass m around a massive object M should be almost parabolic with an eccentricity of |1 – e| ∼ 1/3 1/3 times the binary rotation velocity, it would be abruptly disrupted, and the energy change at the encounter can be evaluated in a simple disruption model. We evaluate the probability distributions for the ejection and capture of circular binary members and for the final energies. In principle, for any hyperbolic (elliptic) orbit, the heavier member has more chance to be ejected (captured), because it carries a larger fraction of the orbital energy. However, if the orbital energy is close to zero, the difference between the two members becomes small, and there is practically no ejection and capture preferences. The preference becomes significant when the orbital energy is comparable to the typical energy change at the encounter. We discuss its implications to hypervelocity stars and irregular satellites around giant planets.

  12. Analyzing effects of service encounter quality on customer satisfaction in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gazor


    Full Text Available Service quality represents a modern approach for quality in enterprises and organizations and serves the development of a truly customer-focused management and culture. Measuring service quality offers an immediate, meaningful and objective feedback about clients' preferences and expectations. In this paper, we study the relationship between customer perceptions from service encounter quality and loyalty of customer to organization and employees. The proposed study is implemented for banking sector in Iran using SERVQUAL factors and considers various factors influencing the quality of service. The results of the survey indicate that service quality systems, customer satisfaction are the most desirable factors based on the feedback we received from the customers. In addition, response to customers and loyalty to employees, service encounter quality, service and loyalty to organization, arrangements are in the next levels, respectively.

  13. Close encounters: Moving along bumps, breaks, and bubbles on expanded trinucleotide tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McMurray, Cynthia T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Expansion of simple triplet repeats (TNR) underlies greater than 30 severe degenerative diseases. There is a good understanding of the major pathways generating an expansion, and the associated polymerases that operate during gap filling synthesis at these “difficult to copy” sequences. However, the mechanism by which a TNR is repaired depends on the type of lesion, the structural features imposed by the lesion, the assembled replication/repair complex, and the polymerase that encounters it. The relationships among these parameters are exceptionally complex and how they direct pathway choice is poorly understood. In this review, we consider the properties of polymerases, and how encounters with GC-rich or abnormal structures might influence polymerase choice and the success of replication and repair. Insights over the last three years have highlighted new mechanisms that provide interesting choices to consider in protecting genome stability.

  14. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.


    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs

  15. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.


    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

  16. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) (United States)


    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  17. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.


    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next

  18. Nursing students’ experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth


    experiences of professional patient care encounters where students engage with patients and provide nursing care within the basic principles of nursing care relating to the patients’ physiological and psychological needs. Studies that reflect nursing students’ comprehension of or attitudes towards nursing...

  19. Researching Children's Rights in Education: Sociology of Childhood Encountering Educational Theory (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann; Quennerstedt, Mikael


    This paper aims to explore and develop a theoretical approach for children's rights research in education formed through an encounter between the sociology of childhood and John Dewey's educational theory. The interest is mainly methodological, in the sense that the primary ambition of the investigation is to suggest a fruitful and useful…

  20. Problems Encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and Other Secondary School Students in Physical Education and Sports Activities (United States)

    Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten


    The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…