WorldWideScience

Sample records for common infectious form

  1. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  2. Role of lipid in forming an infectious prion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wang; Jiyan Ma

    2013-01-01

    The infectious agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies,or prion diseases,has been the center of intense debate for decades.Years of studies have provided overwhelming evidence to support the prion hypothesis that posits a protein conformal infectious agent is responsible for the transmissibility of the disease.The recent studies that generate prion infectivity with purified bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein not only provides convincing evidence supporting the core of the prion hypothesis,that a pathogenic conformer of host prion protein is able to seed the conversion of its normal counterpart to the likeness of itself resulting in the replication of the pathogenic conformer and occurrence of disease,they also indicate the importance of cofactors,particularly lipid or lipid-like molecules,in forming the protein conformation-based infectious agent.This article reviews the literature regarding the chemical nature of the infectious agent and the potential contribution from lipid molecules to prion infectivity,and discusses the important remaining questions in this research area.

  3. Yeast prions form infectious amyloid inclusion bodies in bacteria

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    Espargaró Alba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prions were first identified as infectious proteins associated with fatal brain diseases in mammals. However, fungal prions behave as epigenetic regulators that can alter a range of cellular processes. These proteins propagate as self-perpetuating amyloid aggregates being an example of structural inheritance. The best-characterized examples are the Sup35 and Ure2 yeast proteins, corresponding to [PSI+] and [URE3] phenotypes, respectively. Results Here we show that both the prion domain of Sup35 (Sup35-NM and the Ure2 protein (Ure2p form inclusion bodies (IBs displaying amyloid-like properties when expressed in bacteria. These intracellular aggregates template the conformational change and promote the aggregation of homologous, but not heterologous, soluble prionogenic molecules. Moreover, in the case of Sup35-NM, purified IBs are able to induce different [PSI+] phenotypes in yeast, indicating that at least a fraction of the protein embedded in these deposits adopts an infectious prion fold. Conclusions An important feature of prion inheritance is the existence of strains, which are phenotypic variants encoded by different conformations of the same polypeptide. We show here that the proportion of infected yeast cells displaying strong and weak [PSI+] phenotypes depends on the conditions under which the prionogenic aggregates are formed in E. coli, suggesting that bacterial systems might become useful tools to generate prion strain diversity.

  4. Poverty trap formed by the ecology of infectious diseases.

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    Bonds, Matthew H; Keenan, Donald C; Rohani, Pejman; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2010-04-22

    While most of the world has enjoyed exponential economic growth, more than one-sixth of the world is today roughly as poor as their ancestors were many generations ago. Widely accepted general explanations for the persistence of such poverty have been elusive and are needed by the international development community. Building on a well-established model of human infectious diseases, we show how formally integrating simple economic and disease ecology models can naturally give rise to poverty traps, where initial economic and epidemiological conditions determine the long-term trajectory of the health and economic development of a society. This poverty trap may therefore be broken by improving health conditions of the population. More generally, we demonstrate that simple human ecological models can help explain broad patterns of modern economic organization.

  5. Modeling the hospital burden of common infectious diseases with application to northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardkaew, Jurairat; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to identify the incidence patterns of the most common infectious diseases, including acute diarrhea, pyrexia of unknown origin, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and pneumonia, in the 7 provinces of northeastern Thailand, based on individual hospital case records of infectious disease routinely reported from 1999 to 2004. Log-linear regression analysis with age-group, season, and district as factors was used, with data from all 4 diseases as outcomes combined into 1 model. confirmed that the highest incidence of each infectious disease occurred in children aged less than 5 years of age, with particularly high rates for diarrhea. In addition, the burden of pyrexia of unknown origin was found to be lower in districts bordering Laos, and the incidence rates were higher from April to June in 1999-2001 and 2004 and from July to September in 2002-2003. Higher incidence rates also occurred in most rural districts of Loei and Udon Thani provinces.

  6. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

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    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  7. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  8. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Little, Zoë R; Keevil, C William

    2015-11-10

    The evolution of new and reemerging historic virulent strains of respiratory viruses from animal reservoirs is a significant threat to human health. Inefficient human-to-human transmission of zoonotic strains may initially limit the spread of transmission, but an infection may be contracted by touching contaminated surfaces. Enveloped viruses are often susceptible to environmental stresses, but the human coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have recently caused increasing concern of contact transmission during outbreaks. We report here that pathogenic human coronavirus 229E remained infectious in a human lung cell culture model following at least 5 days of persistence on a range of common nonbiocidal surface materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon; PTFE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ceramic tiles, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. We have shown previously that noroviruses are destroyed on copper alloy surfaces. In this new study, human coronavirus 229E was rapidly inactivated on a range of copper alloys (within a few minutes for simulated fingertip contamination) and Cu/Zn brasses were very effective at lower copper concentration. Exposure to copper destroyed the viral genomes and irreversibly affected virus morphology, including disintegration of envelope and dispersal of surface spikes. Cu(I) and Cu(II) moieties were responsible for the inactivation, which was enhanced by reactive oxygen species generation on alloy surfaces, resulting in even faster inactivation than was seen with nonenveloped viruses on copper. Consequently, copper alloy surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce transmission of respiratory viruses from contaminated surfaces and protect the public health. Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths globally than any other infectious agent. Animal coronaviruses that "host jump" to humans result in

  9. The binding of MBL to common bacteria in infectious diseases of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Shi-qiang; CHEN Guo-xian; SHEN Jie; YU Xiao-hong; WANG Ke-yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To purify Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) from human serum and detect its binding ability to several kinds of bacteria common in infectious diseases of children. Methods: MBL was purified from human serum by affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose 4B column. Its binding ability to eight species, 97 strains of bacteria was detected by enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Results: MBL has different binding ability to bacteria and shows strong binding ability to Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Escherichia coli, but shows relatively lower binding ability to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. To different isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus,MBL shows quite different binding ability. Conclusions: MBL has different binding ability to different bacteria, and has relatively stronger binding ability to Gram-negative bacteria. Its binding ability to different isolates of certain kinds of bacteria is quite different.

  10. Emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common British birds.

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    Robert A Robinson

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period.

  11. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

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    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  12. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-06-08

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  13. Neural Plasticity in Common Forms of Chronic Headaches

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    Tzu-Hsien Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headaches are universal experiences and among the most common disorders. While headache may be physiological in the acute setting, it can become a pathological and persistent condition. The mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to chronic pain have been the subject of intense study. Using physiological and imaging methods, researchers have identified a number of different forms of neural plasticity associated with migraine and other headaches, including peripheral and central sensitization, and alterations in the endogenous mechanisms of pain modulation. While these changes have been proposed to contribute to headache and pain chronification, some findings are likely the results of repetitive noxious stimulation, such as atrophy of brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation. In this review, we provide a narrative overview of recent advances on the neuroimaging, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of neural plasticity associated with the most common forms of chronic headaches, including migraine, cluster headache, tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache.

  14. Neural Plasticity in Common Forms of Chronic Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Protsenko, Ekaterina; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Loggia, Marco L.; Coppola, Gianluca; Chen, Wei-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Headaches are universal experiences and among the most common disorders. While headache may be physiological in the acute setting, it can become a pathological and persistent condition. The mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to chronic pain have been the subject of intense study. Using physiological and imaging methods, researchers have identified a number of different forms of neural plasticity associated with migraine and other headaches, including peripheral and central sensitization, and alterations in the endogenous mechanisms of pain modulation. While these changes have been proposed to contribute to headache and pain chronification, some findings are likely the results of repetitive noxious stimulation, such as atrophy of brain areas involved in pain perception and modulation. In this review, we provide a narrative overview of recent advances on the neuroimaging, electrophysiological and genetic aspects of neural plasticity associated with the most common forms of chronic headaches, including migraine, cluster headache, tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache. PMID:26366304

  15. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

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    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  16. GWAS signals across the HLA regions: revealing a clue for common etiology underlying infectious tumors and other immunity diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yao Shugart; Ying Wang; Wei-Hua Jia; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions play an important role in development of cancers and immunity disorders. However, the biological mechanisms of the HLA associations are not well understood. We recently conducted a survey of all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with significant findings in the HLA regions and concluded that diseases such as cancer and immune disorders are more likely to be associated with genetic variants located in the HLA regions than other diseases. This finding is suggestive for testing a hypothesis of a common etiology of infectious tumors and other immunity diseases.

  17. Exploring the Innate Immunological Response of an Alternative Nonhuman Primate Model of Infectious Disease; the Common Marmoset

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    M. Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is increasingly being utilised as a nonhuman primate model for human disease, ranging from autoimmune to infectious disease. In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary. Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals. Single cell suspensions of blood, spleen, and lung were examined. Generally, the phenotype of cells was comparable between humans and marmosets, with approximately 63% of all lymphocytes in the blood of marmosets being T cells, 25% B-cells, and 12% NK cells. The percentage of neutrophils in marmoset blood were more similar to human values than mouse values. Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response. This work significantly enhances the ability to understand the immune response in these animals and fortifies their use as models of infectious disease.

  18. Effect of Polyprenyl Immunostimulant on the survival times of three cats with the dry form of feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Alfred M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2009-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is considered a fatal disease. Three cats with dry form FIP were treated with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant. Two of the three cats are still on treatment and are alive and well 2 years after diagnosis. The third cat survived 14 months but was treated for only 4.5 months. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential of the Polyprenyl Immunostimulant.

  19. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally

  20. In vitro antiviral activity of circular triple helix forming oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Oi Kuan; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO) RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5), which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 10(14) in the virus-inoculated cells to 10(9) in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.

  1. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Circular Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Replication

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    Oi Kuan Choong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV, a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV. Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5, which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 1014 in the virus-inoculated cells to 109 in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.

  2. PrP aggregation can be seeded by pre-formed recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils without the replication of infectious prions.

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    Barron, Rona M; King, Declan; Jeffrey, Martin; McGovern, Gillian; Agarwal, Sonya; Gill, Andrew C; Piccardo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian prions are unusual infectious agents, as they are thought to consist solely of aggregates of misfolded prion protein (PrP). Generation of synthetic prions, composed of recombinant PrP (recPrP) refolded into fibrils, has been utilised to address whether PrP aggregates are, indeed, infectious prions. In several reports, neurological disease similar to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) has been described following inoculation and passage of various forms of fibrils in transgenic mice and hamsters. However, in studies described here, we show that inoculation of recPrP fibrils does not cause TSE disease, but, instead, seeds the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in PrP-P101L knock-in transgenic mice (101LL). Importantly, both WT-recPrP fibrils and 101L-recPrP fibrils can seed plaque formation, indicating that the fibrillar conformation, and not the primary sequence of PrP in the inoculum, is important in initiating seeding. No replication of infectious prions or TSE disease was observed following both primary inoculation and subsequent subpassage. These data, therefore, argue against recPrP fibrils being infectious prions and, instead, indicate that these pre-formed seeds are acting to accelerate the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in 101LL Tg mice. In addition, these data reproduce a phenotype which was previously observed in 101LL mice following inoculation with brain extract containing in vivo-generated PrP amyloid fibrils, which has not been shown for other synthetic prion models. These data are reminiscent of the "prion-like" spread of aggregated forms of the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), α-synuclein and tau observed following inoculation of transgenic mice with pre-formed seeds of each misfolded protein. Hence, even when the protein is PrP, misfolding and aggregation do not reproduce the full clinicopathological phenotype of disease. The initiation and spread of protein aggregation in transgenic mouse lines following inoculation with pre-formed

  3. Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?

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    Klimek, Chelsey; Ashbeck, Christopher; Brook, Alexander J; Durall, Chris

    2017-03-02

    Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity, ballistic movements. As CrossFit becomes an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs The search initially yielded >100 results which was narrowed down to three level 2b retrospective cohort studies that was deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria In all three reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from three retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or

  4. Viable but not culturable forms of Legionella pneumophila generated after heat shock treatment are infectious for macrophage-like and alveolar epithelial cells after resuscitation on Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

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    Epalle, Thibaut; Girardot, Françoise; Allegra, Séverine; Maurice-Blanc, Cécile; Garraud, Olivier; Riffard, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of legionellosis is transmitted to human through aerosols from environmental sources and invades lung's macrophages. It also can invade and replicate within various protozoan species in environmental reservoirs. Following exposures to various stresses, L. pneumophila enters a non-replicative viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Here, we evaluated whether VBNC forms of three L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains (Philadelphia GFP 008, clinical 044 and environmental RNN) infect differentiated macrophage-like cell lines (U937 and HL-60), A549 alveolar cells and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. VBNC forms obtained following shocks at temperatures ranging from 50 to 70 °C for 5 to 60 min were quantified using a flow cytometric assay (FCA). Their loss of culturability was checked on BCYE agar medium. VBNC forms were systematically detected upon a 70 °C heat shock for 30 min. When testing their potential to resuscitate upon amoebal infection, VBNC forms obtained after 30 min at 70 °C were re-cultivated except for the clinical strain. No resuscitation or cell lysis was evidenced when using U937, HL-60, or A549 cells despite the use of various contact times and culture media. None of the strains tested could infect A. polyphaga, macrophage-like or alveolar epithelial cells after a 60-min treatment at 70 °C. However, heat-treated VBNC forms were able to infect macrophage-like or alveolar epithelial cells following their resuscitation on A. polyphaga. These results suggest that heat-generated VBNC forms of L. pneumophila (i) are not infectious for macrophage-like or alveolar epithelial cells in vitro although resuscitation is still possible using amoeba, and (ii) may become infectious for human cell lines following a previous interaction with A. polyphaga.

  5. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

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    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  6. Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters%自然灾害后易发的儿科感染性疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚开虎

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases.This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters,especially earthquake,and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years.The infectious diseases after earthquake.include diarrhea,cholera,viral hepatitis,upper respiratory tract infection,tuberculosis,measles,leptospirosis,dengue fever,tetanus,and gas gangrene,as well as some rare infections.Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases,so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.%自然灾害加重了与感染性疾病发生相关的多种危险因素,为感染性疾病的发生创造了条件.该文介绍了自然灾害,尤其是地震后容易发生感染性疾病的危险因素和近年来报道的灾后感染性疾病.震后出现流行的感染性疾病包括腹泻、霍乱、病毒性肝炎、上呼吸道感染、结核、麻疹、钩端螺旋体病、登革热、破伤风、气性坏疽,以及一些少见感染.儿童是易发生感染的人群,儿科医生更需重视自然灾害和感染关系的研究.

  7. Trypanosoma brucei TbIF1 inhibits the essential F1-ATPase in the infectious form of the parasite.

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    Brian Panicucci

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial (mt FoF1-ATP synthase of the digenetic parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, generates ATP during the insect procyclic form (PF, but becomes a perpetual consumer of ATP in the mammalian bloodstream form (BF, which lacks a canonical respiratory chain. This unconventional dependence on FoF1-ATPase is required to maintain the essential mt membrane potential (Δψm. Normally, ATP hydrolysis by this rotary molecular motor is restricted to when eukaryotic cells experience sporadic hypoxic conditions, during which this compulsory function quickly depletes the cellular ATP pool. To protect against this cellular treason, the highly conserved inhibitory factor 1 (IF1 binds the enzyme in a manner that solely inhibits the hydrolytic activity. Intriguingly, we were able to identify the IF1 homolog in T. brucei (TbIF1, but determined that its expression in the mitochondrion is tightly regulated throughout the life cycle as it is only detected in PF cells. TbIF1 appears to primarily function as an emergency brake in PF cells, where it prevented the restoration of the Δψm by FoF1-ATPase when respiration was chemically inhibited. In vitro, TbIF1 overexpression specifically inhibits the hydrolytic activity but not the synthetic capability of the FoF1-ATP synthase in PF mitochondria. Furthermore, low μM amounts of recombinant TbIF1 achieve the same inhibition of total mt ATPase activity as the FoF1-ATPase specific inhibitors, azide and oligomycin. Therefore, even minimal ectopic expression of TbIF1 in BF cells proved lethal as the indispensable Δψm collapsed due to inhibited FoF1-ATPase. In summary, we provide evidence that T. brucei harbors a natural and potent unidirectional inhibitor of the vital FoF1-ATPase activity that can be exploited for future structure-based drug design.

  8. Physical Basis behind Achondroplasia, the Most Common Form of Human Dwarfism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Horton, William; Hristova, Kalina

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in long bone development. The G380R mutation in FGFR3 transmembrane domain is known as the genetic cause for achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the exact mechanism underlying the pathology. To gain further understanding into the physical basis behind the disorder, here we measure the activation of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 in mammalian cells using Western blots, and we analyze the activation within the frame of a physical-chemical model describing dimerization, ligand binding, and phosphorylation probabilities within the dimers. The data analysis presented here suggests that the mutation does not increase FGFR3 dimerization, as proposed previously. Instead, FGFR3 activity in achondroplasia is increased due to increased probability for phosphorylation of the unliganded mutant dimers. This finding has implications for the design of targeted molecular treatments for achondroplasia. PMID:20624921

  9. Physical basis behind achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Horton, William; Hristova, Kalina

    2010-09-24

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in long bone development. The G380R mutation in FGFR3 transmembrane domain is known as the genetic cause for achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the exact mechanism underlying the pathology. To gain further understanding into the physical basis behind the disorder, here we measure the activation of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 in mammalian cells using Western blots, and we analyze the activation within the frame of a physical-chemical model describing dimerization, ligand binding, and phosphorylation probabilities within the dimers. The data analysis presented here suggests that the mutation does not increase FGFR3 dimerization, as proposed previously. Instead, FGFR3 activity in achondroplasia is increased due to increased probability for phosphorylation of the unliganded mutant dimers. This finding has implications for the design of targeted molecular treatments for achondroplasia.

  10. [Results of surgical therapy of the partial form of persistent common atrioventricular canal (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, F; Possati, F; Calafiore, A M; Santarelli, P; Malara, D; Ottino, G M; de Nunno, T

    1975-01-01

    20 patients with partial form of persistent common atrioventricular canal underwent surgery at the Centro di Cardiochirurgia "A. Blalock", University of Turin, between 1969 and 1974. In each case the treatment of lesions took place in the following order: the repair or replacement (one case) of the mitral valve; the closing with a patch of the atrial septal defect; the repair, in one case, of the tricuspid. The most frequent post-operative complications were arrhythmias, which in two cases consisted of a total atrioventricular block. Only one patient died postoperatively for an acute pulmonary oedema following an imperfect mitral valve correction. Six months after surgery, another patient died from bacterial endocarditis. Thirteen of the eighteen surviving patients showed excellent results at the clinical and/or hemodynamic check; two had fair results and three had poor results. In two cases, mitral insufficiency was hemodynamically aggravated, whilst in another five it disappeared. In eight, a slight apex systolic murmor 1-2/6 persisted, which was not correlated with any radiological or electrocardiographical sign of mitral insufficiency (and for three of these, not even a hemodynamic one). The authors consider that the most difficult problem in surgical therapy for these malformations is still the treatment of mitral lesions.

  11. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  12. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking ...

  13. Infectious Aortitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, F Daniel; Jamison, Bruce M; Hibbert, Benjamin

    2016-09-28

    Aortitis is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious etiologies, each with distinct treatment implications. We present the case of a patient who sustained a type A aortic dissection during urgent coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome. Clinical findings and events during the procedure raised suspicion for an underlying vascular disorder; however, the diagnosis of staphylococcal aortitis was not made until pathological examination of resected tissue. Clues to the diagnosis of infectious aortitis noted throughout the patient's clinical course are detailed as are potential consequences of diagnostic delays and treatment decisions, underscoring the difficulties in recognizing and managing the condition. In addition, we describe a previously unreported complication of cardiac catheterization in the setting of an infectious aortopathy.

  14. 常见腹泻性消化道传染病口服疫苗的研究进展%Progress in Research on Oral Vaccine against Common Diarrheal Alimentary Infectious Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世彬

    2011-01-01

    Common diarrheal alimentary infectious diseases are usually caused by pathogens including bacteria and viruses,and disseminated through water or food, which induce fulminant epidemic that cause invasion and death of infant especially. This article reviews the progress in research on oral vaccine against common diarrheal alimentary infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses.%常见腹泻性消化道传染病通常由细菌、病毒等病原体引起,一般通过水源和食物经消化道传播,引起暴发性流行,尤其易引起婴幼儿发病和死亡.本文对常见细菌性和病毒性致腹泻消化道传染病口服疫苗的研究进展作一综述.

  15. Common Infectious Diseases in Africa and China Peacekeeping Police Training%非洲常见传染病与中国维和警察培训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the African continent and in Africa and throughout the world severely affected by infectious disea-ses such as malaria, the development of AIDS, Ebola virus and yellow fever, vector, trends and impact were introduced, com-bined with China CIVPOL mandate and mission, explain the significance of the importance of the prevention of infectious diseases and infectious diseases knowledge training.%对非洲大陆起源并对非洲及整个世界造成严重影响的传染疾病如疟疾、艾滋病、埃博拉病毒病和黄热病的发生发展、传染媒介、流行趋势和影响程度进行了简要介绍,并结合我国维和警察的任务和使命,说明了预防传染病的重要性和传染病知识培训的意义.

  16. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  17. Forming perceptions and the limits to public participation on ocean commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne

    2017-01-01

    Public views of, and public participation in, the management of commons are increasingly being recommended and sought after in environmental management processes. Yet, given the limits of today’s liberal democracy, what are the weaknesses? This article presents data from a citizens jury-inspired ......Public views of, and public participation in, the management of commons are increasingly being recommended and sought after in environmental management processes. Yet, given the limits of today’s liberal democracy, what are the weaknesses? This article presents data from a citizens jury......-inspired deliberative workshop held to tease out stakeholder views of management priorities for a section of the North Sea: the Dogger Bank. As this article reveals, the lessons learned from the Dogger Bank workshop advocate not simply what is required for managing one particular ocean commons, but also highlight some...... inherent, yet often unacknowledged, in public participation in environmental management. Stakeholder opinions uncovered through workshop discussions also show how commons are viewed today – as an economic resource-- highlighting the trend of the mainstreaming of the commodification of the commons....

  18. Review on common calibration and measuremnt practises for mesuring free form surface on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    The present review outlines the state of the art of the traceability of measuring free form surfaces on coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). A general introduction to free from surfaces and to the way free form surfaces are inspected in industry at present is given.and some problems regarding...... the traceability of measuring of free form surfaces on CMMs outlined. A newly developed procedure for performance verification on CMMs with respect to free form measurements is described, and some investigations regarding this method are reviewed. The investigations are concerned with two new tests, the Spiral...... have been carried out on two CMMs with different performances. The investigations have clearly shown that the performance verification procedure must be implemented in the specific software in use for the actual measurements. The Spiral Test showed a clear influence on CMM performances from scanning...

  19. Testing Structural Models of DSM-IV Symptoms of Common Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Van Hulle, Carol; Urbano, Richard C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Applegate, Brooks; Garriock, Holly A.; Chapman, Derek A.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) symptoms of common mental disorders derived from structured interviews of a representative sample of 4,049 twin children and adolescents and their adult caretakers. A dimensional model based on the assignment of symptoms…

  20. Different strategies for producing soluble form of natural common cytokine receptor gamma chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common cytokine receptor ' chain ('c) plays an essential role in regulating lymphoid homeostasis and alterations in its structure causes severe immunodeficient diseases. Although soluble 'c (s'c) was first reported in the late 1990's, many questions still remain unanswered concerning the sheddi...

  1. Effect of a Comprehensive Health Care Program by Korean Medicine Doctors on Medical Care Utilization for Common Infectious Diseases in Child-Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the role of traditional medicine in community health improvement increases, a comprehensive health care program for infectious diseases management in child-care centers by Korean medicine doctors was developed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the program intervention on infection-related medical care utilization among children. The study used a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group, comparing pre- and post-intervention data of the same children. The program implemented interventions in terms of management, education, and medical examination for the teachers, parents, and children in 12-week period. The frequency of utilization, cost, and prescription days of drugs and antibiotics due to infectious diseases prior to the intervention were compared with those during the 3-month intervention, using health insurance claim data. A panel analysis was also conducted to support the findings. A significant reduction (12% in infection-related visit days of hospitals was observed with the intervention (incident rate ratio = 0.88, P=0.01. And medical cost, drug prescription days, and antibiotics prescription days were decreased, although not statistically significant. A further cost-effectiveness analysis in terms of social perspectives, considering the opportunity costs for guardians to take children to medical institutions, would be needed.

  2. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-08-01

    There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue). Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.

  3. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karon F Cook

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karon F Cook1, Seung W Choi2, Kurt L Johnson1, Dagmar Amtmann11Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue. Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.Keywords: psychometrics, outcomes, quality of life, measurement, fatigue

  4. Groupwork as a Form of Assessment: Common Problems and Recommended Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the literature on the use of groupwork as a form of assessment in tertiary institutions. It outlines the considerable advantages of groupwork but also its systemic associated problems. In discussing the problems, the paper considers issues such as "free riding" and the "sucker effect", issues associated with ethnic mix…

  5. Sequence similarities of the capsid gene of Chilean and European isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus point towards a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2011-07-01

    The Chilean salmonid industry was developed by importing breeding materials, a practice still in effect due to deficits in the national supply of roe. Importation of breeding materials is often associated with the transmission of pathogens. The objectives of this study were to compare the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from Chile to those of European origin and to determine the diversity of the Chilean IPNV. The VP2 genes of IPNV from Chilean fish (whose eggs originated from Scotland, Iceland and Norway) were compared to isolates from fish in Norway and Ireland. The results show that the isolates are identical (97-99%) and cluster into one genogroup. Our findings support previous reports of association between the trade-in breeding materials and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the genotypic diversity of Chilean IPNV isolates. These findings have important implications for IPNV disease diagnosis and control in Chile.

  6. Glucokinase MODY and implications for treatment goals of common forms of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Owen, Katharine R

    2014-12-01

    Treatment goals in diabetes concentrate on reducing the risk of vascular complications, largely through setting targets for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These targets are based on epidemiological studies of complication development, but so far have not adequately addressed the adverse effects associated with lowering HbA1c towards the normal range. Glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a monogenic form of hyperglycaemia (GCK-MODY) characterised by fasting hyperglycaemia with low postprandial glucose excursions and a marginally elevated HbA1c. Minimal levels of vascular complications (comparable with nondiabetic individuals) are observed in GCK-MODY, leading to the hypothesis that GCK-MODY may represent a useful paradigm for assessing treatment goals in all forms of diabetes. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind this concept, suggest ways of translating this hypothesis into clinical practice and address some of the caveats of such an approach.

  7. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. METHODS: From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI, diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera. Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.067 and 0.026 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; diarrhea--0.40 and 0.71 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.09 and 0.062 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; AFI--0.17 and 0.09 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.03 and 0.015 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively. Annually, based on household visits, children <5 years in Asembo and Kibera had 60 and 27 cough days, 10 and 8 diarrhea days, and 37 and 11 fever days, respectively. Household-based rates were higher than clinic rates for diarrhea and AFI, this difference being several-fold greater in the rural than urban site. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  8. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  9. Rare missense variants in ATP1A2 in families with clustering of common forms of migraine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todt, U.; Dichgans, M.; Jurkat-Rott, K.; Heinze, A.; Zifarelli, G.; Koenderink, J.B.; Goebel, I.; Zumbroich, V.; Stiller, A.; Ramirez, A.; Friedrich, T.; Gobel, H.; Kubisch, C.

    2005-01-01

    Migraine is a recurrent neurovascular disease. Its two most common forms-migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA)-both show familial clustering and a complex pattern of inheritance. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare monogenic subform caused by mutations in the calcium channe

  10. From limbs to leaves: common themes in evolutionary diversification of organ form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink, Remco A; Tsiantis, Miltos

    2015-01-01

    An open problem in biology is to derive general principles that capture how morphogenesis evolved to generate diverse forms in different organisms. Here we discuss recent work investigating the morphogenetic basis for digit loss in vertebrate limbs and variation in form of marginal outgrowths of angiosperm (flowering plant) leaves. Two pathways underlie digit loss in vertebrate limbs. First, alterations to digit patterning arise through modification of expression of the Patched 1 receptor, which senses the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen and limits its mobility in the limb bud. Second, evolutionary changes to the degree of programmed cell death between digits influence their development after their initiation. Similarly, evolutionary modification of leaf margin outgrowths occurs via two broad pathways. First, species-specific transcription factor expression modulates outgrowth patterning dependent on regulated transport of the hormone auxin. Second, species-specific expression of the newly discovered REDUCED COMPLEXITY homeodomain transcription factor influences growth between individual outgrowths after their initiation. These findings demonstrate that in both plants and animals tinkering with either patterning or post-patterning processes can cause morphological change. They also highlight the considerable flexibility of morphological evolution and indicate that it may be possible to derive broad principles that capture how morphogenesis evolved across complex eukaryotes.

  11. [Gallstone obstruction of the common bile duct, a severe form of biliary lithiasis. Choice of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Neel, J C; Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C

    1992-01-01

    Collection of 10 or more stones in the extrahepatic common bile duct causes lithiasic obstruction of the CBD, a fairly rare entity observed in less than 10% of cases of bile duct lithiasis. This study is based on 35 cases recorded over 10 years, including 60% in patients aged more than 75 years. Endoscopic treatment was attempted in 28% of patients and was totally successful in one case our of four only because of insufficient removal of obstruction after sphincterotomy. Surgery, either necessary (8 cases) or systematic (25 cases) combines cholecystectomy, choledocotomy and biliary fiberendoscopy for a complete treatment minimizing the risks of residual lithiasis. While biliodigestive anastomoses prevailed (58%) during the first years of this study, external biliary drainage was most often chosen during the last 5 years. This surgery in aged patients still entails high morbidity (25%) and considerable mortality (9%). Better efficacy may be provided in the future by the combination of fiberendoscopic means and of lithotrity for aged subjects at high surgical risks.

  12. A Comparison of Clinical and Immunologic Phenotypes in Familial and Sporadic Forms of Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Amir; Yazdani, Reza; Azizi, Gholamreza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2017-08-11

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disease and its prevalence varies significantly among different population. Minority of CVID patients present a familial aggregation suggesting a higher probability of heritable genetic defects. A total of 235 registered CVID patients were evaluated in this cohort study. Familial and sporadic patients were stratified and demographic information, clinical records, laboratory and molecular data were compared among these two groups of patients. Multiple cases were identified in 12 families (30 patients) and sporadic presentation in 120 cases. The rate of parental consanguinity (83.3%) and clinical presentation of lymphoid malignancy (20.7%) were predominant in familial CVID patients, whereas significantly increased recurrent upper respiratory infections were recorded in sporadic patients (0.3 infections per year). Probands of familial group were presented with a higher severity score resulting in a profound mortality rate (41.7% after 30-years follow-up) comparing to the non-proband CVID patients in the same families with a lowered diagnostic delay. Familial CVID patients had a specific signature in clinical presentation and immunologic profile and a high consanguinity in this group of patients suggests a Mendelian trait with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Diagnosis of an index patient within a multiple case families significantly improves the diagnostic process and outcomes of the yet asymptomatic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268

  14. Infectious Coryza: Overview of the Disease and New Diagnostic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Infectious coryza is a well-recognized and commonly encountered upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum. The occurrence of recent outbreaks in North America has emphasized that the disease can be significant in meat chickens as well as layer chickens. In developing countries, coryza is commonly complicated by the presence of a range of other infections, resulting in severe disease and significant economic losses. Unusual forms of ...

  15. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  16. Monogenic Diabetes: What It Teaches Us on the Common Forms of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yisheng; Chan, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    To date, more than 30 genes have been linked to monogenic diabetes. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified > 50 susceptibility loci for common type 1 diabetes (T1D) and approximately 100 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D). About 1-5% of all cases of diabetes result from single-gene mutations and are called monogenic diabetes. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of the role of monogenic diabetes genes that have also been found to be associated with common T1D and/or T2D. Variants of approximately one-third of monogenic diabetes genes are associated with T2D, but not T1D. Two of the T2D-associated monogenic diabetes genes-potassium inward-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11), which controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the β-cell; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG), which impacts multiple tissue targets in relation to inflammation and insulin sensitivity-have been developed as major antidiabetic drug targets. Another monogenic diabetes gene, the preproinsulin gene (INS), is unique in that INS mutations can cause hyperinsulinemia, hyperproinsulinemia, neonatal diabetes mellitus, one type of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY10), and autoantibody-negative T1D. Dominant heterozygous INS mutations are the second most common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Moreover, INS gene variants are strongly associated with common T1D (type 1a), but inconsistently with T2D. Variants of the monogenic diabetes gene Gli-similar 3 (GLIS3) are associated with both T1D and T2D. GLIS3 is a key transcription factor in insulin production and β-cell differentiation during embryonic development, which perturbation forms the basis of monogenic diabetes as well as its association with T1D. GLIS3 is also required for compensatory β-cell proliferation in adults; impairment of this function predisposes to T2D. Thus, monogenic forms of diabetes are invaluable "human models" that have

  17. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  18. [Endoprosthesis Infections - Guidelines for Antibiotic Therapy Common Guidelines of the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the Society for Infectious Diseases of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, D; Balejová, M; Horníková, M; Chrdle, A; Mallátová, N; Nyč, O; Chmelík, V; Gallo, J; Jahoda, D; Stehlík, J

    2017-01-01

    initially intravenously and later orally over a sufficient period of time. Bearing in mind the wide spectrum of pathogens that can cause infections of a joint replacement and their capacity to form a biofilm on foreign materials, the correct choice of an antibiotic, its dose and dosage interval are essential for successful treatment. Such standard should respect regional availability of antibiotics, regional pathogen resistance/susceptibility and ensure the achievement of sufficiently high concentrations at the requested location including anti-biofilm activity. CONCLUSIONS The submitted guideline is not the only treatment option for joint total replacement infections, but it makes the decisionmaking easier when treating these complications in the form of infections. The final choice of an antibiotic, its dose and duration of therapy shall be based on a critical assessment of results of microbiological (blood culture and molecular genetic) tests and reflect the patient s clinical condition. Since these are multidisciplinary issues, we consider useful for this guideline to be commented upon and approved by the committee of both the Society for Orthopaedics and Infectious Diseases so that it can become the starting point for treatment. Key words: total joint replacement infection, TEP, ATB, antibiotic therapy, consensus meeting, guideline.

  19. 山西省太原市传染病医院2001-2011年疾病谱变迁及常见传染病流行趋势分析%2001-2011 annual changes of disease spectrum and trends analysis of common infectious diseases of the infectious diseases hospital of Taiyuan in Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亦农; 刘宝芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the inpatients species changes of infectious disease hospital from 2001 to 2011 years in Taiyuan,and make relevant recommendations to the trends and prevention strategies for common infectious diseases.Methods The diseases species of the hospital from 2001 to 2011 years and the number of hospitalized patients were retrospectively counted and analyzed.Results The proportion of liver disease hospitalized was always more than 60% in the ten years;The bacillary dysentery decreased from 4.23% in 2006 to 0.96% in 2011 ;The hospitalized patients with measles decreased significantly since 2009,and only 0.26% in 2011 ;In 2008,hand-foot-mouth disease accounted for 3.42% of the hospitalized patients,and it peaked in 2010,accounting for 7.51% ; The number of hospitalized patients with rabies disease rised in 2011,accounting for 0.27%.Conclusion Liver disease is still the major infectious diseases of the hospital;The mumps,chicken pox,scarlet fever and other respiratory diseases as well as hand-foot-mouth disease is a common infectious disease threats to the health of infants and young children,and for the increasing trend of the number of patients with brucellosis hairtetracycline,the tetracycline and brucellosis drugs for children should be promoted to product and sale.The rabies vaccination knowledge should be popularized,and the incidence of rabies should be reduced.%目的 分析2001-2011年太原市传染病医院住院病种的变化,对常见传染病的流行趋势及防治策略提出相关建议.方法 对2001-2011年该院各种疾病病种及住院例数进行回顾性统计分析.结果 肝病的住院比例在十年间始终在60%以上;细菌性痢疾从2006年的4.23%下降至2011年的0.96%;自2009年以后麻疹住院患者明显减少,2011年仅占0.26%;2008年手足口病占住院患者的3.42%,2010年达到高峰,占7.51%;2011年狂犬病住院例数攀升,达到0.27%.结论 肝病仍是该院的主

  20. Variation of the McKusick-Kaufman gene and studies of relationships with common forms of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirstine Lynge; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a prominent feature of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), one subset of which, BBS6, is due to mutations in the chaperonin-like gene termed the McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKKS) gene. We tested whether variation in MKKS contributes to common and probably polygenic forms of obesity...... by performing mutation analysis of the coding region in 60 Danish white men with juvenile-onset obesity. Five variants were identified, including two synonymous mutations (Pro(39)Pro and Ile(178)Ile) and three nonsynonymous variants (Ala(242)Ser, Arg(517)Cys, and Gly(532)Val). Furthermore, the rare Ala(242)Ser...... was identified in two families and showed partial cosegregation with obesity. The Pro(39)Pro, Ile(178)Ile, and Arg(517)Cys variants are in complete linkage disequilibrium and defined a prevalent haplotype. In a case-control study, the Arg(517)Cys polymorphism allele prevalence was 11.4% [95% confidence interval...

  1. DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICATION OF ICTERIC IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ya. Chernobrovkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of infectious diseases for general practitioners is always a difficult process. The spectrum of clinical entities when jaundice may develop is unusually wide. First of all doctor must exclude or confirm infectious nature of the jaundice, which is dictated primarily by epidemiological rules. This report contains clinical and epidemiological characteristics of key diseases causing jaundice syndrome. Authors conducted analysis based on the data of the 18th department of the Moscow Infectious Hospital № 1 for the years 2014-2015 and revealed how common infectious diseases causing jaundice syndrome are.

  2. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. E. MacPhee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  3. Equine Infectious Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet gives information on equine infectious anemia, a blood-borne infectious viral disease of horses, donkeys, and mules. It describes transmission, clinical disease, diagnosis and control.

  4. Equine Infectious Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet gives information on equine infectious anemia, a blood-borne infectious viral disease of horses, donkeys, and mules. It describes transmission, clinical disease, diagnosis and control.

  5. Human hematopoietic cells express two forms of the cytokine receptor common γ—chain(γc)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYUFANG; MARYHILL; 等

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the γ-chain of the IL-2 receptor is shared by the receptors for IL-4,IL-7,IL-9,IL-13,and IL-15,and it is therefore also referred to as the common γ-chain (γc).Mutations of γc result in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome in humans,indicating that γc is essential for normal development and function of the immune system.We demonstrate that human hematopoietic cells express two γc transcripts differing in their carboxyl terminal coding region.One transcript is the previously reported sequence (γc-long), whereas the newly identified sequence exhibits a deletion of 72 nucleotides close to the 3'-end of the open reading frame (γc-short).This alteration predicts a loss of 24 amino acids including a conserved tyrosine residue which is shared by several members of the cytokine receptor family.The presencfe of these two distinct forms of γc transcripts was demonstrated by sequencing of reversely transcribed and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplified mRNA,restriction diestion of the RT-PCR products,RNAse protection,and Northern blotting from human cell lines and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.Furthermore,the two variants were present in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both female and male donors,which rules out allelic variants since γc is a single copy gene located on the X chromosome.A truncation mutant at a site near the observed changes in γc-short has been reported by others to alter biochemical events activated by cytokines.This combined with the loss of a potential SH2 “docking” site in γc-short suggests that γ-long and γc-short may link to different signaling pathways and may play an important role in detenmining the cellular response to IL-2,IL-4,IL-7,IL-9,IL-13,IL-15.

  6. Familial hemiplegic migraine locus on 19p13 is involved in the common forms of migraine with and without aura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. May (Arne); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); G.M. Terwindt (Gisela); C. Urban; R. van Eijk (Ronald); J. Haan (Joost); H.C. Diener (Hans Christoph); D. Lindhout (Dick); R.R. Frants (Rune); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk); M.D. Ferrari (Michel)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMigraine is a common neurological disease of two main types: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Familial clustering suggests that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of migraine. Recently, a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine, a rare autosomal dominant subtype of m

  7. Familial hemiplegic migraine locus on 19p13 is involved in the common forms of migraine with and without aura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. May (Arne); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); G.M. Terwindt (Gisela); C. Urban; R. van Eijk (Ronald); J. Haan (Joost); H.C. Diener (Hans Christoph); D. Lindhout (Dick); R.R. Frants (Rune); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk); M.D. Ferrari (Michel)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMigraine is a common neurological disease of two main types: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Familial clustering suggests that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of migraine. Recently, a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine, a rare autosomal dominant subtype of m

  8. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13 Chapter 14 Annex Viral Meningitis Fungal Meningitis Parasitic ... How it Spreads Non–infectious meningitis causes include: Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) Certain drugs Head injury ...

  9. HYPERACTIVE CHILD`S DISTURBED ATTENTION AS THE MOST COMMON CAUSE FOR LIGHT FORMS OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola SOFIJANOV

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an overview of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as one of the reasons for later development of milder forms of mental handicaps. It is well known that ADHD must not necessarily be connected with mental handicaps as the evolution of the syndrome goes through different stages.The paper presents, apart from the classical clinical picture, some new data as to the diagnosis and etiology of the syndrome. The modern treatment is elucidated as well.

  10. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Program in High-Risk Human Neuroblastoma and Mouse Neuroblastoma Sphere-Forming Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengling; Xia, Yingfeng; Ding, Jane; Ye, Bingwei; Zhao, Erhu; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Alptekin, Ahmet; Yan, Chunhong; Dong, Zheng; Huang, Shuang; Yang, Liqun; Cui, Hongjuan; Zha, Yunhong; Ding, Han-Fei

    2016-10-04

    High-risk neuroblastoma remains one of the deadliest childhood cancers. Identification of metabolic pathways that drive or maintain high-risk neuroblastoma may open new avenues of therapeutic interventions. Here, we report the isolation and propagation of neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential from tumors of the TH-MYCN mouse, an animal model of high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification. Transcriptional profiling reveals that mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells acquire a metabolic program characterized by transcriptional activation of the cholesterol and serine-glycine synthesis pathways, primarily as a result of increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding factors and Atf4, respectively. This metabolic reprogramming is recapitulated in high-risk human neuroblastomas and is prognostic for poor clinical outcome. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the metabolic program markedly decreases the growth and tumorigenicity of both mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells and human neuroblastoma cell lines. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for targeting the metabolic program of high-risk neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New record and re-description of a gall-forming aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae, commonly confused in the north of South America, associated with an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Simbaqueba-Cortés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The gall-forming aphid Tetraneura fusiformis is recorded for the first time for Northern South America. Its identity is clarified, and descriptions of this species and that of T. nigriabdominalis, with which it is commonly confused, are offered. The association of this sap sucking insect with the ant Linepithema angulatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is recorded for the first time as well

  12. [Genetic background in common forms of obesity - from studies on identical twins to candidate genes of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendlová, Běla; Lukášová, Petra; Vaňková, Markéta; Vejražková, Daniela; Bradnová, Olga; Včelák, Josef; Stanická, Soňa; Zamrazilová, Hana; Aldhoon-Hainerová, Irena; Dušátková, Lenka; Kunešová, Marie; Hainer, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Common obesity is a result of interaction between genes and environmental/lifestyle factors, with heritability estimates 40-70%. Not only the susceptibility to obesity but also the success of weight management depends on the genetic background of each individual. This paper summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on genetic causes of common obesities. Introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) led to an identification of a total of 32 variants associated with obesity/BMI and 14 with body fat distribution. Further, a great progress in revealing the mechanisms regulating the energy balance was also noted. However, the proportion of explained variance for BMI is still low, suggesting other mechanisms such as gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, rare gene variants, copy number variants polymorphisms, or epigenetic modifications and microRNAs regulating gene transcription. In summary, we present results of our studies on obesity risk variants in Czech adults, children and adolescents including those evaluating the influence of selected gene variants on the outcomes of weight management.

  13. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  14. Infectious pathogens and bronchiolitis outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma.

  15. Broad belts of shear zones: The common form of surface rupture produced by the 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.M.; Cruikshank, K.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Richard H. Jahns Engineering Geology Lab.; Fleming, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Surface rupturing during the 28 June 1992, Landers, California earthquake, east of Los Angeles, accommodated right-lateral offsets up to about 6 m along segments of distinct, en echelon fault zones with a total length of about 80 km. The offsets were accommodated generally not by faults -- distinct slip surfaces -- but rather by shear zones, tabular bands of localized shearing. In long, straight stretches of fault zones at Landers the rupture is characterized by telescoping of shear zones and intensification of shearing: broad shear zones of mild shearing, containing narrow shear zones of more intense shearing, containing even-narrower shear zones of very intense shearing, which may contain a fault. Thus the ground ruptured across broad belts of shearing with subparallel walls, oriented NW. Each broad belt consists of a broad zone of mild shearing, extending across its entire width (50 to 200 m), and much narrower (a few m wide) shear zones that accommodate most of the offset of the belt and are portrayed by en echelon tension cracks. In response to right-lateral shearing, the slices of ground bounded by the tension cracks rotated in a clockwise sense, producing left lateral shearing, and the slices were forced against the walls of the shear zone, producing thrusting. Even narrower shear zones formed within the narrow shear zones, and some of these were faults. Although the narrower shear zones probably are indicators to right-lateral fault segments at depth, the surface rupturing during the earthquake is characterized not by faulting, but by zones of shearing at various scales. Furthermore, understanding of the formation of the shear zones may be critical to understanding of earthquake faulting because, where faulting is associated with the formation of a shear zone, the faulting occurs late in the development of the shear zone. The faulting occurs after a shear zone or a belt of shear zones forms.

  16. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  17. How genetics research in Parkinson's disease is enhancing understanding of the common idiopathic forms of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Mark R; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Singleton, Andrew

    2005-12-01

    Rapid progress in genetics has meant that there are now five genes identified for 'Parkinson's disease'. The detailed phenotypes vary, but generally the dominant genes cause a Lewy body disease spectrum whereas recessive genes cause a milder parkinsonism with variable inclusion body pathology. The subject of this review is to highlight these discoveries and to discuss their relationships to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In January 2004, mutations in PINK1, coding for a mitochondrial kinase, were found to be causal for recessive parkinsonism. Subsequently, several studies have found additional mutations associated with early onset parkinsonism. Some cases have been described with a phenotype much closer to idiopathic Parkinson's disease, but it does not appear that PINK1 is a major risk factor for the sporadic disease. Later in the same year, the LRRK2 gene was shown to cause a dominant disease with a broader phenotype. The protein product was named dardarin and contains GTPase and kinase domains. Lewy bodies have been reported in LRRK2 cases, potentially linking this gene with sporadic Parkinson's disease. One mutation, G2019S, is found in a significant percentage of cases, including sporadic Parkinson's disease. Mutations in these two genes, along with previously described Mendelian variants, are beginning to yield important information about loss of specific neuronal groups or to protein inclusion pathology. How this relates to sporadic Parkinson's disease, however, is not yet fully defined. There are clear phenotypic overlaps with genetic and sporadic Parkinson's disease, especially for the dominant genes, suggesting that common facets of pathogenesis may exist.

  18. Lys63/Met1-hybrid ubiquitin chains are commonly formed during the activation of innate immune signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Christoph H; Bakshi, Siddharth; Kelsall, Ian R; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juanma; Shpiro, Natalia; Cohen, Philip

    2016-06-03

    We have reported previously that activation of the MyD88-signaling network rapidly induces the formation of hybrid ubiquitin chains containing both Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin (Ub) oligomers, some of which are attached covalently to Interleukin Receptor Associated kinase 1. Here we show that Lys63/Met1-Ub hybrids are also formed rapidly when the TNFR1/TRADD, TLR3/TRIF- and NOD1/RIP2-signaling networks are activated, some of which are attached covalently to Receptor-Interacting Protein 1 (TNFR1 pathway) or Receptor-Interacting Protein 2 (NOD1 pathway). These observations suggest that the formation of Lys63/Met1-Ub hybrids are of general significance for the regulation of innate immune signaling systems, and their potential roles in vivo are discussed. We also report that TNFα induces the attachment of Met1-linked Ub chains directly to TNF receptor 1, which do not seem to be attached covalently to Lys63-linked or other types of ubiquitin chain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infectious abortions in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortions in pigs can be caused by infectious or non-infectious factors About 38% of all diagnosed abortions in pigs were caused by infectious agents. Consequences of infection can be early embryonal deaths or abortions which occur after the 40th day following conception. Causes of abortions include different species of viruses (parvoviruses, enteroviruses pseudorabies viruses, PRRS or bacteria (Brucella, Leptospira, and others. A precise diagnosis is imperative for therapy and prevention of abortions in pigs, and it is necessary to apply measures to prevent reproductive disorders in pigs.

  20. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  1. Infectious Agents and Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these agents on subsequent risk of cancer. There are currently ... tween genetic and environmental factors (that include infectious agents) .... opment of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lym- phoma. However .... Lung cancer i. Skin cancers ...

  2. 感染性疾病科常见护理风险因素及防范对策%Common risk factors and nursing countermeasures in department of infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 陆海鸿

    2014-01-01

    In the department of infectious diseases,the main diseases are hepatitis disease,febrile disease of respiratory tract, intestinal diseases,AIDS and so on.Because infectious diseases have certain infectivity,and this increases the risk of other patients and medical staff.In recent years,because of the "SARS",human avian influenza and other major diseases,our country pay more attention to the infectious diseases,especially after the "SARS".People have a deep understanding of the harm of infectious disease.Therefore,this puts forward higher requirements for medical care,especially in nursing work,nursing staff have direct contact with various secretions,metabolites.How to reduce nursing risks become the problem that is worth to discuss.We analyze the potential risk factors in nursing work combined with practical work and related documents,and put forward some preventive measures.%感染性疾病科以治疗肝炎疾病、呼吸道发热疾病、肠道疾病、艾滋病等疾病为主的科室,由于感染性疾病具有一定的传染性,增加了其他患者和医护人员的风险。近年来,由于“非典”、人禽流行性感冒等重大疾病的流行,我们国家对传染性疾病的重视程度大大增强,特别是“非典”之后,人们对传染病的危害性有了深刻的认识。因此,对医疗护理方面提出了更高的要求,特别是护理工作,直接接触患者的各种分泌物、代谢物等,如何降低护理风险成为目前值得探讨的问题。笔者结合工作实际和有关文献报道对护理工作中潜在的危险因素进行分析,并提出了相关的相关预防措施。

  3. Habituation of evoked responses is greater in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine than in controls: a contrast with the common forms of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Bolla, M; Magis, D; de Pasqua, V; Ashina, M; Thomsen, L L; Olesen, J; Schoenen, J

    2011-03-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare, dominantly inherited subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegia during the aura phase. Mutations in at least three different genes can produce the FHM phenotype. The mutated FHM genes code for ion transport proteins that animal and cellular studies have associated with disturbed ion homeostasis, altered cellular excitability, neurotransmitter release, and decreased threshold for cortical spreading depression. The common forms of migraine are characterized interictally by a habituation deficit of cortical and subcortical evoked responses that has been attributed to neuronal dysexcitability. FHM and the common forms of migraine are thought to belong to a spectrum of migraine phenotypes with similar pathophysiology, and we therefore examined whether an abnormal habituation pattern would also be found in FHM patients. In a group of genotyped FHM patients (five FHM-1, four FHM-2), we measured habituation of visual evoked potentials (VEP), auditory evoked potentials including intensity dependence (IDAP), the nociception-specific blink reflex (nsBR) and compared the results to a group of healthy volunteers (HV). FHM patients had a more pronounced habituation during VEP (P=0.025) and nsBR recordings (P=0.023) than HV. There was no difference for IDAP, but the slope tended to be steeper in FHM. Contrary to the common forms of migraine, FHM patients are not characterized by a deficient, but rather by an increased habituation in cortical/brain stem evoked activities. These results suggest differences between FHM and the common forms of migraine, as far as central neuronal processing is concerned. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  4. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  5. Infectious optic neuropathies: a clinical update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloun, Rim; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Mahmoud, Anis; Zeghidi, Hatem; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of optic neuropathy causing visual impairment of varying severity have been reported in association with a wide variety of infectious agents. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious conditions is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular findings. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction in selected cases. Treatment of infectious optic neuropathies involves the use of specific anti-infectious drugs and corticosteroids to suppress the associated inflammatory reaction. The visual prognosis is generally good, but persistent severe vision loss with optic atrophy can occur. This review presents optic neuropathies caused by specific viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. PMID:28539795

  6. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  7. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad...

  8. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  9. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. The Analysis of Blood Routine Test Results in Diagnosis of Common Infectious Diseases%对常见传染病诊断中血常规检测结果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊秀敏

    2015-01-01

    将2011~2014年伤寒病患者66例、肾综合征出血热患者39例、疟疾患者32例、传染性单核细胞增多症患儿82例、呼吸道疾病患者43例与健康人群血常规样本80份对比分析,发现:伤寒患者的白细胞略有降低,嗜酸性粒细胞消失;HFRS患者血小板计数小于100×109/L,多数病例白细胞分类可见异型淋巴细胞;疟疾患者血红蛋白轻度降低,血小板计数小于100×109/L,且多数血涂片有疟原虫;患儿淋巴细胞比值较高,异淋易见,且多数病例异淋比例大于10%。%From 2011 to 2014 , 80 cases of blood routine test results from healthy people were compared with 66 cases of typhoid fever patients, 39 cases of HFRS patients, 32 cases of malaria patients, 82 cases of infectious mononucleosis patients and43 cases of respiratory disease patients.The results found that, for typhoid fever pa-tients, the leukocyte was slight low and the eosinophils disappeared ;for HFRS patients, the platelet count was less than 100 ×109/L and many atypical lymphocytes could be seen;for malaria patients, hemoglobin was slight low, the platelet count was less than 100 ×109/L and majority blood smear had plasmodium;for infectious mononucleosis pa-tients, the lymphocytes were high, atypical lymphocytes could be seen easily which was greater than 10%.

  11. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Elise M; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication.

  13. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  14. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VHA Forms & Publications Quality & Safety Quality of Care Ethics VA/DOD Clinical ... Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later develop symptoms of infectious ...

  15. “Mid-G” Region Sequences of the Glycoprotein Gene of Austrian Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Isolates Form Two Lineages within European Isolates and Are Distinct from American and Asian Lineages▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Schachner, Oskar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Latif, Muna; Nowotny, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important pathogens of salmonid fish. In this study a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genetic evolution and variety of Austrian IHNV strains, as well as selected strains ensuring worldwide coverage, is presented. The phylogenetic investigation is based on sequences comprising the “mid-G” region of the G gene, and it includes all currently available IHNV sequences of the G gene with a length of at least 615 bp. Austri...

  16. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  17. Inflammatory, vascular, and infectious myelopathies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Leonard H; Banwell, Brenda L

    2013-01-01

    Acute nontraumatic myelopathies of childhood include inflammatory, infectious, and vascular etiologies. Inflammatory immune-mediated disorders of the spinal cord can be categorized as idiopathic isolated transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. In recent years, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, West Nile virus, enterovirus-71, and Lyme disease have been increasingly recognized as infectious etiologies of myelopathy, and poliomyelitis remains an important etiology in world regions where vaccination programs have not been universally available. Vascular etiologies include vasculopathies (systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel primary angiitis of the central nervous system), arteriovenous malformations, and spinal cord infarction (fibrocartilaginous embolism, diffuse hypoxic ischemia-mediated infarction). Vascular myelopathies are less common than inflammatory and infectious myelopathies, but are more likely to lead to devastating clinical deficits. Current therapeutic strategies include acute anti-inflammatory treatment and rehabilitation. Stem cell transplantation, nerve graft implantation, and stimulation of endogenous repair mechanisms represent promising strategies for spinal cord repair.

  18. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  19. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  20. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY... exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to explore... your request to: (781) 674-7200, and label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder...

  1. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

  2. Rd9 is a naturally occurring mouse model of a common form of retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutations in RPGR-ORF15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A Thompson

    Full Text Available Animal models of human disease are an invaluable component of studies aimed at understanding disease pathogenesis and therapeutic possibilities. Mutations in the gene encoding retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR are the most common cause of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP and are estimated to cause 20% of all retinal dystrophy cases. A majority of RPGR mutations are present in ORF15, the purine-rich terminal exon of the predominant splice-variant expressed in retina. Here we describe the genetic and phenotypic characterization of the retinal degeneration 9 (Rd9 strain of mice, a naturally occurring animal model of XLRP. Rd9 mice were found to carry a 32-base-pair duplication within ORF15 that causes a shift in the reading frame that introduces a premature-stop codon. Rpgr ORF15 transcripts, but not protein, were detected in retinas from Rd9/Y male mice that exhibited retinal pathology, including pigment loss and slowly progressing decrease in outer nuclear layer thickness. The levels of rhodopsin and transducin in rod outer segments were also decreased, and M-cone opsin appeared mislocalized within cone photoreceptors. In addition, electroretinogram (ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes of both Rd9/Y male and Rd9/Rd9 female mice showed moderate gradual reduction that continued to 24 months of age. The presence of multiple retinal features that correlate with findings in individuals with XLRP identifies Rd9 as a valuable model for use in gaining insight into ORF15-associated disease progression and pathogenesis, as well as accelerating the development and testing of therapeutic strategies for this common form of retinal dystrophy.

  3. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, T. M.

    1930-01-01

    The virus of infectious myxomatosis of rabbits (Sanarelli) induces multiple lesions in the skin, lymph glands, tunica vaginalis,epididymis, testicle, spleen, and lungs. Growth and destruction of cells in the epidermis overlying the myxomatous masses leads to the formation of vesicles. Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in affected epidermal cells. Occasionally, similar inclusions are seen in other involved epithelial cells. The nature of the inclusions is an open question. In the myxomatous masses situated in the subcutaneous and other tissues, evidences of alteration and growth of certain cells are observed. PMID:19869741

  4. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  5. [Infectious colitis. Endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dive, C

    1986-11-01

    Colon and rectum localizations of an disease or a parasitosis depend essentially on the nature of the pathogenous agent and the host resistance. Acute enterocolitis is secondary to enterotoxinogenous germs (such as cholera vibrio), invasive germs (such as shigella), penetrating germs (such as salmonella); viruses are seldom concerned. Parasitic colitis include mostly amibiasis and bilharziosis. Infectious and parasitic enterocolitis may be transmitted sexually. On the other hand, certain venereal diseases have intestinal manifestations. Finally, in AIDS, timely gastro-intestinal infections develop. The diagnosis rests on endoscopy, histological examination and biological and parasitological samplings.

  6. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...... diseases, and 17% by other infections. Skin infections were most common in males, whereas all other infections were most common in females. The patterns of age specific contact rates were similar in males and females, except regarding "other infections". A peak of respiratory infections in July and of skin...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...

  7. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fernstrom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease, the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors, as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes, while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases.

  8. "Mid-G" region sequences of the glycoprotein gene of Austrian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus isolates form two lineages within European isolates and are distinct from American and Asian lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Schachner, Oskar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Latif, Muna; Nowotny, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important pathogens of salmonid fish. In this study a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genetic evolution and variety of Austrian IHNV strains, as well as selected strains ensuring worldwide coverage, is presented. The phylogenetic investigation is based on sequences comprising the "mid-G" region of the G gene, and it includes all currently available IHNV sequences of the G gene with a length of at least 615 bp. Austrian IHNVs are located--together with other European IHNV isolates--in two clusters of genogroup M (M-Eur1 and M-Eur2) and are clearly separated from American and Asian lineages. The genetic clustering, however, could not be linked to certain clinical symptoms or significant differences in the mortality rates.

  9. Studies on Infectious Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncas, J.; Chagnon, A.; Pavilanis, V.

    1966-01-01

    Viral studies were carried out on throat swabs, rectal swabs and washed white blood cells from 27 cases of infectious mononucleosis (positive Paul-Bunnell-David-sohn test), and from 22 controls. Four cytopathic agents were isolated in the test group, two of which were readily subcultured for at least three successive passages. Three cytopathic agents were recovered in the control group, two of which have been identified as adenovirus type 5 and adenovirus type 3. The unidentified agents tested so far are sensitive to ether and to pH 3. The results of acridine-orange staining and the immunofluorescence technique, using a conjugated control serum and two conjugated convalescent infectious mononucleosis sera, indicate that the isolated agent or agents in the test group are RNA-type agents with a cytoplasmic cycle of development. The overall results of this study lead the authors to suspect a respiratory syncytial-like myxovirus as the as yet unidentified agent which they recovered. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 3cFig. 3dFig. 3eFig. 3f PMID:4952899

  10. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  11. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  12. Pseudothrombocytopenia associated with infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, A T; Chao, T Y; Chen, Y C

    2003-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was hospitalized for assessment of thrombocytopenia and fever. Examination showed that he had infectious mononucleosis and moderately severe thrombocytopenia that was asymptomatic. Examination of blood smears revealed that the thrombocytopenia was caused by the clumping of platelets. We made a diagnosis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia after excluding other infectious mononucleosis-related mechanisms of thrombocytopenia. When the patient recovered from infectious mononucleosis 2 months later, his thrombocytopenia improved, and no platelet clumping in peripheral blood smears was noted. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia should always be considered as a possible cause of reported low platelet counts, even in patients with infectious mononucleosis and splenomegaly.

  13. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs] in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrP(Sc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrP(Sc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrP(Sc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrP(Sc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrP(Sc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrP(Sc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  14. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  15. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  16. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  17. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    , and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish......: A total of 104 cases of multiple sclerosis were observed during 556,703 person-years of follow-up, corresponding to a standardized incidence ratio of 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.87-2.75). The risk of multiple sclerosis was persistently increased for more than 30 years after infectious mononucleosis...... and uniformly distributed across all investigated strata of sex and age. The relative risk of multiple sclerosis did not vary by presumed severity of infectious mononucleosis. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of multiple sclerosis is increased in persons with prior infectious mononucleosis, regardless of sex, age...

  18. Infectious complications in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosoglou, K S; Karkoulias, K; Marangos, M

    2013-01-01

    Infections remain a part of the natural course of cancer. During the course of their disease, patients with lung cancer frequently present with an infection that can ultimately be fatal. Pathogenesis of infectious syndromes is usually determined by the underlying disease, as well as, the iatrogenic manipulations that occur during its management. Hence, lung cancer infections include lower respiratory tract infections in the context of COPD, aspiration, obstruction and opportunistic infections due to immunosuppression. Moreover, treatment-related infectious syndromes including post operative pneumonia, febrile neutropenia and superimposed infection following radiation/chemotherapy toxicity is common. Importantly, diagnosis of infection in the febrile lung cancer patient is challenging and requires a high index of suspicion in order to distinguish from other causes of fever, including malignant disease and pulmonary embolism. Prompt initiation of treatment is pivotal to avoid increased mortality. Careful consideration of infection pathogenesis can predict most likely pathogens and guide antibiotic management, thus, ensuring most favourable outcome.

  19. Molecular cloning of growth hormone receptor (GHR) from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ) and identification of its two forms of mRNA transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; GUO Qionglin; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was cloned from the liver of 2-year common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. ) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). Its open reading frame (ORF) of 1806 nucleotides is translated into a putative peptide of 602 amino acids, including an extracellular ligand-binding domain of 244 amino acids (aa), a single transmembrane domain of 24 aa and an intracellular signal-transduction domain of 334 aa. Sequence analysis indicated that common carp GHR is highly homologous to goldfish (Carassius auratus) GHR at both gene and protein levels. Using a pair of gene-specific primers, a GHR fragment was amplified from the cDNA of 2-year common carp, a 224 bp product was identified in liver and a 321 bp product in other tissues. The sequencing of the products and the partial genomic DNA indicated that the difference in product size was the result of a 97 bp intron that alternatively spliced. In addition, the 321 bp fragment could be amplified from all the tissues of 4-month common carp including liver, demonstrating the occurrence of the alternative splicing of this intron during the development of common carp. Moreover, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression level of GHR in tissues of 2-year common carp and 4-month common carp. The result revealed that in the tissues of gill, thymus and brain, the expression level of GHR in 2-year common carp was significantly lower than that of 4-month common carp.

  20. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hidalgo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  1. Disseminated Abdominal Hydatidosis: A Rare Presentation of Common Infectious Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Almalik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is one of the most geographically widespread zoonoses with substantial disease burden. In this report we are discussing an unusual case of intra-abdominal HD that was ongoing for 22 years despite two surgical interventions. Significant symptomatic relief was achieved within the first two months of combination therapy with albendazole and praziquantel. HD is still of public health concern in the Middle East that needs optimized care.

  2. Disseminated Abdominal Hydatidosis: A Rare Presentation of Common Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalik, Abdulrahman; Alsharidi, Aynaa; Al-Sheef, Mohammed; Enani, Mushirah

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid disease is one of the most geographically widespread zoonoses with substantial disease burden. In this report we are discussing an unusual case of intra-abdominal HD that was ongoing for 22 years despite two surgical interventions. Significant symptomatic relief was achieved within the first two months of combination therapy with albendazole and praziquantel. HD is still of public health concern in the Middle East that needs optimized care. PMID:25114815

  3. Investigation and Analysis of The Result of Children Infectious Diarrhea form Huairou District%怀柔地区儿童感染性腹泻结果调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雪征; 刘淑玲; 曹红艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first hospital of huairou area children diarrhoea samples for analysis,Investigate the epidemic condition of rotavirus diarrhea.Methods With col oidal gold immune chromatography test antigen of Group A rotavirus.Results Analysis about statistics.Result:positive rate 14.89%Children Infectious Diarrhea group A Rotavirusmorbidity.Children about 0~2 year old, positive rate 88.07%.The onset of season 11~12 month.boys and girls positive rate ratio 1.29:1.compare have significant difference.Conclusion Group A rotavirus are The main pathogens.High incidence of diarrhea,Alert doctors pay attention to the prevention and treatment.%目的:对怀柔地区第一医:儿童腹泻样本检验分析,调查轮状病毒腹泻的流行状况。方法用胶体金免疫层析法检测A群轮状病毒(Rotavirus)抗原。进行统计学分析。结果A群轮状病毒感染性腹泻阳性率14.89%。发患者群主要集中在0~2周岁之间,阳性率占88.07%。11~12月为发病高发期。男女发病比为1.29:1。与北京地区的报道[1]比较,有显著性差异。结论轮状病毒是本区儿童感染性腹泻的主要病原体。其引起的腹泻发病率在0~2岁中最高,提醒临床应该根据年龄段和季节性特点,采取预防和治疗措施。

  4. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  5. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic urinary tract infection, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we...... have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious...

  6. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  7. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds...

  8. Infectious Agents Trigger Trophic Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Ripple, William J

    2017-09-01

    Most demonstrated trophic cascades originate with predators, but infectious agents can also cause top-down indirect effects in ecosystems. Here we synthesize the literature on trophic cascades initiated by infectious agents including parasitoids, pathogens, parasitic castrators, macroparasites, and trophically transmitted parasites. Like predators, infectious agents can cause density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect effects through their direct consumptive and nonconsumptive effects respectively. Unlike most predators, however, infectious agents are not fully and immediately lethal to their victims, so their consumptive effects can also trigger trait-mediated indirect effects. We find that the frequency of trophic cascades reported for different consumer types scales with consumer lethality. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of uniting predator-prey and parasite-host theory under a general consumer-resource framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  10. Colombian forensic genetics as a form of public science: The role of race, nation and common sense in the stabilization of DNA populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter; Cruz-Santiago, Arely; Cárdenas, Roosbelinda

    2015-12-01

    Abstract This article examines the role that vernacular notions of racialized-regional difference play in the constitution and stabilization of DNA populations in Colombian forensic science, in what we frame as a process of public science. In public science, the imaginations of the scientific world and common-sense public knowledge are integral to the production and circulation of science itself. We explore the origins and circulation of a scientific object--'La Tabla', published in Paredes et al. and used in genetic forensic identification procedures--among genetic research institutes, forensic genetics laboratories and courtrooms in Bogotá. We unveil the double life of this central object of forensic genetics. On the one hand, La Tabla enjoys an indisputable public place in the processing of forensic genetic evidence in Colombia (paternity cases, identification of bodies, etc.). On the other hand, the relations it establishes between 'race', geography and genetics are questioned among population geneticists in Colombia. Although forensic technicians are aware of the disputes among population geneticists, they use and endorse the relations established between genetics, 'race' and geography because these fit with common-sense notions of visible bodily difference and the regionalization of race in the Colombian nation.

  11. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  12. Microbiology and epidemiology of infectious spinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Choi, Seung-Won; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at pTSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p1.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases

  13. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF INFECTIOUS EXANTHEMAS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yu. Ovsyannikov

    2015-01-01

    The lecture is devoted to the problem of differential diagnosis of infectious exanthemas in children. Information about differential-diagnostic sings of infectious and non-infectious exanthemas is present. Differential diagnosis is proposed on the basis of morphological elements identified in objective research. Presents possible infectious and non-infectious causes of rashes which are characterized by different primary (spot, papula, blister, knob, knot, bubble, abscess, bladder) and seconda...

  14. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF INFECTIOUS EXANTHEMAS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Ovsyannikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to the problem of differential diagnosis of infectious exanthemas in children. Information about differential-diagnostic sings of infectious and non-infectious exanthemas is present. Differential diagnosis is proposed on the basis of morphological elements identified in objective research. Presents possible infectious and non-infectious causes of rashes which are characterized by different primary (spot, papula, blister, knob, knot, bubble, abscess, bladder and secondary (scale, erosion, ulcer morphological elements.

  15. Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Joan L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of malignancy can overlap with those of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the findings in children who were initially thought to have an infectious disease but ultimately proved to have a malignancy. Methods The database of patients diagnosed with a malignancy in the Northern Alberta Children's Cancer Program (NACCP January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2003 was merged with the database of inpatients referred to the infectious diseases service at the Stollery Children's Hospital and charts were reviewed on all patients referred to the infectious diseases consult service prior to the diagnosis of malignancy. Results An infectious diseases consultation for diagnosis was requested in 21 of 561 patients prior to the confirmation of malignancy, and 3 of these 21 patients had both infection and malignancy (leukemia (N = 13, lymphoma (N = 3, rhabdomyosarcoma (N = 1, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis (N = 1, fibrous histicocytosis (N = 1, ependymoma (N = 1, and neuroblastoma (N = 1. The most common reason for infectious diseases consultation was suspected muskuloskeletal infection (N = 9. A palpable or radiographically enlarged spleen was noted in 11 patients (52%. All but 2 patients had abnormal hematologic parameters while an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH occurred in 10 patients (48%. Delay of diagnosis because of investigation or therapy for an infectious disease occurred in only 2 patients. Conclusion It is not common for treatment of pediatric malignancies to be delayed because infection is thought to be the primary diagnosis. However, pediatric infectious diseases physicians should consider malignancy in the differential diagnosis when they see patients with fever and bone pain, unexplained splenomegaly or abnormal complete blood cell counts. Other clues may include hepatomegaly or elevated LDH.

  16. Development of a microplate-reverse hybridization method for the detection and identification of common pathogens in lesions of cutaneous infectious granuloma%皮肤感染性肉芽肿常见病原菌微孔板反向杂交检测法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫桢桢; 姜海琴; 孙建方; 沈永年; 崔盘根; 刘伟军; 王洪生; 刘维达

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨微孔板反向分子杂交技术与PCR-ELISA相结合的“拟芯片”法检测和鉴定皮肤感染性肉芽肿常见病原菌的方法.方法 选取、设计真菌和分枝杆菌两对通用引物,及10种皮肤感染性肉芽肿常见的病原菌:结核分枝杆菌、麻风分枝杆菌、海鱼分枝杆菌、偶遇分枝杆菌、脓肿分枝杆菌、申克孢子丝菌、卡氏枝孢霉、裴氏着色真菌、F.Monophora、白念珠菌的特异性探针;采用标准株验证通用引物、特异性探针并检测“拟芯片”法的敏感性、特异性;对19株临床分离株进行检测和鉴定.结果 两对通用引物均可扩增出对应的菌种基因序列,PCR产物经测序分析与预期相符;“拟芯片”法检测阴性标本吸光度为0.041±0.02,公式计算得临界值为0.101,在此基础上测得其敏感性为1×10~1×102个菌细胞/ml.各病原菌与相应的探针杂交,吸光度均> 0.101,为阳性;而与非对应的探针杂交,则吸光度<0.101,为阴性,特异性高;对临床分离株的菌种鉴定准确率高.结论 “拟芯片”法可应用于皮肤感染性肉芽肿常见病原菌的实验室快速检测和鉴定.%Objective To develop a microplate-reverse hybridization method combined with PCR-enzymelinked immunosorbent assay ("simulant chip") for the detection and identification of common species of mycobacteria and fungi in lesions of cutaneous infectious granuloma.Methods Two universal primers for mycobacteria and fungi,as well as specific probes for 10 common pathogens of cutaneous infectious granuloma (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Mycobacterium leprae,Mycobacterium marinum,Mycobacterium abscessus,Mycobacterium fortuitum,Sporotrichum schencki,Cladosporium carrionii,Fonseceea pedrosoi,Fonseceea monophora and Candida albicans),were designed.To test the performance of the universe primers,PCR was performed with them to amplify corresponding fragments from the standard strains of the 10 pathogens

  17. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin ® ), oxandrolone (Anadrol ® ), oxymetholone ( ... swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts. Treatment ...

  18. Vesicles formed in aqueous mixtures of cholesterol and imidazolium surface active ionic liquid: a comparison with common cationic surfactant by water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sarthak; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2014-06-05

    The formation of stable unilamellar vesicles which hold great potential for biological as well as biomedical applications has been reported in the aqueous mixed solution of a surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C16mim]Cl) and cholesterol. To make a comparison we have also shown the formation of such stable vesicles using a common cationic surfactant, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BHDC) which has a similar alkyl chain length but different headgroup region to that of [C16mim]Cl. It has been revealed from dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and other optical spectroscopic techniques that the micelles of [C16mim]Cl and BHDC in aqueous solutions transform into stable unilamellar vesicles upon increasing concentration of cholesterol. We find that, as the concentration of cholesterol increases, the solvation and rotational relaxation time of C153 in [C16mim]Cl/cholesterol solution as well as in BHDC/cholesterol solution gradually increases indicating a significant decrease in the hydration behavior around the self-assemblies upon micelle-vesicle transition. However, the extent of increase in solvation and rotational relaxation time is more prominent in the case of [C16mim]Cl/cholesterol solutions than in the BHDC/cholesterol system. This indicates that [C16mim]Cl/cholesterol vesicular membranes are comparatively less hydrated and more rigid than the BHDC/cholesterol vesicular bilayer.

  19. Extensive retroperitoneal and right thigh abscess in a patient with ruptured retrocecal appendicitis: An extremely fulminant form of a common disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Hsun Hsieh; Yu-Chun Wang; Horng-Ren Yang; Ping-Kuei Chung; Long-Bin Jeng; Ray-Jade Chen

    2006-01-01

    As a disease commonly encountered in daily practice,acute appendicitis is usually diagnosed and managed easily with a low mortality and morbidity rate.However, acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening. A56-year-old man, healthy prior to this admission, was brought to the hospital due to spiking high fever, poor appetite, dysuria, progressive right flank and painful swelling of the thigh for 3 d. Significant inflammatory change of soft tissue was noted, involving the entire right trunk from the subcostal margin to the knee joint. Painful disability of the right lower extremity and apparent signs of peritonitis at the right lower abdomen were disclosed. Laboratory results revealed leukocytosis and an elevated C-reactive protein level. Abdominal CT revealed several communicated gas-containing abscesses at the right retroperitoneal region with mass effect, pushing the duodenum and the pancreatic head upward, compressing and encasing inferior vena cava,destroying psoas muscle and dissecting downward into the right thigh. Laparotomy and right thigh exploration were performed immediately and about 500 mL of frank pus was drained. A ruptured retrocecal appendix was the cause of the abscess. The patient fully recovered at the end of the third post-operation week. This case reminds us that acute appendicitis should be treated carefully on an emergency basis to avoid serious complications.CT scan is the diagnostic tool of choice, with rapid evaluation followed by adequate drainage as the key to the survival of the patient.

  20. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  1. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... healthcare and social assistance sector as a whole had 16.5 million employees.\\1\\ Healthcare workplaces can... that dealt with the negative impact of non-compliance with hand hygiene on the transmission of... on occupationally-acquired infectious diseases (e.g., Federal, State, provider network, or...

  2. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  3. [Infectious complications in patients undergoing a heart transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, E; Muñoz, P

    1995-01-01

    Infectious complications are, with rejection, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Adequate management of these patients requires an adequate knowledge of risk factors, of most common infectious syndromes and of relevant microorganism, as long as of their resistance pattern. Among the first group, we may mention lower respiratory tract infections, mediastinitis and meningitis, and among the microorganisms, Citomegalovirus, Aspergillus and Toxoplasma gondii. The impressive development of diagnostical techniques and of prophylactic and therapeutical possibilities suggest the convenience of a multidisciplinar approach to these complications.

  4. STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NON INFECTIOUS PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENTS OF URBAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-07-01

    and non infectious diseases. In slum dwelling adolescents’ respiratory and skin infection are common, these can be prevented by improving health and education facilities.

  5. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  6. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Common warts By Mayo Clinic Staff Common warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands. Rough to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny ...

  7. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  8. Common skin disorders of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, S A

    2002-09-01

    Diseases of the male genitalia range from infectious lesions to inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, including many genital manifestations of more general skin diseases. This review highlights the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses of the male genitalia. Herpes genitalis and infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are increasing, particularly in young sexually active people. Herpes simplex virus infection is the commonest infectious cause of genital ulceration, with evidence that many infections are asymptomatic. HPV infection may be latent, subclinical and clinical. The most common causal agents for condyloma acuminatum are low-risk HPV 6 and 11; high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with premalignant and malignant lesions. Treatment for genital warts remains unsatisfactory; recurrences are common. Imiquimod, a new topical immunotherapeutic agent, which induces interferon and other cytokines, has the potential to be a first-line therapy for genital warts. Scabies and pediculosis are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sexual transmission is common, with the penis and scrotum favourite locations for scabious lesions. Oral ivermectin, a highly active antiparasitic drug, is likely to be the treatment of choice, but until approval is granted it should be reserved for special forms of scabies. Common skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis and lichen planus, may have an atypical appearance in the genital area. The typical psoriatic scale is usually not apparent because of moisture and maceration. Allergic contact dermatitis of the genital area may result from condoms, lubricants, feminine hygiene deodorant spray and spermicides. More often, contact dermatitis is irritant, resulting from persistent moisture and maceration. Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs as atrophic white patches on the glans penis and foreskin. The penile form is a common cause of phimosis in uncircumcised men; involvement

  9. The practice of infectious diseases in the 1990s: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlech, W F

    1995-02-01

    A survey of the members of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society was carried out to determine the content of an infectious diseases consultative practice in the 1990s. Respondents were asked to identify all new inpatient, outpatient, and telephone consultations during a 1-week period in 1990. Consultations were categorized by the infectious disease syndrome of the patient and by the microorganism that was identified. Bacterial infections were the most common cause of inpatient consultations, while viral infections were more common in outpatients. Consultations for parasitic infections were primarily for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "Newer" infectious disease syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, and Lyme disease were all represented in the responses for the 1-week study period. The significant impact of HIV infection on the overall consultative load suggests that there will be a continuing need for newly trained infectious disease consultants into the 21st century.

  10. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  11. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  12. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  13. Modeling infectious diseases dissemination through online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicer, Ran D

    2007-03-01

    As mathematical modeling of infectious diseases becomes increasingly important for developing public health policies, a novel platform for such studies might be considered. Millions of people worldwide play interactive online role-playing games, forming complex and rich networks among their virtual characters. An unexpected outbreak of an infective communicable disease (unplanned by the game creators) recently occurred in this virtual world. This outbreak holds surprising similarities to real-world epidemics. It is possible that these virtual environments could serve as a platform for studying the dissemination of infectious diseases, and as a testing ground for novel interventions to control emerging communicable diseases.

  14. Characterization of isolates of equine infectious anemia virus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Dellane Martins; Brandão, Camila Fonseca Lopes; de Paula, Fabiana Lopes; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Campos, Gubio Soares; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2017-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia is an important infectious disease that affects equids worldwide. Control of the disease is currently based on detection of anti-p26 EIAV by Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID). In this work, 62 animals were examined by AGID and nested-PCR using primers for the gag gene. Fifty-three samples (85.5%) were positive by nested-PCR, whereas only 33 samples (53%) were positive for AGID. Fifteen amplicons obtained by nested-PCR were sequenced and the aligned results subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The analysis suggests that the Brazilian EIAV form a cluster with WSU5, EIAVUK and Wyoming strains from United States.

  15. Research on Diachronic Change of the Common Approximate Quantity Structure Forms about Approximate Quantity in Modern Chinese%现代汉语常见约量构式历时演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林春香

    2015-01-01

    The approximate quantity structure form is composed of approximate quantity Adverb and approximate quantity Particle. In modern Chinese, the common structure forms are “dayue (大约)+X+zuoyou (左右)∕qianhou (前后)∕shangxia (上下)”.These forms appeared in Song Dynasty, and ware commonly used in Qing Dynasty. These forms’ development and grammatical characteristics are Closely related to the single forms.%约量构式是指由约量副词和约量助词叠加使用的一种结构形式。现代汉语常见的约量构式主要有“大约+X+左右∕前后∕上下”。这一形式最早见于宋代,清以后开始普遍使用。现代汉语常见约量构式的历时演变以及句法语义特点,与其前置约量副词和后置约量助词的发展及特点密切相关。

  16. Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Meli, M L

    2014-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma.

  17. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marroon Thabane; John K Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common disorder wherein symptoms of IBS begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Published studies have reported incidence of PI-IBS to range between 5% and 32%. The mechanisms underlying the development of PI-IBS are not fully understood, but are believed to include persistent sub-clinical inflammation, changes in intestinal permeability and alteration of gut flora. Individual studies have suggested that risk factors for PI-IBS include patients' demographics, psychological disorders and the severity of enteric illness. However, PI-IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific disease markers and, to date, no definitive therapy exists. The prognosis of PIIBS appears favorable with spontaneous and gradual resolution of symptoms in most patients.

  18. [Genomic medicine and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellay, Jacques

    2014-05-07

    Relentless progress in our knowledge of the nature and functional consequences of human genetic variation allows for a better understanding of the protracted battle between pathogens and their human hosts. Multiple polymorphisms have been identified that impact our response to infections or to anti-infective drugs, and some of them are already used in the clinic. However, to make personalized medicine a reality in infectious diseases, a sustained effort is needed not only in research but also in genomic education.

  19. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  20. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  1. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Common Terms Below is a list of diabetes-related ... a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly ...

  2. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  3. Characteristics of common infections in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute Moreno, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of the studies outlined in this thesis was to gain empirical epidemiological and therapeutic knowledge of some common infectious diseases in Nicaragua. So far, relatively little was known about the incidence, etiology, management and antibiotic resistance patterns of common infectio

  4. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  5. Validation of Laboratory-Developed Molecular Assays for Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Molecular technology has changed the way that clinical laboratories diagnose and manage many infectious diseases. Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and speed have made molecular assays an attractive alternative to culture or enzyme immunoassay methods. Many molecular assays are commercially available and FDA approved. Others, especially those that test for less common analytes, are often laboratory developed. Laboratories also often modify FDA-approved assays to include different e...

  6. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  7. Peculiarities of Liver Affection in Children with Infectious Mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, there is a tendency of infectious mononucleosis (IM morbidity to spread. Aim of research is to identify clinical features of liver affection in children with infectious mononucleosis. Materials and methods. Case histories of 42 children aged from 4 to 15 years old with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis were analyzed. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl (GGT, markers of viral hepatitis were determined. There were performed ultrasound investigation and enzyme immunoassay (IEA with determination of blood markers of Epstein — Barr virus (EBV (IgM VCA, IgG EA, IgG VCA, avidity and cytomegalovirus (CMV (IgM, IgG, avidity; EBV-DNA, CMV-DNA were defined by polymerase chain reaction. Depending on the etiology of the disease patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 — patients with IM of EBV-etiology (17 patients; group 2 — patients with MI of CMV etiology (16 patients; group 3 — mixed IM of EBV + CMV etiology (9 patients. Received digital data were processed by methods of statistical analysis in application «Statistica‑6». Results. In 85.7 % of cases MI had usual course and moderate severity (enlargement of the lymph nodes was noted in 98.6 % of patients, tonsillitis throat — in 54.7 %, hepatomegaly — in 71.4 %, splenomegaly — in 38.1 %. The most common hemogram changes in MI are leukocytosis (64.2 % and atypical mononuclear cells (73.5 % 15 children (35.7 % had enhanced transaminase level. Icteric hepatitis was observed in five patients. Blood level of atypical mononuclear cells over 20 % was observed in 43.3 % of cases. Ultrasound investigation showed diffuse increase in liver echoicity in 36.6 % of patients. Conclusions. Hepatitis with MI was observed in more than half of patients, its development and severity correlated with etiological features of the disease (mixed infection

  8. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  9. Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in a patient with dengue fever presenting with post-infectious cerebellitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunarathne Suneth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-infectious cerebellitis is an acute form of inflammatory encephalitis mainly limited to the cerebellum. It is commonly found in children, especially after viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus. Post-infectious cerebellitis presents with acute onset dysarthria and ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of post-infectious cerebellitis in a patient with both dengue and Epstein-Barr viral infection confirmed on serology. Case presentation A 43-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhala man presented with an acute febrile illness associated with thrombocytopenia. While being managed as uncomplicated dengue fever, our patient developed dysarthria, ataxia and cerebellar signs. Our patient's infectious disease screen was positive for both dengue and Epstein-Barr specific immunoglobulin M. A cerebrospinal fluid analysis was suggestive of viral meningoencephalitis while cerebrospinal fluid serology was positive for dengue immunoglobulin G. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were consistent with post-viral cerebellitis. The patient was given full supportive care and he made an uneventful complete recovery. Conclusion There have been no previously reported cases of post-infectious cerebellitis associated with both Epstein-Barr and dengue viral infections confirmed by serology. Our patient's clinical features and findings on the imaging studies were consistent with post-viral cerebellitis. This report highlights the need to screen for other possible more common etiologies of a particular presentation before coming to a specific diagnosis based on initial findings. Uncomplicated cases of cerebellitis can be successfully managed with appropriate supportive measures with good prognosis, as in this case.

  10. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  11. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  12. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  13. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are recurrent Respiratory infections Bone and joint infections Tuberculosis (TB) Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Hepatitis Meningitis Where Can I Find A Pediatric Infectious Diseases ...

  14. Dental caries: an infectious and transmissible disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, Page W; Li, Yihong; Dasanayake, Ananda

    2005-05-01

    By definition, dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease because it is caused by bacteria colonizing the tooth surfaces. Unlike most infectious diseases affecting humans, caries is the result of an imbalance of the indigenous oral biota rather than a nonindigenous, exogenous pathogen. The introduction of refined sugar into modern society's diet has tipped the balance from health to disease. New insight into the natural history of the leading cariogenic bacteria, the mutans streptococci, may contribute ways to control or prevent this infectious disease. Here, we use the host-parasite model as a platform for viewing the pathogenicity of the caries process in contrast to other infectious diseases.

  15. Synthesis of high titer infectious prions with cofactor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supattapone, Surachai

    2014-07-18

    Recently, synthetic prions with a high level of specific infectivity have been produced from chemically defined components in vitro. A major insight arising from these studies is that various classes of host-encoded cofactor molecules such as phosphatidylethanolamine and RNA molecules are required to form and maintain the specific conformation of infectious prions. Synthetic mouse prions formed with phosphatidylethanolamine exhibit levels of specific infectivity ∼1 million-fold greater than "protein-only" prions (Deleault, N. R., Walsh, D. J., Piro, J. R., Wang, F., Wang, X., Ma, J., Rees, J. R., and Supattapone, S. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, E1938-E1946). Moreover, cofactor molecules also appear to regulate prion strain properties by limiting the potential conformations of the prion protein (see Deleault et al. above). The production of fully infectious synthetic prions provides new opportunities to study the mechanism of prion infectivity directly by structural and biochemical methods.

  16. [Inflammatory and infectious breast mastitis outside of pregnancy and lactation: Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas, E; Touboul, C; Kerdraon, O; Catteau-Jonard, S

    2015-12-01

    This work's objective was to define the various non-cancerous inflammatory and infectious mastitis, which may occur outside of pregnancy and lactation, and to identify recommendations for their care based on an exhaustive literature review. A literature review was conducted by consulting Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and international recommendations in French and English until 31st August 2014. Infectious mastitis (periareolar abscess) is the most common form of non-puerperal abscesses and it is recommended that a suction/drainage needle for abscesses under 5 cm, involving antibiotic therapy (grade C). For abscesses over 5 cm, there is no evidence to recommend a first surgery or suction/drainage. Inflammatory mastitis can be primary or secondary to a systemic disease (diabetes, collagen…; LE4). In case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, a steroid therapy or surgery may be indicated, without one or the other of these methods can be recommended. In case of plasma cell mastitis or ductal ectasia, no treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: towards combination vaccines for allergic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an antigen-specific and disease-modifying form of treatment. It is based on the therapeutic administration of the disease-causing allergens to allergic patients. However, the fact that only allergen extracts of insufficient quality are currently available and the possible occurrence of side effects during treatment limit the broad use of SIT and prophylactic vaccination is has not yet been performed. In the last 20 years the DNA sequences of the most common allergens have been isolated and the corresponding allergens have been produced as recombinant allergens. Based on the progress made in the field of allergen characterization it is possible to improve the quality and safety of allergy vaccines and to develop new, more effective strategies for a broad application of SIT and even for prophylactic treatment. Here we discuss the development of combination vaccines for allergy and infectious diseases. This approach is based on the selection of allergen-derived peptides with reduced IgE- and T cell reactivity in order to minimize IgE- and T cell-mediated side effects as well as the potential of the vaccine to induce allergic sensitization. These peptides are fused by recombinant technology onto a viral carrier protein to obtain a combination vaccine which induces protective immunity against allergy and viral infections. The application of such combination vaccines for therapy and prophylaxis of allergy and infectious diseases is discussed.

  18. Polyclonal immunoglobulins and hyperimmune globulins in prevention and management of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer L; Safdar, Nasia

    2011-12-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy has a rich history of use in preventing and treating infectious diseases; however, clinical data on the efficacy of immunoglobulin is lacking for many infectious diseases. Immunoglobulin therapy is routinely used in postexposure prophylaxis for bacterial infections, including tetanus, botulism, and diphtheria, and viral infections, including hepatitis A and B and varicella. Immunoglobulin therapy has also been used in many severe and life-threatening infections where treatments are limited, including toxic shock syndrome, respiratory syncytial virus infection, and cytomegalovirus infection. The authors review the evidence for the use of immunoglobulin therapy in common adult infectious diseases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Bug Stops Here: Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    28 also be administered intravenously and have significant toxicity. A new lipid complex form of amphotericin B has been approved by the Food and...Glenn Wortmann, et al., “Failure of Amphotericin B Lipid Complex in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, April...of 1910 The use of quarantine to control disease transmission has had a jaundiced history in the United States. Any involuntary restriction of

  20. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  1. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck;

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes...... with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial...

  2. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  3. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  4. Use Subconscious Theory to Analyze Form Factor of College Students' Common Psychological Problems%运用潜意识理论分析大学生常见心理问题的形成因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟坚

    2016-01-01

    本文讲述了弗洛伊德与荣格的潜意识理论,并结合高校常见的心理咨询案例,剖析出如何运用潜意识理论去分析大学生心理问题的形成因素,从而扩展咨询技巧,提升高校心理咨询工作的水平。%This article describes Freud and Jung's theory of the subconscious, and the College Counseling common cases, analysis of how to apply the theory to analyze the subconscious psychological problems form factor, thereby expanding coun-seling skills, to enhance the level of college psychological counseling.

  5. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  6. Infectious abdominal emergencies; Urgences abdominales d`origine infectieuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, A.; Arrive, L.; Mehdi, M.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Ayadi, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Mulder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks.

  8. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  9. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  10. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  11. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and…

  12. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  13. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  14. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  15. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  16. 社科论文中表格的常见问题与编辑处理%Common problems with forms in social science papers and editor's treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素琴

    2012-01-01

    目前,社会科学研究日益从定性研究向定量研究、实践研究、实证研究发展,于是论文中就不可避免地出现了越来越多的用于呈现材料和数据的表格,但编辑对表格的加工修改、技术处理、优化规范方面的研究却十分缺乏。文章将社科论文中表格常见的七种问题,即表头缺失、横向栏目过多而处理不当、不当省略、文表不对应、中外文杂陈、表格多余、说明性文字列于表中等,作为案例进行分析,并设计了有针对性的编辑处理方式。%Social science research increasingly have its methodology extend from qualitative research to quanti- tative research, practical research, and empirical research. As a result, forms and tables have been more and more used in papers to present material and data, but editors still lack the skill to modify and optimize the forms. Seven common problems with the presentation of forms in social science papers are listed in the paper, and cases are ana- lyzed to propose some corresponding measures to treat them.

  17. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  18. Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Leventhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR, the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS.

  19. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  20. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  1. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  2. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange John H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  3. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  4. The book of infectious diseases—a living document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Hasan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Planet Earth continues to be pillaged by its dominant species. Man’s incursions into forests have resulted in denudation of massive tracts of land, and the displaced inhabitants—vectors carrying exotic infectious agents—have begun to wander deeper into man’s territory. In 1993, in South-Western United States, the Sin Nombre virus (the first Hantavirus normally a pathogen of mice, developed its first taste for Homo sapiens. In 1997, the avian influenza H5N1 virus, jumped species to man. In 2002, a virus of civet cats in the Guangdong Province in Southern China transformed itself into the lethal SARS virus. In 2009, two swine strains, one human strain, and one bird strain of influenza all combined them-selves into a new deadly strain—the H1N1 Swine Flu virus. And only last year, the MERS-Coronavirus became a new player in the changea-ble game of infectious disease. Almost as soon as the world comes stumblingly to terms with one new epidemic, another unleashes itself. Lessons were clearly not learnt after the Ebola epidemic in 1976 which was followed by another major outbreak in Zaire in 1995. This year, confronted with a death-count that ex-ceeds the combined tally of all previous Ebola epidemics, the WHO has finally declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa as an “extraordinary event” and admitted that it is indeed a “public health risk to other countries.” As a human pathogen, the Ebola virus is four dec-ades old. True to form, the little-affected developed nations—the countries with the resources to tackle emerging infections—have taken no great interest in the matter. Forty precious years have ticked by. The CDC admits: “We do not know how to treat Ebola or vaccinate against it—and it will be a long time before we do.” As with the other major infectious killers that ravage the developing world, the profit margin for a drug against Ebola is slender. The Zaire Ebola virus though, is special—it is the most deadly

  5. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  6. [Infectious aetiologies of travelers' diarrhoea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J-D; Garrabé, E

    2007-11-01

    Traveler's diarrhoea (TD) occurs in 20 to 60% of European or North-American travelers in intertropical areas. Following return from endemic zone, malaria must always be evocated in front of febrile diarrhoea. Many causative infectious agents are involved in TD and their frequency may vary according to destination and seasons. The main agents involved in TD are Escherichia coli pathovars (especially enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli) followed by enteroinvasive bacteria (Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica), enteric viruses (norovirus, rotavirus) and protozoa (Gardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum et Entamoeba histolytica). The development of molecular biology methods as PCR may allow us to evaluate the relative frequency of these agents and especially of viral agents in TD. Protozoa and microsporidia are more frequently isolated in persistent and chronic TD, especially in compromised patients. A complete etiological research in routine microbiology laboratories is difficult and time-consuming, related to the high diversity of causative agents and the need for specific methods. Implementation of laboratory diagnosis is highly recommended when diarrhoea is associated with fever or presence of blood in stools, immunosuppression, antibiotic treatment (Clostridium difficile toxins) or in case of persistent/chronic diarrhoea. According to the high frequency of acquired antibiotic-resistance in enteric bacteria, an antibiogram must be performed for all causative bacterial agents.

  7. [CHRONIC DIARRHEA OF INFECTIOUS ETIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán F G, Gustavo

    1997-01-01

    Chronic Diarrhea syndrome is due to several causes. In LatinAmericen countries, infectious and parasitic etiology is frequent. Withinthese infections, the following has been determined: parasitic and enterobacterial agents, overpopulation of bacteria syndrome in the upper small bowel (SOBIA, abbreviation for Síndrome de Sobrepoblación Bacteriana del Intestino Delgado Alto), intestinal TBC, and AIDS. In these processes, the precipitating factor may be unique or multifactor; or there could also exist a tendency towards pathologies for these infections. There has been evidence of SOBIA cases without associated factor in Latin American countries. A study made in Peru shows SOBIA cases in 30 percent of chronic diarrhea.In chronic diarrhea cases, and even more, in those diarrheas of infectiousetiology, a complete study should be made, considering the several factorsthat generate diarrhea in a same one case, such as the mechanisms ofimmunodeficiency, neurological, endocrinemetabolic, and others associated with intestinal infections. This approach will be helpful to make a complete diagnosis and apply timely treatment.

  8. Meta-Analysis of Infectious Agents and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Liang; Lei, Yang; Liu, Xia; Zhou, Xinyu; Liu, Yiyun; Wang, Mingju; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Lujun; Fan, Songhua; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating psychiatric disorder and a growing global public health issue. However, the relationships between microbial infections and depression remains uncertain. A computerized literature search of Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library was conducted up to May 2013, and 6362 studies were initially identified for screening. Case-control studies detected biomarker of microorganism were included. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 studies were finally included to compare the detection of 16 infectious agents in unipolar depressed patients and healthy controls with a positive incident being defined as a positive biochemical marker of microbial infection. A customized form was used for data extraction. Pooled analysis revealed that the majority of the 16 infectious agents were not significantly associated with depression. However, there were statistically significant associations between depression and infection with Borna disease virus, herpes simplex virus-1, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Chlamydophila trachomatis. PMID:24681753

  9. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

    2011-12-12

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another--the focus of this theme issue--has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick--stigmatization--and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process--moralization--can be co-opted to promote human health.

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  11. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS.

  12. Heterogeneous Seeding of a Prion Structure by a Generic Amyloid Form of the Fungal Prion-forming Domain HET-s(218-289)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, William; Bian, Wen; McDonald, Michele; Kijac, Aleksandra; Wemmer, David E.; Stubbs, Gerald [UCB; (Vanderbilt); (LBNL)

    2013-11-13

    The fungal prion-forming domain HET-s(218–289) forms infectious amyloid fibrils at physiological pH that were shown by solid-state NMR to be assemblies of a two-rung β-solenoid structure. Under acidic conditions, HET-s(218–289) has been shown to form amyloid fibrils that have very low infectivity in vivo, but structural information about these fibrils has been very limited. We show by x-ray fiber diffraction that the HET-s(218–289) fibrils formed under acidic conditions have a stacked β-sheet architecture commonly found in short amyloidogenic peptides and denatured protein aggregates. At physiological pH, stacked β-sheet fibrils nucleate the formation of the infectious β-solenoid prions in a process of heterogeneous seeding, but do so with kinetic profiles distinct from those of spontaneous or homogeneous (seeded with infectious β-solenoid fibrils) fibrillization. Several serial passages of stacked β-sheet-seeded solutions lead to fibrillization kinetics similar to homogeneously seeded solutions. Our results directly show that structural mutation can occur between substantially different amyloid architectures, lending credence to the suggestion that the processes of strain adaptation and crossing species barriers are facilitated by structural mutation.

  13. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research recently published (2008-2009 by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  14. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  15. 自律·共律·格律--试论现代格律诗体的基本形态%Unique Pattern, Common Pattern and Pattern:On the Basic Form of Modern Metrical Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青山

    2016-01-01

    本文首次提出“自律、共律、格律”的现代格律诗体的分类体系。依据闻一多“相体裁衣”理论,指出东方诗风论坛和中国格律体新诗网关于“整齐对称式”“参差对称式”“复合对称式”三分法只是强化了“相体裁衣”论的限制性特质,无法科学阐释定行、定言、定韵等共律性诗体,更无法阐释固定诗体;并指出固定诗体是共律体的特殊形式,代表现代格律诗的最高美学追求,单独定型成体是现代格律诗发展的必然要求。“自律、共律、格律”分类体系能够涵盖并诠释所有试验过的新诗体,是迄今最为科学完整的分类体系。针对当今诗界质疑“现代格律诗”名称科学性的观点,着重分析了“现代”两字的丰富内涵,批评了对这个名称的错误认识。%This paper is the first to propose the classification system of modern metrical poetry in terms of unique pattern, common pattern and pattern. Based on Wen Yiduo’s“genre”theory, the paper points out that the three classifications of“neat symmetrical style”,“uneven symmetrical style”and“compound symmetrical style”at the oriental poetry forum and on the Chinese new metrical poetry network only reinforce the limited properties of the“genre”theory, which can neither scientifically explain the poetic style of common pattern to determine the lines, words or rhymes, nor explain the fixed poetic style. The paper also points out that the fixed poetic style is a special form of common pattern, which represents the highest aesthetic pursuit of modern poetry, and that individually shaped style is the inevitable requirement of the development of modern poetry. Additionally, the paper points out that the classification system in terms of unique pattern, common pattern and pattern can cover and explain all the tested new poetic styles, which has been the most scientific and complete classification system so

  16. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  17. A Holistic View of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himgauri K. Kulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance; Lisa A. Beltz; (2011. Jossey-Bass, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. San Francisco, CA. 700 pages.

  18. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  19. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  20. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data...... sibship structure into account. RESULTS: A total of 12,872 cases of infectious mononucleosis were observed during 35.3 million person-years of follow-up. Statistical modelling showed that increasing sibship size was associated with a reduced risk of infectious mononucleosis and that younger siblings...... of blood donors followed up retrospectively for self-reported infectious mononucleosis. CONCLUSIONS: Younger siblings, and to a lesser degree older siblings, seem to be important in the transmission of EBV within families. Apparently the dogma of low birth order in a sibship as being at the highest risk...

  1. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  2. [Fever of unknown origin. Infectious causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberger, B; Schneidewind, A; Hanses, F; Birkenfeld, G; Müller-Schilling, M

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important causes of fever of unexplained origin (FUO). We review the spectrum of infectious diseases in the different clinical situations of patients with FUO, namely in classical FUO, in patients with HIV infection, in health care-associated or nosocomial FUO, and in immunocompromised patients with FUO. The most important question is which clinical features make a specific disease a candidate to cause FUO.

  3. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Principi; Susanna Esposito

    2016-01-01

    In children, infectious discitis (D) and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD) are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagno...

  4. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jo-Ann; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a Rhabdovirus that causes significant disease in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow and steelhead trout (O. mykiss). IHNV causes necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and consequently it was named infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This virus is waterborne and may transmit horizontally and vertically through virus associated with seminal and ovarian fluids. The clinical signs of disease and diagnosis; pathology; pathophysiology; and control strategies against IHNV are discussed.

  5. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy....

  6. Outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with person to person spread in hotels and restaurants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1995-09-15

    Twenty-eight outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, reported as being transmitted mainly by the person to person route, were identified in association with retail catering premises, such as hotels, restaurants, and public houses, in England and Wales between 1992 and 1994. Five thousand and forty-eight people were at risk in these outbreaks and 1234 were affected. Most of the outbreaks (over 90%) occurred in hotels. Small round structured viruses were the most commonly detected pathogens. Diarrhoea and vomiting were common symptoms and most of the outbreaks occurred in the summer months. Control measures to contain infectious individuals and improved hygiene measures are necessary to contain such outbreaks.

  7. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Dotters-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

  8. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin, E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Papiewski, Andrzej [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Clinic of Vascular Surgery (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  9. Resident microbiota affect Bordetella pertussis infectious dose and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Feaga, Heather A; Park, Jihye; Muse, Sarah J; Safi, Chetan Y; Rolin, Olivier Y; Young, Sarah E; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-03-01

    Before contacting host tissues, invading pathogens directly or indirectly interact with host microbiota, but the effects of such interactions on the initial stages of infection are poorly understood. Bordetella pertussis is highly infectious among humans but requires large doses to colonize rodents, unlike a closely related zoonotic pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, raising important questions about the contributions of bacterial competition to initial colonization and host selection. We observed that <100 colony-forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica efficiently infected mice and displaced culturable host microbiota, whereas 10 000 CFU of B. pertussis were required to colonize murine nasal cavities and did not displace host microorganisms. Bacteria isolated from murine nasal cavities but not those from the human lower respiratory tract limited B. pertussis growth in vitro, indicating that interspecies competition may limit B. pertussis colonization of mice. Further, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment delivered before B. pertussis inoculation reduced the infectious dose to <100 CFU, and reintroduction of single Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species was sufficient to inhibit B. pertussis colonization of antibiotic-treated mice. Together, these results reveal that resident microorganisms can prevent B. pertussis colonization and influence host specificity, and they provide rationale for manipulating microbiomes to create more-accurate animal models of infectious diseases.

  10. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: mechanistic insights into chronic disturbances following enteric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Bhargava, Amol; Buret, Andre G

    2014-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a commonly encountered chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Approximately 10% of IBS patients can trace the onset of their symptoms to a previous a bout of infectious dysentery. The appearance of new IBS symptoms following an infectious event is defined as post-infectious-IBS. Indeed, with the World Health Organization estimating between 2 and 4 billion cases annually, infectious diarrheal disease represents an incredible international healthcare burden. Additionally, compounding evidence suggests many commonly encountered enteropathogens as unique triggers behind IBS symptom generation and underlying pathophysiological features. A growing body of work provides evidence supporting a role for pathogen-mediated modifications in the resident intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier integrity, effector cell functions, and innate and adaptive immune features, all proposed physiological manifestations that can underlie GI abnormalities in IBS. Enteric pathogens must employ a vast array of machinery to evade host protective immune mechanisms, and illicit successful infections. Consequently, the impact of infectious events on host physiology can be multidimensional in terms of anatomical location, functional scope, and duration. This review offers a unique discussion of the mechanisms employed by many commonly encountered enteric pathogens that cause acute disease, but may also lead to the establishment of chronic GI dysfunction compatible with IBS.

  11. NITROGEN SOURCES, FORMS OF APPLICATION AND DOSES IN IRRIGATED COMMON BEAN UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM FONTES, FORMAS DE APLICAÇÃO E DOSES DE NITROGÊNIO EM FEIJOEIRO IRRIGADO SOB PLANTIO DIRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of nitrogen by ammonia volatilization is the main factor responsible for the low utilization of urea, especially when applied to the soil surface. This experiment evaluated the efficiency of urea containing 0,045% of NBPT (n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide addictive, when compared with regular urea, and the effects of rates and forms of application of covering nitrogen over irrigated common bean component parts and yield, cultivated under no-tillage system, on a Distrudox soil, managed for three consecutive years under crop-livestock integrated system. A randomized complete blocks design was used, in a 2x2x4 factorial scheme, consisting of two nitrogen sources (common and additivated urea, two application methods (surface and incorporated, and four N doses (0 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1, 120 kg ha-1, and 180 kg ha-1, with four replications. When compared to the common urea, additivated urea did not provide significant increases in yield. The additivated source resulted in higher plants and it was noticed a higher yield rate, when the fertilizer was used.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; crop-livestock integrated system; yield.A perda de nitrogênio por volatilização de amônia constitui o principal fator responsável pelo baixo aproveitamento da ureia, principalmente quando aplicada sobre a superfície do solo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de ureia contendo 0,045% de aditivo NBPT (n?butil tiofosfórico triamida, em comparação com ureia normal, e os efeitos de doses e formas de aplicação de nitrogênio fornecido em cobertura, sobre os componentes e a produtividade de feijoeiro irrigado, cultivado em plantio direto. O solo da área experimental foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sendo manejado por três anos consecutivos sob integração lavoura-pecuária. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2x2x4, constituído pela

  12. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...

  13. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovaeva I.V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  15. Infectious triggers of pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory infections can cause wheezing illnesses in children of all ages and also can influence the causation and disease activity of asthma. For years it has been recognized that respiratory syncytial virus infections often produce the first episode of wheezing in children who go on to develop chronic asthma. More recently, it has been proposed that repeated infections with other common childhood viral pathogens might help the immune system develop in such a way as to prevent the onset of allergic diseases and possibly asthma. In addition to the effects of viral infections, infections with certain intracellular pathogens, such as chlamydia and mycoplasma, may cause acute and chronic wheezing in some individuals, whereas common cold and acute sinus infections can trigger acute symptoms of asthma. In this article, the epidemiologic, mechanistic, and treatment implications of the association between respiratory infections and asthma are discussed.

  16. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Cobo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes.

  17. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Luis Jesuíno de Oliveira; Atta,Ajax Mercês; D'Almeida Junior, Argemiro; Paraná, Raymundo

    2008-01-01

    p.144-148 Hepatitis C (HCV) is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal ris...

  18. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  19. Therapeutic and lesional aspects of feline infectious peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Stancu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP can not be assessed on the basis of serological surveys because positive serological reagents rate does not correlate with disease rates. In units with more cats and numerous movements (input - output, the proportion of positive serological reagents is very high, and could reach, in some countries or regions at 50-75-100%, while among cats scattered nearhomes reactants rate positive to VPIF is well below 50%. Research conducted aimed at treating and determining evolutionary form of FIP based on pathological lesions in dead cats.

  20. The Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases: A Brief History and Selected Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  1. The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases.

  2. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is β-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

  3. Key points in the presentation of the infectious bursal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes-Olaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bursal disease or Gumboro disease is an immunosuppressive pathology of birds, which has great importance in the poultry industry due to large economic losses that it produces not only for its direct effect, but because of the susceptibility to secondary infections, interference with commercial vaccines, reducing the effective use of them. The disease is produced by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, which is an RNA genome birnavirus, with high capacity for mutation, so the agent is continually evolving. The pathology has three types of clinical presentation: a subclinical form, a mild or moderate clinical form and a severe clinical form. However, the type of manifestation is determined mainly by three factors: the age of birds at the time of infection, the type of strain or acting or genetic variability of it, and the immunity degree. In this article, we discuss each of these factors and their importance in the presentation of the disease. These elements are vital in order to establish effective prevention and control programs.

  4. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  5. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification of infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Camacho, Manuel V; Soto, Claudio

    2012-06-28

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for the transmission of prion diseases. The lack of a procedure for cultivating prions in the laboratory has been a major limitation to the study of the unorthodox nature of this infectious agent and the molecular mechanism by which the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) is converted into the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)). Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), described in detail in this protocol, is a simple, fast and efficient methodology to mimic prion replication in the test tube. PMCA involves incubating materials containing minute amounts of infectious prions with an excess of PrP(C) and boosting the conversion by cycles of sonication to fragment the converting units, thereby leading to accelerated prion replication. PMCA is able to detect the equivalent of a single molecule of infectious PrP(Sc) and propagate prions that maintain high infectivity, strain properties and species specificity. A single PMCA assay takes little more than 3 d to replicate a large amount of prions, which could take years in an in vivo situation. Since its invention 10 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions about this intriguing infectious agent and has been broadly applied in research areas that include the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.

  6. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  7. Enhancement on infectious diseases nursing plan information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Lin; Hao, Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Based on researches, the most time-consuming nursing activities, in teaching hospital, are: room patrols, the blood pressure survey, the body temperature pulse breath survey, the nursing record maintenance. The nursing record is one way to communicate data. It can allow the medical service team to understand what measures the nursing staff once did for sickness, as well as responses from sickness. Nevertheless, it is the key component to utilize the record with a clinical nursing plan, so as to provide a proficient health management. Since the maintenance of nursing plan is costly and time-consuming, therefore, it is essential to establish the nursing plan information system, which can effectively promote the nursing quality. This research main body comes from one infectious disease division nursing plan information system, which was developed in 1992, and its data base covers entire courtyard compatibility and various faculties characteristic nursing plan. The nursing staff often complained that this system is not user-friendly, its contents are not comprehensive, and sometimes it does not let staff choose the right diagnosis. Therefore this research is based on history analysis and the questionnaire survey procedure first, the infectious disease nursing plan use number of times, the frequency and the project content, then by the literature scientific theory and result of the improvement group discussion together. The original 38 infectious disease division nursing plan will be expanded to 45 nursing plans. Moreover, the common 38 infectious disease code (ICD-9), and its corresponding diagnosis items, shall automatically appear in the disease diagnose code field, so it would be better off for the nursing staff to set up the nursing plan efficiently. Infectious disease division nursing plan information system utilization ratio is promoted 9.6-folds, according to research outcome. Each task consumes 3.68 minutes beforehand-including computer program operation, the

  8. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster boost in cell-medicated immunity to VZV (2). No VZV DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful

  9. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  10. Global Dynamics of Infectious Disease with Arbitrary Distributed Infectious Period on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.

  11. 大理学院昆明附属医院常用药品剂型分析%Analysis on Commonly Used Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms in Kunming Affiliated Hospital of Dali University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学昌

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze commonly used pharmaceutical dosage forms in Kunming Affiliated Hospital of Dali University so as to provide suggestions on a rational use of medicine.Method: Statistics of defined daily dose(DDD) of medicine,medication frequency(DDDs) and frequency analysis of oral controlled release drugs in 2009 were analyzed.Result: Data showed that the oral traditional tablets and capsules accounted for 88.36%,sustained-release tablets and capsules accounted for 5.67%,and controlled-release tablet accounted for 0.6%.The majority of sustained or controlled release tablets were cardiovascular medicine.Conclusion: Traditional tablets and capsules were widely used in Kunming Affiliated Hospital of Dali University.The use of sustained and controlled released drug delivery system should be strengthened.%目的:对大理学院昆明附属医院药剂科常用药品的剂型种类进行调查和分析,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法:统计住院药房2010年在用药品剂型情况。采用限定日剂量(DDD)、用药频率(DDDs)和用药频度排序作为指标,对2009年我院口服缓控释药物的使用情况进行统计、分析。结果:口服普通片剂与胶囊剂占88.36%,缓释片剂与胶囊剂占5.67%,控释片剂约占0.6%。我院口服缓控释药物的应用以心血管系统用药为主。结论:我院住院药房以传统片剂、胶囊剂为主,应加强缓释制剂和控释制剂的应用与推广。

  12. Formas de potássio em solos de várzea e sua disponibilidade para o feijoeiro Potassium forms in lowland soils and availability to common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Villa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar as formas de K em solos de várzea e o aproveitamento dessas formas pela planta, avaliar a resposta do feijoeiro à aplicação desse nutriente nesses solos e determinar os seus níveis críticos nos solos e nas plantas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro solos de várzea [Gleissolo Melânico (GM, Gleissolo Háplico (GX, Neossolo Flúvico (RU e Organossolo Méssico (OY] e cinco níveis de saturação por K da CTC potencial (natural, 4, 6, 8 e 10 %. Foram cultivadas quatro plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por vaso até a produção de grãos. Amostras dos solos foram coletadas para a determinação do K total, não-trocável, trocável, em solução, disponível pelos extratores Mehlich-1 e Resina e medidas da relação Quantidade/Intensidade de K. Os teores de K total e K não-trocável foram maiores nos solos OY e RU, enquanto os teores de K trocável e K em solução foram maiores nos solos OY e GM. As saturações críticas por K da CTC potencial foram de 5,0, 4,1, 8,7 e 5,3 %, enquanto os níveis críticos de K foliar foram de 17,9, 30,5, 16,8 e 14,6 mg kg-1, para os solos OY, GM, GX e RU, respectivamente.The present study had as objectives to characterize K forms, plant use of these forms and to evaluate the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. response to K application in four lowland soils. It was also sought to determine the critical levels for K in soils and plant. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments were a combination of four lowland soils [Mesic Organosoil (OY, Melanic Gleysoil (GM, Haplic Gleysoil (GX, and Fluvic Neosoil (RU] and five K CEC saturation levels (native, 4, 6, 8, and 10 %. Four bean plants per pot were cultivated until grain production. Soil samples were analyzed for total K, non

  13. Consultation in university-based and community-based infectious disease practices: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, D J; Corey, G R; Ingram, C W; Morris, V M; Haywood, H B

    1995-02-01

    Infectious disease physicians in university and community practices completed a standard data form following each of 1,366 inpatient consultations during a 7-month period. The rate of consultation was higher in the university practice than in the community practice (3.4 vs. 1.8 per 100 discharges, respectively). Known or suspected bacterial pathogens accounted for more than half of all consultations in both practice groups. The three organ systems most commonly affected by infection were pulmonary (20% in university practice vs. 19% in community practice), skin and soft tissue (13% in university practice vs. 20% in community practice), and musculoskeletal (12% in university practice vs. 16% in community practice). Bloodstream infection, pneumonia, unexplained fever, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infection, and cellulitis were the six most common disease processes that led to consultation in both practice groups. The percentage of patients with noninfectious diseases and the percentage for whom a change in antimicrobial therapy was advised was nearly identical in both practice settings. Physicians in private practice performed more consultations on weekends (20% vs. 11% in university practices, P consultants in community practices are nearly identical to those of their colleagues in university-based practices.

  14. Feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (Puma concolor), California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pamela; Moeller, Robert B; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. The virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. Regardless of presentation, FIP is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. In May 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Kern County, California, USA was euthanized because of concern for public safety, and a postmortem examination was performed. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing, multifocal myocarditis; necrotizing, neutrophilic, and histiocytic myositis and vasculitis of the tunica muscularis layer of the small and large intestines; and embolic, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Feline coronavirus antigen was detected in both the heart and intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. A PCR for coronavirus performed on kidney tissue was positive, confirming a diagnosis of FIP. Although coronavirus infection has been documented in mountain lions by serology, this is the first confirmed report of FIP.

  15. Burns and long-term infectious disease morbidity: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Wood, Fiona M; Boyd, James H; Fear, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing volume of data that indicates that serious injury suppresses immune function, predisposing individuals to infectious complications. With recent evidence showing long-term immune dysfunction after less severe burn, this study aimed to investigate post-burn infectious disease morbidity and assess if burn patients have increased long-term hospital use for infectious diseases. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia for all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012. A frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort was randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Direct standardisation was used to assess temporal trends in infectious disease admissions. Crude annual admission rates and length of stay for infectious diseases were calculated. Multivariate negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling were used to generate adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had twice (IRR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.04, 1.98-2.22) as many admissions and 3.5 times the number of days in hospital (IRR, 95%CI: 3.46, 3.05-3.92) than the uninjured cohort for infectious diseases. Higher rates of infectious disease admissions were found for severe (IRR, 95%CI: 2.37, 1.89-2.97) and minor burns (IRR, 95%CI: 2.22, 2.11-2.33). Burns were associated with significantly increased incident admissions: 0-30days (HR, 95%CI: 5.18, 4.15-6.48); 30days-1year (HR, 95%CI: 1.69, 1.53-1.87); 1-10 years (HR, 95%CI: 1.40:1.33-1.47); >10years (HR, 95%CI: 1.16, 1.08-1.24). Respiratory, skin and soft tissue and gastrointestinal infections were the most common. The burn cohort had a 1.75 (95%CI: 1.37-2.25) times greater rate of mortality caused by infectious diseases during the 5-year period after discharge than

  16. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  17. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  18. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In children, infectious discitis (D) and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD) are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric D and SD. It is highlighted that particular attention must be paid to the identification of the causative infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics, remembering that traditional culture frequently leads to negative results and modern molecular methods can significantly increase the detection rate. Several different bacterial pathogens can cause D and SD, and, in some cases, particularly those due to Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., the appropriate choice of drug is critical to achieve cure. PMID:27070599

  19. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Principi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In children, infectious discitis (D and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric D and SD. It is highlighted that particular attention must be paid to the identification of the causative infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics, remembering that traditional culture frequently leads to negative results and modern molecular methods can significantly increase the detection rate. Several different bacterial pathogens can cause D and SD, and, in some cases, particularly those due to Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., the appropriate choice of drug is critical to achieve cure.

  20. Modeling the infectiousness of Twitter hashtags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, Jonathan; Blais, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This study applies dynamical and statistical modeling techniques to quantify the proliferation and popularity of trending hashtags on Twitter. Using time-series data reflecting actual tweets in New York City and San Francisco, we present estimates for the dynamics (i.e., rates of infection and recovery) of several hundred trending hashtags using an epidemic modeling framework coupled with Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. This methodological strategy is an extension of techniques traditionally used to model the spread of infectious disease. Using SIR-type models, we demonstrate that most hashtags are marginally infectious, while very few emerge as "trending". In doing so we illustrate that hashtags can be grouped by infectiousness, possibly providing a method for quantifying the trendiness of a topic.

  1. Sapronosis: a distinctive type of infectious agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Sokolow, Susanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Sapronotic disease agents have evolutionary and epidemiological properties unlike other infectious organisms. Their essential saprophagic existence prevents coevolution, and no host–parasite virulence trade-off can evolve. However, the host may evolve defenses. Models of pathogens show that sapronoses, lacking a threshold of transmission, cannot regulate host populations, although they can reduce host abundance and even extirpate their hosts. Immunocompromised hosts are relatively susceptible to sapronoses. Some particularly important sapronoses, such as cholera and anthrax, can sustain an epidemic in a host population. However, these microbes ultimately persist as saprophages. One-third of human infectious disease agents are sapronotic, including nearly all fungal diseases. Recognition that an infectious disease is sapronotic illuminates a need for effective environmental control strategies.

  2. Non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; CHEUNG Ning; TIAN Bei; WEI Wen-bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-infectious endophthalmitis was reported to occur after cataract surgery or intravitreal injections.This study reported a series of patients having non-infectious endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy in the same two operation rooms during the same period to estimate the risk factors for non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy.Methods Medical records of patients who presented with severe non-infectious endophthalmitis following vitrectomy between May 13 and June 8,2011,were reviewed.The presenting symptoms and signs were collected,including visual acuity,intraocular pressure,cornea and anterior chamber activity.The treatments and results of microbiology examination were also recorded and analyzed.Results Ten patients were identified with severe non-infectious endophthalmitis,presenting 1 day after pars plana vitrectomy.Three eyes (30%) had previous intraocular surgeries,four (40%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy,and one (10%) got pars plana vitrectomy combinded with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.All the patients were initially treated with topical and/or oral steroids.Only two patients had intravenous antibiotics because of the atypical presentation.One eye had paracentesis because of high intraocular pressure and the aqueous sample was sent for microbiological examination.The culture of the aqueous,air in the operation room,the swab from hand of surgeons,infusion fluid,and vitrectomy effluent were all negative for bacteria and fungi.The inflammation regressed rapidly after the initial treatment.Conclusions Intraocular surgery history,poor general health status,longer operation time,and more surgical procedures are the risk factors for non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy.It responds well to steroids.

  3. 儿童感染后闭塞性细支气管炎研究进展%Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小英

    2012-01-01

    闭塞性细支气管炎(bronchiolitis obliterans,BO)是一种由严重小气道炎症损伤引起的少见的慢性气道阻塞性肺疾病.BO常见病因有感染、心肺或骨髓移植、吸入有毒物质、胃食管反流、结缔组织病及药物性等.儿童以感染后BO(post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans,PIBO)最常见.文章综述PIBO研究进展.%Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare form of chronic obstructive lung disease that follows a severe inflammatory insult to the small airways. The common etiologies of BO include infection, transplantations of the lung, the heart or the bone-marrow, toxic inhalation, gastroesophageal reflux, connective tissue disorders, drugs and so on. In children, post-infectious BO (PIBO) is the most common form. This article reviews the recent progress of PIBO in children.

  4. Infectious proctitis: when to suspect it is not inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoentjen, F.; Rubin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proctitis is a common problem and is most frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the incidence of infectious proctitis appears to be rising, especially in men who have sex with men. This may be due to the rise of people participating in receptive anal sex as wel

  5. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the field, poultry are exposed to a variety of infectious agents, many of which are immunosuppressive. Co-infections between these agents are common, and these co-infections have effects on disease, immune response, and vaccine efficacy. The effect of co-infections in poultry between immunosupp...

  6. Infectious Disease Rates in the U.S. Navy, 1980 to 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    group having the lowest rates. ’viral diseases with exanthem " in which varicella (chickenpox) was the most common. Several categories of infectious or...meningitis (047) 618 12.4 groups. Viral diseases with exanthem Chickenpox (052] 6690 133.9 Other Venereal Disease Herpes simplex (054) 602 12.1 Measles

  7. Unifying diseases from a genetic point of view: the example of the genetic theory of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrason, Marie

    2013-08-01

    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), they attempt to unify infectious diseases from a genetic point of view. In this article, I analyze this explicit example of a genetic theory, which relies on mechanisms and is applied only to a specific category of diseases, what we call "a regional genetic theory." I have three aims: to prove that a genetic theory of disease can be devoid of genocentrism, to consider the possibility of a genetic theory applied to every disease, and to introduce two hypotheses about the form that such a genetic theory could take by distinguishing between a genetic theory of diseases and a genetic theory of Disease. Finally, I suggest that network medicine could be an interesting framework for a genetic theory of Disease.

  8. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed...... mutations (HCV1cc) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 cells and produced supernatant infectivity titers of 10(4.0) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. Eight of these mutations were identified from passaged HCV-1 viruses, and the A970T/I1312V/C2419R/A2919T mutations were essential for infectious particle production......-adapted full-length TN viruses and a common NS3 helicase mutation (S1368P) derived from viable H77C and HCV-1 5-5A recombinants, initiated replication and culture adaptation of H77C containing LSG and TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations. An H77C recombinant harboring 19 mutations (H77Ccc) replicated and spread...

  9. The role of S.P. Botkin in the creation and development of Russia’s first Infectious Disease Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the role of S.P. Botkin in the creation and development of Russia’s first infectious hospital. The creation of the hospital contributed to unfavorable epidemiological situation in a number of infectious diseases in St. Petersburg in 60–70 years XIX century. For the treatment of infectious diseases were no specialized infections hospital. At the initiative of S.P. Botkin was created Russia’s first hospital for infectious diseases, he also became a trustee on the medical side. Under the guidance of Professor Botkin in the barracks hospital began a systematic study of infectious diseases, there was formed the national school of infectious disease. On his initiative, the hospital created the first ambulance coach, first disinfecting chamber, opened the chemical and physiological laboratory. Sergei Petrovich in the hospital laid the foundation of the hospital medical statistics. He made a great contribution to the reorganization of the ambulance and hospital pharmacies. Opening of the Infectious Diseases Hospital has reduced he mortality rate from infectious diseases in St. Petersburg in three times.

  10. Infectious disease outbreaks in competitive sports: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbeville, Sean D; Cowan, Linda D; Greenfield, Ronald A

    2006-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases in athletes in competitive sports have stimulated considerable interest. The environments in which these athletes compete, practice, receive therapy for injuries, and travel, both domestically and internationally, provide varied opportunities for the transmission of infectious organisms. The purpose of this medical literature review is to identify the agents most commonly reported in the medical literature as responsible for infectious disease outbreaks in specific sports and their modes of transmission and to guide targeted prevention efforts. A literature review of English-language articles in medical publications that reported outbreaks of infectious diseases in competitive athletes was conducted in PubMed MEDLINE from 1966 through May 2005. Outbreaks that were solely food borne were excluded. Fifty-nine reports of infectious disease outbreaks in competitive sports were identified in the published medical literature. Herpes simplex virus infections appear to be common among wrestlers and rugby players, with no single strain responsible for the outbreaks. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was responsible for several recent outbreaks of soft tissue and skin infections among collegiate and professional athletes. The most common mode of transmission in outbreaks was direct, person-to-person (primarily skin-to-skin) contact. Blood-borne exposure was implicated in 2 confirmed outbreaks of hepatitis. Airborne and vector transmissions were rarely reported. This review provides an overview of infectious disease outbreaks thought to be either serious enough or unusual enough to report. Appropriate surveillance of the frequency of infections will allow sports medicine staff to identify outbreaks quickly and take necessary measures to contain further transmission and prevent future outbreaks.

  11. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  12. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  13. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  14. Met uitloop meer kans op parasitaire infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitaire infecties vormen een belangrijk probleem in de biologische- en scharrelhouderij. In een veldinventarisatie van het Praktijkonderzoek van ASG werden meer Ascaris suum (spoelwormen), coccidiën en Toxoplasma gondii gevonden op bedrijven met uitloop dan op bedrijven zonder uitloop. Nader ond

  15. Measurement and Modeling: Infectious Disease Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE

    2016-01-01

    After some historical remarks about the development of mathematical theory for infectious disease dynamics we introduce a basic mathematical model for the spread of an infection with immunity. The concepts of the model are explained and the model equations are derived from first principles. Using th

  16. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  17. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population-bas...

  18. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss

  19. STATINS AND RISK OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides hypolipidemic effect statins demonstrate some not-lipid (pleotropic ones. Special attention has been paying to statin inducing reduction in bacterial infections incidence and severity, and pneumonia particularly. Results of the large studies on statin influence on infectious disease are presented.

  20. [Methods for diminishing mortality from infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, B V; Ershov, F I

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports analysis of the "Russian Cross" demographic phenomenon characteristic of the present-day Russia, that is a marked excess of mortality over the birth rate leading to the reduction of the country's population at a rate of 750-800 thou people per year. The main causes and factors of excess mortality are considered with reference to deaths from infectious (viral and microbial) diseases. Experts of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences proposed the working concept of the research program "Avoidable population mortality from infectious diseases in 2010-2020". Its implementation envisages the use of up-to-date information and computer technologies including mathematical and computer simulation of morbidity and mortality processes in outbreaks and epidemics of infectious diseases. The use of computer-assisted technologies is illustrated by the example of smallpox epidemics. They permit to promptly analyse and prognosticate excess mortality from infectious diseases by applying new diagnostic tools and medicinal products. This approach is proposed for the evaluation of the effectiveness of different projects in the framework of the above program. Its realization requires the development of three special information (computer-aided) systems designated Projects, Infections, and Prognoses.

  1. Mathematical aspects of infectious disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldin, B.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis `Mathematical aspects of infectious disease dynamics' by Barbara Boldin is about model formulation, analysis and interpretation of four questions arising from biology or medicine. Suppose that a new population is introduced into a steady community. When the basic reproduction ratio R_0 of

  2. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, infectious diseases, and lower respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Kahn, J S; Shapiro, E; Klig, J

    1998-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious diseases that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children, and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. Jean Klig reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children. Jeffrey Kahn and Eugene Shapiro discuss recent developments in pediatric infectious diseases concerning neonatal herpes infections, poliovirus immunization schedule, and group B streptococcus screening and treatment.

  3. Neuroimaging of Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases of the Pediatric Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Martinetti, Carola; Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Cerebellar involvement by infectious-inflammatory conditions is rare in children. Most patients present with acute ataxia, and are typically previously healthy, young (often preschool) children. Viral involvement is the most common cause and ranges from acute postinfectious ataxia to acute cerebellitis MR imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harboring inflammatory-infectious involvement of the cerebellum and brainstem. Knowledge of the imaging features of these disorders and technical competence on pediatric MR imaging are necessary for a correct interpretation of findings, which in turn prompts further management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Etiology of Thrombocytosis in a General Medicine Population: Analysis of 801 Cases With Emphasis on Infectious Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stacey R.; Petersen, Nancy J.; Gardner, Tracie J.; Hamill, Richard J.; Trautner, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical importance of an elevated platelet count is often overlooked, particularly as a diagnostic clue to the presence of an underlying infection. We sought to better describe the relationship between thrombocytosis and inflammatory conditions, with a focus on infectious causes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 801 sequential cases of thrombocytosis (platelet count > 500 × 109/L) at a tertiary care hospital. Results Essential thrombocythemia was the most common cause of primary thrombocytosis, and these patients were more likely to have extreme (> 800 × 109/L) and prolonged (> 1 month) thrombocytosis. Secondary thrombocytosis was more common than primary, with infectious causes accounting for nearly half the cases. Demographic factors associated with an infectious etiology included inpatient status, quadriplegia/paraplegia, an indwelling prosthesis, dementia and diabetes. Clinical and laboratory characteristics associated with an infectious cause of thrombocytosis included fever, tachycardia, weight loss, hypoalbuminemia, neutrophilia, leukocytosis and anemia. Patients with thrombocytosis secondary to infection had a more rapid normalization of platelet count, but higher risk of dying, than those with secondary, non-infectious causes. Conclusions Infection is a common cause of thrombocytosis and should be considered in patients with comorbidities that increase risk of infection and when clinical and/or laboratory data support an infectious etiology. Thrombocytosis may have prognostic implications as a clinical parameter. PMID:23226175

  5. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered. First, the IFNLR is not ubiquitously expressed: in particular, immune cells show significant variation in the expression levels of and susceptibilities to IFN-λs. Second, the binding affinities of individual IFN-λs to the IFNLR varies greatly and are generally lower compared to the binding affinities of IFN-α to its receptor. Finally, genetic variation in the form of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to genes involved in the IFN-λ signaling cascade has been described and associated with the clinical course and treatment outcomes of hepatitis B and C virus infection. The clinical impact of IFN-λ signaling and the SNP variations may, however, reach far beyond viral hepatitis. Recent publications show important roles for IFN-λs in a broad range of viral infections such as human T-cell leukemia type-1 virus, rotaviruses, and influenza virus. IFN-λ also potentially modulates the course of bacterial colonization and infections as shown for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the immunological processes involved in controlling viral and bacterial infections are distinct, IFN-λs may interfere at various levels: as an innate immune cytokine with direct antiviral effects; or as a modulator of IFN-α-induced signaling via the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 inhibitory feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage and

  6. Markers of infectious disease emergencies: Focus on patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we explore the potential of several biomarkers of infection in infectious disease emergencies in general with a specific focus on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), risk factors in the development of CAP and markers of infection in CAP as well as in specific etiologic forms of CAP, l

  7. Europe: history, current situation and control measures for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Jones

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and nature of different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in Europe are described. Infectious bronchitis (IB is the most important endemic viral respiratory disease where highly pathogenic Newcastle disease and avian influenza are not present. IB was first described in the UK in 1948 and identified as Massachusetts type. In the 1970s and 80s new serotypes were reported in Holland and elsewhere and new vaccines were developed. The 1990s saw the emergence of the major variant commonly called 793B, again needing a new vaccine. Two novel types have been recognised since 2000, Italy 02 and QX. Italy 02 appears to be well controlled by the use of two different live vaccines (H120 and the 793B-related 4/91 while for QX, associated with nephritis in young birds and silent layers, new vaccines are in development. The use of two vaccines as above is a widely used protocol and is capable of protecting against a wide range of different types. Alternative approaches to IB vaccination are discussed. The importance of constant surveillance for prevalent and novel IBV types is emphasised and the value of experimental infections in chickens to determine the pathogenesis and pathology of new types in addition to testing efficacy of vaccines is outlined.

  8. Management of infectious intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Bruno C; Patel, Ankur R; Braga, Bruno P; Weprin, Bradley E; Batjer, H Hunt

    2016-07-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) account for approximately 15 % of all pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Histologically, they are pseudoaneurysms that develop in response to an inflammatory reaction within the adventitia and muscularis layers, ultimately resulting in disruption of both the internal elastic membrane and the intima. The majority of pediatric IIAs are located within the anterior circulation, and they can be multiple in 15-25 % of cases. The most common presentation for an IIA is intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage. In children with a known diagnosis of infective endocarditis who develop new neurological manifestations, it is imperative to exclude the existence of an IIA. The natural history of untreated infectious aneurysms is ominous; they demonstrate a high incidence of spontaneous rupture. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and adequate treatment are of paramount importance to prevent devastating neurological consequences. The prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics represents the mainstay of treatment. Three questions should guide the management of pediatric patients with IIAs: (a) aneurysm rupture status, (b) the presence of intraparenchymal hemorrhage or elevated intracranial pressure, and (c) relationship of the parent vessel to eloquent brain tissue. Those three questions should orient the treating physician into either antibiotic therapy alone or in combination with microsurgical or endovascular interventions. This review discusses important aspects of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the management of IIAs in the pediatric population.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infectious keratitis in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwich, Martin M; Bordón, M; di Martino, D Sánchez; Campuzano, A Ruiz; Torres, W Martínez; Laspina, F; Lichi, S; Samudio, M; Farina, N; Sanabria, Rosa R; de Kaspar, Herminia Mino

    2015-06-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe infectious keratitis in Asunción, Paraguay between April 2009 and September 2011. All patients with the clinical diagnosis of severe keratitis (ulcer ≥2 mm in size and/or central location) were included. Empiric treatment consisted of topical antibiotics and antimycotics; in cases of advanced keratitis, fortified antibiotics were used. After microbiological analysis, treatment was changed if indicated. In total 48 patients (62.5 % males, 25 % farmers) were included in the analysis. A central ulcer was found in 81.3 % (n = 39). The median delay between onset of symptoms and time of first presentation at our institution was 7 days (range 1-30 days). Fungal keratitis was diagnosed in 64.5 % (n = 31) of patients, of which Fusarium sp. (n = 17) was the most common. Twenty-one patients (43.8 %) reported previous trauma to the eye. The globe could be preserved in all cases. While topical therapy only was sufficient in most patients, a conjunctival flap was necessary in six patients suffering from fungal keratitis. The high rate of fungal keratitis in this series is remarkable, and microbiological analysis provided valuable information for the appropriate treatment. In this setting, one has to be highly suspicious of fungal causes of infectious keratitis.

  10. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTOLOGY AND VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS. Part 1. Bioethics and social justice in infectious pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kubar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases. 

  11. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings contribute to the early differentiation between infectious and noninfectious encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Wilken

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases, 53 (65% men and 29 (35% women, mean age 47.8 years. The most common microorganisms identified were: HSV-1 (11%, VZV (10%, HSV-2 (5% and EBV (5%. Twenty-three patients (22% of the series had non-infectious encephalitis. Headache (p < 0.0001 and fever (p = 0.008 were more frequent in encephalitis of infectious origin. Protein levels and white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in patients affected by infectious encephalitis than in those affected by noninfectious encephalitis (OR 95% CI 12.3 [2.9-51.7] and OR 95% CI 7.4 [2-27], respectively. Identifying specific causal agents of acute encephalitis remains a major challenge. Cerebrospinal fluid markers, as well as specific clinical findings, may however contribute to initial differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes.

  12. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Haemophilus paragallinarum isolated from suspected cases of infectious coryza in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Rajurkar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Among infectious diseases of avian species Infectious coryza is one of the major problems affecting commercial poultry industry in the country. Infectious coryza is an upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with H. paragallinarum (HPG. The disease is characterized by swollen infra-orbital sinuses, nasal discharge, and depression. The disease is seen most commonly in adult chickens and can cause a very significant reduction in the rate of egg production. Considering the economic importance of the disease, the present research pursuit was undertaken with the aim to isolate H. paragallinarum from the suspected cases of Infectious coryza in commercial poultry farms in Gujarat state with reference to their cultural, morphological characterization and antimicrobial drug sensitivity patterns. Further these isolates were confirmed by using specific colony PCR test. The research work aims to characterize Haemophilus paragallinarum field isolates of poultry origin from Infectious coryza outbreak in and around Anand, Kheda and Mahua area of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state, India. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 177-181

  13. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Infectious Diseases in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan C. Semenza; Jonathan E. Suk; Virginia Estevez; Kristie L. Ebi; Elisabet Lindgren

    ...: In 2007 and 2009/2010, national infectious disease experts from 30 European Economic Area countries were surveyed about recent and projected infectious disease patterns in relation to climate change...

  14. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and thank you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). ... This Web site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) ...

  15. Spatiotemporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Diffusion and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases, and the resurgence of previously controlled infectious disease (e.g., malaria, tuberculosis, are a major focus for public health concern, as well as providing challenges for establishing aetiology and transmission. [...

  16. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  17. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  18. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J.

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors...

  19. Producing infectious enterovirus type 71 in a rapid strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin E-De

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is an etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, and recent HFMD epidemics worldwide have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case-fatality rates. EV71 contains a positive-sense single-stranded genome RNA of approximately 7400 bp in length which encodes a polyprotein with a single open reading frame (ORF, which is flanked by untranslated regions at both the 5' and 3' ends. Results A long distance RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify the full length genome cDNA of EV71 by using specific primes carrying a SP6 promoter. Then the in vitro synthesized RNA transcripts from the RT-PCR amplicons were then transfected into RD cells to produce the rescued virus. The rescued virus was further characterized by RT-PCR and indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA assay in comparison with the wild type virus. The rescued viruses were infectious on RD cells and neurovirulent when intracerebrally injected into suckling mice. Conclusions Thus, we established a rapid method to produce the infectious full length cDNA of EV71 directly from RNA preparations and specific mutations can be easily engineered into the rescued enterovirus genome by this method.

  20. An update on feline infectious peritonitis: virology and immunopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C

    2014-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) continues to be one of the most researched infectious diseases of cats. The relatively high mortality of FIP, especially for younger cats from catteries and shelters, should be reason enough to stimulate such intense interest. However, it is the complexity of the disease and the grudging manner in which it yields its secrets that most fascinate researchers. Feline leukemia virus infection was conquered in less than two decades and the mysteries of feline immunodeficiency virus were largely unraveled in several years. After a half century, FIP remains one of the last important infections of cats for which we have no single diagnostic test, no vaccine and no definitive explanations for how virus and host interact to cause disease. How can a ubiquitous and largely non-pathogenic enteric coronavirus transform into a highly lethal pathogen? What are the interactions between host and virus that determine both disease form (wet or dry) and outcome (death or resistance)? Why is it so difficult, and perhaps impossible, to develop a vaccine for FIP? What role do genetics play in disease susceptibility? This review will explore research conducted over the last 5 years that attempts to answer these and other questions. Although much has been learned about FIP in the last 5 years, the ultimate answers remain for yet more studies.

  1. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  2. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, β-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  3. [Medication in infectious acute diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, J-P; Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute infectious diarrhea in children remain still a frequent cause of morbidity. 50 % of them are due to rotavirus. Oral rehydration therapy and early realimentation have drastically reduced their mortality and morbidity. Beside oral or eventually IV rehydration therapy no medication has proven its efficacy based on the main HMO criteria (reduction of over 30 % of the stool output) except racecadotril and loperamide which is contre-indicated for the last one in children less than 2 years old. Other medications such as silicates or some probiotics have shown efficacy on diarrhea duration or stool consistency but not on stool output. They have so no formal indication in infectious diarrhea and should be considered as "comfort" treatment. Antibiotics, beside their indication in shigella, cholera and amibiasis could be used in invasive diarrhea in some debilating conditions or infants less than 3 months.

  4. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  5. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in children with hearing impairment due to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Jovana Radovan; Opančina, Aleksandra Aleksandar Bajec

    2015-05-01

    Among objective audiologic tests, the most important were tests of brain stem auditory evoked potentials. The objective of the study was to test the configuration, degree of hearing loss, and response characteristics of auditory brain stem evoked potentials in children with hearing loss occurred due to infectious disease. A case control study design was used. The study group consisted of 54 patients referred for a hearing test because of infectious diseases caused by other agents or that occurred as congenital infection. Infectious agents have led to the emergence of various forms of sensorineural hearing loss. We have found deviations from the normal values of absolute and interwave latencies in some children in our group. We found that in the group of children who had the diseases such as purulent meningitis, or were born with rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infection, a retrocochlear damage was present in children with and without cochlear damage.

  7. DNA chip based sensor for amperometric detection of infectious pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-10-01

    Several infectious pathogens are found in human whose detection is essential for rapid cure of diseases. The most commonly found pathogen in human is Streptococcus pyogenes which leads to a wide range of infections from mild pharyngitis to rheumatic heart disease. An ultrasensitive DNA chip based sensor was developed for quick identification of pathogen S. pyogenes from patient throat swab samples. The amperometric response was measured after hybridization of specific probe with single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) from the patient samples. The DNA chip was characterized by FTIR, SEM and validated with suspected patient real samples. The sensitivity of the DNA chip based sensor was found 951.34(μA/cm(2))/ng DNA and lower limit of detection (LOD) was 130fg/6μL samples. The DNA chip based sensor is highly specific and takes only 30min for identification of specific pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

    2008-01-01

    The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities.

  9. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min GAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.

  10. The role of infectious diseases in the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias-Diaz, S; Vazquez de Lara, F; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Galvez-Romero, J L; Mendez-Martinez, S; Cervera, R

    2015-11-01

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), also called "Asherson syndrome", is a variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) that occurs in less than 1% of APS cases. The etiology of CAPS is uncertain; however, several triggering factors have been recognized. The most common of these are infectious diseases, particularly those of the respiratory tract. CAPS pathogenesis is incompletely understood, but several theories have been proposed, such as the molecular mimicry theory, which describes the production of anti-β2-glycoprotein I (GP1) antibody in response to infection. The process is complex and involves the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), which triggers a cytokine storm, followed by endothelial alterations that induce a procoagulant state.

  11. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  12. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA (ISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Østergaard, Peter

    The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA is perfo...... characterisation of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost....

  13. Infectious diarrheas of infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1985-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1985 Acute diarrhea' disease was once attributed to "indigestion." Although shigellosis, cholera, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and amebiasis have long been recognized as distinct clinical entities, it was not too long ago that many medical personnel had difficulty accepting the fact that most diarrheas are of infectious origin. The occurrence of diarrhea with the onset of weaning in many animal speci...

  14. Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, J G; Allan, E M; Selman, I E

    1985-09-07

    The left eyes of 10 conventional dairy cross calves were inoculated with a pathogenic strain of Moraxella bovis and lesions of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis developed in nine of these eyes. M bovis was isolated from all inoculated eyes and lesions developed in five out of 10 eyes which had become naturally infected. The clinical and microbiological findings were similar to those described in field cases.

  15. Complete Isolation System for Laboratory Infectious Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean; Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Contents:Duringthe development of biological medical science,a great number of research experiments are carried out andthe various infectious animal experiments are necessary part of them.For lab animal experiments,it is necessary tochoose proper isolation equipments accordingto experiment hazardlevels.1.FunctionsAnimal isolation systemare used broadlyin laboratory research,pharmaceuticals and medical areas.The isolationsystemhas become excellent equipmentsin animal breeding,disease diagnosis,analysis,test ...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous

  17. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Moestrup; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Understanding the underlying causes for the variation in case-fatality-ratios (CFR) is important for assessing the mechanism governing global disparity in the burden of infectious diseases. Variation in CFR is likely to be driven by factors such as population genetics...... to their biology. We suggest that the overall result reflects an interaction between the forces driving demographic change and the virulence of human-to-human transmitted diseases....

  18. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  19. Professional challenges and opportunities in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    The two closely linked specialties of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases face important challenges. We report the consensus of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians assembled by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Both specialties have different training requirements in different European countries and are not universally recognised as professions. The specialties are rapidly evolving as they adapt to the changing demands within hospital practice, including the need to deal with emerging infections, rapidly increasing internationalisation, and immigration. Clinical microbiology needs to develop and master technological advances such as laboratory automation and an avalanche of new methods for rapid diagnostics. Simultaneously, the pressure for concentration, amalgamation, and out-sourcing of laboratory services is ever-increasing. Infectious disease physicians have to meet the professional challenge of subspecialisation and the continual need to find new niches for their skills. Despite these challenges, each of these specialties continues to thrive in Europe and will enjoy important opportunities over the next few years. The recently formed European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden, will increase demands in areas of surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance on both specialties.

  20. 76 FR 40915 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of...

  1. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  2. Infectious myocarditis (Clinic, diagnostics, principles of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Finogeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective myocarditis can be considered as a case of myocardial damage caused by different infectious agents. Traditionally discusses the questions of diagnostics and treatment infectious myocarditis. The paper has repeatedly stressed the difficulty of clinical diagnosis, and the laboriousness and economic costs of laboratory tests and additional researches. Endomyocardial biopsy findings remain the gold standard for unequivocally establishing the diagnosis. However, it is technically extremely invasive test and can be performed only in specialized cardiology centers. The paper analyzes in detail not only own materials, but also results of researches published in numerous domestic and foreign sources of literature. Publication of «Infectious myocarditis» is necessary due to the fact that patients with a diagnosis of «Myocarditis » account for 11% of all cardiovascular disease in the world. Article is timely and necessary for many professionals, senior students of medical universities.

  3. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools.

  4. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  5. Nucleotide diversity of Japanese isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, T; Kinoshita, S; Kim, W S; Higashi, S; Yoshimizu, M

    2006-08-30

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish. In the present study, G gene nucleotide sequences of 9 Japanese IHNV isolates obtained from 1971 to 1996 were analyzed to evaluate the genetic diversity and compared with IHNV isolates from North America and Europe. A radial phylogenetic tree revealed 5 major clusters including 3 genogroups (U, M and L) for North American isolates and 1 genogroup for European isolates. Five Japanese isolates from 1971 to 1982 appeared in the cluster for genogroup U, while the remaining Japanese isolates from 1980 to 1996 formed a new genogroup, JRt (Japanese rainbow trout). Maximum nucleotide diversity among the Japanese isolates was 4.5%, which was greater than that within the North American isolates (3.6%), and the degree of nucleotide diversity within Japanese isolates was increased by inclusion of the genogroup JRt isolates. It was concluded that Japanese isolates shared a common source with the genogroup U of the North American isolates and that there were large divergences between Japanese isolates before and after the 1980s.

  6. Natural infectious behavior of the urediniospores of Melampsora larici-populina on poplar leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibing Wan; Yiran Li; Min Liu; Yingnan Chen; Tongming Yin

    2015-01-01

    The uredinial stage in the life cycle of Me-lampsora larici-populina on poplar leaves is the most important pathogenic phase. We captured partial phases of uredinial infection in the wild, aiming to reconstruct the process of uredinial ontogeny by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. At the initial infection stage, germ tubes germinated from the echinulate uredini-ospores. Germ tubes were frequently seen to merge with the leaf surface and cuticle breakage was observed, indi-cating direct hyphal penetration. Stomata penetration occurred commonly, sometimes with more than one germ tube penetrating the same stoma. Melampsora larici-pop-ulina did not form appressoria in the infection process, implying that infectious behavior of this pathogen may differ from the other rust pathogens. In general, germ tubes branched randomly, and no distinct evidence indicated that stoma could induce or orient germ tube branches. How-ever, oriented germ tube growth has been occasionally observed in other studies. The urediniospores collapsed and finally wizened when they became nutrient stressed. At the last stage of infection, the uredinia erupted from the leaf epidermis and appeared as orange pustules on the leaf surface.

  7. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV virus in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyytiäinen Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994.

  8. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) virus in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Lasse; Neuvonen, Erkki; Hyytiäinen, Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994. PMID:17222341

  9. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP in our section material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić-Kovačević Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP has been diagnozed in our section material in 23 cats, 19 Persian and 4 domestic, of both sexes, aged between 5 months and 8 years. The majority of the infected population were animals under 20 months of age. The macroscopic finding in most cats was of granulomatous character, and large quantities of goldenyellow gelatinous exudate were observed in the stomach cavity of 7 animals, corresponding to the exudative form of FIP. Granulomas were in most cases located in the abdomen wall, liver, spleen, omentum and serous membrane of intestines, and the histological structure was characterized by fibrinoid-necrotic centers with numerous lymphocytes, monocytes, angioblasts and fibroblasts. Immunohistochemically, feline corona virus (FCV antigens were exprimed in the cytoplasm of macrophages, more rarely in plasma cells in granulomas, and sometimes in necrotized areas.

  11. Sex bias in infectious disease epidemiology: patterns and processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guerra-Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006-2009 were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male-female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS: Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including

  12. Invasive candidosis: contrasting the perceptions of infectious disease physicians and intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schultz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We analyze how infectious disease physicians perceive and manage invasive candidosis in Brazil, in comparison to intensive care unit specialists. Methods A 38-question survey was administered to 56 participants. Questions involved clinicians' perceptions of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidosis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The perception that candidemia not caused by Candida albicans occurs in less than 10% of patients is more commonly held by intensive care unit specialists (p=0.018. Infectious disease physicians almost always use antifungal drugs in the treatment of patients with candidemia, and antifungal drugs are not as frequently prescribed by intensive care unit specialists (p=0.006. Infectious disease physicians often do not use voriconazole when a patient's antifungal treatment has failed with fluconazole, which also differs from the behavior of intensive care unit specialists (p=0.019. Many intensive care unit specialists use fluconazole to treat candidemia in neutropenic patients previously exposed to fluconazole, in contrast to infectious disease physicians (p=0.024. Infectious disease physicians prefer echinocandins as a first choice in the treatment of unstable neutropenic patients more frequently than intensive care unit specialists (p=0.013. When candidemia is diagnosed, most infectious disease physicians perform fundoscopy (p=0.015, whereas intensive care unit specialists usually perform echocardiograms on all patients (p=0.054. Conclusions This study reveals a need to better educate physicians in Brazil regarding invasive candidosis. The appropriate management of this disease depends on more drug options being available in our country in addition to global coverage in private and public hospitals, thereby improving health care.

  13. De novo generation of infectious prions with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Huaiyi; Yu, Guohua; Yuan, Chonggang; Ma, Jiyan

    2013-12-01

    The prion hypothesis is strongly supported by the fact that prion infectivity and the pathogenic conformer of prion protein (PrP) are simultaneously propagated in vitro by the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, due to sPMCA's enormous amplification power, whether an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed recombinant PrP (rPrP) remains to be satisfactorily resolved. To address this question, we performed unseeded sPMCA with rPrP in a laboratory that has never been exposed to any native prions. Two types of proteinase K (PK)-resistant and self-perpetuating recombinant PrP conformers (rPrP-res) with PK-resistant cores of 17 or 14 kDa were generated. A bioassay revealed that rPrP-res(17kDa) was highly infectious, causing prion disease in wild-type mice with an average survival time of about 172 d. In contrast, rPrP-res(14kDa) completely failed to induce any disease. Our findings reveal that sPMCA is sufficient to initiate various self-perpetuating PK-resistant rPrP conformers, but not all of them possess in vivo infectivity. Moreover, generating an infectious prion in a prion-free environment establishes that an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed rPrP.

  14. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Harmless and Pathogenic Strains of Infectious Microalgae, Prototheca spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P.) spp are associated with rare algal infections of invertebrates termed protothecosis. Among the seven generally accepted species, P. zopfii genotype 2 (GT2) is associated with a severe form of bovine mastitis while P. blaschkeae causes the mild and sub-clinical form of mastitis. The reason behind the infectious nature of P. zopfii GT2, while genotype 1 (GT1) remains non-infectious, is not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the protein expression level difference between the genotypes of P. zopfii and P. blaschkeae. Cells were cultured to the mid-exponential phase, harvested, and processed for LC-MS analysis. Peptide data was acquired on an LTQ Orbitrap Velos, raw spectra were quantitatively analyzed with MaxQuant software and matching with the reference database of Chlorella variabilis and Auxenochlorella protothecoides resulted in the identification of 226 proteins. Comparison of an environmental strain with infectious strains resulted in the identification of 51 differentially expressed proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism, energy production and protein translation. The expression level of Hsp70 proteins and their role in the infectious process is worth further investigation. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005305. PMID:28036087

  15. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    Full Text Available Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and

  16. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Scott, James C; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED) at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and statistics--this exercise

  17. Carriers of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, L

    1984-02-01

    Presently available data continue to support the idea that once a horse is infected with equine infectious anemia virus it remains infected indefinitely. Infection may not always be demonstrated by inoculation of plasma, serum, or whole blood transfusions into susceptible recipients, but transfusions of fresh whole blood will be infective in at least 95% of the horses testing positive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test. For detection of infectivity in a small percentage of inapparent carriers, it appears necessary to inoculate washed leukocytes collected over a period of time.

  18. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    During one year, 1979-80, all the contacts between the 836 inhabitants of Upernavik town and the local medical officers were recorded. In the 737 native Greenlanders 1006 contacts (41%) were caused by infectious diseases, representing 705 episodes of disease. The number of contacts per episode...... of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...... and sexually transmitted diseases were notably more frequent in Upernavik....

  19. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  20. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  1. A niche for infectious disease in environmental health: rethinking the toxicological paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Beth J; Vegosen, Leora; Davis, Meghan; Leibler, Jessica; Peterson, Amy; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-08-01

    In this review we highlight the need to expand the scope of environmental health research, which now focuses largely on the study of toxicants, to incorporate infectious agents. We provide evidence that environmental health research would be strengthened through finding common ground with the tools and approaches of infectious disease research. We conducted a literature review for examples of interactions between toxic agents and infectious diseases, as well as the role of these interactions as risk factors in classic "environmental" diseases. We investigated existing funding sources and research mandates in the United States from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. We adapted the toxicological paradigm to guide reintegration of infectious disease into environmental health research and to identify common ground between these two fields as well as opportunities for improving public health through interdisciplinary research. Environmental health encompasses complex disease processes, many of which involve interactions among multiple risk factors, including toxicant exposures, pathogens, and susceptibility. Funding and program mandates for environmental health studies should be expanded to include pathogens in order to capture the true scope of these overlapping risks, thus creating more effective research investments with greater relevance to the complexity of real-world exposures and multifactorial health outcomes. We propose a new model that integrates the toxicology and infectious disease paradigms to facilitate improved collaboration and communication by providing a framework for interdisciplinary research. Pathogens should be part of environmental health research planning and funding allocation, as well as applications such as surveillance and policy development.

  2. 29 CFR 1904.29 - Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required by OSHA. (5) May I keep my records on a computer? Yes, if the computer can produce equivalent... the computer system. (6) Are there situations where I do not put the employee's name on the forms for... are contaminated with another person's blood or other potentially infectious material (see §...

  3. Antibiotic-Induced Rash in Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Ramos, Carroll L

    2017-02-01

    To provide an extensive review of case reports, epidemiological data, and the underlying mechanism of antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with concurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM). A MEDLINE literature search inclusive of the dates 1946 to June 2016 was performed using the search terms anti-bacterial agents and infectious mononucleosis. EMBASE (1980 to June 2016) was searched using the terms mononucleosis and antibiotic agent and drug eruption. References of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations and information. We selected English-language, primary literature, review articles, and mechanistic articles that addressed antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with concurrent IM. We assessed all case reports available for causality utilizing a modified Naranjo nomogram specifically designed for this subject. We assembled the available epidemiological data into tables to identify trends in incidence rates over the years. We identified 17 case reports of antibiotic-associated rash in patients with IM. The median Naranjo score was 6 (range = 1 to 8). The top 3 reported drugs were ampicillin, azithromycin, and amoxicillin. Incidence of this adverse effect was higher in the 1960s (55.6%, 45%, and 33%) than in 2013 (33% and 15%). The mechanism most commonly proposed is a transient virus-mediated immune alteration that sets the stage for loss of antigenic tolerance and the development of a reversible, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to the antibiotic. A reassessment of the long-held belief of the high incidence (80%-100%) of antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with IM seems prudent. Additional studies will be necessary to clarify this issue.

  4. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  5. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  6. S1 gene sequence analysis of a nephropathogenic strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ladman Brian S; El-Kady Magdy F; Abdel-Moneim Ahmed S; Gelb Jack

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of serotypes/genotypes. Only a few amino acid differences in the S1 protein of vaccine and challenge strains of IBV may result in poor protection. Tropism of IBV includes the respiratory tract tissues, proventriculus and caecal tonsils of the alimentary tract, the ovidu...

  7. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, and other infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Klig, J E; Kahn, J S

    1999-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. Jean Klig reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children. Finally, Jeffrey Kahn discusses recent developments concerning rotavirus vaccine.

  8. Infectious Spondylitis with Bacteremia Caused by Roseomonas mucosa in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty for compression fractures of his thoracic and lumbar spine.

  9. Infectious Spondylitis with Bacteremia Caused by Roseomonas mucosa in an Immunocompetent Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty f...

  10. Climate change & infectious diseases in India: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, V Ramana; Schramm, Paul J; Luber, George

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in India, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive health care strategies with their patients.

  11. Dapsone-induced infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian-guang; CAI Sui-qing; ZHENG Min

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dapsone syndrome is characterized by high fever, skin rash, methemoglobinemia, liver toxicity, and generalized lymphadenopathy. The incidence of the dapsone syndrome is increasing with the extensive application of dapsone. However it is rarely reported in pemphigus. We present a case of "infectious mononucleosis-like" dapsone syndrome in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris. The syndrome appeared when he was being treated methylprednisolone, which was commonly used as a treatment for dapsone syndrome.

  12. The 12 Gastrointestinal Pathogens Spectrum of Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Sentinel Hospital, Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Jinjin; Li, Yinghui; Xie, Sirou; Jiang, Yixiang; Wu, Yanjie; Ye, Yuhui; Yang, Hong; Mo, Haolian; Situ, Chaoman; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detecte...

  13. The nineteen gastrointestinal pathogens spectrum of acute infectious diarrhea in a sentinel hospital, Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Shen; Jinjin Zhang; Yinghui Li; Sirou Xie; Yixiang Jiang; Yanjie Wu; Yuhui Ye; Hong Yang; Haolian Mo; Chaoman Situ; Qinghua Hu

    2016-01-01

    Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detecte...

  14. Prevalence of infectious diseases in Sonali chickens at Bogra Sadar Upazila, Bogra, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Lipon Talukdar

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that several infectious diseases are commonly present in Sonali chicken in the study area of Bangladesh. Mixed infections are more prevalent as compared to single infection. Proper hygienic management and appropriate vaccination should be taken in consideration for effective control the diseases. Further microbiological and molecular diagnoses are suggested for detail studies of these diseases and their pathogens. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 39-44

  15. Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Issel, C J

    2013-11-29

    A detailed description of equine infectious anemia virus and host responses to it are presented. Current control and eradication of the infection are discussed with suggestions for improvements to increase their effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles.

    Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  17. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  18. The infectious etiology of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochocka, Marta; Zwolińska, Katarzyna; Leszek, Jerzy

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially late-onset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades. It is suggested that chronic viral, bacterial and fungal infections might be causative factors for the inflammatory pathway for AD. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis of the role of neurotropic viruses from the Herpesviridae family, especially Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), in AD neuropathology. Recent investigations also indicate the association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and dementia. Among bacteria special attention is focused on spirochetes family and on periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola that could cause chronic periodontitis and possibly contribute to the clinical onset of AD. This review discusses whether infections could be a causative factor that promotes the progression of AD and summarizes recent investigations associating infectious agents and chronic inflammation with AD. Preventive and therapeutic approaches to AD in the context of an infectious etiology of the disease are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care.

  1. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals.

  2. Feline Coronaviruses: Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, G; Thiel, H-J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins. We also review the current classification of FCoVs into distinct serotypes and biotypes, cellular receptors of FCoVs and their presumed role in viral virulence, and discuss other aspects of FIPV-induced pathogenesis. Our current knowledge of genetic differences between FECVs and FIPVs has been mainly based on comparative sequence analyses that revealed "discriminatory" mutations that are present in FIPVs but not in FECVs. Most of these mutations result in amino acid substitutions in the S protein and these may have a critical role in the switch from FECV to FIPV. In most cases, the precise roles of these mutations in the molecular pathogenesis of FIP have not been tested experimentally in the natural host, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools including genetically engineered virus mutants. We discuss the recent progress in the development of FCoV reverse genetics systems suitable to generate recombinant field viruses containing appropriate mutations for in vivo studies.

  3. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  4. Comorbidity of infectious diseases and anxiety disorders in adults and its association with quality of life: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eWitthauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infectious diseases and anxiety disorders are common and both are associated with substantial burden to individual, families and society. A better understanding of their association may be helpful in explicating possible etiological mechanisms related to both. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between specific infectious diseases and anxiety disorders among adults in the community, and to examine whether the co-occurrence of the two is associated with poorer quality of life compared to subjects with one or neither condition. Methods: We used data from the 1998 German Mental Health survey with 4,181 subjects aged 18-65. Various infectious diseases (lifetime and health-related quality of life were assessed via self-report questionnaires and anxiety disorders (past 12-months were diagnosed using M-CIDI interviews; Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between infectious diseases and anxiety disorders; a linear model adjusted for sex was used to examine whether comorbidity of infectious diseases and anxiety disorders was associated with quality of life.Results: Whooping cough (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.36-2.09, scarlet fever (OR=1.31, 95%CI=1.02–1.68 and diphtheria (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.21–2.64 were associated with increased prevalence of any anxiety disorder. Subjects with both infectious diseases and anxiety disorders reported lower levels of both mental and physical quality of life, compared with subjects with only one or neither condition.Conclusions: Extending prior research, this study suggests a relationship between specific infectious diseases and anxiety disorders in an adult community sample. Research targeting etiological mechanisms related to the interplay between infectious diseases and anxiety disorders is warrented.

  5. Procalcitonin for the differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Zhou, Jianxin; Haraguchi, Go; Arai, Hirokuni; Mitaka, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the value of procalcitonin (PCT) for the differential diagnosis between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cardiac surgery. Patients diagnosed with SIRS after cardiac surgery between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013 were retrospectively studied. A total of 142 patients with SIRS, infectious (n = 47) or non-infectious (n = 95), were included. The patients with infectious SIRS included 11 with sepsis, 12 with severe sepsis without shock, and 24 with septic shock. PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly higher in the infectious SIRS group than in the non-infectious SIRS group. PCT had the highest sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis, with a cut-off value for infectious SIRS of 0.47 ng/mL. PCT was more reliable than CRP in diagnosing severe sepsis without shock, but it was not useful for diagnosing septic shock. The PCT cut-off value for diagnosing severe sepsis without shock was 2.28 ng/mL. PCT was a useful marker for the diagnosis of infectious SIRS after cardiac surgery. The optimal PCT cut-off value for diagnosing infectious SIRS was 0.47 ng/mL.

  6. Does population mixing measure infectious exposure in children at the community level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Law, Graham R; Boyle, Paul J; Feng, Zhiqiang; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Parslow, Roger C; Rudge, Gavin; Feltbower, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies focusing on the etiology of childhood chronic diseases have used population mixing as a proxy for the level of infection circulating in a community. We compared different measures of population mixing (based on residential migration and commuting) and other demographic variables, derived from the United Kingdom Census, with hospital inpatient data on infections from two Government Office Regions in England (Eastern and the West Midlands) to inform the development of an infectious disease proxy for future epidemiological studies. The association between rates of infection and the population mixing measures was assessed, using incidence rate ratios across census areas, from negative binomial regression. Commuting distance demonstrated the most consistent association with admissions for infections across the two regions; areas with a higher median distance travelled by commuters leaving the area having a lower rate of hospital admissions for infections. Deprived areas and densely populated areas had a raised rate of admissions for infections. Assuming hospital admissions are a reliable indicator of common infection rates, the results from this study suggest that commuting distance is a consistent measure of population mixing in relation to infectious disease and deprivation and population density are reliable demographic proxies for infectious exposure. Areas that exhibit high levels of population mixing do not necessarily possess raised rates of hospital admissions for infectious disease.

  7. "Nanoantibiotics": a new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ae Jung; Kwon, Young Jik

    2011-12-10

    Despite the fact that we live in an era of advanced and innovative technologies for elucidating underlying mechanisms of diseases and molecularly designing new drugs, infectious diseases continue to be one of the greatest health challenges worldwide. The main drawbacks for conventional antimicrobial agents are the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. Drug resistance enforces high dose administration of antibiotics, often generating intolerable toxicity, development of new antibiotics, and requests for significant economic, labor, and time investments. Recently, nontraditional antibiotic agents have been of tremendous interest in overcoming resistance that is developed by several pathogenic microorganisms against most of the commonly used antibiotics. Especially, several classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) and nanosized carriers for antibiotics delivery have proven their effectiveness for treating infectious diseases, including antibiotics resistant ones, in vitro as well as in animal models. This review summarizes emerging efforts in combating against infectious diseases, particularly using antimicrobial NPs and antibiotics delivery systems as new tools to tackle the current challenges in treating infectious diseases.

  8. Swine infectious agents in Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu tissue samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Brombila, Talita; Bersano, Josete Garcia; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Silva, Sheila Oliveira de Souza; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Ogata, Renato Akio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Richtzenhain, Leonardo Jose

    2014-04-01

    Peccaries and pigs, Tayassuidae and Suidae respectively, diverged approximately one million years ago from a common ancestor. Because these families share some pathogens, peccaries can act as reservoirs of infectious pathogens for domestic and wild swine. We evaluated the presence of swine infectious agents in the spleen and lung tissues of white-lipped peccaries (WLP; Tayassu pecari) and collared peccaries (CP; Pecari tajacu) in Brazil. Samples from 10 adult CP and three WLP, which had been hunted by locals or hit by motor vehicles, were obtained from two free-ranging Brazilian populations. The samples were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), and porcine parvovirus (PPV). Positive samples were sequenced. Both species were negative for PPV and B. bronchiseptica and positive for PCV2 and SuHV-1. The lungs of two animals were positive for M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida. This report is the first demonstration of PCV2 and SuHV-1 swine viruses and of M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida bacteria in peccaries. One factor contributing to this detection was access to tissue samples, which is uncommon. The role of these infectious agents in peccaries is unknown and further epidemiologic studies should be performed. This study identified several infectious agents in peccaries and highlighted the importance of the tissue type used to detect pathogens.

  9. Clinical and pathogenesis interpretation of changes in the electrocardiogram in infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Finogeev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the diagnostic value of clinical and electrocardiographic diagnosis of heart lesions in infectious diseases should be emphasized that obtained with the help of their information is a benchmark for assessing not only the functional state of the myocardium of these patients. Importantly, according to the clinical manifestations and electrocardiogram in infectious diseases can be detected miokardidistrofiyu, myocarditis, as well as all possible rhythm disturbances, myocardial infarction, etc. The basis of circulatory disorders is a common factor in central nervous system (brain as the most sensitive to the action of an infectious toxin. This, in turn, leads to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, since the latter is regulated by the cerebral cortex. Based on clinical experience revealed that approximately 15-20% of infectious patients during early convalescence, and especially of late convalescence there are various functional changes in the cardiovascular system, which at the height of the disease were not found. These changes include: painless myocardial ischemia, miokardidistrofiya, sick sinus syndrome, extrasystolic arrhythmia, early repolarization syndrome, a hyperfunction of the right atrium, incomplete block, right bundle branch block, etc.

  10. Rescue of infectious birnavirus from recombinant ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy M Dalton

    Full Text Available Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the icosahedral double-stranded (dsRNA RNA virus group. The main differential birnavirus trait is the lack of the inner icosahedral transcriptional core, a ubiquitous structure conserved in all other icosahedral dsRNA viruses, that shelters the genome from cellular dsRNA sensors and provide the enzymatic machinery to produce and extrude mature messenger RNAs. In contrast, birnaviral particles enclose ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes formed by the genome segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 polypeptide and the virus-encoded RNA polymerase (RdRp. The presence of RNPs suggests that the birnavirus replication program might exhibit significant differences with respect to those of prototypal dsRNA viruses. However, experimental evidences supporting this hypothesis are as yet scarce. Of particular relevance for the understanding of birnavirus replication is to determine whether RNPs act as intracellular capsid-independent transcriptional units. Our study was focused to answer this question using the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, the best characterized birnavirus, as model virus. Here, we describe the intracellular assembly of functional IBDV RNPs in the absence of the virus-encoded VP2 capsid polypeptide. Recombinant RNPs are generated upon coexpression of the IBDV VP1 and RdRp polypeptides and transfection of purified virus dsRNA. Presented data show that recombinant RNPs direct the expression of the IBDV polypeptide repertoire and the production of infectious virus in culture cells. Results described in this report constitute the first direct experimental evidence showing that birnaviral RNPs are intracellularly active in the absence of the virus capsid. This finding is consistent with presented data indicating that RNP formation precedes virus assembly in IBDV-infected cells, and supports the recently proposed IBDV replication model entailing the release of RNPs during the initial stages of the

  11. A receptor for infectious and cellular prion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Martins

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Prions are an unconventional form of infectious agents composed only of protein and involved in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and animals. The infectious particle is composed by PrPsc which is an isoform of a normal cellular glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored protein, PrPc, of unknown function. The two proteins differ only in conformation, PrPc is composed of 40% a helix while PrPsc has 60% ß-sheet and 20% a helix structure. The infection mechanism is trigged by interaction of PrPsc with cellular prion protein causing conversion of the latter's conformation. Therefore, the infection spreads because new PrPsc molecules are generated exponentially from the normal PrPc. The accumulation of insoluble PrPsc is probably one of the events that lead to neuronal death. Conflicting data in the literature showed that PrPc internalization is mediated either by clathrin-coated pits or by caveolae-like membranous domains. However, both pathways seem to require a third protein (a receptor or a prion-binding protein either to make the connection between the GPI-anchored molecule to clathrin or to convert PrPc into PrPsc. We have recently characterized a 66-kDa membrane receptor which binds PrPc in vitro and in vivo and mediates the neurotoxicity of a human prion peptide. Therefore, the receptor should have a role in the pathogenesis of prion-related diseases and in the normal cellular process. Further work is necessary to clarify the events triggered by the association of PrPc/PrPsc with the receptor.

  12. Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases Based on Antimicrobial Peptide Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J.; Enciso-Moreno, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases. PMID:19703980

  13. Susceptibility to infectious diseases based on antimicrobial peptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J; Enciso-Moreno, J Antonio

    2009-11-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases.

  14. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Infectious Diseases in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan C. Semenza; Jonathan E. Suk; Virginia Estevez; Kristie L. Ebi; Elisabet Lindgren

    Background: The incidence, outbreak frequency, and distribution of many infectious diseases are generally expected to change as a consequence of climate change, yet there is limited regional information...

  15. Cofactor molecules maintain infectious conformation and restrict strain properties in purified prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleault, Nathan R; Walsh, Daniel J; Piro, Justin R; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Ma, Jiyan; Rees, Judy R; Supattapone, Surachai

    2012-07-10

    Prions containing misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) can be formed with cofactor molecules using the technique of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification. However, it remains unknown whether cofactors materially participate in maintaining prion conformation and infectious properties. Here we show that withdrawal of cofactor molecules during serial propagation of purified recombinant prions caused adaptation of PrP(Sc) structure accompanied by a reduction in specific infectivity of >10(5)-fold, to undetectable levels, despite the ability of adapted "protein-only" PrP(Sc) molecules to self-propagate in vitro. We also report that changing only the cofactor component of a minimal reaction substrate mixture during serial propagation induced major changes in the strain properties of an infectious recombinant prion. Moreover, propagation with only one functional cofactor (phosphatidylethanolamine) induced the conversion of three distinct strains into a single strain with unique infectious properties and PrP(Sc) structure. Taken together, these results indicate that cofactor molecules can regulate the defining features of mammalian prions: PrP(Sc) conformation, infectivity, and strain properties. These findings suggest that cofactor molecules likely are integral components of infectious prions.

  16. Prevention of Infectious Mastitis by Oral Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 During Late Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leónides; Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Manzano, Susana; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Virginia; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that oral administration of lactobacilli can be an efficient approach to treat lactational infectious mastitis. In this trial, we have evaluated the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 to prevent this condition when orally administered during late pregnancy to women who had experienced infectious mastitis after previous pregnancies. In this study, 108 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Those in the probiotic group (n = 55) ingested daily 9 log10 colony-forming units of L. salivarius PS2 from approximately week 30 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas those in the placebo group (n = 53) received a placebo. The occurrence of mastitis was evaluated during the first 3 months after delivery. Globally, 44 of 108 women (41%) developed mastitis; however, the percentage of women with mastitis in the probiotic group (25% [n = 14]) was significantly lower than in the control group (57% [n = 30]). When mastitis occurred, the milk bacterial counts in the probiotic group were significantly lower than those obtained in the placebo group. Oral administration of L. salivarius PS2 during late pregnancy appears to be an efficient method to prevent infectious mastitis in a susceptible population. NCT01505361. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Use of recombinant feline interferon and glucocorticoid in the treatment of feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, T; Shibanai, A; Tanaka, S; Uchida, K; Mochizuki, M

    2004-04-01

    A total of 12 clinically ill cats previously diagnosed as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were treated with a combination of recombinant feline interferon and glucocorticoid. A complete remission (over 2 years) and a partial remission (2 to 5 months) were observed in four (33.3%) and four (33.3%) cases, respectively. Those that survived for more than 2 years were all older cats (6 to 16 years old) with the effusive form of FIP.

  18. Role of Urbanization, Land-Use Diversity, and Livestock Intensification in Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) continue to significantly threaten human and animal health. While there has been some progress in identifying underlying proximal driving forces and causal mechanisms of disease emergence, the role of distal factors is most poorly understood. This article focuses on analyzing the statistical association between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and urbanization, land-use diversity and poultry intensification. A special form of the urban transiti...

  19. Immunity, infectious diseases and the knowledge of 100 Latvian pregnant women of the impact of infectious diseases on the pregnancy and its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abramova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection diseases may adversely affect the pregnancy, lead to the development of foetal abnormalities, foetal death, congenital infections and preterm birth. Infection is possible in antenatal, postnatal and intranatal way. CMV, adenovirus, enterovirus are the most common viruses which are found during the examination of amniotic fluid. Hundred Latvian pregnant women were offered to fill in the questionnaire with the help of which it will be possible to study their knowledge on infectious diseases during pregnancy and preventive options. The obtained data were compared with foreign literature and foreign studies. Respondents' age was from 19 to 43 years. Only 65% of women are aware that the risk of contracting infectious diseases during pregnancy is higher. Only 7% of women know about all possible ways of infection during pregnancy. 68% of women note that bacterial vaginosis may harm foetus and adversely affect pregnancy. Compared to the study conducted in Japan, Latvian pregnant women know about toxoplasmosis 4% more often than in Japan. Knowledge of pregnant women about the impact of infectious diseases on the foetus and pregnancy, potential infection and prevention ways is insufficient. Women want to know and receive understandable information from health care professionals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 954-958

  20. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Danon, Leon; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P; Keeling, Matt J; Roberts, Gareth O; Ross, Joshua V; Vernon, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent ...

  1. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-02-16

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Simulating City-level Airborne Infectious Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Mei; Yifan, Zhu; Zhenghu, Zu; Tao, Zheng; Boukhanovsky, A V; Sloot, P M A

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the world population and the constant increase in human mobility, the danger of outbreaks of epidemics is rising. Especially in high density urban areas such as public transport and transfer points, where people come in close proximity of each other, we observe a dramatic increase in the transmission of airborne viruses and related pathogens. It is essential to have a good understanding of the `transmission highways' in such areas, in order to prevent or to predict the spreading of infectious diseases. The approach we take is to combine as much information as is possible, from all relevant sources and integrate this in a simulation environment that allows for scenario testing and decision support. In this paper we lay out a novel approach to study Urban Airborne Disease spreading by combining traffic information, with geo-spatial data, infection dynamics and spreading characteristics.

  3. Biochemical studies on equine infectious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, E; Martone, F; Meduri, A; Vaccaro, A; Damiani, N

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (E.I.A.) in Campania [at Naples and Aversa (Caserta)]; it was diagnosed by clinical, pathological and serological examinations (Coggins test). Using the serum of 45 horses with E.I.A. and 11 healthy horses (controls), numerous investigations were carried out on: enzymes, intrinsic coagulation factors, lipids and other substances. The results obtained were very interesting and show that in this disease there are significant increases in many enzymes (LDH, LAP, gamma-GT, CPK, PK and ALD) and copper. Insignificant increases were found in other enzymes (SDH, GLDH, MDH, ICDH, AIP, lysozyme, cholinesterase, GOT and GPT) and also intrinsic coagulation factors, lipid substances (total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, triglycerides) and glucose. LDH-1-isoenzyme remains unchanged, whilst AcP decreases slightly.

  4. Endothelial cells, tissue factor and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes-Bezerra L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor is a transmembrane procoagulant glycoprotein and a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. It activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, and induces the formation of a fibrin clot. Tissue factor is important for both normal homeostasis and the development of many thrombotic diseases. A wide variety of cells are able to synthesize and express tissue factor, including monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Tissue factor expression can be induced by cell surface components of pathogenic microorganisms, proinflammatory cytokines and membrane microparticles released from activated host cells. Tissue factor plays an important role in initiating thrombosis associated with inflammation during infection, sepsis, and organ transplant rejection. Recent findings suggest that tissue factor can also function as a receptor and thus may be important in cell signaling. The present minireview will focus on the role of tissue factor in the pathogenesis of septic shock, infectious endocarditis and invasive aspergillosis, as determined by both in vivo and in vitro models.

  5. Infectious endocarditis caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Kim, B S; Patel, C; Freiberg, K

    1985-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a very uncommon cause of infectious endocarditis. The organism was first described in 1912. Thjotta and Sydnes reported its isolation in pure culture from a long standing abscess which had developed after tooth extraction. Subsequently this organism was found to be part of the normal flora, and the organism was defined as a slow growing, fastidious gram negative bacillus. Carbon dioxide is essential for the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Approximately 50 cases of endocarditis due to A. actinomycetemcomitans have been reported since the first case reported in 1964. The purpose of this report is to document a case of endocarditis due to A. actinomycetemcomitans and to stress the value of the echocardiogram in the assessment of patients with endocarditis.

  6. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell P. Chandler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  7. Confidentiality. 13: The notification of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, B

    Jenny Rose was a paediatric community nurse who regularly visited a child with a chronic lung condition who was being nursed at home. On one visit she noticed that the child's mother, Jane, appeared to be very pale and thin and was told that the mother had a severe gastric disorder with diarrhoea. From the description of the illness, Jenny thought that Jane might be suffering from typhoid. Jane worked as a cook in a restaurant, was unwilling to seek medical advice and intended going to work that night. Jenny was concerned that Jane could have a serious notifiable infectious disease and therefore be a danger to customers in the restaurant. Jane insisted that Jenny should keep the information confidential. Where does Jenny stand?

  8. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  9. Ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H A; Dourmashkin, R R; Macnaughton, M R

    1981-03-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined by electron microscopy after shadowing with carbon/platinum. Linear RNP strands up to 6.7 microns in length, from three IVB strains, were sensitive to both pancreatic RNase and to proteases. These strands were obtained from spontaneously disrupted complete particles but not from disrupted incomplete particles that lacked RNP. They were also released from Nonidet P40-disrupted particles and could be isolated on sucrose density gradients at a density of 1.27 g/ml. In some cases, helical RNP complexes associated with virus particles were observed that were similar to RNPs of human coronavirus strain 229E and mouse hepatitis virus strain 3.

  10. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  11. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  12. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  13. Managed care and the infectious diseases specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, A D; Slama, T G; Berman, S; Braun, P; Burke, J P; Cherney, A; Gross, P A; Harris, P; Reid-Hatton, M; Hoffman, R; Joseph, P; Lawton, S; Massanari, R M; Miller, Z I; Osheroff, W J; Poretz, D; Shalowitz, M; Simmons, B; Turner, J P; Wade, B; Nolet, B R

    1996-08-01

    There is growing demand to contain health care costs and to reassess the value of medical services. The traditional hospital, academic, and research roles of the infectious disease (ID) specialist are threatened, yet there is an increasing need for expertise because of growing antimicrobial resistance and emerging pathogens. Opportunities exist to develop and expand services for the care of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and in infection control, epidemiology, outcomes research, outpatient intravenous therapy, and resource management. It is important for ID physicians to appreciate the principles involved in managed care and the areas in which ID services can be valuable. To be effective, physicians need to know about tools such as practice guidelines, physician profiling, outcomes monitoring, computerized information management, risk sharing, networking, and marketing, as well as related legal issues. With a positive attitude toward learning, application, and leadership, ID physicians can redefine their role and expand their services through managed care.

  14. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP(Sc) is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP(C) conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusion. The remarkable ability of L pneumophila to infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells suggests a common strategy that exploits very fundamental cellular processes. The bacteria enter host cells via coiling phagocytosis and quickly subvert organelle trafficking events, leading to formation of a replicative phagosome in which the bacteria multiply. Vegetative growth continues for 8 to 10 h, after which the bacteria develop into a short, highly motile form called the ‘mature form’. The mature form exhibits a thickening of the cell wall, stains red with the Gimenez stain, and is between 10 and 100 times more infectious than agar-grown bacteria. Following host cell lysis, the released bacteria infect other host cells, in which the mature form differentiates into a Gimenez-negative vegetative form, and the cycle begins anew. Virulence of L pneumophila is considered to be multifactorial, and there is growing evidence for both stage specific and sequential gene expression. Thus, L pneumophila may be a good model system for dissecting events associated with the host-parasite interactions.

  16. Scientific Opinion on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon is the only species in which the disease infectious salmon anaemia (ISA has been observed naturally. Initial reports of findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV before 2002, did not distinguish between non virulent HPR0 and virulent HPRΔ viruses, thus making interpretation of older findings difficult in the light of current knowledge. Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the relationship between HPR0 and HPRΔ, the risk of HPRΔ ISAV emerging from HPR0 ISAV, and possible risk factors for such an emergence. HPR0 ISAV does not cause clinical disease in Atlantic salmon; however, it causes a transient subclinical infection and replicates mainly in gills. There is no evidence for HPR0 ISAV leading to natural infection and replication in fish species other than Atlantic salmon. Virulent ISAV have deletions in the HPR region of the HE gene and they have either an insertion or the Q266L mutation in the F gene. The most plausible hypothesis is that virulent ISAV (HPRΔ is derived from HPR0 ISAV. This is further supported by the close association between the genetic relatedness and spatio-temporal distances of virus strains in solitary outbreaks. Epidemiological and historical data from solitary disease outbreaks indicates that the risk of HPRΔ ISAV emerging from HPR0 is low, but not negligible. The risk factors for HPRΔ emergence from HPR0 are unknown. Nevertheless, any factor that affects virus replication or host susceptibility could possibly influence the risk of emergence. More research is needed on the drivers for transition from HPR0 to HPRΔ and factors affecting host susceptibility and thereby emergence of clinical disease. A quantitative assessment of the different evolutionary forces for ISA would be useful, as well as the prevalence of ISAV HPR0 in farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.

  17. Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

  18. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Daegu Hyosung Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suh and Joo MR Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance.

  19. Genetics and pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. These data demonstrate distinctive circulating virulent and avirulent strains in natural populations. In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional potential differentiated healthy cats from cats with FIP. These findings may have potential as diagnostic markers for virulent FIP-associated FCoV.

  20. Clinical and microbiological study of paediatric infectious keratitis in South India: a 3-year study (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruljyothi, Lokeshwari; Radhakrishnan, Naveen; Prajna, Venkatesh N; Lalitha, Prajna

    2016-12-01

    To study the risk factors, microbiological profile and clinical outcomes of infectious keratitis affecting paediatric patients. Retrospective case series. Review of case records of paediatric patients (0-16 years) diagnosed with infectious keratitis who presented to Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India during January 2011 to December 2013. Demographic details, predisposing factors, microbiological investigations, clinical course and visual outcome were analysed. In this time period, 240 eyes of 234 children had a diagnosis of infectious keratitis. One hundred and twenty-five (53.4%) children had a history of trauma. Smears were obtained in 220 eyes, while culture was performed in 191 eyes. The culture results were positive in 142 (74.3%) eyes. Fungi was the most common infectious agent isolated in culture (54.2%) followed by bacteria (40.8%) and acanthamoeba (2.1%). Successful healing of the keratitis with appropriate medical therapy occurred in 223 (92.9%) eyes, while 17 (7.1%) eyes required therapeutic keratoplasty. Of the 151 patients with preliminary and final visual acuity, vision improved by 2 lines in 68 eyes (45%), stayed the same in 75 eyes (49.6%) and worsened in 8 eyes (5.3%). Contrary to previous reports, fungi are the most common aetiological organism in the causation of infectious keratitis in children in our study population. Fusarium was the most common fungal species isolated. These data are similar to the data obtained from adult patients with infectious keratitis in this region. While microbiological investigations are important to initiate appropriate antimicrobial therapy, the findings from our study need to be kept in mind, especially while initiating empirical therapy in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China: implications for surveillance and population health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975-1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens.

  2. Immune Subversion and Quorum-Sensing Shape the Variation in Infectious Dose among Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, João Alves; Abby, Sophie S.; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dionisio, Francisco; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to understand the mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to exploit human hosts. These mechanisms are very diverse in the detail, but share commonalities whose quantification should enlighten the evolution of virulence from both a molecular and an ecological perspective. We mined the literature for experimental data on infectious dose of bacterial pathogens in humans (ID50) and also for traits with which ID50 might be associated. These compilations were checked and complemented with genome analyses. We observed that ID50 varies in a continuous way by over 10 orders of magnitude. Low ID50 values are very strongly associated with the capacity of the bacteria to kill professional phagocytes or to survive in the intracellular milieu of these cells. Inversely, high ID50 values are associated with motile and fast-growing bacteria that use quorum-sensing based regulation of virulence factors expression. Infectious dose is not associated with genome size and shows insignificant phylogenetic inertia, in line with frequent virulence shifts associated with the horizontal gene transfer of a small number of virulence factors. Contrary to previous proposals, infectious dose shows little dependence on contact-dependent secretion systems and on the natural route of exposure. When all variables are combined, immune subversion and quorum-sensing are sufficient to explain two thirds of the variance in infectious dose. Our results show the key role of immune subversion in effective human infection by small bacterial populations. They also suggest that cooperative processes might be important for successful infection by bacteria with high ID50. Our results suggest that trade-offs between selection for population growth-related traits and selection for the ability to subvert the immune system shape bacterial infectiousness. Understanding these trade-offs provides guidelines to study the evolution of virulence and in particular the micro-evolutionary paths

  3. Serum procalcitonin level in infectious and non- infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a three- year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad Z

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of hospital admission and mortality. One marker for differentiation between infectious and non-infectious diseases is serum procalcitonin (PCT level. The goal of this study was evaluation of serum procalcitonin level for differentiation among infectious & non infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS."n"nMethods: In a cross sectional study 263 patients with probable symptoms of sepsis that admitted to emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex in Tehran, Iran, between 2006 and 2008, were evaluated for serum procalcitonin level by semi quantitative method. The clinical findings, demographic and laboratory data were identified by reviewing the medical notes."n"nResults: A total of 263 patients enrolled in the study. Mean age in study patients was 46.9 year (±20.7 and most of the patients were male (65.8%. In 104 patients (39.5% serum procalcitonin level was less than 0.5 (ng/ml, in 49 patients (18.6% was between 0.5 and 2 (ng/ml, in 74 patients (28.1% was between 2 and 10 (ng/ml and in 36 patients (13.8% was more than 10 (ng/ml. Sixty three patients (60.6% with PCT<0.5ng/ml, had non-infectious SIRS, while all patients with PCT≥10ng/ml, had infectious

  4. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information home > privacy + phrs > common privacy myths Common Privacy Myths With the new federal laws protecting ... Here are the truths to some of the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your ...

  5. Common NICU Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn intensive care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  6. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is ... and acquired agammaglobulinemia. Why Is the Study of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) a Priority for NIAID? CVID ...

  7. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Common discomforts of pregnancy Common discomforts of pregnancy E-mail to a friend ... like back ache and being really tired are common and shouldn’t make you worry. For most ...

  8. Narrative form

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This revised and expanded handbook concisely introduces narrative form to advanced students of fiction and creative writing, with refreshed references and new discussions of cognitive approaches to narrative, nonfiction, and narrative emotions.

  9. Infectious complications in patients with crush syndrome following the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; ZENG Jian-wei; WANG Guang-lin; TU Chong-qi; HUANG Fu-guo; PEI Fu-xing

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the results of clinical and bacteriological examinations in patients with crash syndrome who suffered infectious complications after an earthquake in Sichuan,China.Methods:A total of 313 bacteriological samples among 147 patients with crush syndrome were collected.Infectious complications,results of microbiological examinations,potential risk factors of infection and mortality were analyzed statistically.Results:In the obtained database,112 out of the 147 (75.7%) patients had infectious complications,in which,wound infection,pulmonary infection,and sepsis were most common.The time under the rubble and the time from injury to treatment were related to the occurrence of wound infection (P=0.013,odds ratio 2.25; P=0.017,odds ratio 2.31).Sepsis and wound infection were more common in patients who underwent fasciotomy or amputation than in those who did not (P=0.001).Conclusion:Quick rescue and injury treatment can decrease the infection risk in crush syndrome patients.It is better to obtain microorganic proofs before applying antibiotics,and bacteriological and drug sensitivity data should be taken into account,especially considering that most of these infections are hospital-acquired and drug resistance.Emphasizing the accuracy and efficiency of wound management in emergency situations,cautiously assessing the indications for fasciotomy to avoid open wounds from unnecessary osteofascial compartment decompression incisions may decrease the incidence of infection and ameliorate the prognosis.

  10. A study on the association between infectious burden and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, X-L; Yao, X-Q; Jiao, S-S; Zeng, F; Liu, Y-H; Xiang, Y; Liang, C-R; Wang, Q-H; Wang, X; Cao, H-Y; Yi, X; Deng, B; Liu, C-H; Xu, J; Zhang, L-L; Gao, C-Y; Xu, Z-Q; Zhang, M; Wang, L; Tan, X-L; Xu, X; Zhou, H-D; Wang, Y-J

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that the overall burden of prior infections contributes to cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In the present study, the association between infectious burden (IB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was examined. Antibody titers to common infectious pathogens including cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 128 AD patients and 135 healthy controls. IB was defined as a composite serological measure of exposure to these common pathogens. Seropositivities toward zero-two, three and four-five of these pathogens were found in 44%, 40% and 16% of healthy controls but in 20%, 44% and 36% of AD patients, respectively. IB, bacterial burden and viral burden were independently associated with AD after adjusting for age, gender, education, APOE genotype and various comorbidities. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were negatively correlated with IB in all cases. Serum beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels (i.e. Aβ40, Aβ42 and total Aβ) and inflammatory cytokines (i.e. interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6) in individuals exposed to four-five infectious pathogens were significantly higher than those exposed to zero-two or three pathogens. IB consisting of CMV, HSV-1, B. burgdorferi, C. pneumoniae and H. pylori is associated with AD. This study supports the role of infection/inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of AD. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  11. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  12. Phylogeny of the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieslak, Michael; Wahli, Thomas; Diserens, Nicolas; Haenen, Olga L.M.; Schütze, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) — a highly lethal infectious salmonid disease — has caused substantial economic losses in the European production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) since the late 1980s. The causal agent of IHN is the IHN virus (IHNV) introduced from overseas. However,

  13. STUDIES OF A MYXOVIRUS RECOVERED FROM PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhaber, Harvey; Krugman, Saul; McGregor, Dorothy; Giles, Joan P.

    1965-01-01

    A virus has been isolated from the serum and urine of patients with infectious hepatitis. This virus is a member of the parinfluenza group. It is serologically distinct from the known members of the group, but apparently is antigenically related to the simian type-2 parainfluenza viruses. A causal relationship between WB virus and infectious hepatitis has not been established. PMID:4285254

  14. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  15. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, Alan J; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic...

  16. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  17. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  18. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  19. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans

  20. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  1. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, P.C.; Heesterbeek, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows

  2. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, S.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows

  3. Infectious uveitis. New developments in etiology and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, L.

    2009-01-01

    Uveitis is an inflammation of the inner-eye and is initiated by various infectious and noninfectious causes. In a large portion of patients the etiology is unknown and might be associated with until now undiagnosed infections.The identification of infectious uveitis is of crucial importance since it

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  6. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  7. Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B; Schweigert, Florian J; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Bedu-Addo, George; Danquah, Ina

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4-15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38-52%), for malnutrition 50% (43-57%) and for CRFs 16% (11-21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21-34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2-9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3-11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted.

  8. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  9. Selection of peptides for serological detection of equine infectious anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E M; Cardoso, R; Souza, G R L; Goulart, L R; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Reis, J K P

    2012-08-13

    Equine infectious anemia caused by equine infectious anemia virus is an important disease due to its high severity and incidence in animals. We used a phage display library to isolate peptides that can be considered potential markers for equine infectious anemia diagnosis. We selected peptides using IgG purified from a pool comprised of 20 sera from animals naturally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. The diagnostic potential of these peptides was investigated by ELISA, Western blot and dot blot with purified IgG and serum samples. Based on the results, we chose a peptide mimetic for glycoprotein gp45 epitopes of equine infectious anemia virus, with potential for use as an antigen in indirect diagnostic assays. Synthesis of this peptide has possible applications for the development of new diagnostic tools for this disease.

  10. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  11. Distinguishing among prolonged, recurrent, and periodic fever syndromes: approach of a pediatric infectious diseases subspecialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sarah S

    2005-06-01

    Most children with prolonged, recurrent, or periodic fever are healthy and have self-limited, common illnesses, and the primary care practitioner usually can reassure families and continue to reassess the patient as circumstances dictate. For a child with true fever of unknown origin, a pediatric infectious diseases subspecialist should be consulted. This article discusses three objectives for the clinician: (1) to categorize patterns of fever illnesses and prioritize differential diagnoses; (2) to diagnose and manage the most frequently encountered prolonged fever syndrome, deconditioning; and (3) to expand knowledge and approach to diagnosing periodic fever syndromes. The approach described in this article represents the honed, 30-year experience of a pediatric infectious diseases subspecialist.

  12. [Infectious diseases in the adult population admitted to a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; Pinargote, Héctor; Torrús, Diego; Sánchez-Martínez, Rosario; Merino, Esperanza; Portilla, Joaquín

    2015-10-01

    To determine the infectious diseases (ID) that led to hospital admission of the foreign population>14 years. A retrospective study of foreign patients admitted to hospital (2000-2012). A total of 3,087 foreigners were admitted with infectious diseases. Of these, 73.6% were from low income countries, and 26.4% from high income countries. Most of them (86.9%) were admitted with common ID, 11.8% with transmissible ID, and 1.6% with tropical ID. Tropical ID and transmissible ID were higher in patients from low income countries (14.7%) than from high income countries (9.7%, pEnfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

  14. Prion remains infectious after passage through digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt C VerCauteren

    Full Text Available Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos, have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196-231 d postinoculation (x =198; 95% CI: 210-216 and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces (ˆp=1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0. Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases.

  15. Molecular characterization of three new avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains isolated in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smati, Ridha; Silim, Amer; Guertin, Claude; Henrichon, Marc; Marandi, Mehdi; Arella, Max; Merzouki, Abderrazzak

    2002-01-01

    Three unrecognized field isolates of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) were recovered from commercial broiler chickens vaccinated with live Mass viral strain (H120). These isolates were identified by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies produced against reference serotypes: Mass, Conn, and Ark. RT-PCRs were performed on viral RNAs to amplify S1 gene using a specific set of primers S1OLIGO3' and S1OLIGO5'. Restriction polymorphism (RFLP) of PCR products was determined by the use of HaeIII restriction enzyme. As expected, patterns of PCR products were different from common pattern of strains assigned to Mass serotype M41, Beaudette, H120, and Florida. Molecular analysis showed a nucleotide insertion in hypervariable region one (HVR-1) of S1 gene of only Quebec isolates (Qu16, Qu_mv and Q_37zm). However, New Brunswick IBV isolate (NB_cp) did not display these insertions. Major amino acid changes involved insertion of two stretches (aa118-119: Arg-Ser and aa141-145: Sys-Ser-Asn-Ala-Ser-Cys) located at N-terrminal and C-terminal regions of HVR-2. It is speculated that cysteine residue located upstream and downstream of Cys-Ser-Asn-Ala-Ser-Cys segment might be involved in the formation of loop structure and disulfide bond that could trigger important epitope changes. Insertion of new NXT and NXS (X not equal to P) glycosylation motifs scattered along S1 region and insertion of cysteine residues in HVR are contributing to the antigenic shifting of Quebec isolates. Fragment insertions were thought to be induced by inter-serotype recombination between vaccine strain (H120) that belongs to Mass serotype and another strain belonging to Ark serotype. Phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed that Quebec isolates formed a new phylogenetic cluster.

  16. An autopsy study of maternal mortality in Mozambique: the contribution of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Clara; Romagosa, Cleofé; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Saute, Francisco; Osman, Nafissa; Machungo, Fernanda; Bardaji, Azucena; Quintó, Llorenç; Mayor, Alfredo; Naniche, Denise; Dobaño, Carlota; Alonso, Pedro L; Ordi, Jaume

    2008-02-01

    Maternal mortality is a major health problem concentrated in resource-poor regions. Accurate data on its causes using rigorous methods is lacking, but is essential to guide policy-makers and health professionals to reduce this intolerable burden. The aim of this study was to accurately describe the causes of maternal death in order to contribute to its reduction, in one of the regions of the world with the highest maternal mortality ratios. We conducted a prospective study between October 2002 and December 2004 on the causes of maternal death in a tertiary-level referral hospital in Maputo, Mozambique, using complete autopsies with histological examination. HIV detection was done by virologic and serologic tests, and malaria was diagnosed by histological and parasitological examination. During 26 mo there were 179 maternal deaths, of which 139 (77.6%) had a complete autopsy and formed the basis of this analysis. Of those with test results, 65 women (52.8%) were HIV-positive. Obstetric complications accounted for 38.2% of deaths; haemorrhage was the most frequent cause (16.6%). Nonobstetric conditions accounted for 56.1% of deaths; HIV/AIDS, pyogenic bronchopneumonia, severe malaria, and pyogenic meningitis were the most common causes (12.9%, 12.2%, 10.1% and 7.2% respectively). Mycobacterial infection was found in 12 (8.6%) maternal deaths. In this tertiary hospital in Mozambique, infectious diseases accounted for at least half of all maternal deaths, even though effective treatment is available for the four leading causes, HIV/AIDS, pyogenic bronchopneumonia, severe malaria, and pyogenic meningitis. These observations highlight the need to implement effective and available prevention tools, such as intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated bed-nets for malaria, antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS, or vaccines and effective antibiotics for pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases. Deaths due to obstetric causes represent a failure of health

  17. Norovirus and FRNA bacteriophage determined by RT-qPCR and infectious FRNA bacteriophage in wastewater and oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, John; Keaveney, Sinéad; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Doré, William

    2013-09-15

    Norovirus (NoV), the leading cause of adult non-bacterial gastroenteritis can be commonly detected in wastewater but the extent of NoV removal provided by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unclear. We monitored a newly commissioned WWTP with UV disinfection on a weekly basis over a six month period for NoV using RT-qPCR and for FRNA bacteriophage GA using both RT-qPCR (total concentration) and a plaque assay (infectious concentration). Mean concentrations of NoV GI and GII in influent wastewater were reduced by 0.25 and 0.41 log10 genome copies 100 ml(-1), respectively by the WWTP. The mean concentration of total FRNA bacteriophage GA was reduced by 0.35 log genome copies 100 ml(-1) compared to a reduction of infectious FRNA bacteriophage GA of 2.13 log PFU 100 ml(-1). A significant difference between concentrations of infectious and total FRNA bacteriophage GA was observed in treated, but not in untreated wastewaters. We conclude that RT-qPCR in isolation underestimates the reduction of infectious virus during wastewater treatment. We further compared the concentrations of infectious virus in combined sewer overflow (CSO) and UV treated effluents using FRNA bacteriophage GA. A greater percentage (98%) of infectious virus is released in CSO discharges than UV treated effluent (44%). Following a CSO discharge, concentrations of NoV GII and infectious FRNA bacteriophage GA in oysters from less than the limit of detection to 3150 genome copies 100 g(-1) and 1050 PFU 100 g(-1) respectively.

  18. Macrolides: A Canadian Infectious Disease Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S McKenna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of erythromycin in 1965, no new compounds from the macrolide antimicrobial class were licensed in Canada until the 1990s. Clarithromycin and azithromycin, since their introduction, have become important agents for treating a number of common and uncommon infectious diseases. They have become prime agents in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, and have revolutionized the management of both genital chlamydial infections, by the use of single-dose therapy with azithromycin, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, by the use of clarithromycin. The improvement of clarithromycin and azithromycin over the gastrointestinal intolerability of erythromycin has led to supplanting the use of the latter for many primary care physicians. Unfortunately, the use of these agents has also increased the likelihood for misuse and has raised concerns about a resultant increase in the rates of macrolide resistance in many important pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This paper reviews the pharmacology and evidence for the current indications for use of these newer agents, and provides recommendations for appropriate use.

  19. Highly infectious symbiont dominates initial uptake in coral juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, David; VAN Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2009-08-01

    The majority of reef-building corals acquire their obligate algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) from the environment. However, factors shaping the initial establishment of coral-algal symbioses, including parental effects, local environmental conditions and local availability of symbionts, are not well understood. This study monitored the uptake and maintenance of Symbiodinium in juveniles of two common corals, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora, that were reciprocally explanted between sites where adult colonies host different types of Symbiodinium. We found that coral juveniles were rapidly dominated by type D Symbiodinium, even though this type is not found in adult colonies (including the parental colonies) in four out of the five study populations. Furthermore, type D Symbiodinium was found in less than one-third of a wide range of coral species (n > 50) sampled at the two main study sites, suggesting that its dominance in the acroporid juveniles is not because it is the most abundant local endosymbiotic type. Moreover, dominance by type D was observed irrespective of the light intensity to which juveniles were exposed in a field study. In summary, despite its relatively low abundance in coral assemblages at the study sites and irrespective of the surrounding light environment, type D Symbiodinium is the main symbiont type initially acquired by juveniles of A. millepora and A. tenuis. We conclude that during early ontogeny in these corals, there are few barriers to the uptake of Symbiodinium types which differ from those found in parental colonies, resulting in dominance by a highly infectious and potentially opportunistic symbiont.

  20. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4. The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

  1. Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Galeone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role.

  2. Circle of Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2012-01-01

    a common professional language like in mathematics, colour and music. The result is a weaker professionalism in the aesthetic competences compared to the professionalism and competences in other areas. A research project [1] on contrasts or opposites in form investigated the phenomenon in the fields...... by this model, and using the knowledge gathered from the other areas, especially perception psychology, it showed to be a possible way to organize contrasts in form, a system of 4 different opposites, geometric, organic, mass and structure: The Circle of Form....

  3. Fri form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  4. Acute post-infectious cerebellar ataxia due to co-infection of human herpesvirus-6 and adenovirus mimicking myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naselli, Aldo; Pala, Giovanna; Cresta, Federico; Finetti, Martina; Biancheri, Roberta; Renna, Salvatore

    2014-11-26

    Acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) is a relatively common neurological disease in children. Most common types of ACA are acute post-infectious (APCA) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Less common but important causes include opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and acute cerebellitis. Cerebellar neoplasms and acute hydrocephalus are additional causes of paediatric ataxia. APCA is the most common cause of ACA in children, comprising about 30-50% of total cases. This is a report about an immunocompetent 4-yrs-old male affected by APCA, due to co-infection by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and adenovirus, with symptoms mimicking myositis.

  5. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  6. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  7. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  8. Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.

  9. Virulence determinants of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan L; Fuller, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that rapidly Induces disease in experimentally infected horses. Because EIAV infection and replication is centered on the monocyte/macrophage and has a pronounced acute disease stage, it is a useful model system for understanding the contribution of monocyte/macrophages to other lentivirus-induced diseases. Genetic mapping studies utilizing chimeric proviruses in which parental viruses are acutely virulent or avirulent have allowed the identification of important regions that influence acute virulence. U3 regions in the viral LTR, surface envelope (SU) protein and the accessory S2 gene strongly influence acute disease expression. While the chimeric proviruses provide insight into genes or genome regions that affect viral pathogenesis, it is then necessary to further dissect those regions to focus on specific virus-host mechanisms that lead to disease expression. The V6 region of the viral env protein is an example of one identified region that may interact with the ELR-1 receptor in an important way and we are currently identifying S2 protein motifs required for disease expression.

  10. Equine infectious anemia: prospects for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, C J; McManus, J M; Hagius, S D; Foil, L D; Adams, W V; Montelaro, R C

    1990-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia has been managed in most countries by the imposition of testing and quarantine regulations. In the United States, about 700,000 of the more than 7,000,000 horses are tested annually. As long as the status of greater than 90% of the horse population remains unknown and horses are transported and congregate in a relatively unrestricted manner, EIA will continue to exact its toll. Therefore, it is incumbent on the scientific community to continue to develop and refine practical and sensitive diagnostic tests for EIA which will be used in an expanding market, to reduce the number of untested horses and to increase the accuracy of test results. Under ideal conditions, EIA can spread rapidly in a localized population with potentially devastating results. Although strict adherence to sanitary regulations will minimize the likelihood of epizootics, the existence of a large reservoir of untested horses with occasional contact with uninfected test-negative horses will ensure the continued transmission of EIAV. The change of this transmission occurring as a result of human intervention can be eliminated but it is not possible to eliminate the threat posed by blood feeding insects. If these "chance encounters" between an untested EIAV infected horse and a test-negative horse occur under field conditions where horse flies are abundant and the proximate distance between the horses is minimal, transmission is efficient if the quantity of EIAV in the blood of the donor horse is high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Effectiveness of cefotaxime in pediatric infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Tasaki, T; Kusunoki, Y; Yoshioka, H; Hiramoto, A; Sanae, N; Tsuchida, A; Maruyama, S; Mukai, N; Takahashi, Y

    1985-01-01

    Cefotaxime (CTX) was administered to 117 pediatric patients. Although 26 of these patients were excluded from the clinical evaluation of the study because other antimicrobial agents were given concomitantly with CTX or because no infectious diseases were proved, these cases were evaluated for adverse effects of the drug. The remaining 91 cases were evaluated for clinical effect; pneumonia in 56 cases, septicemia in 5, suspected septicemia in 5, meningitis (aseptic cases included) in 3, urinary tract infection in 5 and other diseases in 17. No pathogenic organisms were identified in any of the pneumonia cases, even either by bacterial culture or other laboratory test methods. Pathogens of septicemia were E. coli in 3 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 and E. agglomerans in 1. Those of urinary tract infections were E. coli in 3 cases, a mixed infection of S. aureus and an unidentified species of Gram-negative rods in 1, and unknown in 1. Clinical effectiveness rates of CTX were 78.6% in pneumonia and 100% in septicemia, suspected septicemia and urinary tract infections. One patient with purulent meningitis caused by H. influenzae was also treated with CTX successfully. Adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 12 cases (12/117 = 10.3%); rash in 2 cases, vomiting in 1, abdominal pain in 1, diarrhea in 5, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in 1, eosinophilia in 3 and elevation of liver enzymes (GOT and LDH) in 1.

  12. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  13. SARS - infectious disease of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is an emerging viral infectious disease. According to the World Health Organization, a suspected case of SARS is defined as documented fever (temperature >38°C, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and contact with a person believed to have had SARS or history of travel to an area of documented transmission. A probable case is a suspected case with chest radiographic findings of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, or an unexplained respiratory illness resulting in death, with autopsy findings of ARDS without identifiable cause. In this article some SARS epidemiological data in Indonesia will also presented. There are 7 SARS suspected cases and 2 probable cases were registered in Indonesia on the period of 1 March to 9 July 2003, and no more cases were reported after that time. How will be SARS progression in the future will be a subject of discussion among scientist, and we will have to wait and be prepared for any development might occur. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 59-63Keywords: SARS, Case Definition, Etiology, Indonesia

  14. DNA vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A M; Kennedy, R C

    1999-08-01

    DNA immunisation represents a novel approach to vaccine and immunotherapeutic development. Injection of plasmid DNA encoding a foreign gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of the foreign gene products and the induction of an immune response within a host. This is relevant to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies when the foreign gene represents a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent demonstration by a number of laboratories that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against some infectious diseases and cancers provides support for the use of this approach. In this article, we attempt to present an informative and unbiased representation of the field of DNA immunisation. The focus is on studies that impart information on the development of vaccination strategies against a number of human and animal pathogens. Investigations that describe the mechanism(s) of protective immunity induced by DNA immunisation highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to developing vaccines within a given system. A variety of systems in which DNA vaccination has resulted in the induction of protective immunity, as well as the correlates associated with these protective immune responses, will be described. Particular attention will focus on systems involving parasitic diseases. Finally, the potential of DNA immunisation is discussed as it relates to veterinary medicine and its role as a possible vaccine strategy against animal coccidioses.

  15. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin; Ritz, Susanne

    2008-05-15

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection resulting in clinical signs is invariably fatal despite clinical intervention. As FIP is an immune-mediated disease, treatment is mainly aimed at controlling the immune response triggered by the infection with the feline coronavirus (FCoV). Immune suppressive drugs such as prednisone or cyclophosphamide may slow disease progression but do not produce a cure. In nearly every published case report of attempted therapy for clinical FIP, glucocorticoids have been used; there are, however, no controlled studies that evaluate the effect of glucocorticoids as a therapy for FIP. Some veterinarians prescribe immune modulators to treat cats with FIP with no documented controlled evidence of efficacy. It has been suggested that these agents may benefit infected animals by restoring compromised immune function, thereby allowing the patient to control viral burden and recover from clinical signs. However, a non-specific stimulation of the immune system may be contraindicated as clinical signs develop and progress as a result of an immune-mediated response to the mutated FCoV.

  16. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine S; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R; Siddell, Stuart G

    2015-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP.

  17. The Efficacy of Probiotic in Adults with Acute Infectious Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawin Mahen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, acute diarrhea is most commonly caused by infectious pathogens. Regardless of the cause, diarrhea is primarily treated by fluid replacement therapy to decrease the risk of dehydration and death, although it does not affect the duration of diarrhea. Probiotics are able to shorten the duration of diarrhea in children, but its efficacy in adults is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of probiotic in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea in adults as compared to placebo. Systematic search was done using four databases: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Embase, without limit on the year of publication. Randomized clinical trials were selected as the appropriate study design to answer the clinical question and two studies were considered relevant for appraisal. In conclusion, probiotics could improve the recovery of acute infectious diarrhea in adults (level of evidence 1b however more studies should be carried out since only very few strains of probiotics have been investigated. Keywords: probiotics, treatment efficacy, acute diarrhea, adults.     Efektivitas Probiotik pada Orang Dewasa dengan Diare:  Sebuah Laporan Kasus Berbasis Bukti   Abstrak Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan global dengan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Di negara berkembang, diare akut biasanya disebabkan oleh infeksi. Terlepas dari penyebabnya, tata laksana utama diare adalah terapi rehidrasi untuk mengurangi dehidrasi dan kematian walaupun hal tersebut tidak memengaruhi durasi diare. Probiotik dapat memperpendek durasi diare pada anak-anak, namun efektivitasnya pada orang dewasa masih belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efek probiotik dalam mengurangi durasi diare akut pada orang dewasa dibandingkan plasebo. Pencarian sistematik dilakukan pada empat database: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, dan Embase, tanpa membatasi tahun publikasi

  18. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    systems. For automorphic forms wrt. Hecke triangle groups and Fuchsian groups with no elliptic elements and genus 0, we show that some logarithms of multiplier systems can be interpreted as a linking number. Finally we show a "twisted" version of the prime geodesics theorem, and logarithms of multiplier...

  19. Cosmic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The continuous 1D defects of an isotropic homogeneous material in an Euclidean 3D space are classified by a construction method, the Volterra process (VP). We employ the same method to classify the continuous 2D defects (which we call \\textit{cosmic forms}) of a vacuum in a 4D maximally symmetric spacetime. These defects fall into three different classes: i)- $m$-forms, akin to 3D space disclinations, related to ordinary rotations and analogous to Kibble's global cosmic strings (except that being continuous any deficit angle is allowed); ii)- $t$-forms, related to Lorentz boosts (hyperbolic rotations); iii)- $r$-forms, never been considered so far, related to null rotations. A detailed account of their metrics is presented. Their inner structure in many cases appears as a non-singular \\textit{core} separated from the outer part by a timelike hypersurface with distributional curvature and/or torsion, yielding new types of geometrical interactions with cosmic dislocations and other cosmic disclinations. Whereas...

  20. Peritonite infecciosa felina: 13 casos Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Numa pesquisa realizada em tecidos de 638 gatos necropsiados, foram encontrados 13 casos (2,03% de peritonite infecciosa felina. Oito desses casos (61,53% eram da forma efusiva ou úmida, e 5 apresentavam a forma seca ou não-efusiva da doença. A idade dos gatos afetados variou de 2 meses a 3 anos. Doze gatos (92,30% eram de raças puras, cinco deles (38,47% eram oriundos de ambientes onde havia mais de um gato e três eram provenientes de um mesmo gatil. A duração da doença clínica foi de 7 a 45 dias e os sinais clínicos incluíram emagrecimento, anorexia, diarréia, icterícia, vômito, linfadenopatia e distúrbios neurológicos. Os achados de necropsia na forma úmida incluíam excesso de líquido viscoso (50ml a 1 litro, translúcido ou levemente opaco na cavidade peritoneal e, em um caso, na cavidade torácica. Exsudato fibrinoso cobria as superfícies serosas dos órgãos abdominais dando-lhes aspecto granular e brancacento. Na forma seca, havia múltiplos focos granulomatosos sob a superfície serosa e para o interior do parênquima de órgãos abdominais; esses achados eram particularmente proeminentes nos rins. Opacidade de córnea foi observada em um gato. Histologicamente, havia graus variáveis de vasculite e perivasculite piogranulomatosa, particularmente em arteríolas. Meningite ou meningoencefalite piogranulomatosa foram observadas em três gatos com a forma seca de peritonite infecciosa felina.In a survey carried out in tissue specimens from 638 necropsied cats, 13 cases (2.03% of feline infectious peritonitis were found. Eight of those (61.53% were of the effusive or wet form and five had the dry non-effusive form of the disease. Ages of affected cats varied from 2-months to 3 yeas. Twelve affected cats (92.30% were purebreds, five of these cats (38.47% came from households with more than one cat and three of them came from the same comercial cat raising facility. The duration of clinical courses were 7-45 days and

  1. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of... and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: September 19..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 1,...

  2. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

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  3. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Human Immune...

  4. Children's Infectious Disease in Moscow: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on statistical data, a comparative analysis of infectious morbidity and mortality in Moscow in 2015 and 2014 revealed a whole, the decline in these indicators. Made significant progress in reducing infectious morbidity in Moscow due to the vaccination of children, including — increased regional calendar of preventive vaccinations. However, analysis of the work of medical institutions indicates the feasibility of the development and introduction of technologies of management of patients with post-infectious syndromes, as well as improving the health care system for children with infectious diseases based on a multidisciplinary approach in close cooperation infectious disease and pediatricians of different specialties. To solve these problems is proposed a plan to improve the effectiveness of children's infectious diseases services relating to the reorganization of hospital beds and outpatient care, ensure the continuity of the different health facilities, implementation of modern methods of etiological diagnosis of infections, the organization of continuous vocational training of paediatricians in Moscow on a specialty «Infectious diseases».

  5. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mejía Salazar

    Full Text Available Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus from a chronic wasting disease (CWD endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013, we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  6. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%). Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and sero-monitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR. PMID:27047054

  7. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanajayam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64% and reproductive form (70.89% (p≥0.05. A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60% and in crossbred animals (71.26% than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92% than in male (33.33%. Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and seromonitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR.

  8. Global governmentality: Biosecurity in the era of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappah, Jlateh Vincent; Smith, Danielle Taana

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Foucault's concept of governmentality to examine relationships between globalisation, the threat of infectious diseases and biosecurity. It draws attention to forms of calculated practices which Foucault notes as technologies of power that aim to foster positive demographic and economic trends in societies through the apparatus of security. These practices are employed at the global level with similar ambitions; hence, we adopt the term global governmentality. We discuss the applications of global governmentality by actors in the global core through the apparatus of security and (neo)liberal economic practices. We then provide examples of resistance/contestation from actors mainly in the global periphery through discussions of viral sovereignty; access to essential medicines, including HIV drugs; and health for all as a human right. We conclude that despite the core-periphery power asymmetry and competing paradigms, these developments tend to complement and/or regulate the phenomenon termed global governmentality, which is made evident by the tremendous successes in global health.

  9. Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation. However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1 only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2 the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  10. ``Mastering`` the global commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Peter Wall Inst. for Advanced Studies and Green Coll.

    1999-11-01

    The question of ``mastering`` the global commons will increasingly become a central socio-political issue, if it has not already attained this status. For example, the dilemmas brought about by anthropogenic climate change are in many ways unprecedented. They call for massive efforts to plan global climate change. In this context, knowledge about the physical nature of global climate changes is adequate in order to move from a comprehension to a solution of the problem. The record shows that past generations, too, have been fascinated with and concerned about the impact of climate on society, as well as, anthropogenic climate change. But these efforts have, for the most part, been informed by the doctrine of climate determinism. In much the same vein, the concept of climate policies as an ``optimal control problem`` is inadequate. Impact research has to be cognizant of the social construct of climate, as well as, fundamental secular societal changes that profoundly alter modern societies and the value orientations of its citizens. Climate policies as a form of large-scale and deliberate climate change, therefore, have to draw extensively on social science expertise. (orig.) 53 refs.

  11. 75 FR 26256 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2010-05-11

    ... diseases, cholera and other vibrio illnesses, Listeria, Calcinet, Harmful Algal Bloom-related Infectious... Waterborne Diseases Outbreak Form 57 1 20/60 Cholera and other Vibrio illnesses 450 1 20/60 Outbreak Report... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork...

  12. 76 FR 29243 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2011-05-20

    ... Reporting Forms--New--National Center for Emerging, Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Centers for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of...

  13. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  14. The role and importance of veterinary laboratories in the prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M J

    1998-08-01

    Veterinary laboratories which deal with infectious diseases form three groups according to the tasks for which they are responsible. The first group includes central or national veterinary laboratories, national or international reference laboratories, high-security laboratories, district regional or state veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The major role of these laboratories is to assist national Veterinary Services in diagnosing infectious animal diseases. The second group comprises laboratories that produce veterinary diagnostic kits and those that produce veterinary vaccines. The third group is composed of veterinary research laboratories, which generally concentrate on basic research and do not contribute directly to the diagnosis and control of infectious animal diseases. The author describes the objectives of each of the three groups of laboratories.

  15. Infectious diseases in end-stage liver disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases sustain impairment to immune systems, which worsens over time. These defects in their host defense lead to risks of bacterial infections and increased morbidity. Providers should have heightened surveillance for infectious diseases and suspect one with any acute change in status. Patient history may reveal rare infections and allow initiation of early appropriate therapy. There should be a low threshold for obtaining diagnostic cultures and peritoneal fluid samples and discussing possible causes with an infectious diseases consultant or a microbiology laboratory. These maneuvers will maximize therapy in patients at high risk for death due to infectious disease.

  16. Simple Use of the Suppository Type Povidone-Iodine Can Prevent Infectious Complications in Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of simple use of suppository povidone-iodine on infectious complications after transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the prostate. Methods. All 481 patients are included and received antibiotic prophylaxis. Among them, 360 patients received povidone-iodine suppository (Gynobetadine; 200 mg immediately prior to biopsy and 121 patients did not. Infectious complications were classified. To evaluate bactericidal effects, we counted bacterial colonies in the rectum, harvested from a rectal swab before insertion of the suppository and after biopsy. Aliquots of the suspended bacterial strains were added to Mueller-Hinton agar medium for incubation. Colony counts were determined. Results. Infectious complications developed in 1 case (0.3% in the rectal preparation group (Group 1 and in 8 cases (6.6% in the nonrectal preparation group (Group 2. One in Group 1 had a fever without sepsis. Two patients had sepsis and six had fever without sepsis in Group 2. Rectal preparation was a statistically significant risk factor influencing the development of infectious complications. In vitro experiments, the mean number of colony-forming units decreased 99.9% after the rectal povidone-iodine preparation. Conclusions. All through the biopsy, povidone-iodine melted into the rectum and decreased the bacterial colony count. Simple use of povidone-iodine suppository before prostate biopsy minimizes the risk of infectious complications.

  17. Nutritional Status and Infectious Disease of Undernourished Children under five in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, from April to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomina Caesarea Nurhasanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition frequently occurs in children under five. If not treated, it will cause acute health effects and affect on cognitive development, social, physical work capacity and productivity. Undernutrition can be accompanied by the presence of infectious disease that can worsen the children’s nutritional status. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status and infectious disease of undernutrition children under five in Jatinangor Subdistrict. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out to 7 parents and undernourished children under five, in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor. It was conducted from April to December 2012. The inclusion criterias were undernourished children under five with a history of infectious disease in the previous year, and the parents were willing to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria were parents and/or the children who were not at home when the collection of the data was conducted.. Data collection was conducted using measurement of nutritional status, in depth interview and environmental observation. The data were presented in tables, figures and narration. Results: Three subjects with undernutrition (-3SD to -2SD and four subjects with severe undernutrition (<-3SD. Factors affecting poor nutritional status were weight loss, no significant weight gain, diet and eating habit, and onset of disease. Commonly occurred infectious diseases were common cold, diarrhea, fever and cough. Some factors affecting infectious diseases were family member transmission, immunization, and treatment behavior. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and infectious diseases contribute to undernutrition in children under five.

  18. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  19. How Common Is the Common Core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  20. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  1. Common Asthma Triggers

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    ... Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Common Asthma Triggers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... t avoid the triggers. Some of the most common triggers are: Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is unhealthy ...

  2. Common Eye Disorders

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    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  3. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

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    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  4. Common Conditions in Newborns

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    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Conditions in Newborns Page Content Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

  5. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

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    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several ... diagnose an arrhythmia. View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic ...

  6. Bioinformatic characterization and gene expression pattern of apoptosis inhibitor from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2011-12-01

    Apoptosis is genetically programmed cellular killing processes that execute unnecessary or infected cells. It plays an important role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, insect metamorphosis and immunity. Apoptosis inhibitor (MrIAP) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrIAP consisted of 1753 base pair nucleotides encoded 535 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. MrIAP amino acid sequence contains IAP superfamily domain between 5 and 490. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MrIAP were aligned with the other IAP family members. The highest sequence similarity was observed in IAP-5 from ant Camponotus floridanus (67%) followed by IAP from body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (66%) and the lowest (62%) in IAP-5 isoform-5 from common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and IAP-5 from Aedes aegypti. The IAP phylogenetic tree showed that MrIAP closely related to other arthropod blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, formed a sister group with IAP from a hemichordate acorn worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii and finally clustered together with IAPs from fish groups. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that significantly (P rosenbergii challenged to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was highly induced in hepatopancreas. The collective results of this study indicate that the MrIAP is an essential immune gene and influences the immune response against IHHNV infection in M. rosenbergii.

  7. Lessons learnt from post-infectious IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil eSarna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of IBS symptoms– altered bowel function and abdominal cramping in a subset of adult subjects exposed to severe enteric infections opened up an unprecedented opportunity to understand the etiology of this poorly understood disorder. Perhaps, for the reasons that these symptoms follow a severe enteric infection, and mucosal biopsy tissues are readily available, the focus of most studies thus far has been to show that mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation persisting after the initial infection has subsided causes the IBS symptoms. Parallel studies in non-infectious IBS patients, who did not have prior enteritis, showed similar mild mucosal inflammation. Together, these studies examined the mucosal infiltration of specific immune cells, increase of select inflammatory mediators, mast cell and enterochromafin cell hyperplasia and epithelial permeability. In spite of the fact that the data on these topics were not consistent among different studies and clinical trials with prednisone, fluoxetine and kitotifen failed to provide relief of IBS symptoms, the predominant conclusions were that mild mucosal inflammation is the cause of IBS symptoms. However, the circular smooth muscle cells, and myenteric neurons are the primary regulators of gut motility function, while primary afferent neurons and CNS play essential roles in induction of visceral hypersensitivity - no explanation was provided as to how mild mucosal inflammation causes dysfunction in cells far removed. Accumulating evidence shows that mild mucosal inflammation in IBS patients is in physiological range. It has little deleterious effects on cells within its own environment and therefore it is unlikely to affect cells in the muscularis externa. This review discusses the disconnect between the focus on mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation and the potential mechanisms and molecular dysfunctions in smooth muscle cells, myenteric neurons and primary afferent neurons that may

  8. Assembly pathway of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P; Scholz, E; Turek, J; Nodgreen, R; Maloney, B

    1993-12-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious upper respiratory tract infection in chickens. At present, ILTV vaccines are not satisfactory because of development of a latent carrier status in vaccinated birds. Development of recombinant virus vaccines has been hampered by the limited information available on the molecular level and organization of this virus. We isolated 3 assembly intermediates, designated A, B, and C from ILTV-infected cells. Analysis of [3H]thymidine-and [35S]methionine-labeled particles, and electron microscopic studies indicated that particle A was the empty capsid, particle B was the procapsid containing scaffolding protein, and particle C was the DNA-filled capsid. The ILTV procapsids could only be found in the nucleus, which indicated that procapsids could not translocate through the nuclear membrane until they packaged the DNA. The DNA-filled capsids migrated through the nuclear membrane and obtained an envelope from the inner membrane of the nucleus. The enveloped particles then migrated through the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum into vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Infective virions were isolated from within the infected cells, indicating that budding through the cytoplasmic membrane is not a necessary step in ILTV maturation. Abundant arrays composed of tubules about 45 to 50 nm wide were found in the cytoplasm of chicken embryonic liver cells about 30 to 38 hours after infection. Comparison of the assembly intermediates and the DNA packaging pathway of ILTV with that of bacteriophage pi 29 indicates that similarity exists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas

    2017-05-01

     For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures.  A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated.  The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars.  By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones.

  10. [Imported infectious diseases in tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius Gordillo, N; Martín Nalda, A; Otero Romero, S; Soler-Palacín, P; Sulleiro Igual, E; Espiau Guarner, M; Fernández-Polo, A; Figueras Nadal, C

    2014-08-01

    An Imported Diseases Clinic was created in the hospital in 2009. The aim of this study was to asses its contribution in terms of capacity, quality of care and teaching offered. A retrospective study was conducted from 2009 to 2011, analyzing: A) development of knowledge by means of protocols and publications created, and subject taught; B) capacity and quality of care offered by the analysis of patients seen, the adequacy of the protocols and accessibility. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1: immigrant patient screening, group 2: patient consultation after tropical or sub-tropical travel, group 3: screening of vertical transmission of imported disease. Six protocols have been developed and disseminated on the unit website, as well as 5 scientific publications. A total of 316 patients were evaluated: 191 included in group 1 (29 Adopted and 162 Immigrants), 57 in group 2 (94.7% Visiting Friends and Relatives and 81.5% without a pre-travel consultation). They consulted due to, gastrointestinal symptoms (52.6%) and fever (43.8%), with 68 included in group 3 at risk of imported disease by vertical transmission (62 Trypanosoma cruzi, 1 Human T Lymphotropic Virus and 5 Plasmodium spp.). The overall adherence to the protocols was about 77.1%. Infectious Diseases Units must adapt to the reality of the population and be flexible in its structure. Periodic assessment of the quality of care offered is essential, as well as an evaluation on the need for additional studies. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. APPROUSH TO SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsapov D.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased level of morbidity of infective endocarditis (IE connected with new risk factors: intravenous drug use, cardiosurgical interventions, hemodialysis brought new clinical forms of the disease. As it shown in a literature main pathogenetic factors of IE are bacteraemia, trauma of endocardium and invasive medical procedures. Very typical pathogens are streptococci and staphylococci. Most typically mitral and aortal valves are affected with spreading of vegetations on surrounding media. Discussion. IE is polyetiologic disease caused by more than 128 microorganisms, and still a challenge for medical professionals. Detection a causative agent is critical for proper specific treatment. In different sources data on percentage of proven cases very according to country and different medical centres reflecting different local epidemiology of IE, diagnostic criteria and protocols. Culture negative infectious endocarditis (CNIE is considered in case of obtaining of three negative results of cultivation of samples on a standard blood agar during 7 days and subculturing. CNIE incidence very form 2% to 33% according to different researches and higher in cases of community acquired infection and reseeding antibacterial treatment. Some of cases of CNIE caused by gram - negative fastidious microorganisms - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Actinobacillus, Actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae, with united in HACEK group according to their properties to colonize oropharynx and requirement in special conditions and duration of incubation. Detection of some intracellular bacteria, such as C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. require immunological methods of detection, histological methods and of PCR. Conclusion. In case of diagnostics of patients with CNIE it is necessary to use a combination of prolonged subculturing of serum, emboli and histologic material on blood agar with microscopy by Warthin

  12. [Identification of infectious agents in the lungs in autopsies of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sanivia Aparecida de Lima; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha; Correia, Dalmo; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2002-01-01

    Lung diseases are frequently observed in individuals infected with HIV. The aim of this study was to identify infectious agents in the lungs in the autopsied individuals with AIDS performed between march 1990 and july 2000 at the school of medicine (Uberaba- Brazil), using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Analysis was made on lungs obtained from 40 individuals with AIDS. Infectious agents were observed in 34 (85%) cases of the 40 analyzed. Regarding fungis, Pneumocystis carinii was found in 8 (19.1%)cases; Cryptococcus sp in 4 (9.5%)cases, Histoplasma sp in 2 (4.8%)cases and Candida sp in 1 (2.4%)case. Association of Pneumocystis carinii, Citomegalovirus and Cryptococcus sp, was observed in one case, and in another, the association of CMV, and Toxoplasma gondii. There were 5 cases with Candida sp, CMV and Pneumocystis carinii associated with bacteria. In conclusion, this study shows that following bacterial agents fungi were the second most common infectious agents in post mortem examination of the lungs from patients with AIDS, being Pneumocystis carinii the most prevalent.

  13. Data mining strategies to improve multiplex microbead immunoassay tolerance in a mouse model of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Akshay; Ravindran, Resmi; Mannepalli, Soujanya; Vang, Daniel; Luciw, Paul A; Hogarth, Michael; Khan, Imran H; Krishnan, Viswanathan V

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex methodologies, especially those with high-throughput capabilities generate large volumes of data. Accumulation of such data (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc.) is fast becoming more common and thus requires the development and implementation of effective data mining strategies designed for biological and clinical applications. Multiplex microbead immunoassay (MMIA), on xMAP or MagPix platform (Luminex), which is amenable to automation, offers a major advantage over conventional methods such as Western blot or ELISA, for increasing the efficiencies in serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. MMIA allows detection of antibodies and/or antigens efficiently for a wide range of infectious agents simultaneously in host blood samples, in one reaction vessel. In the process, MMIA generates large volumes of data. In this report we demonstrate the application of data mining tools on how the inherent large volume data can improve the assay tolerance (measured in terms of sensitivity and specificity) by analysis of experimental data accumulated over a span of two years. The combination of prior knowledge with machine learning tools provides an efficient approach to improve the diagnostic power of the assay in a continuous basis. Furthermore, this study provides an in-depth knowledge base to study pathological trends of infectious agents in mouse colonies on a multivariate scale. Data mining techniques using serodetection of infections in mice, developed in this study, can be used as a general model for more complex applications in epidemiology and clinical translational research.

  14. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.

  15. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  16. Construction and biological activities of the first infectious cDNA clones of the genus Foveavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Baozhong, E-mail: bmeng@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Venkataraman, Srividhya; Li, Caihong; Wang, Weizhou [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Dayan-Glick, Cathy; Mawassi, Munir [The Plant Pathology Department-The Virology Unit, Plant Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250 (Israel)

    2013-01-20

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV, genus Foveavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) is one of the most prevalent viruses in grapevines and is associated with three distinct diseases: rupestris stem pitting, vein necrosis and Syrah decline. Little is known about the biology and pathological properties of GRSPaV. In this work, we engineered a full-length infectious cDNA clone for GRSPaV and a GFP-tagged variant, both under the transcriptional control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S promoter. We demonstrated that these cDNA clones were infectious in grapevines and Nicotiana benthamiana through fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immuno electron microscopy. Interestingly, GRSPaV does not cause systemic infection in four of the most commonly used herbaceous plants, even in the presence of the movement proteins of two other viruses which are known to complement numerous movement-defective viruses. These infectious clones are the first of members of Foveavirus which would allow further investigations into mechanisms governing different aspects of replication for GRSPaV and perhaps related viruses.

  17. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Hao Chung; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R; Thwaites, Guy E; Rabaa, Maia A; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2017-08-02

    Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  18. Data Mining Strategies to Improve Multiplex Microbead Immunoassay Tolerance in a Mouse Model of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Akshay; Ravindran, Resmi; Mannepalli, Soujanya; Vang, Daniel; Luciw, Paul A.; Hogarth, Michael; Khan, Imran H.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex methodologies, especially those with high-throughput capabilities generate large volumes of data. Accumulation of such data (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc.) is fast becoming more common and thus requires the development and implementation of effective data mining strategies designed for biological and clinical applications. Multiplex microbead immunoassay (MMIA), on xMAP or MagPix platform (Luminex), which is amenable to automation, offers a major advantage over conventional methods such as Western blot or ELISA, for increasing the efficiencies in serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. MMIA allows detection of antibodies and/or antigens efficiently for a wide range of infectious agents simultaneously in host blood samples, in one reaction vessel. In the process, MMIA generates large volumes of data. In this report we demonstrate the application of data mining tools on how the inherent large volume data can improve the assay tolerance (measured in terms of sensitivity and specificity) by analysis of experimental data accumulated over a span of two years. The combination of prior knowledge with machine learning tools provides an efficient approach to improve the diagnostic power of the assay in a continuous basis. Furthermore, this study provides an in-depth knowledge base to study pathological trends of infectious agents in mouse colonies on a multivariate scale. Data mining techniques using serodetection of infections in mice, developed in this study, can be used as a general model for more complex applications in epidemiology and clinical translational research. PMID:25614982

  19. Medical and infectious complications associated with pyelonephritis among pregnant women at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Heine, R Phillips; Grotegut, Chad A

    2013-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a common cause of antepartum admission and maternal morbidity. Medical complications associated with pyelonephritis during delivery are not well described; thus the objective of this study was to estimate medical, infectious, and obstetric complications associated with pyelonephritis during the delivery admission. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2008-2010. The NIS was queried for all delivery-related discharges. During the delivery admission, the ICD-9-CM codes for pyelonephritis were used to identify cases and were compared to women without pyelonephritis. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed for various medical, infectious, and obstetric complications among women with pyelonephritis compared to women without, while controlling for preexisting medical conditions and demographics. During the years 2008-2010, there were 26,397 records with a diagnosis of pyelonephritis during the delivery admission, for a rate of 2.1 per 1000 deliveries. Women with pyelonephritis had increased associated risks for transfusion, need for mechanical ventilation, acute heart failure, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, acute renal failure, preterm labor, and chorioamnionitis, while controlling for preexisting medical conditions. Pyelonephritis at delivery admissions is associated with significant medical and infectious morbidity.

  20. Characterization of infectious dose and lethal dose of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Douglas; Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to infect a host is a key trait of a virus, and differences in infectivity could put one virus at an evolutionary advantage over another. In this study we have quantified the infectivity of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) that are known to differ in fitness and virulence. By exposing juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hosts to a wide range of virus doses, we were able to calculate the infectious dose in terms of ID50 values for the two genotypes. Lethal dose experiments were also conducted to confirm the virulence difference between the two virus genotypes, using a range of virus doses and holding fish either in isolation or in batch so as to calculate LD50values. We found that infectivity is positively correlated with virulence, with the more virulent genotype having higher infectivity. Additionally, infectivity increases more steeply over a short range of doses compared to virulence, which has a shallower increase. We also examined the data using models of virion interaction and found no evidence to suggest that virions have either an antagonistic or a synergistic effect on each other, supporting the independent action hypothesis in the process of IHNV infection of rainbow trout.