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Sample records for common infectious form

  1. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection.

  2. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  3. Genetics of infectious diseases: hidden etiologies and common pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Marianna; Di Pietrantonio, Tania; Schurr, Erwin

    2011-09-01

    Since the completion of the human genome sequence, the study of common genetic polymorphisms in complex human diseases has become a main activity of human genetics. Employing genome-wide association studies, hundreds of modest genetic risk factors have been identified. In infectious diseases the identification of common risk factors has been varied and as in other common diseases it seems likely that important genetic risk factors remain to be discovered. Nevertheless, the identification of disease-specific genetic risk factors revealed an unexpected overlap in susceptibility genes of diverse inflammatory and infectious diseases. Analysis of the multi-disease susceptibility genes has allowed the definition of shared key pathways of inflammatory dysregulation and suggested unexpected infectious etiologies for other "non-infectious" common diseases.

  4. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  5. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  6. Yeast prions form infectious amyloid inclusion bodies in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espargaró Alba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prions were first identified as infectious proteins associated with fatal brain diseases in mammals. However, fungal prions behave as epigenetic regulators that can alter a range of cellular processes. These proteins propagate as self-perpetuating amyloid aggregates being an example of structural inheritance. The best-characterized examples are the Sup35 and Ure2 yeast proteins, corresponding to [PSI+] and [URE3] phenotypes, respectively. Results Here we show that both the prion domain of Sup35 (Sup35-NM and the Ure2 protein (Ure2p form inclusion bodies (IBs displaying amyloid-like properties when expressed in bacteria. These intracellular aggregates template the conformational change and promote the aggregation of homologous, but not heterologous, soluble prionogenic molecules. Moreover, in the case of Sup35-NM, purified IBs are able to induce different [PSI+] phenotypes in yeast, indicating that at least a fraction of the protein embedded in these deposits adopts an infectious prion fold. Conclusions An important feature of prion inheritance is the existence of strains, which are phenotypic variants encoded by different conformations of the same polypeptide. We show here that the proportion of infected yeast cells displaying strong and weak [PSI+] phenotypes depends on the conditions under which the prionogenic aggregates are formed in E. coli, suggesting that bacterial systems might become useful tools to generate prion strain diversity.

  7. Web-based infectious disease reporting using XML forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Yang, Peng; Rao, Keqin

    2008-09-01

    Exploring solutions for infectious disease information sharing among hospital and public health information systems is imperative to the improvement of disease surveillance and emergent response. This paper aimed at developing a method to directly transmit real-time data of notifiable infectious diseases from hospital information systems to public health information systems on the Internet by using a standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. The mechanism and work flow by which notifiable infectious disease data are created, reported and used at health agencies in China was evaluated. The capacity of all participating providers to use electronic data interchange to submit transactions of data required for the notifiable infectious disease reporting was assessed. The minimum data set at national level that is required for reporting for national notifiable infectious disease surveillance was determined. The standards and techniques available worldwide for electronic health data interchange, such as XML, HL7 messaging, CDA and ATSM CCR, etc. were reviewed and compared, and an XML implementation format needed for this purpose was defined for hospitals that are able to access the Internet to provide a complete infectious disease reporting. There are 18,703 county or city hospitals in China. All of them have access to basic information infrastructures including computers, e-mail and the Internet. Nearly 10,000 hospitals possess hospital information systems used for electronically recording, retrieving and manipulating patients' information. These systems collect 23 data items required in the minimum data set for national notifiable infectious disease reporting. In order to transmit these data items to the disease surveillance system and local health information systems instantly and without duplication of data input, an XML schema and a set of standard data elements were developed to define the content, structure and semantics of the data set. These standards

  8. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-01-01

    of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs

  9. Common Developmental Tasks in Forming Reconstituted Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Developmental tasks common to the formation of a reconstituted family are described, particularly the continued mourning of the old family; the formation of a solid marital relationship despite the difficulties presented by past failures and the presence of children; and the formation of sibling alliances across family lines. (Author)

  10. An update on the association of vitamin D deficiency with common infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Richard R; Lemonovich, Tracy L; Salata, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Deficiency of vitamin D is a common condition, affecting both the general population and patients in health care facilities. Over the last decade, an increasing body of evidence has shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk for acquiring several infectious diseases, as well as poorer outcomes in vitamin D deficient patients with infections. This review details recent developments in understanding the role of vitamin D in immunity, the antibacterial actions of vitamin D, the association between vitamin D deficiency and common infections (like sepsis, pneumonia, influenza, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV)), potential therapeutic implications for vitamin D replacement, and future research directions.

  11. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-06-08

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  12. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of common infectious diseases in severely ill sub-Saharan African patients : Studies from a hospital floor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis illustrates that important aspects of diagnosis and treatment of common infectious diseases in a hospital setting in Mozambique are inadequate. The inadequacies found in our studies are likely to be explained by a combination of patient population factors and health care system

  14. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Forms of Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Andreas; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2014-01-01

    Tremor is the most common movement disorder presenting to an outpatient neurology practice and is defined as a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. The authors review the clinical examination, classification, and diagnosis of tremor. The pathophysiology of the more common forms of tremor is outlined, and treatment options are discussed. Essential tremor is characterized primarily by postural and action tremors, may be a neurodegenerative disorder with pathologic changes in the cerebellum, and can be treated with a wide range of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods. Tremor at rest is typical for Parkinson’s disease, but may arise independently of a dopaminergic deficit. Enhanced physiologic tremor, intention tremor, and dystonic tremor are discussed. Further differential diagnoses described in this review include drug- or toxin-induced tremor, neuropathic tremor, psychogenic tremor, orthostatic tremor, palatal tremor, tremor in Wilson’s disease, and tremor secondary to cerebral lesions, such as Holmes’ tremor (midbrain tremor). An individualized approach to treatment of tremor patients is important, taking into account the degree of disability, including social embarrassment, which the tremor causes in the patient’s life. PMID:21321834

  16. GWAS signals across the HLA regions: revealing a clue for common etiology underlying infectious tumors and other immunity diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yao Shugart; Ying Wang; Wei-Hua Jia; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions play an important role in development of cancers and immunity disorders. However, the biological mechanisms of the HLA associations are not well understood. We recently conducted a survey of all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with significant findings in the HLA regions and concluded that diseases such as cancer and immune disorders are more likely to be associated with genetic variants located in the HLA regions than other diseases. This finding is suggestive for testing a hypothesis of a common etiology of infectious tumors and other immunity diseases.

  17. Establish the technical regulation of MERCOSUR transport infectious materials and samples for diagnostic approve for resolution No.25/000 of MERCOSUR Common market group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical MERCOSUR (South Common Market) regulation presented for transport of infectious substances and analysis of samples in laboratories enabled by the Ministries of Health of the States Parts of the Mercosur for diagnostic [es

  18. Infectious Diseases,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-29

    of sufficient severity, infectious hepatitis may produce hypoglycemia or hepatic failure. Severe hypoglycemia is also a common danger in neonatal ...emergency situations geoier~3ly involve the correction of severe fluid and electrolyte or acid-base ;atbnormalities. Severe hypoglycemia or anoxia... causes widespread metabolic responses in the host and in addition, leads to nutritional deficiencies. Localized infections may also result in metabolic

  19. Implication of Soluble Forms of Cell Adhesion Molecules in Infectious Disease and Tumor: Insights from Transgenic Animal Models

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    Etsuro Ono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs are surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. They play a critical role in maintaining tissue integrity and mediating migration of cells, and some of them also act as viral receptors. It has been known that soluble forms of the viral receptors bind to the surface glycoproteins of the viruses and neutralize them, resulting in inhibition of the viral entry into cells. Nectin-1 is one of important CAMs belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor family. Both CAMs also act as alphaherpesvirus receptor. Transgenic mice expressing the soluble form of nectin-1 or HVEM showed almost complete resistance against the alphaherpesviruses. As another CAM, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs that recognize sialic acids are also known as an immunoglobulin superfamily member. Siglecs play an important role in the regulation of immune cell functions in infectious diseases, inflammation, neurodegeneration, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Siglec-9 is one of Siglecs and capsular polysaccharide (CPS of group B Streptococcus (GBS binds to Siglec-9 on neutrophils, leading to suppress host immune response and provide a survival advantage to the pathogen. In addition, Siglec-9 also binds to tumor-produced mucins such as MUC1 to lead negative immunomodulation. Transgenic mice expressing the soluble form of Siglec-9 showed significant resistance against GBS infection and remarkable suppression of MUC1 expressing tumor proliferation. This review describes recent developments in the understanding of the potency of soluble forms of CAMs in the transgenic mice and discusses potential therapeutic interventions that may alter the outcomes of certain diseases.

  20. [Infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-07

    In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases.

  1. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Circular Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Kuan Choong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV, a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV. Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5, which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 1014 in the virus-inoculated cells to 109 in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.

  2. In vitro antiviral activity of circular triple helix forming oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Oi Kuan; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO) RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5), which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 10(14) in the virus-inoculated cells to 10(9) in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.

  3. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally

  4. Efficacy of a 3C-like protease inhibitor in treating various forms of acquired feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C; Eckstrand, Chrissy; Groutas, William C; Bannasch, Michael; Meadows, Juliana M; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2018-04-01

    Objectives The safety and efficacy of the 3C-like protease inhibitor GC376 was tested on a cohort of client-owned cats with various forms of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Methods Twenty cats from 3.3-82 months of age (mean 10.4 months) with various forms of FIP were accepted into a field trial. Fourteen cats presented with wet or dry-to-wet FIP and six cats presented with dry FIP. GC376 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Cats with neurologic signs were excluded from the study. Results Nineteen of 20 cats treated with GC376 regained outward health within 2 weeks of initial treatment. However, disease signs recurred 1-7 weeks after primary treatment and relapses and new cases were ultimately treated for a minimum of 12 weeks. Relapses no longer responsive to treatment occurred in 13 of these 19 cats within 1-7 weeks of initial or repeat treatment(s). Severe neurologic disease occurred in 8/13 cats that failed treatment and five cats had recurrences of abdominal lesions. At the time of writing, seven cats were in disease remission. Five kittens aged 3.3-4.4 months with wet FIP were treated for 12 weeks and have been in disease remission after stopping treatment and at the time of writing for 5-14 months (mean 11.2 months). A sixth kitten was in remission for 10 weeks after 12 weeks of treatment, relapsed and is responding to a second round of GC376. The seventh was a 6.8-year-old cat with only mesenteric lymph node involvement that went into remission after three relapses that required progressively longer repeat treatments over a 10 month period. Side effects of treatment included transient stinging upon injection and occasional foci of subcutaneous fibrosis and hair loss. There was retarded development and abnormal eruption of permanent teeth in cats treated before 16-18 weeks of age. Conclusions and relevance GC376 showed promise in treating cats with certain presentations of FIP and has opened the door to targeted antiviral

  5. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious mononucleosis, also called “mono,” is a contagious disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, but other viruses can also cause this disease. It is common among teenagers and young adults, ...

  6. Infectious Urethritis in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Edwin M.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and recurrent infectious urethritis in men and women is commonly seen by physicians. Since specific therapy varies widely with the type of urethritis present, the proper diagnosis must be clearly established if curative drug therapy is to be selected. It is valuable, therefore, to review the diagnosis and therapy of the various forms of infectious urethritis that are recognized today in both men and women. PMID:1199099

  7. PrP aggregation can be seeded by pre-formed recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils without the replication of infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Rona M; King, Declan; Jeffrey, Martin; McGovern, Gillian; Agarwal, Sonya; Gill, Andrew C; Piccardo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian prions are unusual infectious agents, as they are thought to consist solely of aggregates of misfolded prion protein (PrP). Generation of synthetic prions, composed of recombinant PrP (recPrP) refolded into fibrils, has been utilised to address whether PrP aggregates are, indeed, infectious prions. In several reports, neurological disease similar to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) has been described following inoculation and passage of various forms of fibrils in transgenic mice and hamsters. However, in studies described here, we show that inoculation of recPrP fibrils does not cause TSE disease, but, instead, seeds the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in PrP-P101L knock-in transgenic mice (101LL). Importantly, both WT-recPrP fibrils and 101L-recPrP fibrils can seed plaque formation, indicating that the fibrillar conformation, and not the primary sequence of PrP in the inoculum, is important in initiating seeding. No replication of infectious prions or TSE disease was observed following both primary inoculation and subsequent subpassage. These data, therefore, argue against recPrP fibrils being infectious prions and, instead, indicate that these pre-formed seeds are acting to accelerate the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in 101LL Tg mice. In addition, these data reproduce a phenotype which was previously observed in 101LL mice following inoculation with brain extract containing in vivo-generated PrP amyloid fibrils, which has not been shown for other synthetic prion models. These data are reminiscent of the "prion-like" spread of aggregated forms of the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), α-synuclein and tau observed following inoculation of transgenic mice with pre-formed seeds of each misfolded protein. Hence, even when the protein is PrP, misfolding and aggregation do not reproduce the full clinicopathological phenotype of disease. The initiation and spread of protein aggregation in transgenic mouse lines following inoculation with pre-formed

  8. Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Chelsey; Ashbeck, Christopher; Brook, Alexander J; Durall, Chris

    2018-05-22

    Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity ballistic movements. As CrossFit is an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings: (1) The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs. (2) The search initially yielded >100 results, which were narrowed down to 3 level 2b retrospective cohort studies that were deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria. (3) In all 3 reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer, or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from 3 retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or

  9. Genetics of common forms of heart failure: challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Christoph D; Lusis, Aldons J; Wang, Yibin

    2015-05-01

    In contrast to many other human diseases, the use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genes for heart failure (HF) has had limited success. We will discuss the underlying challenges as well as potential new approaches to understanding the genetics of common forms of HF. Recent research using intermediate phenotypes, more detailed and quantitative stratification of HF symptoms, founder populations and novel animal models has begun to allow researchers to make headway toward explaining the genetics underlying HF using GWAS techniques. By expanding analyses of HF to improved clinical traits, additional HF classifications and innovative model systems, the intractability of human HF GWAS should be ameliorated significantly.

  10. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  11. Phytosterol Profiles of Common Foods and Estimated Natural Intake of Different Structures and Forms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhang, Liangxiao; Shao, Yafang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Ziyan; Mei, Xiaohong; Li, Tao; Wang, Donghui; Liang, Ying; Li, Jing; Huang, Yining; Zhang, Liuquan; Xu, Tao; Song, Huaxin; Zhong, Yongheng; Lu, Baiyi

    2018-03-21

    Phytosterols are well-known for their cholesterol-lowering effects, and the structures and forms of phytosterols affect their bioactivity. We aimed to illustrate the phytosterol profiles in common foods and estimate their natural intake in five geographical regions and among different age groups in China. In total, 12 phytosterols in free and esterified forms of 119 foods from five regions across China were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, the dietary intake of phytosterols was calculated combined with the dietary foods intake data of Chinese people. The total phytosterol content was highest in vegetable oils (150.4-1230.9 mg/100 g), followed by legumes (129.6-275.6 mg/100 g), nuts (18.9-255.2 mg/100 g), and cereals (11.9-93.8 mg/100 g). Vegetables and fruits contained lower contents of total phytosterols. Phytosterols were mainly esterified in most common foods except in nuts. The predominant phytosterols were β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, all of which belonged to plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols. Total phytosterol intake varied across different regions, ranging between 257.7 and 473.7 mg/standard-person (sp)/day, with the highest intake in Beijing, followed by Hangzhou, Wuhan, Chongqing, and Guangzhou. However, phytosterol proportion was similar across regions, with β-sitosterol accounting for 46.5-50.3% of the natural intake. Phytosterol intake was mainly constituted by plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols in esterified form (61.9-74.6%). At the age of 2-70 years, phytosterol intake ranged from 154.3 mg/day to 348.0 mg/day in the national scale.

  12. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...

  13. Modulation of the Interleukin-21 Pathway with Interleukin-4 Distinguishes Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients with More Non-infectious Clinical Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marylin; Béland, Marianne; Dembele, Marieme; Lejtenyi, Duncan; Drolet, Jean-Phillipe; Lemire, Martine; Tsoukas, Christos; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Noya, Francisco J D; Alizadehfar, Reza; McCusker, Christine T; Mazer, Bruce D

    2018-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and clinical manifestations such as infections, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We sought to determine if responsiveness to interleukin-21 (IL-21), a key cytokine for B cell differentiation, correlates with distinct clinical phenotypes in CVID. CVID subjects were recruited through the Canadian Primary Immunodeficiency Evaluative Survey registry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with anti-CD40 ± interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-21, and/or IL-4+IL-21. B cell subpopulations and IgG production were determined at baseline and day 7 by flow cytometry and ELISA. Clinical complications were compared using contingency tables. CVID subjects exhibited decreased CD27 + B cells and IgG production after 7 days of stimulation with anti-CD40+IL-21 (p  2% class-switched memory B cells at baseline. The IL-4 and IL-21 in vitro assays distinguish two groups of CVID subjects and can be used with baseline B cell subpopulation phenotyping to better identify patients experiencing more vs. fewer clinical non-infectious complications and potentially to modulate therapy.

  14. Physical basis behind achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Horton, William; Hristova, Kalina

    2010-09-24

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in long bone development. The G380R mutation in FGFR3 transmembrane domain is known as the genetic cause for achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the exact mechanism underlying the pathology. To gain further understanding into the physical basis behind the disorder, here we measure the activation of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 in mammalian cells using Western blots, and we analyze the activation within the frame of a physical-chemical model describing dimerization, ligand binding, and phosphorylation probabilities within the dimers. The data analysis presented here suggests that the mutation does not increase FGFR3 dimerization, as proposed previously. Instead, FGFR3 activity in achondroplasia is increased due to increased probability for phosphorylation of the unliganded mutant dimers. This finding has implications for the design of targeted molecular treatments for achondroplasia.

  15. Trypanosoma brucei TbIF1 inhibits the essential F1-ATPase in the infectious form of the parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Panicucci

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial (mt FoF1-ATP synthase of the digenetic parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, generates ATP during the insect procyclic form (PF, but becomes a perpetual consumer of ATP in the mammalian bloodstream form (BF, which lacks a canonical respiratory chain. This unconventional dependence on FoF1-ATPase is required to maintain the essential mt membrane potential (Δψm. Normally, ATP hydrolysis by this rotary molecular motor is restricted to when eukaryotic cells experience sporadic hypoxic conditions, during which this compulsory function quickly depletes the cellular ATP pool. To protect against this cellular treason, the highly conserved inhibitory factor 1 (IF1 binds the enzyme in a manner that solely inhibits the hydrolytic activity. Intriguingly, we were able to identify the IF1 homolog in T. brucei (TbIF1, but determined that its expression in the mitochondrion is tightly regulated throughout the life cycle as it is only detected in PF cells. TbIF1 appears to primarily function as an emergency brake in PF cells, where it prevented the restoration of the Δψm by FoF1-ATPase when respiration was chemically inhibited. In vitro, TbIF1 overexpression specifically inhibits the hydrolytic activity but not the synthetic capability of the FoF1-ATP synthase in PF mitochondria. Furthermore, low μM amounts of recombinant TbIF1 achieve the same inhibition of total mt ATPase activity as the FoF1-ATPase specific inhibitors, azide and oligomycin. Therefore, even minimal ectopic expression of TbIF1 in BF cells proved lethal as the indispensable Δψm collapsed due to inhibited FoF1-ATPase. In summary, we provide evidence that T. brucei harbors a natural and potent unidirectional inhibitor of the vital FoF1-ATPase activity that can be exploited for future structure-based drug design.

  16. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  17. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karon F Cook

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karon F Cook1, Seung W Choi2, Kurt L Johnson1, Dagmar Amtmann11Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue. Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.Keywords: psychometrics, outcomes, quality of life, measurement, fatigue

  18. Groupwork as a Form of Assessment: Common Problems and Recommended Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the literature on the use of groupwork as a form of assessment in tertiary institutions. It outlines the considerable advantages of groupwork but also its systemic associated problems. In discussing the problems, the paper considers issues such as "free riding" and the "sucker effect", issues associated with ethnic mix…

  19. Forming perceptions and the limits to public participation on ocean commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne

    2017-01-01

    Public views of, and public participation in, the management of commons are increasingly being recommended and sought after in environmental management processes. Yet, given the limits of today’s liberal democracy, what are the weaknesses? This article presents data from a citizens jury......-inspired deliberative workshop held to tease out stakeholder views of management priorities for a section of the North Sea: the Dogger Bank. As this article reveals, the lessons learned from the Dogger Bank workshop advocate not simply what is required for managing one particular ocean commons, but also highlight some...... of the public participation research design failings, taking public participation in resource management further by adding to the literature and theoretical discussions on the public sphere (Habermas 1989). Analysis of the citizens jury-inspired deliberative workshop also highlights the critical issue of power...

  20. Glucokinase MODY and implications for treatment goals of common forms of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Owen, Katharine R

    2014-12-01

    Treatment goals in diabetes concentrate on reducing the risk of vascular complications, largely through setting targets for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These targets are based on epidemiological studies of complication development, but so far have not adequately addressed the adverse effects associated with lowering HbA1c towards the normal range. Glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a monogenic form of hyperglycaemia (GCK-MODY) characterised by fasting hyperglycaemia with low postprandial glucose excursions and a marginally elevated HbA1c. Minimal levels of vascular complications (comparable with nondiabetic individuals) are observed in GCK-MODY, leading to the hypothesis that GCK-MODY may represent a useful paradigm for assessing treatment goals in all forms of diabetes. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind this concept, suggest ways of translating this hypothesis into clinical practice and address some of the caveats of such an approach.

  1. Review on common calibration and measuremnt practises for mesuring free form surface on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    the traceability of measuring of free form surfaces on CMMs outlined. A newly developed procedure for performance verification on CMMs with respect to free form measurements is described, and some investigations regarding this method are reviewed. The investigations are concerned with two new tests, the Spiral...... Test and the Cylinder Test developed as a coorperation between the University of Padova and the Technical University of Denmark. Experiments conducted by means of calibrated objects and CAD models created in an independent and external system, using calibrated dimensions are described. The experiments...... have been carried out on two CMMs with different performances. The investigations have clearly shown that the performance verification procedure must be implemented in the specific software in use for the actual measurements. The Spiral Test showed a clear influence on CMM performances from scanning...

  2. The Swedish Utilities joint approach to form common basis for design requirements for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Owners of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants have decided to form a document that should state the design principals and requirement for cost-effective and continuous development of the reactor safety in the future. The development of this document will be a part of the modernization and development of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The basis for this document is an evaluation of Swedish and International standards and regulations as IAEA/INSAG, US-regulations, EUR etc. (author)

  3. Comprehensive study of unexpected microscope condensers formed in sample arrangements commonly used in optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Darshan B; Aldawsari, Mabkhoot Mudith S; Alharbi, Bandar Mohammed H; Sen, Sanchari; Grave de Peralta, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We show that various setups for optical microscopy which are commonly used in biomedical laboratories behave like efficient microscope condensers that are responsible for observed subwavelength resolution. We present a series of experiments and simulations that reveal how inclined illumination from such unexpected condensers occurs when the sample is perpendicularly illuminated by a microscope's built-in white-light source. In addition, we demonstrate an inexpensive add-on optical module that serves as an efficient and lightweight microscope condenser. Using such add-on optical module in combination with a low-numerical-aperture objective lens and Fourier plane imaging microscopy technique, we demonstrate detection of photonic crystals with a period nearly eight times smaller than the Rayleigh resolution limit.

  4. Familial forms of disorders of sex development may be common if infertility is considered a comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Raja; Picard-Dieval, Flavia; Lottmann, Henri; Rouget, Sébastien; Bignon-Topalovic, Joelle; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken

    2016-11-29

    Families with 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) have been reported, but they are considered to be exceptionally rare, with the exception of the familial forms of disorders affecting androgen synthesis or action. The families of some patients with anorchia may include individuals with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. We therefore analysed a large series of patients with 46,XY DSD or anorchia for the occurrence in their family of one of these phenotypes and/or ovarian insufficiency and/or infertility and/or cryptorchidism. A retrospective study chart review was performed for 114 patients with 46,XY DSD and 26 patients with 46,XY bilateral anorchia examined at a single institution over a 33 year period. Of the 140 patients, 25 probands with DSD belonged to 21 families and 7 with anorchia belonged to 7 families. Familial forms represent 22% (25/114) of the 46,XY DSD and 27% (7/26) of the anorchia cases. No case had disorders affecting androgen synthesis or action or 5 α-reductase deficiency. The presenting symptom was genital ambiguity (n = 12), hypospadias (n = 11) or discordance between 46,XY karyotyping performed in utero to exclude trisomy and female external genitalia (n = 2) or anorchia (n = 7). Other familial affected individuals presented with DSD and/or premature menopause (4 families) or male infertility (4 families) and/or cryptorchidism. In four families mutations were identified in the genes SRY, NR5A1, GATA4 and FOG2/ZFPM2. Surgery discovered dysgerminoma or gonadoblastoma in two cases with gonadal dysgenesis. This study reveals a surprisingly high frequency of familial forms of 46,XY DSD and anorchia when premature menopause or male factor infertility are included. It also demonstrates the variability of the expression of the phenotype within the families. It highlights the need to the physician to take a full family history including fertility status. This could be important to identify familial cases, understand modes of transmission

  5. Unwinding fibril formation of medin, the peptide of the most common form of human amyloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Annika; Soederberg, Linda; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Sletten, Knut; Engstroem, Ulla; Tjernberg, Lars O.; Naeslund, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2007-01-01

    Medin amyloid affects the medial layer of the thoracic aorta of most people above 50 years of age. The consequences of this amyloid are not completely known but the deposits may contribute to diseases such as thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection or to the general diminished elasticity of blood vessels seen in elderly people. We show that the 50-amino acid residue peptide medin forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. With the use of Congo red staining, Thioflavin T fluorescence, electron microscopy, and a solid-phase binding assay on different synthetic peptides, we identified the last 18-19 amino acid residues to constitute the amyloid-promoting region of medin. We also demonstrate that the two C-terminal phenylalanines, previously suggested to be of importance for amyloid formation, are not required for medin amyloid formation

  6. VISUAL CULTURE AS A MEANS OF FORMING A COMMON AND PROFESSIONAL CULTURE OF A PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Syrova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the analysis of the visual culture, which forms the general and professional culture of a person in many ways. Attention is paid to the culture of perception of visual images, the ability to analyze them, evaluate, compare, also the features of visual thinking and creative activity, directly relating to it, are considered. The mastering of visual culture is grounded by the specificity of various creative specialties and is a component of the educational process.Materials and Methods. The theory of personality formation and development is the methodological basis of the article. During the research, the analysis of the scientific and theoretical concept of "visual culture" in the system of general and professional human culture was used.Results. The article illustrates that the artistic vision, developed in the process of visual culture formation, starting from childhood, actively participates in the preparation of the ground for the origin of an artistic image, which is realized in the material later. With the development of the creative imagination of the learner, also the development of thinking and memory takes place inevitably, that is harmonization of all parts of the brain is carried out, and this process must be taken into account in the upbringing and education, the formation of the personality, and the formed visual culture is the basis for the improvement of all verges of the student's creative abilities.Discussion and Conclusions. The conclusion is made that visual culture being an integral part of the educational process is the necessary condition for entering the sociocultural space. The education of a high level of visual culture in a modern information and technically replete society is one of the necessary components of the formation of a general and professional culture of a person and it is desirable to begin this process with a student, and even better, from school-days.

  7. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Olack, Beatrice; Bigogo, Godfrey M; Audi, Allan; Cosmas, Leonard; Aura, Barrack; Burke, Heather; Njenga, M Kariuki; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-01-18

    Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI), diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI) among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo) and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera). Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  8. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  9. Do reflex seizures and spontaneous seizures form a continuum? - triggering factors and possible common mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmen, Friederike; Wehner, Tim; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Recent changes in the understanding and classification of reflex seizures have fuelled a debate on triggering mechanisms of seizures and their conceptual organization. Previous studies and patient reports have listed extrinsic and intrinsic triggers, albeit their multifactorial and dynamic nature is poorly understood. This paper aims to review literature on extrinsic and intrinsic seizure triggers and to discuss common mechanisms among them. Among self-reported seizure triggers, emotional stress is most frequently named. Reflex seizures are typically associated with extrinsic sensory triggers; however, intrinsic cognitive or proprioceptive triggers have also been assessed. The identification of a trigger underlying a seizure may be more difficult if it is intrinsic and complex, and if triggering mechanisms are multifactorial. Therefore, since observability of triggers varies and triggers are also found in non-reflex seizures, the present concept of reflex seizures may be questioned. We suggest the possibility of a conceptual continuum between reflex and spontaneous seizures rather than a dichotomy and discuss evidence to the notion that to some extent most seizures might be triggered. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268

  11. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. METHODS: From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI, diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera. Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.067 and 0.026 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; diarrhea--0.40 and 0.71 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.09 and 0.062 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; AFI--0.17 and 0.09 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.03 and 0.015 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively. Annually, based on household visits, children <5 years in Asembo and Kibera had 60 and 27 cough days, 10 and 8 diarrhea days, and 37 and 11 fever days, respectively. Household-based rates were higher than clinic rates for diarrhea and AFI, this difference being several-fold greater in the rural than urban site. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  12. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  13. Trypanosoma brucei TbIF1 inhibits the essential Finf1/inf-ATPase in the infectious form of the parasite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Panicucci, Brian; Gahura, Ondřej; Zíková, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), č. článku e0005552. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GA17-22248S; GA MŠk LL1205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : mt * TblF1 * Trypanosoma brucei Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 3.834, year: 2016

  14. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  15. Monogenic Diabetes: What It Teaches Us on the Common Forms of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To date, more than 30 genes have been linked to monogenic diabetes. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified > 50 susceptibility loci for common type 1 diabetes (T1D) and approximately 100 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D). About 1–5% of all cases of diabetes result from single-gene mutations and are called monogenic diabetes. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of the role of monogenic diabetes genes that have also been found to be associated with common T1D and/or T2D. Variants of approximately one-third of monogenic diabetes genes are associated with T2D, but not T1D. Two of the T2D-associated monogenic diabetes genes—potassium inward-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11), which controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the β-cell; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG), which impacts multiple tissue targets in relation to inflammation and insulin sensitivity—have been developed as major antidiabetic drug targets. Another monogenic diabetes gene, the preproinsulin gene (INS), is unique in that INS mutations can cause hyperinsulinemia, hyperproinsulinemia, neonatal diabetes mellitus, one type of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY10), and autoantibody-negative T1D. Dominant heterozygous INS mutations are the second most common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Moreover, INS gene variants are strongly associated with common T1D (type 1a), but inconsistently with T2D. Variants of the monogenic diabetes gene Gli-similar 3 (GLIS3) are associated with both T1D and T2D. GLIS3 is a key transcription factor in insulin production and β-cell differentiation during embryonic development, which perturbation forms the basis of monogenic diabetes as well as its association with T1D. GLIS3 is also required for compensatory β-cell proliferation in adults; impairment of this function predisposes to T2D. Thus, monogenic forms of diabetes are invaluable “human models” that

  16. Population genetic structure of a common host predicts the spread of white-nose syndrome, an emerging infectious disease in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Aryn P; Kunz, Thomas H; Sorenson, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Landscape complexity influences patterns of animal dispersal, which in turn may affect both gene flow and the spread of pathogens. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an introduced fungal disease that has spread rapidly throughout eastern North America, causing massive mortality in bat populations. We tested for a relationship between the population genetic structure of the most common host, the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), and the geographic spread of WNS to date by evaluating logistic regression models of WNS risk among hibernating colonies in eastern North America. We hypothesized that risk of WNS to susceptible host colonies should increase with both geographic proximity and genetic similarity, reflecting historical connectivity, to infected colonies. Consistent with this hypothesis, inclusion of genetic distance between infected and susceptible colonies significantly improved models of disease spread, capturing heterogeneity in the spatial expansion of WNS despite low levels of genetic differentiation among eastern populations. Expanding our genetic analysis to the continental range of little brown myotis reveals strongly contrasting patterns of population structure between eastern and western North America. Genetic structure increases markedly moving westward into the northern Great Plains, beyond the current distribution of WNS. In western North America, genetic differentiation of geographically proximate populations often exceeds levels observed across the entire eastern region, suggesting infrequent and/or locally restricted dispersal, and thus relatively limited opportunities for pathogen introduction in western North America. Taken together, our analyses suggest a possibly slower future rate of spread of the WNS pathogen, at least as mediated by little brown myotis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Common genital complaints in women: the contribution of psychosocial and infectious factors in a population-based cohort study in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Weiss, Helen A; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Nevrekar, Prasad; Gupte, Sheela; Mabey, David

    2006-12-01

    The genital complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge is common in South Asia. We describe the risk factors for the incidence of the complaint in women of reproductive age. Method Population-based cohort study in Goa, India. Out of 3000 randomly selected women, 2494 women participated. The outcome was an incident case of the complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge at 6 months (T1) and 12 months (T2) review. In total 71 (3.6%, 95% CI 2.8-4.5%) of the 2000 eligible women reviewed at T1 reported the complaint; and 80 (4.0%, CI 3.2-5.0%) of the 1999 women who did not complain of abnormal vaginal discharge at T1 reported it at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following factors as associated with the complaint: younger age (OR 0.26, CI 0.1-0.5 for women aged 40-49 years compared with women aged 18-24 years); illiteracy (OR 1.48, CI 0.9-2.4); religion (Muslim women OR 3.15, CI 1.7-6.0 compared with Hindu women); women's concerns regarding their spouse's extramarital relationships (OR 3.46, CI 1.2-10.0); current BV infection (OR 1.87, CI 1.2-2.9); somatoform complaints (OR 3.30, CI 1.7-6.5 for the highest somatoform score quartile compared with the lowest); and depression and anxiety (OR 1.55, CI 0.9-2.6 for the highest mental health score quartile compared with the lowest). Reproductive and sexual health programmes must strengthen the capacity of practitioners to assess and treat bacterial vaginosis and psychosocial problems in women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge.

  18. [Endoprosthesis Infections - Guidelines for Antibiotic Therapy Common Guidelines of the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the Society for Infectious Diseases of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, D; Balejová, M; Horníková, M; Chrdle, A; Mallátová, N; Nyč, O; Chmelík, V; Gallo, J; Jahoda, D; Stehlík, J

    2017-01-01

    initially intravenously and later orally over a sufficient period of time. Bearing in mind the wide spectrum of pathogens that can cause infections of a joint replacement and their capacity to form a biofilm on foreign materials, the correct choice of an antibiotic, its dose and dosage interval are essential for successful treatment. Such standard should respect regional availability of antibiotics, regional pathogen resistance/susceptibility and ensure the achievement of sufficiently high concentrations at the requested location including anti-biofilm activity. CONCLUSIONS The submitted guideline is not the only treatment option for joint total replacement infections, but it makes the decisionmaking easier when treating these complications in the form of infections. The final choice of an antibiotic, its dose and duration of therapy shall be based on a critical assessment of results of microbiological (blood culture and molecular genetic) tests and reflect the patient s clinical condition. Since these are multidisciplinary issues, we consider useful for this guideline to be commented upon and approved by the committee of both the Society for Orthopaedics and Infectious Diseases so that it can become the starting point for treatment. Key words: total joint replacement infection, TEP, ATB, antibiotic therapy, consensus meeting, guideline.

  19. Infectious diseases in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R A; Thacker, S B; Solomon, S L; Osterholm, M T; Hughes, J M

    1994-03-16

    Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged throughout the United States. Reports of infectious disease outbreaks among competitive athletes and recent publicity regarding infectious disease concerns in sports underscore the need to better characterize the occurrence of these problems. To identify reports of infectious diseases in sports, we performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature (MEDLINE) and newspaper databases in two on-line services (NEXIS and DIALOG PAPERS). Articles selected from the literature review included those describing cases or outbreaks of disease in which exposure to an infectious agent was likely to have occurred during training for competitive sports or during actual competition. Articles from the newspaper review included reports of outbreaks, exposures, or preventive measures that directly or indirectly involved teams or spectators. The literature review identified 38 reports of infectious disease outbreaks or other instances of transmission through person-to-person (24 reports), common-source (nine reports), or airborne (five reports) routes; the newspaper search identified 28 reports. Infectious agents included predominantly viruses but also a variety of fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that strategies to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in sports must recognize risks at three levels: the individual athlete, the team, and spectators or others who may become exposed to infectious diseases as a result of sports-related activities. Team physicians and others who are responsible for the health of athletes should be especially familiar with the features of infectious diseases that occur in sports and measures for the prevention of these problems.

  20. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  1. The return of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  2. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  3. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected person comes ...

  4. HYPERACTIVE CHILD`S DISTURBED ATTENTION AS THE MOST COMMON CAUSE FOR LIGHT FORMS OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola SOFIJANOV

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an overview of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as one of the reasons for later development of milder forms of mental handicaps. It is well known that ADHD must not necessarily be connected with mental handicaps as the evolution of the syndrome goes through different stages.The paper presents, apart from the classical clinical picture, some new data as to the diagnosis and etiology of the syndrome. The modern treatment is elucidated as well.

  5. SPECIES COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, LIFE FORMS AND FOLK NOMENCLATURE OF FOREST AND COMMON LAND PLANTS OF WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangol, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper enumerates 349 plant species belonging to 77 families of vascular plants collected in the winter seasons of 1996 and 2000 by the flora teams of the Population and Ecology Research Laboratory, Nepal. Of the total species, 249 species belong to dicotyledons, 87 species to monocotyledons and 13 species to pteridophytes. Among the families, dicotyledons contributed the highest number of families (55 in number) followed by monocotyledons and pteridophytes. In the study areas, species composition varies with the type of habitats in the study plots. Some species are unique in distribution. The highest unique species are contributed by common lands (87 spp.), followed by the Chitwan National Park forest (36 spp.) and Tikauli forest (32 spp.). Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Rungia parviflora (Retz.) Nees, Saccharum spontaneum L. and Thelypteris auriculata (J. Sm.) K. Iwats are the most common species across all the research blocks. Of the listed plants, many plants have local names either in Nepalese or other tribal languages. Plants are named in different ways on the basis of habit, habitat, smell, taste, and morphological characters of the plants, which are also the basis of nomenclature in plant taxonomy. PMID:22962539

  6. New record and re-description of a gall-forming aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae, commonly confused in the north of South America, associated with an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Simbaqueba-Cortés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The gall-forming aphid Tetraneura fusiformis is recorded for the first time for Northern South America. Its identity is clarified, and descriptions of this species and that of T. nigriabdominalis, with which it is commonly confused, are offered. The association of this sap sucking insect with the ant Linepithema angulatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is recorded for the first time as well

  7. Why Be a Shrub? A Basic Model and Hypotheses for the Adaptive Values of a Common Growth Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götmark, Frank; Götmark, Elin; Jensen, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs are multi-stemmed short woody plants, more widespread than trees, important in many ecosystems, neglected in ecology compared to herbs and trees, but currently in focus due to their global expansion. We present a novel model based on scaling relationships and four hypotheses to explain the adaptive significance of shrubs, including a review of the literature with a test of one hypothesis. Our model describes advantages for a small shrub compared to a small tree with the same above-ground woody volume, based on larger cross-sectional stem area, larger area of photosynthetic tissue in bark and stem, larger vascular cambium area, larger epidermis (bark) area, and larger area for sprouting, and faster production of twigs and canopy. These components form our Hypothesis 1 that predicts higher growth rate for a small shrub than a small tree. This prediction was supported by available relevant empirical studies (14 publications). Further, a shrub will produce seeds faster than a tree (Hypothesis 2), multiple stems in shrubs insure future survival and growth if one or more stems die (Hypothesis 3), and three structural traits of short shrub stems improve survival compared to tall tree stems (Hypothesis 4)—all hypotheses have some empirical support. Multi-stemmed trees may be distinguished from shrubs by more upright stems, reducing bending moment. Improved understanding of shrubs can clarify their recent expansion on savannas, grasslands, and alpine heaths. More experiments and other empirical studies, followed by more elaborate models, are needed to understand why the shrub growth form is successful in many habitats. PMID:27507981

  8. Detection of AA76, a Common Form of Amyloid A Protein, as a Way of Diagnosing AA Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junji; Okuda, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yamada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Reactive amyloid deposits consist of amyloid A (AA) proteins, the degradation products of serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the most common species of AA is the amino terminal portion produced by cleavage between residues 76 and 77 of SAA (AA76), the presence of AA76 in tissues could be a consequence of AA amyloid deposition. This study assessed the diagnostic significance of the detection of AA76 for AA amyloidosis using two different approaches. Biopsy specimens (n=130 from 54 subjects) from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat (n=9 from 9 subjects) of patients who had already been diagnosed with or were suspected of having AA amyloidosis were used. Fixed mucosal sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry using a newly developed antibody recognizing the carboxyl terminal end of AA76 (anti-AA76). The non-fixed materials from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat were subjected to immunoblotting for detection of the size of AA76. Among the gastroduodenal specimens (n=115) from already diagnosed patients, the positive rates of Congo red staining, immunohistochemistry using anti-AA76, and immunoblotting were 68.4%, 73.0%, and 92.2%, respectively. The anti-AA76 did not stain the supposed SAA in the blood or leakage, which was stained by anti-SAA antibody. AA76 was not detected either by immunohistochemistry or by immunoblot in the materials from patients in whom AA amyloidosis had been ruled out. In the abdominal fat, the immunoblot detected AA76 in 8 materials from 8 already diagnosed patients and did not in 1 patient whose gastroduodenal mucosa was negative. In conclusion, the detection of AA76 may alter the ability to diagnose AA amyloidosis. In immunohistochemistry for fixed specimens, the new anti-AA76 antibody can improve the specificity. Immunoblot for non-fixed materials, which can considerably improve the sensitivity, should be beneficial for small materials like abdominal fat. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  10. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  11. Current diagnosis and management of infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanou, Evridiki K; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a common, usually self-limited disease. However, infectious mononucleosis may present with severe manifestations. Complications may also occur. Consequently, diagnostic and treatment issues regarding infectious mononucleosis are of major importance. In this review, we focus on the evaluation of articles providing diagnosis and treatment data for infectious mononucleosis, published during the past 2 years. Twelve studies, deriving from extended search in PubMed, were included. Nine studies provided diagnosis data. The evaluated diagnostic methods were real-time PCR (RT-PCR), IgM/IgG antibodies measured with different assays [measurement of Epstein-Barr virus viral load (EBV-VL) in peripheral blood, neutrophil/lymphocyte/monocyte counts, C-reactive protein values, and monospot test]. The sensitivities reported for RT-PCR were high. The available treatment data were scarce (three studies). Two of them suggested that antivirals (mainly acyclovir and valacyclovir) may have a role in the treatment of infectious mononucleosis with complications, whereas the remaining study presented novel potential therapeutic patents including 5-substituted uracyle, azacytosine derivatives, and peptides inhibiting EBV-mediated membrane fusion. RT-PCR and measurement of EBV-VL may provide useful tools for the early diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis in cases with inconclusive serological results. Antiviral agents may provide a useful treatment option in patients with severe infectious mononucleosis.

  12. Infectious optic neuropathies: a clinical update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloun, Rim; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Mahmoud, Anis; Zeghidi, Hatem; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of optic neuropathy causing visual impairment of varying severity have been reported in association with a wide variety of infectious agents. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious conditions is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular findings. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction in selected cases. Treatment of infectious optic neuropathies involves the use of specific anti-infectious drugs and corticosteroids to suppress the associated inflammatory reaction. The visual prognosis is generally good, but persistent severe vision loss with optic atrophy can occur. This review presents optic neuropathies caused by specific viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. PMID:28539795

  13. Post-infectious sequelae of travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Bradley A; Riddle, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has generally been considered a self-limited disorder which resolves more quickly with expeditious and appropriate antibiotic therapy given bacteria are the most frequently identified cause. However, epidemiological, clinical, and basic science evidence identifying a number of chronic health conditions related to these infections has recently emerged which challenges this current paradigm. These include serious and potentially disabling enteric and extra-intestinal long-term complications. Among these are rheumatologic, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine disorders. This review aims to examine and summarize the current literature pertaining to three of these post-infectious disorders: reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and the relationship of these conditions to diarrhea associated with travel as well as to diarrhea associated with gastroenteritis which may not be specifically travel related but relevant by shared microbial pathogens. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine. Data for this article were identified by searches of PubMed and MEDLINE, and references from relevant articles using search terms "travelers' diarrhea" "reactive arthritis" "Guillain-Barré syndrome" "Post-Infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Abstracts were included when related to previously published work. A review of the published literature reveals that potential consequences of travelers' diarrhea may extend beyond the acute illness and these post-infectious complications may be more common than currently recognized. In addition since TD is such a common occurrence it would be helpful to be able to identify those who might be at greater risk of post-infectious sequelae in order to target more aggressive prophylactic or therapeutic approaches to such individuals. It is

  14. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  15. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)

  16. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  17. Agranulocytosis occurrence following recent acute infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoll, Anthony F; Powers, Stanlyn C; Betten, David P

    2017-05-01

    Infectious mononucleosis secondary to Epstein-Barr virus typically follows a relatively benign and self-limited course. A small subset of individuals may develop further progression of disease including hematologic, neurologic, and cardiac abnormalities. A mild transient neutropenia occurring during the first weeks of acute infection is a common finding however in rare cases a more profound neutropenia and agranulocytosis may occur up to 6weeks following the onset of initial symptoms. We describe the case of an 18-year-old woman who presented 26days following an acute infectious mononucleosis diagnosis with agranulocytosis and fever. No source of infection was identified and the patient had rapid improvement in her symptoms and resolution of her neutropenia. The presence of fever recurrence and other non-specific symptoms in individuals 2-6weeks following acute infectious mononucleosis symptom onset may warrant further assessment for this uncommon event. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  19. Return to play after infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Smith, Julie Anne

    2014-05-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a disease primarily of adolescence and early adulthood. The risk of splenic injury and chronic fatigue make return-to-play decisions a challenge for the clinician caring for athletes with infectious mononucleosis. Data were obtained from the PubMed and MEDLINE databases through December 2012 by searching for epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, management, and the role of the spleen in infectious mononucleosis. Clinical review. Level 4. Infectious mononucleosis is commonly encountered in young athletes. Its disease pattern is variable and can affect multiple organ systems. Supportive care is the cornerstone, with little role for medications such as corticosteroids. Physical examination is unreliable for the spleen, and ultrasound imaging has limitations in its ability to guide return-to-play decisions. Exercise does not appear to place the young athlete at risk for chronic fatigue, but determining who is at risk for persistent symptoms is a challenge. Return-to-play decisions for the athlete with infectious mononucleosis need to be individualized because of the variable disease course and lack of evidence-based guidelines.

  20. Effect of Foliar Application of Chelate Iron in Common and Nanoparticles Forms on Yield and Yield Components of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri Dehsorkhi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is a member of Apiaceae family and annual plant which is widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid zone. Iran is one of the main producers of this plant. Water deficit is the major limiting factor in crops production. Proper nutrition management under stress conditions could partly help the plant to tolerate different stresses. Various studies were carried out to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the growth of plants. For example, Hong et al. (2005 and Yang et al. (2006 reported that a proper concentration of nano-TiO2 was found to improve the growth of spinach by promoting photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Iran a country with arid and semi-arid climate, always face water deficiency. Thus the aim of this research was investigate the effect of foliar application of chelate iron in common and nanoparticles forms on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under drought stress conditions. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted as a split plot in complete randomized block design with three replications in Esfahan city, during the growing season of 2015-2016. Treatments were included three irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days as main plots and Fe foliar application in four levels (control, 2 g L-1 iron chelate, 2 g L-1 Nano-iron chelate, 4 g L-1 iron chelate, 4 g L-1 nano-iron chelate. Foliar application of Fe chelate on leaves was done two times at before and after flowering stage. The plots were 16 m2 with 4 sowing rows, 4 m long. Seeds were placed at 2 to 4 cm depth in each row. All data collected were subjected of analysis of variance (ANOVA using MSTATC software. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results and Discussion The results indicated that drought stress decreased the investigated traits significantly but the effect of irrigation by 15 days interval was more than 10 days. Plots which irrigated by 15 days interval showed

  1. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH −639, −292, −163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10−11) with CISH −292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10−7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH −292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the −292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles. PMID:20484391

  2. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...... diseases, and 17% by other infections. Skin infections were most common in males, whereas all other infections were most common in females. The patterns of age specific contact rates were similar in males and females, except regarding "other infections". A peak of respiratory infections in July and of skin...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...

  3. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  4. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  5. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fernstrom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease, the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors, as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes, while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases.

  6. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-15

    Central America at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula, surrounded on the west and north by Guatemala and Mexico and on the east by the Caribbean Sea...inferred that in Belize, 2 tropical infectious diseases are common. Yellow fever has been known to occur in the Yucatan ,1 dengue and malaria are...Centro Americano) representatives in Belize City. Two ERC technologists and two CML technicians attended an INCAP (Instituto de Nutricion de Centro

  7. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  8. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  9. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E; Sharif, Omar

    Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual reports. For the online survey, stakeholder organizations targeted were the 36 local public health units and the Health health ministry in Ontario, Canada. Survey participants included epidemiologists, managers, directors, and other public health practitioners from participating organizations. Online survey respondents' awareness and access to the reports, their rated usefulness of reports and subsections, and suggestions for improving usefulness; timeliness of select annual reports from other jurisdictions based on the period from data described to report publication. Among 57 survey respondents, between 74% and 97% rated each report as useful; the most common use was for situational awareness. Respondents ranked timeliness as the most important attribute of surveillance reports, followed by data completeness. Among 6 annual reports reviewed, the median time to publication was 11.5 months compared with 23.2 months for PHO. Recommendations based on this evaluation have already been applied to the monthly report (eg, focusing on the most useful sections) and have become key considerations when developing future annual reports and other surveillance reporting tools (eg, need to provide more timely reports). Other public health organizations may also use this evaluation to inform aspects of their surveillance report development and evaluation. The evaluation results have provided PHO with direction on how to improve its provincial infectious disease surveillance reporting moving forward, and formed a basis for

  10. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  11. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  12. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  13. Genetics of Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases: Overlapping Discoveries from Association and Exome-Sequencing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, David; Fodil, Nassima; Gros, Philippe

    2017-04-26

    Genome technologies have defined a complex genetic architecture in major infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. High density marker arrays and Immunochips have powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have mapped nearly 450 genetic risk loci in 22 major inflammatory diseases, including a core of common genes that play a central role in pathological inflammation. Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing have identified more than 265 genes in which mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies and rare forms of severe inflammatory bowel disease. Combined analysis of inflammatory disease GWAS and primary immunodeficiencies point to shared proteins and pathways that are required for immune cell development and protection against infections and are also associated with pathological inflammation. Finally, sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitates containing specific transcription factors, with parallel RNA sequencing, has charted epigenetic regulation of gene expression by proinflammatory transcription factors in immune cells, providing complementary information to characterize morbid genes at infectious and inflammatory disease loci.

  14. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predispos...

  15. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, M.; Une, H.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article

  16. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method for producing recombinant Sindbis viruses.

  17. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... and Docket Office's normal business hours, 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m., EST. Instructions: All submissions... infectious agents, radiation and chemicals. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that for 2008, the... infectious diseases to patients and HCWs. This fundamental approach is set forth in the guidelines of the...

  18. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  19. Electron microprobe analysis (WDS EPMA) of Zhamanshin glass reveals the impactor and a common role of accretion in the origin of splash-form impact glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetvicka, I; Frank, J; Drtina, J

    2010-01-01

    Impact glass samples collected during expeditions to the Zhamashin and Lonar craters were subjected to a morphology survey and compared to Wabar, Henbury and Darwin impact glasses to reveal that the accretion of fibres and spherules is not exclusive for irghizites but occurs in other splash form glasses over the world. WDS EPMA and LA-ICP-MS assays of Zhamanshin and Lonar glasses enabled the definition of akmurynites as Zhamanshin glass of specific morphology, chemistry and absence of extraterrestrial contamination. However, extraterrestrial contamination in irghizites was verified and further WDS EPMA analyses led to the conclusion that the Zhamanshin crater had been formed by the impact of a primitive achondrite of Lodran chemistry.

  20. ESO 439-162/163 - a common proper motion binary formed by a magnetic DQ and a DC type white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.T.; Maza, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of a search for faint large proper motion stars, a common proper motion pair was identified having a mu = 0.38 + or - 0.03 arcsec/yr in the direction theta = 233 deg. The stars are separated by 23 arcsec and have apparent visual magnitudes 18.77 and 19.84, respectively. Spectrophotometry of the stars established that the fainter component is a cold DC white dwarf, while the brighter one is a magnetic white dwarf with strong Swan bands of C2 shifted and broadened by an about 10 to the 8th G magnetic field. 6 references

  1. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  2. Infectious mononucleosis and hepatic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Pang, Chongjie; Gong, Lu; Zhang, Qing; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal hepatic function is common in infectious mononucleosis (IM). However, it remains unknown why increased transferase levels are more common than bilirubin abnormalities in IM. The current study aimed to investigate these associations in the Chinese population. A total of 95 patients with IM (47 males and 48 females) were enrolled in the current study, as well as 95 healthy controls. Patients were sorted by sex. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-off values for IM diagnosis and prediction. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for IM were analyzed using binary logistic regression. It was determined that alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were significantly higher in patients with IM compared with controls; however, total bilirubin (TB) levels were significantly lower in patients with IM. ROCs demonstrated that, if ALT, AST and GGT concentrations were higher than, or if TB was lower than, cut-off values, they were predictive of IM. Binary logistic regression identified that the risk of IM in patients exhibiting high levels of transferases was significantly increased, particularly in males. Crude ORs in ALT quartile 4 were 21.667 and 10.111 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 38.054 and 9.882, respectively. A significant IM risk of IM was evident in patients with low bilirubin levels and females appeared to be particularly susceptible. For example, crude ORs in quartile 1 were 8.229 and 8.257 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 8.883 and 10.048, respectively. Therefore, the current study identified a positive association between transferase levels and IM and a negative association between TB and IM. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that high transferases are suggestive of IM, particularly in males, whereas low TB is suggestive for IM, particularly in females. PMID:29456696

  3. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists ...

  4. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  5. Colombian forensic genetics as a form of public science: The role of race, nation and common sense in the stabilization of DNA populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter; Cruz-Santiago, Arely; Cárdenas, Roosbelinda

    2015-12-01

    Abstract This article examines the role that vernacular notions of racialized-regional difference play in the constitution and stabilization of DNA populations in Colombian forensic science, in what we frame as a process of public science. In public science, the imaginations of the scientific world and common-sense public knowledge are integral to the production and circulation of science itself. We explore the origins and circulation of a scientific object--'La Tabla', published in Paredes et al. and used in genetic forensic identification procedures--among genetic research institutes, forensic genetics laboratories and courtrooms in Bogotá. We unveil the double life of this central object of forensic genetics. On the one hand, La Tabla enjoys an indisputable public place in the processing of forensic genetic evidence in Colombia (paternity cases, identification of bodies, etc.). On the other hand, the relations it establishes between 'race', geography and genetics are questioned among population geneticists in Colombia. Although forensic technicians are aware of the disputes among population geneticists, they use and endorse the relations established between genetics, 'race' and geography because these fit with common-sense notions of visible bodily difference and the regionalization of race in the Colombian nation.

  6. Colombian forensic genetics as a form of public science: The role of race, nation and common sense in the stabilization of DNA populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter; Cruz-Santiago, Arely; Cárdenas, Roosbelinda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role that vernacular notions of racialized-regional difference play in the constitution and stabilization of DNA populations in Colombian forensic science, in what we frame as a process of public science. In public science, the imaginations of the scientific world and common-sense public knowledge are integral to the production and circulation of science itself. We explore the origins and circulation of a scientific object – ‘La Tabla’, published in Paredes et al. and used in genetic forensic identification procedures – among genetic research institutes, forensic genetics laboratories and courtrooms in Bogotá. We unveil the double life of this central object of forensic genetics. On the one hand, La Tabla enjoys an indisputable public place in the processing of forensic genetic evidence in Colombia (paternity cases, identification of bodies, etc.). On the other hand, the relations it establishes between ‘race’, geography and genetics are questioned among population geneticists in Colombia. Although forensic technicians are aware of the disputes among population geneticists, they use and endorse the relations established between genetics, ‘race’ and geography because these fit with common-sense notions of visible bodily difference and the regionalization of race in the Colombian nation. PMID:27480000

  7. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  9. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis After Infectious Mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  11. Feline infectious peritonitis. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C

    2009-07-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is ubiquitous in domestic cats, and is particularly common where conditions are crowded. While most FCoV-infected cats are healthy or display only a mild enteritis, some go on to develop feline infectious peritonitis, a disease that is especially common in young cats and multi-cat environments. Up to 12% of FCoV-infected cats may succumb to FIP, with stress predisposing to the development of disease. The 'wet' or effusive form, characterised by polyserositis (abdominal and/or thoracic effusion) and vasculitis, and the 'dry' or non-effusive form (pyogranulomatous lesions in organs) reflect clinical extremes of a continuum. The clinical picture of FIP is highly variable, depending on the distribution of the vasculitis and pyogranulomatous lesions. Fever refractory to antibiotics, lethargy, anorexia and weight loss are common non-specific signs. Ascites is the most obvious manifestation of the effusive form. The aetiological diagnosis of FIP ante-mortem may be difficult, if not impossible. The background of the cat, its history, the clinical signs, laboratory changes, antibody titres and effusion analysis should all be used to help in decision-making about further diagnostic procedures. At the time of writing, there is no non-invasive confirmatory test available for cats without effusion. In most cases FIP is fatal. Supportive treatment is aimed at suppressing the inflammatory and detrimental immune response. However, there are no controlled studies to prove any beneficial effect of corticosteroids. At present, only one (intranasal) FIP vaccine is available, which is considered as being non-core. Kittens may profit from vaccination when they have not been exposed to FCoV (eg, in an early-weaning programme), particularly if they enter a FCoV-endemic environment.

  12. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra...

  14. Clinical worthlessness of genetic prediction of common forms of diabetes mellitus and related chronic complications: A position statement of the Italian Society of Diabetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, R; Prudente, S; Copetti, M; Dauriz, M; Zampetti, S; Garofolo, M; Penno, G; Trischitta, V

    2017-02-01

    We are currently facing several attempts aimed at marketing genetic data for predicting multifactorial diseases, among which diabetes mellitus is one of the more prevalent. The present document primarily aims at providing to practicing physicians a summary of available data regarding the role of genetic information in predicting diabetes and its chronic complications. Firstly, general information about characteristics and performance of risk prediction tools will be presented in order to help clinicians to get acquainted with basic methodological information related to the subject at issue. Then, as far as type 1 diabetes is concerned, available data indicate that genetic information and counseling may be useful only in families with many affected individuals. However, since no disease prevention is possible, the utility of predicting this form of diabetes is at question. In the case of type 2 diabetes, available data really question the utility of adding genetic information on top of well performing, easy available and inexpensive non-genetic markers. Finally, the possibility of using the few available genetic data on diabetic complications for improving our ability to predict them will also be presented and discussed. For cardiovascular complication, the addition of genetic information to models based on clinical features does not translate in a substantial improvement in risk discrimination. For all other diabetic complications genetic information are currently very poor and cannot, therefore, be used for improving risk stratification. In all, nowadays the use of genetic testing for predicting diabetes and its chronic complications is definitively of little value in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  16. Melioidosis: An emerging infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.

  17. Selective association of multiple sclerosis with infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Buuren, S. van; Kalsbeek, H.; Noort, J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and infectious mononucleosis (IM) but data on the exact strength of this association or its selectivity have been conflicting. In this study we have evaluated the association between MS and a variety of common childhood

  18. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients.

  19. Immunochemical studies of infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, M.A.; Lo, T.M.; Levey, B.A.; Graves, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    The coated-tube method of solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been adapted to the detection of heterophile antibodies and antigens of infectious mononucleosis. Disposable plastic hemagglutination trays were coated with purified glycoprotein from horse erythrocytes and the subsequent uptake of antibody from test sera was detected by radio-iodinated horse erythrocyte glycoprotein. In a preliminary survey of sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis and sera from controls, the assay proved highly sensitive and specific. The test system was also useful in a competitive binding assay for immunochemical studies of glycoproteins from other heterophile antigen-positive species

  20. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.

  1. [Infectious complications in patients undergoing a heart transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, E; Muñoz, P

    1995-01-01

    Infectious complications are, with rejection, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Adequate management of these patients requires an adequate knowledge of risk factors, of most common infectious syndromes and of relevant microorganism, as long as of their resistance pattern. Among the first group, we may mention lower respiratory tract infections, mediastinitis and meningitis, and among the microorganisms, Citomegalovirus, Aspergillus and Toxoplasma gondii. The impressive development of diagnostical techniques and of prophylactic and therapeutical possibilities suggest the convenience of a multidisciplinar approach to these complications.

  2. Imaging of infectious spinal disorders in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham B31 2AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jamesslj@email.com; Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham B31 2AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this review article is to outline the imaging of infectious disorders of the spine in adults and children. The clinical presentation, potential routes of infection and the pathogens commonly identified are discussed. The value of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis of spinal infection is presented including radiographic, CT, MR imaging and Nuclear Medicine including PET. The use of image guided techniques for diagnosis and subsequent treatment is briefly covered. The major differential diagnoses of infectious disorders of the spine are identified and contrasted with the typical findings in infection. The use of follow up imaging is evaluated.

  3. African Journal of Infectious Diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Infectious Diseases accepts original research papers on the ... Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018) ... oxygen treatment of HIV-1 infected on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCS) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  5. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ID Specialist? Facts about ID Pocketcard Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural ... from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow ... of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes ...

  6. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  7. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  8. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.-C.; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator

  9. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  10. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations in International Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, Emily; Walsh, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed. Evaluation of the child's immunization record is also important, as nearly all international adoptees will require catch-up vaccines. The provider may also be asked to review medical records prior to adoption, provide travel advice, and ensure that parents and other close contacts are up-to-date on immunizations prior to the arrival of the newest family member. The pediatrician serves a unique role in facilitating the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international adoptees. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e56-e60.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  13. [Ultrasonographic Findings of Cervical Lymphadenopathy with Infectious Mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Shui; Ren, Liu-Qiong; Yang, Li-Juan; Lü, Ke; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhen-Cai

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of cervical lymphadenopathy in patients with infectious mononucleosis. High-resolution and color Doppler US were performed in 30 patients aged 2 to 30 years with a total of 59 palpable enlarged cervical lymph nodes due to infectious mononucleosis. The US characteristics of the nodes including shape,echotexture,hilum,border,matting,cystic necrosis,calcification and vascular pattern were assessed. Three patients received cervical lymph nodes biopsies. The common US findings of cervical lymphadenopathy due to infectious mononucleosis were round shape (69.5%),bilateral distribution (96.7%),matting (83.3%) [even bilateral matting (66.6%)],indistinct margin (79.7%),absence of hilum (66.1%),heterogeneous echotecture (61.0%),and central hilar vascular pattern(89.8%). In 2 patients with absence of the echoic hilum,lymph nodes biopsies showed histological features including marked effacement of the normal architecture in the medullary region accompanied by a mixed proliferation of lymphocytes and histiocytes. In all infectious mononucleosis nodes with a hilum,85.0% had heterogeneously hypo/iso-echoic hila and indistinct demarcation to the cortex. One of them underwent lymph node biopsy and histological findings showed obvious dilation of the sinus oidal lumen and proliferation of histiocytes. Although several ultrasonographic characteristics frequently present in the nodes of infectious mononucleosis are not specific,the combination of ultrasound findings may be valuable in differential diagnosis.

  14. Prevention of infectious diseases in patients with Good syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Ashrit; Gomez, Carlos A; Montoya, José G

    2018-08-01

    Good syndrome is a profoundly immunocompromising condition with heterogeneous immune deficits characterized by the presence of thymoma, low-to-absent B-lymphocyte counts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Opportunistic infectious diseases associated with Good syndrome represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, given their protean clinical manifestations. Although these infectious complications have been reviewed in prior publications, recommendations regarding their prevention have been lacking. Good syndrome usually occurs in adult patients between the ages of 40 and 70 years. Immunologically, it is characterized by low or absent peripheral blood B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, and variable defects in cell-mediated immunity including low CD4 T counts, inverted CD4:CD8 T-lymphocyte ratio, and reduced T-lymphocyte mitogen proliferative responses. Patients with Good syndrome are susceptible to a variety of infectious diseases, of which the most common are recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and CMV tissue-invasive disease. Preventive guidelines including targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination strategies can mitigate infectious complications in patients with Good syndrome. Immunological deficits and infectious complications in Good syndrome have been described for over 60 years. Further research is needed to elucidate its exact pathogenesis and define the mechanistic relationship between thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. However, tailored prophylactic strategies can be recommended for patients with Good syndrome.

  15. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Meli, M L

    2014-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma.

  17. Characteristics of common infections in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute Moreno, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of the studies outlined in this thesis was to gain empirical epidemiological and therapeutic knowledge of some common infectious diseases in Nicaragua. So far, relatively little was known about the incidence, etiology, management and antibiotic resistance patterns of common

  18. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  19. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra......-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance...

  20. Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. H. McBride

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

  1. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Richard H

    2017-05-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given

  2. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  3. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2002-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  4. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  5. Exercise and the Athlete With Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J

    2017-03-01

    To determine appropriate management of the active individual with infectious mononucleosis (IM), including issues of diagnosis, the determination of splenomegaly, and other measures of disease status, the relationship of the disease to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and the risks of exercise at various points in the disease process. An Ovid/MEDLINE search (January 1996-June 2015) was widely supplemented by "similar articles" found in Ovid/MEDLINE and PubMed, reference lists, and personal files. Clinical diagnoses of IM are unreliable. Traditional laboratory indicators (lymphocytosis, abnormal lymphocytes, and a heterophile-positive slide test) can be supplemented by more sensitive and more specific but also more costly Epstein-Barr antigen determinations. Clinical estimates of splenomegaly are fallible. Laboratory determinations, commonly by 2D ultrasonography, must take account of methodology, the formulae used in calculations and the individual's body size. The SD of normal values matches the typical increase of size in IM, but repeat measurements can help to monitor regression of the disease. The main risks to the athlete are spontaneous splenic rupture (seen in 0.1%-0.5% of patients and signaled by acute abdominal pain) and progression to chronic fatigue, best avoided by 3 to 4 weeks of restricted activity followed by graded reconditioning. A full recovery of athletic performance is usual with 2 to 3 months of conservative management. Infectious mononucleosis is a common issue for young athletes. But given accurate diagnosis and the avoidance of splenic rupture and progression to CFS through a few weeks of restricted activity, long-term risks to the health of athletes are few.

  6. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  7. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  8. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  9. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  10. [Infectious Mononucleosis and Cholestatic Hepatitis: A Rare Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Catarina; Garcia, Ana Margarida; Rúbio, Catarina; Cunha, Florbela

    2017-12-29

    Infectious mononucleosis is one of the major clinical manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this syndrome, elevation of liver transaminase levels is common but cholestasis is rare, with few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a 14-year-old female adolescent, admitted to the Emergency Room with fever, odynophagia and cervical adenomegaly. She was treated with amoxicillin and two days later he presented with jaundice. The analytical evaluation was compatible with cholestatic hepatitis and abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatosplenomegaly without dilatation of the bile ducts. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection was confirmed by the presence of serological markers. This case aims to raise awareness of a rare manifestation of a common infectious agent and, consequently, to the inclusion of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in the differential diagnosis of pediatric cholestatic hepatitis.

  11. Update in Infectious Diseases 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.

  12. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Emtithal; Nofal, Yazan H; Hamzeh, Ammar; Aboujaib, Muhammed F; AlKheder, Mohammad A; Al Hammad, Muhammad F

    2015-11-08

    Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever or the kissing disease, is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder. It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that is found in all human societies and cultures. Epidemiological studies show that over 95% of adults worldwide have been infected with EBV. Most cases of symptomatic infectious mononucleosis occur between the ages of 15 and 24 years. It is transmitted through close contact with an EBV shedder, contact with infected saliva or, less commonly, through sexual contact, blood transfusions or by sharing utensils; however, transmission actually occurs less than 10% of the time. Precautions are not needed to prevent transmission because of the high percentage of seropositivity for EBV. Infectious mononucleosis is self-limiting and typically lasts for two to three weeks. Nevertheless, symptoms can last for weeks and occasionally months.Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly and fatigue. Symptom relief and rest are commonly recommended treatments. Steroids have been used for their anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no universal criteria for their use. The objectives of the review were to determine the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy versus placebo, usual care or different drug therapies for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE. RCTs comparing the

  13. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  14. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  15. Peculiarities of Liver Affection in Children with Infectious Mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, there is a tendency of infectious mononucleosis (IM morbidity to spread. Aim of research is to identify clinical features of liver affection in children with infectious mononucleosis. Materials and methods. Case histories of 42 children aged from 4 to 15 years old with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis were analyzed. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl (GGT, markers of viral hepatitis were determined. There were performed ultrasound investigation and enzyme immunoassay (IEA with determination of blood markers of Epstein — Barr virus (EBV (IgM VCA, IgG EA, IgG VCA, avidity and cytomegalovirus (CMV (IgM, IgG, avidity; EBV-DNA, CMV-DNA were defined by polymerase chain reaction. Depending on the etiology of the disease patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 — patients with IM of EBV-etiology (17 patients; group 2 — patients with MI of CMV etiology (16 patients; group 3 — mixed IM of EBV + CMV etiology (9 patients. Received digital data were processed by methods of statistical analysis in application «Statistica‑6». Results. In 85.7 % of cases MI had usual course and moderate severity (enlargement of the lymph nodes was noted in 98.6 % of patients, tonsillitis throat — in 54.7 %, hepatomegaly — in 71.4 %, splenomegaly — in 38.1 %. The most common hemogram changes in MI are leukocytosis (64.2 % and atypical mononuclear cells (73.5 % 15 children (35.7 % had enhanced transaminase level. Icteric hepatitis was observed in five patients. Blood level of atypical mononuclear cells over 20 % was observed in 43.3 % of cases. Ultrasound investigation showed diffuse increase in liver echoicity in 36.6 % of patients. Conclusions. Hepatitis with MI was observed in more than half of patients, its development and severity correlated with etiological features of the disease (mixed infection

  16. A Knowledge-Base for a Personalized Infectious Disease Risk Prediction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarti, Retno; Hederman, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    We present a knowledge-base to represent collated infectious disease risk (IDR) knowledge. The knowledge is about personal and contextual risk of contracting an infectious disease obtained from declarative sources (e.g. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases). Automated prediction requires encoding this knowledge in a form that can produce risk probabilities (e.g. Bayesian Network - BN). The knowledge-base presented in this paper feeds an algorithm that can auto-generate the BN. The knowledge from 234 infectious diseases was compiled. From this compilation, we designed an ontology and five rule types for modelling IDR knowledge in general. The evaluation aims to assess whether the knowledge-base structure, and its application to three disease-country contexts, meets the needs of personalized IDR prediction system. From the evaluation results, the knowledge-base conforms to the system's purpose: personalization of infectious disease risk.

  17. [Infectious diseases - a specialty of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fätkenheuer, G; Jung, N; Kern, W V; Fölsch, U R; Salzberger, B

    2018-04-01

    Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are effective measures in slowing the development of antibiotic resistance and have been widely implemented. But antibiotic stewardship specialists should not be confused with or taken as an alternative to infectious disease experts. Infectious diseases requires appropriate and specific training. It mainly uses the instrumentarium of internal medicine. With the current challenges in modern medicine, infectious diseases in Germany should thus be upgraded from a subspecialty to a clinical specialty, ideally within Internal Medicine.

  18. A Highly Infectious Disease Care Network in the US Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Aurora B; Biddinger, Paul D; Smith, Philip W; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Levy, Deborah A; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J

    During the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the United States responded by stratifying hospitals into 1 of 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated categories-based on the hospital's ability to identify, isolate, assess, and provide care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD)-in an attempt to position the US healthcare system to safely isolate and care for potential patients. Now, with the Ebola epidemic quelled, it is crucial that we act on the lessons learned from the EVD response to broaden our national perspective on infectious disease mitigation and management, build on our newly enhanced healthcare capabilities to respond to infectious disease threats, develop a more cost-effective and sustainable model of infectious disease prevention, and continue to foster training so that the nation is not in a vulnerable position once more. We propose the formal creation of a US Highly Infectious Disease Care Network (HIDCN) modeled after 2 previous highly infectious disease consensus efforts in the United States and the European Union. A US Highly Infectious Disease Care Network can provide a common platform for the exchange of training, protocols, research, knowledge, and capability sharing among high-level isolation units. Furthermore, we envision the network will cultivate relationships among facilities and serve as a means of establishing national standards for infectious disease response, which will strengthen domestic preparedness and the nation's ability to respond to the next highly infectious disease threat.

  19. Оptimization of Treatment EBV Infectious Mononucleosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kotlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of observation of 103 children aged from 10 months to 15 years with EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM, determined in 32% by acute primary Epstein-Barr virus infection (AEBVI and in 68% of cases by reactivation of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection (CEBVI. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the course, depending on the form of infection, were investigated. As a clinical outcome of infectious mononucleosis in patients with primary infection latent infection after a year is formed 5.8 times more often than in patients with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection (CEBVI. The high efficiency of recombinant interferon monotherapy in patients with primary acute infection was recorded and the expediency of combined etiotropic therapy in the treatment of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection was found out.

  20. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  1. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  2. [Infectious mononucleosis: etiology, immunological variants, methods of correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeets, A V; Savina, O G; Beniova, S N; Chernikova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Clinical options of infectious mononucleosis course depending on infecting agent etiology are presented for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), mono and mixed forms of the disease. Examined cytokine profiles demonstrate analogous changes of serum cytokines in the acute stage of the disease irrespective of etiological factors. Data show that it is important and useful clinically and immunologically to include immunomodulators--in particular, cycloferon--info a complex therapy of different types of mononucleosis.

  3. Anterior chamber paracentesis to improve diagnosis and treatment of infectious uveitis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaftenaar, Erik; Lecuona, Karin; Baarsma, Seerp; Meenken, Christina; Verjans, Georges; McIntyre, James; Peters, Remco

    2015-09-22

    Infectious uveitis is a significant cause of blindness in South Africa, especially among HIV-infected individuals. The visual outcome of uveitis depends on early clinical and laboratory diagnosis to guide therapeutic intervention. Analyses of aqueous humor, obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis, directs the differential diagnosis in infectious uveitis. However, although safe and potentially cost-effective, diagnostic anterior chamber paracentesis is not common practice in ophthalmic care across Africa. We seek to draw attention to this important procedure that could improve the diagnosis and prognosis of infectious uveitis.

  4. Prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases in cattle population in Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Q M Monzur Kader; Roy, Sawrab; Alam, Shahrul; Ahmed, Juned

    2018-01-01

    Infectious and non-infectious diseases of cattle cause great economic losses of farmers as well as country every year by reducing growth, production and mortality of cattle population. The objective of this research work was to find out the prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases of cattle at Moulvibazar, Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 2285 clinical cases were diagnosed at District Veterinary Hospital in Moulvibazar, Bangladesh during January to June, 2016. Disease diagnosis was ...

  5. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes...... with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial...

  6. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  7. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  8. Infectious abdominal emergencies; Urgences abdominales d`origine infectieuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, A.; Arrive, L.; Mehdi, M.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Ayadi, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs.

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  10. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Mulder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks.

  11. Clinical and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious keratitis is a sight-threatening condition for children. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical profile, risk factors and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children. Methods Retrospective review of clinical records of patients under 16 years of age with history of microbial keratitis seen at a tertiary referral center. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, visual and surgical outcomes as well as the microbiological profile are analyzed. Results Forty-one eyes of 41 patients. Mean age was 8.7 years. Time between the onset of symptoms and ophthalmological examination was 12.7 days. Predisposing factors were found in 78%; ocular trauma was the most common (25%). Visual acuity equal or worse than 20/200 at admission correlated positively with a poorer visual outcome, p=0.002. Positivity of cultures was 34%. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 78.5%; Staphylococcus epidermidis (28.6%) was the most common microorganism. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the importance of a prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious corneal ulcers in children. Trauma and contact lenses were the main predisposing factors. Gram-positive organisms were isolated in the vast majority of cases and visual outcomes are usually poor. PMID:24131681

  12. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  13. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  14. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as a...

  15. Applications of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    That outcome, if accurate, would help the clinician in disease management, or the epidemiologist in identifying trends of diseases or the administrator in policy and decision making. Traditionally, infectious disease diagnosis involves identifying the causative agents of infectious diseases through the direct examination, ...

  16. Tickborne infectious diseases: diagnosis and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunha, Burke A

    2000-01-01

    ... to particular flora and fauna. The purpose of Tickborne Infectious Diseases: Diagnosis and Management is to condense in a single book different approaches and paradigms of tickborne infectious diseases. Three chapters are devoted to background information, including the natural history of ticks, the diagnostic procedures of tickborne diseases, and the new tick-transm...

  17. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  18. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  19. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  20. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  1. Heterogeneous Seeding of a Prion Structure by a Generic Amyloid Form of the Fungal Prion-forming Domain HET-s(218-289)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, William; Bian, Wen; McDonald, Michele; Kijac, Aleksandra; Wemmer, David E.; Stubbs, Gerald [UCB; (Vanderbilt); (LBNL)

    2013-11-13

    The fungal prion-forming domain HET-s(218–289) forms infectious amyloid fibrils at physiological pH that were shown by solid-state NMR to be assemblies of a two-rung β-solenoid structure. Under acidic conditions, HET-s(218–289) has been shown to form amyloid fibrils that have very low infectivity in vivo, but structural information about these fibrils has been very limited. We show by x-ray fiber diffraction that the HET-s(218–289) fibrils formed under acidic conditions have a stacked β-sheet architecture commonly found in short amyloidogenic peptides and denatured protein aggregates. At physiological pH, stacked β-sheet fibrils nucleate the formation of the infectious β-solenoid prions in a process of heterogeneous seeding, but do so with kinetic profiles distinct from those of spontaneous or homogeneous (seeded with infectious β-solenoid fibrils) fibrillization. Several serial passages of stacked β-sheet-seeded solutions lead to fibrillization kinetics similar to homogeneously seeded solutions. Our results directly show that structural mutation can occur between substantially different amyloid architectures, lending credence to the suggestion that the processes of strain adaptation and crossing species barriers are facilitated by structural mutation.

  2. Persistent infectious and tropical diseases in immigrant correctional populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Getaz

    Full Text Available A number of infectious diseases amongst travelers and the immigrant populations are a major public health concern. Some have a long incubation period or remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic for many years before leading to significant clinical manifestations and/or complications. HIV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis or latent syphilis are among the most significant persistent diseases in migrants. Schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis, for instance, are persistent helminthic infections that may cause significant morbidity, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C. Chagas disease, which was initially confined to Latin America, must also now be considered in immigrants from endemic countries. Visceral leishmaniasis and malaria are other examples of parasitic diseases that must be taken into account by physicians treating incarcerated migrants. The focus of this review article is on the risk of neglected tropical diseases in particularly vulnerable correctional populations and on the risk of infectious diseases that commonly affect migrants but which are often underestimated.

  3. The Ins and Outs of DNA Fingerprinting the Infectious Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R.

    2000-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting methods have evolved as major tools in fungal epidemiology. However, no single method has emerged as the method of choice, and some methods perform better than others at different levels of resolution. In this review, requirements for an effective DNA fingerprinting method are proposed and procedures are described for testing the efficacy of a method. In light of the proposed requirements, the most common methods now being used to DNA fingerprint the infectious fungi are described and assessed. These methods include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), RFLP with hybridization probes, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and other PCR-based methods, electrophoretic karyotyping, and sequencing-based methods. Procedures for computing similarity coefficients, generating phylogenetic trees, and testing the stability of clusters are then described. To facilitate the analysis of DNA fingerprinting data, computer-assisted methods are described. Finally, the problems inherent in the collection of test and control isolates are considered, and DNA fingerprinting studies of strain maintenance during persistent or recurrent infections, microevolution in infecting strains, and the origin of nosocomial infections are assessed in light of the preceding discussion of the ins and outs of DNA fingerprinting. The intent of this review is to generate an awareness of the need to verify the efficacy of each DNA fingerprinting method for the level of genetic relatedness necessary to answer the epidemiological question posed, to use quantitative methods to analyze DNA fingerprint data, to use computer-assisted DNA fingerprint analysis systems to analyze data, and to file data in a form that can be used in the future for retrospective and comparative studies. PMID:10756003

  4. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  5. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca

    2012-08-16

    The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  6. Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Angela M; Barrio, Victoria; Kulp-Shorten, Carol; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2003-10-01

    Skin lesions are encountered in all areas of medicine, and it is therefore important for physicians to understand the fundamentals of explaining and diagnosing common skin conditions. This article begins with a discussion of description and documentation of skin lesions based on color, size, morphology, and distribution. Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo are depicted. Cutaneous growths that are found in the pediatric and adolescent population include acrochordons, dermatofibromas, keloids, milia, neurofibromas, and pyogenic granulomas. Treatment of these growths usually involves observation or curettage with electrodessication.Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, poison ivy, and eczema are comprised of scaling patches and plaques; poison ivy and atopic dermatitis may also present with bullous and vesicular changes. Therapy typically consists of topical emollients and corticosteroids; phototherapy is reserved for refractory cases. Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease of the pediatric and adolescent population. This condition can be psychologically debilitating and, therefore, proper treatment is of paramount importance. Therapeutic options include topical as well as oral antibiotics and retinoids. Extreme caution must be used when prescribing retinoids to post-pubescent females, as these agents are teratogenic. Vascular anomalies are most commonly exemplified as port wine stains and hemangiomas. Port wine stains may be treated with pulsed dye laser or may be observed if they are not of concern to the patient or physician. Hemangiomas typically spontaneously regress by age ten; however, there has been recent concern that certain cases may need to be treated. Dermal rashes may be localized or generalized. Treatment of generalized drug eruptions involves elimination of the inciting agent, topical antipruritics, and systemic corticosteroids for severe reactions. Infectious etiologic agents of skin disease include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Many sexually

  7. The book of infectious diseases—a living document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Hasan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Planet Earth continues to be pillaged by its dominant species. Man’s incursions into forests have resulted in denudation of massive tracts of land, and the displaced inhabitants—vectors carrying exotic infectious agents—have begun to wander deeper into man’s territory. In 1993, in South-Western United States, the Sin Nombre virus (the first Hantavirus normally a pathogen of mice, developed its first taste for Homo sapiens. In 1997, the avian influenza H5N1 virus, jumped species to man. In 2002, a virus of civet cats in the Guangdong Province in Southern China transformed itself into the lethal SARS virus. In 2009, two swine strains, one human strain, and one bird strain of influenza all combined them-selves into a new deadly strain—the H1N1 Swine Flu virus. And only last year, the MERS-Coronavirus became a new player in the changea-ble game of infectious disease. Almost as soon as the world comes stumblingly to terms with one new epidemic, another unleashes itself. Lessons were clearly not learnt after the Ebola epidemic in 1976 which was followed by another major outbreak in Zaire in 1995. This year, confronted with a death-count that ex-ceeds the combined tally of all previous Ebola epidemics, the WHO has finally declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa as an “extraordinary event” and admitted that it is indeed a “public health risk to other countries.” As a human pathogen, the Ebola virus is four dec-ades old. True to form, the little-affected developed nations—the countries with the resources to tackle emerging infections—have taken no great interest in the matter. Forty precious years have ticked by. The CDC admits: “We do not know how to treat Ebola or vaccinate against it—and it will be a long time before we do.” As with the other major infectious killers that ravage the developing world, the profit margin for a drug against Ebola is slender. The Zaire Ebola virus though, is special—it is the most deadly

  8. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical professionals? When do I need an ID specialist? Many common infections can be treated by your ... diseases. Back to Top How was my ID specialist trained? Your ID Physician has 9-10 years ...

  9. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Deborah A; Thomas, Kimberly R; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Foster, Loretta; Baroi, Gitangali; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana H; Schley, Alan W; Anderson, Willie J

    2017-08-11

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphical form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2015. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2015 reported as of June 30, 2016. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territories, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at https://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/MMWR_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  10. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Deborah; Fullerton, Kathleen; Jajosky, Ruth; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana; Schley, Alan; Anderson, Willie; Faulkner, Amanda; Kugeler, Kiersten

    2015-10-23

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition-United States, 2013 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2013 reported as of June 30, 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  11. Correlates of illness severity in infectious mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odame, John; Robinson, Joan; Khodai-Booran, Nasser; Yeung, Simon; Mazzulli, Tony; Stephens, Derek; Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and laboratory correlates of illness severity among infants, children and youth with infectious mononucleosis (IM). METHODS: Study subjects with confirmed IM were prospectively enrolled. Illness severity was assessed at baseline and at six weeks using a scoring tool. Peripheral blood viral loads served as a measure of viral burden. RESULTS: Among 32 children and young adults with IM, the median age was 16 years (range two to 24 years). The predominant clinical findings were lymphadenopathy (23 of 32 [72%]), pharyngitis (16 of 32 [50%]), fever (nine of 32 [28%]) and splenomegaly (six of 32 [19%]). With respect to symptoms or signs that persisted to at least six weeks after illness onset, the predominant complaint was lymphadenopathy in 35% of subjects available for reassessment. Deranged liver function tests were present at presentation in up to 44% of subjects. Patients with the highest viral loads at presentation had significantly higher illness severity scores associated with fatigue (P=0.02). Other than the scores associated with fatigue, viral load values were not significantly correlated with the illness severity scores at baseline and at six weeks. CONCLUSION: In IM, viral loads are not necessarily correlated with illness severity, with the exception of fatigue. EBV-related hepatitis is common in IM, confirming the status of this virus as a relatively common cause of transient hepatitis in children and youth. This entity is not necessarily a marker of disease severity. PMID:25371691

  12. Infectious spondylitis and its differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Infectious spondylitis can be diagnosed early and reliably by MRI, given that the most important diagnostic criteria are present. These criteria are bone marrow edema adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates, disk space of high signal intensity and enhancement of bone adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates and of the disk space. If not all of these criteria are present, diagnostic accuracy decreases. Erosive osteochondritis, spondylarthritis, osteoporotic fractures of two contiguous vertebral end plates, active Schmorl's nodes as well as neuropathic spine may mimic an infectious spondylitis. This paper presents typical and atypical morphologic patterns of infectious spondylitis as well as the differentiation criteria from the above mentioned diseases. (orig.)

  13. Use of probiotics in pediatric infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Cardinale, Fabio; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Dodi, Icilio; Mastrorilli, Violetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We summarize current evidence and recommendations for the use of probiotics in childhood infectious diseases. Probiotics may be of benefit in treating acute infectious diarrhea and reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotic on prevention of traveler's diarrhea,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, side effects of triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and recurrent urinary tract infections remain unclear. More studies are needed to investigate optimal strain, dosage, bioavailability of drops and tablets, duration of treatment and safety. Probiotics and recombinant probiotic strain represent a promising source of molecules for the development of novel anti-infectious therapy.

  14. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  15. Spontaneous splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Andrea S; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2012-12-01

    A 15-year-old previously healthy girl presented in full arrest after 1 week of flu-like symptoms, recent diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, and 1 day of abdominal pain. There was no history of trauma. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination showed free fluid in the abdomen. The patient died despite aggressive resuscitative management and emergency laparotomy with splenectomy, which showed grade V splenic laceration. Infectious mononucleosis is a common viral illness of adolescence. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but potentially fatal complication. Anticipatory guidance about the importance of seeking medical care if abdominal pain develops during infectious mononucleosis is crucial to early diagnosis and intervention in the case of rupture. We discuss the current literature surrounding the outpatient follow-up of splenomegaly associated with infectious mononucleosis, as well as current practice and treatment options when rupture occurs.

  16. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  17. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovaeva I.V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease

  18. Formas de potássio em solos de várzea e sua disponibilidade para o feijoeiro Potassium forms in lowland soils and availability to common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Villa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar as formas de K em solos de várzea e o aproveitamento dessas formas pela planta, avaliar a resposta do feijoeiro à aplicação desse nutriente nesses solos e determinar os seus níveis críticos nos solos e nas plantas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições, sendo quatro solos de várzea [Gleissolo Melânico (GM, Gleissolo Háplico (GX, Neossolo Flúvico (RU e Organossolo Méssico (OY] e cinco níveis de saturação por K da CTC potencial (natural, 4, 6, 8 e 10 %. Foram cultivadas quatro plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por vaso até a produção de grãos. Amostras dos solos foram coletadas para a determinação do K total, não-trocável, trocável, em solução, disponível pelos extratores Mehlich-1 e Resina e medidas da relação Quantidade/Intensidade de K. Os teores de K total e K não-trocável foram maiores nos solos OY e RU, enquanto os teores de K trocável e K em solução foram maiores nos solos OY e GM. As saturações críticas por K da CTC potencial foram de 5,0, 4,1, 8,7 e 5,3 %, enquanto os níveis críticos de K foliar foram de 17,9, 30,5, 16,8 e 14,6 mg kg-1, para os solos OY, GM, GX e RU, respectivamente.The present study had as objectives to characterize K forms, plant use of these forms and to evaluate the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. response to K application in four lowland soils. It was also sought to determine the critical levels for K in soils and plant. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments were a combination of four lowland soils [Mesic Organosoil (OY, Melanic Gleysoil (GM, Haplic Gleysoil (GX, and Fluvic Neosoil (RU] and five K CEC saturation levels (native, 4, 6, 8, and 10 %. Four bean plants per pot were cultivated until grain production. Soil samples were analyzed for total K, non

  19. Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

  20. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  2. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  3. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  4. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data....... METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis before the age of 20 years in a cohort of 2,543,225 Danes born between 1971 and 2008, taking individual...... sibship structure into account. RESULTS: A total of 12,872 cases of infectious mononucleosis were observed during 35.3 million person-years of follow-up. Statistical modelling showed that increasing sibship size was associated with a reduced risk of infectious mononucleosis and that younger siblings...

  5. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  6. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  7. POSTOPERATIVE INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ch. Usupbaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The large proportion of postoperative infectious complications in urological hospitals makes extremely urgent the problem of its control. The high level of these complications in the postoperative period in patients with urolithiasis is caused by various endo- and exogenous factors.Purpose. To determine the frequency, structure, and features of postoperative infectious complications in patients with urolithiasis in urological hospitals.Materials and methods. As an object of research we used a medical card 232 of the operated patients with urolithiasis, which were copied out in individual registration card. Of 232 patients with urolithiasis 48.3% were men, their average age was 44.5 ± 9.4 years. Female patients were slightly larger (51.7%, respectively, the average age was 44.9 ± 8.1 years.Results. The most common postoperative infectious complications in urolithiasis was infection in the area of surgical intervention (36,2%, acute urethritis (20,7%, acute pyelonephritis (14.7 per cent, paranephritis (9,5%, acute orhoepididimit (7,8%, acute cystitis (6%, pionephrosis (3,4%, urosepsis (1.7 percent. In the etiological structure of infectious agents associated with medical care with the highest frequency, microorganisms of genera Escherichia coli (43%, Proteus (9.5%, Staphilococcus spp were isolated. (8.3% and Staphilococcus aureus (8.3%, and in 11.9% of cases, the Association of microorganisms. Analysis of the etiological structure of genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to β-lactam antibiotics showed that 63.2% of the amount to the genus strain of E. coli, 21% Proteus and 15.8% Klebsiella.Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the need for research on the prevalence of resistant strains of microorganisms, the introduction of more specifi c, sensitive methods and monitoring. This will increase the effectiveness of treatment, reduce the risk of the spread of resistant strains and increase nosocomial infections.

  8. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka

    2017-01-01

    Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark......Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark...

  9. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, CC; Vannberg, FO; Chapman, SJ; Guo, H; Wong, SH; Walley, AJ; Vukcevic, D; Rautanen, A; Mills, TC; Chang, K-C; Kam, K-M; Crampin, AC; Ngwira, B; Leung, C-C; Tam, C-M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya,...

  10. Infectious complications in chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kielberger, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE Infections represent a serious problem in chronic kidney disease (cohort and they are) associated with signifficant morbidity and mortality. The thesis originated in the nephrology division of the Department of Internal Medicine I., Charles University Teaching Hospital and Medical Faculty in Pilsen, an institution with a long standing research activity in the field. In the theoretical part of this work, a general summary of infectious complica...

  11. Outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with person to person spread in hotels and restaurants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1995-09-15

    Twenty-eight outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, reported as being transmitted mainly by the person to person route, were identified in association with retail catering premises, such as hotels, restaurants, and public houses, in England and Wales between 1992 and 1994. Five thousand and forty-eight people were at risk in these outbreaks and 1234 were affected. Most of the outbreaks (over 90%) occurred in hotels. Small round structured viruses were the most commonly detected pathogens. Diarrhoea and vomiting were common symptoms and most of the outbreaks occurred in the summer months. Control measures to contain infectious individuals and improved hygiene measures are necessary to contain such outbreaks.

  12. Advances in Integrative Nanomedicine for Improving Infectious Disease Treatment in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Schwartz, Gary E; Boyer, Nancy N; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J

    2013-04-01

    Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses. We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation. NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1-100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs' large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs. Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host's complex networks underlie effects. Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious diseases.

  13. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin, E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Papiewski, Andrzej [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Clinic of Vascular Surgery (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  14. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin; Papiewski, Andrzej; Szubert, Wojciech; Szopiński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  15. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  16. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte; Bukh, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed efficient infectious cell culture systems for these genotype 1a strains by using the HCV-1/SF9_A and H77C in vivo infectious clones. We initially adapted a genome with the HCV-1 5'UTR-NS5A (where UTR stands for untranslated region) and the JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR (5-5A recombinant), including the genotype 2a-derived mutations F1464L/A1672S/D2979G (LSG), to grow efficiently in Huh7.5 cells, thus identifying the E2 mutation S399F. The combination of LSG/S399F and reported TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations A1226G/Q1773H/N1927T/Y2981F/F2994S promoted adaptation of the full-length HCV-1 clone. An HCV-1 recombinant with 17 mutations (HCV1cc) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 cells and produced supernatant infectivity titers of 10(4.0) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. Eight of these mutations were identified from passaged HCV-1 viruses, and the A970T/I1312V/C2419R/A2919T mutations were essential for infectious particle production. Using CD81-deficient Huh7 cells, we further demonstrated the importance of A970T/I1312V/A2919T or A970T/C2419R/A2919T for virus assembly and that the I1312V/C2419R combination played a major role in virus release. Using a similar approach, we found that NS5B mutation F2994R, identified here from culture-adapted full-length TN viruses and a common NS3 helicase mutation (S1368P) derived from viable H77C and HCV-1 5-5A recombinants, initiated replication and culture adaptation of H77C containing LSG and TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations. An H77C recombinant harboring 19 mutations (H77Ccc) replicated and spread efficiently after transfection and subsequent infection of naive Huh7.5 cells, reaching titers of 10(3.5) and 10(4.4) FFU/ml, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989 with

  17. Efficient prion disease transmission through common environmental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Lyon, Adam; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Urayama, Akihiko; Soto, Claudio

    2018-03-02

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a protein-based infectious agent, termed prion. Compelling evidence suggests that natural transmission of prion diseases is mediated by environmental contamination with infectious prions. We hypothesized that several natural and man-made materials, commonly found in the environments of wild and captive animals, can bind prions and may act as vectors for disease transmission. To test our hypothesis, we exposed surfaces composed of various common environmental materials ( i.e. wood, rocks, plastic, glass, cement, stainless steel, aluminum, and brass) to hamster-adapted 263K scrapie prions and studied their attachment and retention of infectivity in vitro and in vivo Our results indicated that these surfaces, with the sole exception of brass, efficiently bind, retain, and release prions. Prion replication was studied in vitro using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technology, and infectivity of surface-bound prions was analyzed by intracerebrally challenging hamsters with contaminated implants. Our results revealed that virtually all prion-contaminated materials transmitted the disease at high rates. To investigate a more natural form of exposure to environmental contamination, we simply housed animals with large contaminated spheres made of the different materials under study. Strikingly, most of the hamsters developed classical clinical signs of prion disease and typical disease-associated brain changes. Our findings suggest that prion contamination of surfaces commonly present in the environment can be a source of disease transmission, thus expanding our understanding of the mechanisms for prion spreading in nature. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  19. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  20. Impact of the infectious period on epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Robert R.; Sharkey, Kieran J.

    2018-05-01

    The duration of the infectious period is a crucial determinant of the ability of an infectious disease to spread. We consider an epidemic model that is network based and non-Markovian, containing classic Kermack-McKendrick, pairwise, message passing, and spatial models as special cases. For this model, we prove a monotonic relationship between the variability of the infectious period (with fixed mean) and the probability that the infection will reach any given subset of the population by any given time. For certain families of distributions, this result implies that epidemic severity is decreasing with respect to the variance of the infectious period. The striking importance of this relationship is demonstrated numerically. We then prove, with a fixed basic reproductive ratio (R0), a monotonic relationship between the variability of the posterior transmission probability (which is a function of the infectious period) and the probability that the infection will reach any given subset of the population by any given time. Thus again, even when R0 is fixed, variability of the infectious period tends to dampen the epidemic. Numerical results illustrate this but indicate the relationship is weaker. We then show how our results apply to message passing, pairwise, and Kermack-McKendrick epidemic models, even when they are not exactly consistent with the stochastic dynamics. For Poissonian contact processes, and arbitrarily distributed infectious periods, we demonstrate how systems of delay differential equations and ordinary differential equations can provide upper and lower bounds, respectively, for the probability that any given individual has been infected by any given time.

  1. DNA technology for diagnosis and vaccines for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notani, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design

  2. DNA technology for diagnosis and vaccines for infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notani, N K

    1993-12-31

    Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design

  3. Therapeutic and lesional aspects of feline infectious peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Stancu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP can not be assessed on the basis of serological surveys because positive serological reagents rate does not correlate with disease rates. In units with more cats and numerous movements (input - output, the proportion of positive serological reagents is very high, and could reach, in some countries or regions at 50-75-100%, while among cats scattered nearhomes reactants rate positive to VPIF is well below 50%. Research conducted aimed at treating and determining evolutionary form of FIP based on pathological lesions in dead cats.

  4. The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases.

  5. [Assessment of invalidity as a result of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeledová, L; Čevela, R; Bosák, M

    2016-01-01

    The article features the new medical assessment paradigm for invalidity as a result of infectious disease which is applied as of 1 January 2010. The invalidity assessment criteria are regulated specifically by Regulation No. 359/2009. Chapter I of the Annexe to the invalidity assessment regulation addresses the area of infectious diseases with respect to functional impairment and its impact on the quality of life. Since 2010, the invalidity has also been newly categorized into three groups. The new assessment approach makes it possible to evaluate a persons functional capacity, type of disability, and eligibility for compensation for reduced capacity for work. In 2010, a total of 170 375 invalidity cases were assessed, and in 2014, 147 121 invalidity assessments were made. Invalidity as a result of infectious disease was assessed in 177 persons in 2010, and 128 invalidity assessments were made in 2014. The most common causes of invalidity as a result of infectious disease are chronic viral hepatitis, other spirochetal infections, tuberculosis of the respiratory tract, tick-borne viral encephalitis, and HIV/AIDS. The number of assessments of invalidity as a result of infectious disease showed a declining trend between 2010 and 2014, similarly to the total of invalidity assessments. In spite of this fact, the cases of invalidity as a result of infectious disease account for approximately half percent of all invalidity assessments made in the above-mentioned period of time.

  6. The Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases: A Brief History and Selected Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  7. Evolution, revolution and heresy in the genetics of infectious disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious pathogens have long been recognized as potentially powerful agents impacting on the evolution of human genetic diversity. Analysis of large-scale case–control studies provides one of the most direct means of identifying human genetic variants that currently impact on susceptibility to particular infectious diseases. For over 50 years candidate gene studies have been used to identify loci for many major causes of human infectious mortality, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, bacterial pneumonia and hepatitis. But with the advent of genome-wide approaches, many new loci have been identified in diverse populations. Genome-wide linkage studies identified a few loci, but genome-wide association studies are proving more successful, and both exome and whole-genome sequencing now offer a revolutionary increase in power. Opinions differ on the extent to which the genetic component to common disease susceptibility is encoded by multiple high frequency or rare variants, and the heretical view that most infectious diseases might even be monogenic has been advocated recently. Review of findings to date suggests that the genetic architecture of infectious disease susceptibility may be importantly different from that of non-infectious diseases, and it is suggested that natural selection may be the driving force underlying this difference. PMID:22312051

  8. Evolution, revolution and heresy in the genetics of infectious disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adrian V S

    2012-03-19

    Infectious pathogens have long been recognized as potentially powerful agents impacting on the evolution of human genetic diversity. Analysis of large-scale case-control studies provides one of the most direct means of identifying human genetic variants that currently impact on susceptibility to particular infectious diseases. For over 50 years candidate gene studies have been used to identify loci for many major causes of human infectious mortality, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, bacterial pneumonia and hepatitis. But with the advent of genome-wide approaches, many new loci have been identified in diverse populations. Genome-wide linkage studies identified a few loci, but genome-wide association studies are proving more successful, and both exome and whole-genome sequencing now offer a revolutionary increase in power. Opinions differ on the extent to which the genetic component to common disease susceptibility is encoded by multiple high frequency or rare variants, and the heretical view that most infectious diseases might even be monogenic has been advocated recently. Review of findings to date suggests that the genetic architecture of infectious disease susceptibility may be importantly different from that of non-infectious diseases, and it is suggested that natural selection may be the driving force underlying this difference.

  9. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is β-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of infectious complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, M M; Wordell, C J

    1985-01-01

    The infectious complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are discussed, and the conventional and nonconventional therapies used for these infections are reviewed. The infections most commonly encountered in patients with AIDS are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (58%), Candida esophagitis (31%), toxoplasmosis (21%), cytomegalovirus infections (15%), and herpes-simplex virus infections (12%). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening process in these patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the drug of choice for its treatment. Oral candidiasis often indicates the progression to AIDS in the high-risk populations of homosexual or bisexual men, intravenous drug abusers, and individuals with hemophilia. Nystatin suspension is commonly used to treat oral candidiasis, while Candida esophagitis demands systemic therapy with ketoconazole. Toxoplasmosis most commonly manifests itself in patients with AIDS as a cerebral mass lesion. The recommended therapy includes sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. AIDS patients frequently experience protozoal invasion of the intestinal tract with Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli, and Cryptosporidium muris. Various drugs have been tried for these infections, including quinacrine hydrochloride, metronidazole, TMP-SMZ, and spiramycin. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections commonly involve the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, brain, and nervous system. Attempts to treat these disseminated CMV infections with antiviral agents, including acyclovir, have not been successful. However, acyclovir has been found beneficial in the treatment of herpes-simplex virus infections. Multiple infectious complications may occur in patients with AIDS as a result of the cellular-immune deficiency associated with this disease. Until more research is done with AIDS patients, therapy must be based on the data available from the treatment of these infections in immunosuppressed patients without AIDS.

  11. Splenic Infarction: An Under-recognized Complication of Infectious Mononucleosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; George, Ann; Arnaout, Sami; Wang, Jennifer P; Abraham, George M

    2018-03-01

    Splenic infarction is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. We describe 3 cases of splenic infarction attributed to infectious mononucleosis that we encountered within a 2-month period. We underscore the awareness of this potential complication of infectious mononucleosis and discuss the differential diagnosis of splenic infarction, including infectious etiologies. While symptomatic management is usually sufficient for infectious mononucleosis-associated splenic infarction, close monitoring for other complications, including splenic rupture, is mandated.

  12. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful environment which includes physical isolation and

  13. Enhancement on infectious diseases nursing plan information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Lin; Hao, Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Based on researches, the most time-consuming nursing activities, in teaching hospital, are: room patrols, the blood pressure survey, the body temperature pulse breath survey, the nursing record maintenance. The nursing record is one way to communicate data. It can allow the medical service team to understand what measures the nursing staff once did for sickness, as well as responses from sickness. Nevertheless, it is the key component to utilize the record with a clinical nursing plan, so as to provide a proficient health management. Since the maintenance of nursing plan is costly and time-consuming, therefore, it is essential to establish the nursing plan information system, which can effectively promote the nursing quality. This research main body comes from one infectious disease division nursing plan information system, which was developed in 1992, and its data base covers entire courtyard compatibility and various faculties characteristic nursing plan. The nursing staff often complained that this system is not user-friendly, its contents are not comprehensive, and sometimes it does not let staff choose the right diagnosis. Therefore this research is based on history analysis and the questionnaire survey procedure first, the infectious disease nursing plan use number of times, the frequency and the project content, then by the literature scientific theory and result of the improvement group discussion together. The original 38 infectious disease division nursing plan will be expanded to 45 nursing plans. Moreover, the common 38 infectious disease code (ICD-9), and its corresponding diagnosis items, shall automatically appear in the disease diagnose code field, so it would be better off for the nursing staff to set up the nursing plan efficiently. Infectious disease division nursing plan information system utilization ratio is promoted 9.6-folds, according to research outcome. Each task consumes 3.68 minutes beforehand-including computer program operation, the

  14. Global Dynamics of Infectious Disease with Arbitrary Distributed Infectious Period on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.

  15. Feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (Puma concolor), California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pamela; Moeller, Robert B; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. The virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. Regardless of presentation, FIP is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. In May 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Kern County, California, USA was euthanized because of concern for public safety, and a postmortem examination was performed. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing, multifocal myocarditis; necrotizing, neutrophilic, and histiocytic myositis and vasculitis of the tunica muscularis layer of the small and large intestines; and embolic, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Feline coronavirus antigen was detected in both the heart and intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. A PCR for coronavirus performed on kidney tissue was positive, confirming a diagnosis of FIP. Although coronavirus infection has been documented in mountain lions by serology, this is the first confirmed report of FIP.

  16. Systems thinking in combating infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2017-09-11

    The transmission of infectious diseases is a dynamic process determined by multiple factors originating from disease pathogens and/or parasites, vector species, and human populations. These factors interact with each other and demonstrate the intrinsic mechanisms of the disease transmission temporally, spatially, and socially. In this article, we provide a comprehensive perspective, named as systems thinking, for investigating disease dynamics and associated impact factors, by means of emphasizing the entirety of a system's components and the complexity of their interrelated behaviors. We further develop the general steps for performing systems approach to tackling infectious diseases in the real-world settings, so as to expand our abilities to understand, predict, and mitigate infectious diseases.

  17. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    During one year, 1979-80, all the contacts between the 836 inhabitants of Upernavik town and the local medical officers were recorded. In the 737 native Greenlanders 1006 contacts (41%) were caused by infectious diseases, representing 705 episodes of disease. The number of contacts per episode...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...... of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...

  18. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data....... METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis before the age of 20 years in a cohort of 2,543,225 Danes born between 1971 and 2008, taking individual...... of blood donors followed up retrospectively for self-reported infectious mononucleosis. CONCLUSIONS: Younger siblings, and to a lesser degree older siblings, seem to be important in the transmission of EBV within families. Apparently the dogma of low birth order in a sibship as being at the highest risk...

  19. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (4/91 type in Broiler Chickens in Chahrmahal-va-bakhtiyari Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gholami-Ahangaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB disease is a viral contagious respiratory disease. The causing agent of this disease has several serotypes. In this study, 4/91 type of Infectious bronchitis (IB was identified. For this, tracheal samples were taken from 18 broiler chickens flocks having respiratory signs suspected to IB disease with one percent mortality in day. After RNA extraction from tissue samples in one step RT-PCR reaction, a fragment of S1 gene was amplified by common primers for all IB viruses. Then RT-PCR product was amplified for identification of 4/91(793/B type by type specific primers in Nested-PCR. Results showed, 11 out 18 flocks (61.1% were infected to IB that 45.45% of IB infected flocks were infected to 4/91 type. Therefore it seems 4/91 type of IB has role in forming and complexing of respiratory signs in broiler chickens suffering to respiratory syndrome in Chahrmahal-va-bakhtiyari province and it is necessary to give a suitable controlling strategy for prevention of 4/91 infection.

  1. Unifying diseases from a genetic point of view: the example of the genetic theory of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrason, Marie

    2013-08-01

    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), they attempt to unify infectious diseases from a genetic point of view. In this article, I analyze this explicit example of a genetic theory, which relies on mechanisms and is applied only to a specific category of diseases, what we call "a regional genetic theory." I have three aims: to prove that a genetic theory of disease can be devoid of genocentrism, to consider the possibility of a genetic theory applied to every disease, and to introduce two hypotheses about the form that such a genetic theory could take by distinguishing between a genetic theory of diseases and a genetic theory of Disease. Finally, I suggest that network medicine could be an interesting framework for a genetic theory of Disease.

  2. CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Chapman, Stephen J; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H; Walley, Andrew J; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K H; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J Anthony; Williams, Thomas N; Berkley, James A; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L S; Fine, Paul E M; Goh, Denise L M; Hill, Adrian V S

    2010-06-03

    The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam. We had previously tested 20 other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (at positions -639, -292, -163, +1320, and +3415 [all relative to CISH]) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multiple-SNP score, we found an association between CISH genetic variants and susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (P=3.8x10(-11) for all comparisons), with -292 accounting for most of the association signal (P=4.58x10(-7)). Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells obtained from adult subjects carrying the -292 variant, as compared with wild-type cells, showed a muted response to the stimulation of interleukin-2 production--that is, 25 to 40% less CISH expression. Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signaling have a role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of one of these infectious diseases was increased by at least 18% among persons carrying the variant CISH alleles. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  3. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M.; Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs

  4. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravender, Terrill

    2010-08-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome that is common in adolescents and young adults and is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, and fatigue. IM is most commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which case laboratory findings include a lymphocytosis with an elevated number of atypical lymphocytes seen on peripheral smear and a heterophile or EBV-specific antibody response. Approximately 10% of those with IM will not be acutely infected with EBV. Many of these individuals will have their symptoms attributed to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This chapter reviews the history, diagnosis, clinical management, and potential complications of both EBV- and CMV-associated IM in adolescents and young adults.

  5. Atypical presentation of post infectious glomerulonephritis as malignant hypertension and thrombotic microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vankalakunti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection-related glomerulonephritis presents commonly as acute nephritic illness, hypertension, hypocomplementinemia following an episode of pharyngitis or pyoderma. Atypical features like thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA, produced by neuraminidase antigen targeting endothelium have been described rarely. We report a case of TMA secondary to malignant hypertension, coexisting with post infectious glomerulonephritis.

  6. The role of S.P. Botkin in the creation and development of Russia’s first Infectious Disease Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the role of S.P. Botkin in the creation and development of Russia’s first infectious hospital. The creation of the hospital contributed to unfavorable epidemiological situation in a number of infectious diseases in St. Petersburg in 60–70 years XIX century. For the treatment of infectious diseases were no specialized infections hospital. At the initiative of S.P. Botkin was created Russia’s first hospital for infectious diseases, he also became a trustee on the medical side. Under the guidance of Professor Botkin in the barracks hospital began a systematic study of infectious diseases, there was formed the national school of infectious disease. On his initiative, the hospital created the first ambulance coach, first disinfecting chamber, opened the chemical and physiological laboratory. Sergei Petrovich in the hospital laid the foundation of the hospital medical statistics. He made a great contribution to the reorganization of the ambulance and hospital pharmacies. Opening of the Infectious Diseases Hospital has reduced he mortality rate from infectious diseases in St. Petersburg in three times.

  7. [Infectious burdens of reproduction of female dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, K; Stellmacher, H

    1996-02-01

    The results of gynecological investigations in 142 bitches were evaluated and the complexity of infectious affections is discussed. High proportions of infectious cases were found in cases of limitation of fertility (67.5%), in vaginal discharge in the estrus (60.8%), in cases of mastitis/pseudopregnancy (61.5%) and in mortality of newborn puppies. St. aureus and E. coli were often isolated. There is a high etiological correlation in epidemiology of diseases of the reproductive tract in the single bitch and especially in kennel bitches.

  8. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandian, M.H.; Mortazavi, H.; Behvad, A.; Haghigat, H.; Lessani, M.; Youssefian, B.

    1979-01-01

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases [fr

  9. Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J D

    2000-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis of the major characteristics of emerging diseases, in an interdisciplinary context. Political ecology is one framework for analysis that is promising in developing a modified ecology of disease.

  10. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Levy, J.K.; Kirk, S.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Leutenegger, C.M.; Shuster, J.J.; Liu, J.; Chandrashekar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, Odds ratio=2.5, P<0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  11. Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Slade O; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2017-11-01

    A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population...

  13. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  14. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigirci, Ahmet; Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan

    2006-01-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  15. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, P L; Ansons, A M; Patterson, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Acute dacryocystitis is uncommon in this age group, and an underlying systemic illness should be suspected particularly when it is bilateral. Images PMID:2275940

  16. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  17. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  18. THE PATHOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD) occurred in a flock of 11-week old crossbreeds of Harco cocks and indigenous Nigerian hens (referred to as exotic and locals respectively in the text). Clinical signs observed include depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers and diarrhoea. Haemorrhages were present in the bursa ...

  19. Population dynamics and infectious diseases in Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sleigh, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    ... such as SARS. David J BRADLEY is Ross Professor of Tropical Hygiene Emeritus at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University. He has worked on the epidemiology and control of vector-borne and infectious diseases, water in relation to health, and concepts in international h...

  20. Infectious agents are associated with psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lydia Krause

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome (TS. We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 individuals were included (schizophrenic patients, Tourette patients and controls. We evaluated antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpes-simplex virus (HSV, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis/pneumoniae. By comparing schizophrenia and TS, we found a higher prevalence of HSV (P=0.017 and CMV (P=0.017 antibodies in schizophrenic patients. Considering the relationship between schizophrenia, TS and healthy controls, we showed that there are associations for Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.007, HSV (P=0.027 and CMV (P=0.029. When all measured viruses, bacteria and protozoa were combined, schizophrenic patients had a higher rate of antibodies to infectious agents than TS patients (P=0.049. Tourette and schizophrenic patients show a different vulnerability to infectious agents. Schizophrenic patients were found to have a higher susceptibility to viral infections than individuals with TS. This finding might point to a modification in special immune parameters in these diseases.

  1. Epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... profiles of infectious bacterial diarrhoea in Juba, ... a Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) resident, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, ... Teaching Hospital (JTH), Al Sabah children's hospital, .... Only 12 (4.2%) participants reached higher education.

  2. [Emerging infectious diseases: complex, unpredictable processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In the light of a double approach, at first empirical, later theoretical and comparative, illustrated by the example of the Buruli ulcer and its mycobacterial agent Mycobacterium ulcerans on which I focused my research activity these last ten years by studying determinants and factors of emerging infectious or parasitic diseases, the complexity of events explaining emerging diseases will be presented. The cascade of events occurring at various levels of spatiotemporal scales and organization of life, which lead to the numerous observed emergences, nowadays requires better taking into account the interactions between host(s), pathogen(s) and the environment by including the behavior of both individuals and the population. In numerous research studies on emerging infectious diseases, microbial hazard is described rather than infectious disease risk, the latter resulting from the confrontation between an association of threatening phenomena, or hazards, and a susceptible population. Beyond, the theme of emerging infectious diseases and its links with global environmental and societal changes leads to reconsider some well-established knowledge in infectiology and parasitology. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  3. [Combined physiotherapy of chronic infectious prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, A A; Popkov, V M; Zemskov, S P; Glybochko, P V; Bliumberg, B I

    2007-01-01

    Our experience with therapy of 259 outpatients with chronic infectious prostatitis (CIP) aged 16-55 years has demonstrated that combined treatment of CIP with rectal digital massage of the prostate, electrophoresis of chimotripsin solution with dimexide and local magnetotherapy (Intramag unit) significantly raises treatment efficacy, shortens treatment, prevents complications.

  4. An overview of post infectious coughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrad Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coughs lasting more than 3 weeks after airway infections are likely regarded as post-infectious coughs. A normal chest radiography unfavors possibility of pulmonary infection. These coughs are selflimited. This study reviews conducted studies in order to identify and define prevalence, pathogenesis, and cure of post-infectious constant coughs. The necessary data and guidelines are gained from English articles in PubMed website. Post-infectious and cough are searched. Post-infectious cough pathogenesis are not known; nevertheless, inflammation, epithelial damages of upper and lower airways, increased mucus secretion, and an increased reactivity of airways can cause these coughs. Despite self-limitedness of these coughs; dextromethorphan, antihistamines, ipratropium bromide, and decongestant are usually prescribed for cure of these coughs. Conversely, antibiotics play no significant role in this regard. These coughs constitutes smaller percentage of chronic coughs and are primarily classified in subacute coughs. Further studies should cover sub-acute and chronic properties of these coughs as well as their prevalence in different age groups and their determinants.

  5. Infectious disease protection for healthcare security officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Michael S; Arias, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare Security should be considered an active component in an infectious disease event, the authors maintain, and security officers must be included in an Employee Health screening and N95 fit testing initiative to safely welcome the incoming infected patients. In this article, they spell out the different levels of precautions officers should become familiar with in order to protect themselves.

  6. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  7. Otwarty model licencjonowania Creative Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkowski, Alek

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a family of Creative Commons licenses (which form nowadays one of the basic legal tools used in the Open Access movement), as well as a genesis of the licenses – inspired by Open Software Licenses and the concept of commons. Then legal tools such as individual Creative Commons licenses are discussed as well as how to use them, with a special emphasis on practical applications in science and education. The author discusses also his research results on scientific publishers a...

  8. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered. First, the IFNLR is not ubiquitously expressed: in particular, immune cells show significant variation in the expression levels of and susceptibilities to IFN-λs. Second, the binding affinities of individual IFN-λs to the IFNLR varies greatly and are generally lower compared to the binding affinities of IFN-α to its receptor. Finally, genetic variation in the form of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to genes involved in the IFN-λ signaling cascade has been described and associated with the clinical course and treatment outcomes of hepatitis B and C virus infection. The clinical impact of IFN-λ signaling and the SNP variations may, however, reach far beyond viral hepatitis. Recent publications show important roles for IFN-λs in a broad range of viral infections such as human T-cell leukemia type-1 virus, rotaviruses, and influenza virus. IFN-λ also potentially modulates the course of bacterial colonization and infections as shown for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Although the immunological processes involved in controlling viral and bacterial infections are distinct, IFN-λs may interfere at various levels: as an innate immune cytokine with direct antiviral effects; or as a modulator of IFN-α-induced signaling via the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 inhibitory feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage

  9. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious...

  10. Assessing the Threat of Infectious Disease to the Biosecurity of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    bioweapons to innocent tourists who unknowingly transmit a potentially deadly pathogen to a susceptible person. The threat is significant. In the US...infectious disease agent. The exposure can take many forms, but typical routes include inhalation, ingestion, direct contact or from the bite of a

  11. Nitrogen vacancies as a common element of the green luminescence and nonradiative recombination centers in Mg-implanted GaN layers formed on a GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kazunobu; Takashima, Shinya; Edo, Masaharu; Ueno, Katsunori; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Tokio; Ishibashi, Shoji; Uedono, Akira; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2017-06-01

    The photoluminescences of ion-implanted (I/I) and epitaxial Mg-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) are compared. The intensities and lifetimes of the near-band-edge and ultraviolet luminescences associated with a MgGa acceptor of I/I GaN:Mg were significantly lower and shorter than those of the epilayers, respectively. Simultaneously, the green luminescence (GL) became dominant. These emissions were quenched far below room temperature. The results indicate the generation of point defects common to GL and nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs) by I/I. Taking the results of positron annihilation measurement into account, N vacancies are the prime candidate to emit GL and create NRCs with Ga vacancies, (VGa) m (VN) n , as well as to inhibit p-type conductivity.

  12. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTOLOGY AND VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS. Part 1. Bioethics and social justice in infectious pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kubar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases. 

  13. Infectious and non-infectious neurologic complications in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela; Palomo, Jesús; Fernández-Yáñez, Juan; Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2010-05-01

    Neurologic complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) recipients. New immunomodulating agents have improved survival rates, although some have been associated with a high rate of neurologic complications (infectious and non-infectious). We conducted this study to analyze the frequency of these complications, before and after the use of daclizumab induction therapy. We reviewed all neurologic complications in our HT cohort, comparing infectious with non-infectious complications over 2 periods of time in which different induction therapies were used (316 patients with OKT3 or antithymocyte globulin from 1988 to 2002, and 68 patients with daclizumab from 2003 to 2006). Neurologic complications were found in 75/384 patients (19.5%) with a total of 78 episodes. Non-infectious complications accounted for 68% of the 78 episodes of neurologic complications. A total of 51 patients and 53 episodes were detailed as follows: 25 episodes of stroke (25 of 78 total episodes, 32%; 19 ischemic, 6 hemorrhagic); 7 neuropathies; 6 seizures; 4 episodes of transient ischemic attack (TIA); 3 anoxic encephalopathy; 2 each brachial plexus palsy and metabolic encephalopathy; and 1 each myoclonia, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, subdural hematoma, and Cotard syndrome. Mean time to presentation of stroke, TIA, and encephalopathy was 1 day (range, 1-19 d) posttransplant. Mortality rate among non-infectious complications was 12/53 (22.6%). Infectious complications accounted for 32% of the 78 total episodes. We found 25 episodes in 24 patients: 17 herpes zoster (median, 268 d after HT), 3 CNS aspergillosis (median, 90 d after HT), 1 CNS toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis (51 d after HT), 1 pneumococcal meningitis (402 d after HT), and 2 Listeria meningitis (median, 108 d after HT). The 3 patients with CNS aspergillosis died. The mortality rate among patients with infectious neurologic complications was 12% (42.8% if the CNS was involved). When we

  14. Epidemiology of infectious diseases transmitted by drinking water in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann, P; Newman, R; Foliguet, J M

    1986-01-01

    Research on the epidemiology of infectious diseases attributable to drinking water, common in the US during the past 20 years at least, is not yet really widespread in France. The role played by water in the transmission of certain infectious agents was important in European countries during past centuries but at present the incidence of waterborne diseases can be considered as very low. The absence of well-established data is due to the difficulty in reporting correctly a few minor outbreaks in a situation of very low endemicity. After a survey of the reported outbreaks, this paper deals with risk assessment of waterborne diseases in developed countries as well as special problems linked with proving transmission via water and with the nature of the infectious agents, and the development of monitoring methods for increasing our knowledge of this epidemiology.

  15. Air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards inducing acute respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Willig, Karl-Heinz; Groneberg, David A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to toxic aerosols belongs to frequent causes of airway diseases. However, asthma attacks due to long-distance inhalative exposure to organic solvents, transmitted via an air condition system, have not been reported so far. The present case illustrates the possibility of air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards in occupational medicine. So far, only infectious diseases such as legionella pneumophila pneumonia have commonly been associated to air-conditioning exposures but physicians should be alert to the potential of transmission of toxic volatile substances via air conditioning systems. In view of the events of the 11th of September 2001 with a growing danger of large building terrorism which may even use air conditioning systems to transmit toxins, facility management security staff should be alerted to possible non-infectious toxic health hazards arising from air-conditioning systems.

  16. Observed and projected drivers of emerging infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim; Penttinen, Pasi; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of international concern because of the potential for, and impact of, pandemics; however, they are difficult to predict. To identify the drivers of disease emergence, we analyzed infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) detected through epidemic intelligence collected at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) between 2008 and 2013, and compared the observed results with a 2008 ECDC foresight study of projected drivers of future IDTEs in Europe. Among 10 categories of IDTEs, foodborne and waterborne IDTEs were the most common, vaccine-preventable IDTEs caused the highest number of cases, and airborne IDTEs caused the most deaths. Observed drivers for each IDTE were sorted into three main groups: globalization and environmental drivers contributed to 61% of all IDTEs, public health system drivers contributed to 21%, and social and demographic drivers to 18%. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that four of the top five drivers for observed IDTEs were in the globalization and environment group. In the observational study, the globalization and environment group was related to all IDTE categories, but only to five of eight categories in the foresight study. Directly targeting these drivers with public health interventions may diminish the chances of IDTE occurrence from the outset. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

  18. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings contribute to the early differentiation between infectious and noninfectious encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Wilken

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases, 53 (65% men and 29 (35% women, mean age 47.8 years. The most common microorganisms identified were: HSV-1 (11%, VZV (10%, HSV-2 (5% and EBV (5%. Twenty-three patients (22% of the series had non-infectious encephalitis. Headache (p < 0.0001 and fever (p = 0.008 were more frequent in encephalitis of infectious origin. Protein levels and white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in patients affected by infectious encephalitis than in those affected by noninfectious encephalitis (OR 95% CI 12.3 [2.9-51.7] and OR 95% CI 7.4 [2-27], respectively. Identifying specific causal agents of acute encephalitis remains a major challenge. Cerebrospinal fluid markers, as well as specific clinical findings, may however contribute to initial differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes.

  19. Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kathy; Jit, Mark; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T

    2017-08-11

    The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires. Participants using paper questionnaires reported more contacts and longer contact duration than those using online questionnaires. Participants reported 13 person-hours of contact and 8 contacts per day on average, which decreased over age but increased with household size, years of education and income level. Prolonged and frequent contacts, and contacts at home, school and work were more likely to involve physical contacts. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups. We evaluated the characteristics of social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong. Our findings could help to improve the design of future social contact surveys, parameterize transmission models of respiratory infectious diseases, and inform intervention strategies based on model outputs.

  20. A novel response to an outbreak of infectious syphilis in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Edward; Young, Heather; Parkes, Catherine; Coshall, Maureen; Dickson, Nigel; Psutka, Rebecca; Saxton, Peter; Pink, Ramon; Adams, Katharine

    2015-04-01

    During 2012, Christchurch experienced a dramatic increase in cases of infectious syphilis among men who have sex with men. This was accompanied by some novel trends; notably, the acquisition of infection in a younger age group, with local sexual contacts, commonly via the use of social media. This study is a report on an approach to case identification and public health communication as a component of a multifaceted outbreak response. Enhanced syphilis surveillance data on public health responses to outbreaks of sexually transmissible infections was collated and reviewed, alongside clinical records and literature. Reported outbreak response methods were adapted for the Christchurch cohort. A Facebook page was created to raise awareness of infectious syphilis, the importance of screening and where to get tested. Twenty-six males were diagnosed with infectious syphilis in 2012, an increase from previous years, of which 22 reported only male sexual contact. High use of social media used to find potential sexual contacts was reported. Enhanced syphilis surveillance characterised in detail an infectious syphilis outbreak in Christchurch. Index cases were identified, contact tracing mapping was used to identify transmission networks and social media was also used to educate the risk group. There was a decrease in infectious syphilis presentations, with no cases in the last 3 months of 2012.

  1. Trends in population-based studies of human genetics in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Jessica L; Dowling, Nicole F; Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Zhang, Lyna; Gwinn, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen genetics is already a mainstay of public health investigation and control efforts; now advances in technology make it possible to investigate the role of human genetic variation in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. To describe trends in this field, we analyzed articles that were published from 2001 through 2010 and indexed by the HuGE Navigator, a curated online database of PubMed abstracts in human genome epidemiology. We extracted the principal findings from all meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with an infectious disease-related outcome. Finally, we compared the representation of diseases in HuGE Navigator with their contributions to morbidity worldwide. We identified 3,730 articles on infectious diseases, including 27 meta-analyses and 23 GWAS. The number published each year increased from 148 in 2001 to 543 in 2010 but remained a small fraction (about 7%) of all studies in human genome epidemiology. Most articles were by authors from developed countries, but the percentage by authors from resource-limited countries increased from 9% to 25% during the period studied. The most commonly studied diseases were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B infection, hepatitis C infection, sepsis, and malaria. As genomic research methods become more affordable and accessible, population-based research on infectious diseases will be able to examine the role of variation in human as well as pathogen genomes. This approach offers new opportunities for understanding infectious disease susceptibility, severity, treatment, control, and prevention.

  2. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  3. Bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, J.; Bone, I.

    1979-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with a bilateral sixth nerve palsy caused by infectious mononucleosis is described. The neurological presentation of infectious mononucleosis is discussed. PMID:225738

  4. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.

  5. Population Genomics of Infectious and Integrated Wolbachia pipientis Genomes in Drosophila ananassae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Bubnell, Jaclyn E.; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolution between Drosophila and its endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has many intriguing aspects. For example, Drosophila ananassae hosts two forms of W. pipientis genomes: One being the infectious bacterial genome and the other integrated into the host nuclear genome. Here, we characterize the infectious and integrated genomes of W. pipientis infecting D. ananassae (wAna), by genome sequencing 15 strains of D. ananassae that have either the infectious or integrated wAna genomes. Results indicate evolutionarily stable maternal transmission for the infectious wAna genome suggesting a relatively long-term coevolution with its host. In contrast, the integrated wAna genome showed pseudogene-like characteristics accumulating many variants that are predicted to have deleterious effects if present in an infectious bacterial genome. Phylogenomic analysis of sequence variation together with genotyping by polymerase chain reaction of large structural variations indicated several wAna variants among the eight infectious wAna genomes. In contrast, only a single wAna variant was found among the seven integrated wAna genomes examined in lines from Africa, south Asia, and south Pacific islands suggesting that the integration occurred once from a single infectious wAna genome and then spread geographically. Further analysis revealed that for all D. ananassae we examined with the integrated wAna genomes, the majority of the integrated wAna genomic regions is represented in at least two copies suggesting a double integration or single integration followed by an integrated genome duplication. The possible evolutionary mechanism underlying the widespread geographical presence of the duplicate integration of the wAna genome is an intriguing question remaining to be answered. PMID:26254486

  6. Approach to Anemia in Hospitalized Patients with Infectious Diseases; Is it Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari-Maleki, Taher; Khalili, Hossein; Karimzadeh, Iman; Jafari, Sirous

    2015-01-01

    Anemia of chronic diseases (ACD) is a common problem in patients with infectious diseases and can influence the quality of life and patients' survival. Despite the clinical importance of ACD, data are still lacking regarding this problem in the infectious diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, related factors, outcome and approaches to anemia in the infectious diseases ward. This retrospective study was performed to review the medical records of patients admitted to the infectious diseases department of Imam Khomeini hospital during a two-year period between 2009 and 2011. A standard protocol was developed to evaluate anemia. Patients' demographic data approaches to manage anemia and routine laboratory tests were recorded and compared with the protocol. Totally, 1,120 medical records were reviewed. ACD was recognized in 705 patients (63%). Only 5.1% of diagnostic and 8.7% of treatment approaches was based on the protocol. The majority of patients (89.4%) were received inappropriate treatment regarding. Mortality rate of patients with ACD was 3.4%. Moreover, a significant correlation between anemia and mortality was detected (r = 0.131; p = 0.026). A statistically significant correlation was also identified between patients' Hgb and ESR, CRP, reasons of admission, number of medications, and underlying diseases. In conclusion, results of this study suggested that ACD is a common problem in infectious diseases patients and significantly associated with patients' mortality. Moreover, the majority of studied patients were not received an appropriate diagnostic and treatment approach which arises more concerns regarding the management of ACD in infectious diseases setting.

  7. Endemic infectious diseases and biological warfare during the Gulf War: a decade of analysis and final concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, K C; Riddle, J; Trump, D H; Graham, J T

    2001-11-01

    Infectious diseases were one of the first health threats confronted by Coalition troops deployed to the Arabian desert in August 1990. On the basis of experiences in World War II, the major endemic infectious disease risks were thought to be sandfly fever, cutaneous leishmaniasis, diarrheal disease, and malaria. Although there was active surveillance, no case of sandfly fever and few other endemic infectious diseases were identified among over 500,000 U.S., British, and Canadian ground troops. In addition, there was no diagnosis of biological warfare (BW) exposure, and BW agents were not detected in clinical, environmental, or veterinary samples. The most common infectious disease problems were those associated with crowding (acute upper respiratory infections) and reduced levels of sanitation (travelers-type diarrhea). Only one endemic infectious disease has been confirmed as causing chronic health problems: visceral Leishmania tropica infection (viscerotropic leishmaniasis). However, this protozoan infection was diagnosed in only 12 U.S. veterans, and no new cases have been identified during the last 8 years. Infectious diseases were not a serious problem for Gulf War troops because of extensive preventive medicine efforts and favorable weather and geographic factors. Moreover, it is unlikely that an endemic infectious disease or a BW agent could cause chronic health problems and remain undetected over a 10-year period.

  8. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  9. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  10. Producing infectious enterovirus type 71 in a rapid strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin E-De

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is an etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, and recent HFMD epidemics worldwide have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case-fatality rates. EV71 contains a positive-sense single-stranded genome RNA of approximately 7400 bp in length which encodes a polyprotein with a single open reading frame (ORF, which is flanked by untranslated regions at both the 5' and 3' ends. Results A long distance RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify the full length genome cDNA of EV71 by using specific primes carrying a SP6 promoter. Then the in vitro synthesized RNA transcripts from the RT-PCR amplicons were then transfected into RD cells to produce the rescued virus. The rescued virus was further characterized by RT-PCR and indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA assay in comparison with the wild type virus. The rescued viruses were infectious on RD cells and neurovirulent when intracerebrally injected into suckling mice. Conclusions Thus, we established a rapid method to produce the infectious full length cDNA of EV71 directly from RNA preparations and specific mutations can be easily engineered into the rescued enterovirus genome by this method.

  11. An update on feline infectious peritonitis: virology and immunopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C

    2014-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) continues to be one of the most researched infectious diseases of cats. The relatively high mortality of FIP, especially for younger cats from catteries and shelters, should be reason enough to stimulate such intense interest. However, it is the complexity of the disease and the grudging manner in which it yields its secrets that most fascinate researchers. Feline leukemia virus infection was conquered in less than two decades and the mysteries of feline immunodeficiency virus were largely unraveled in several years. After a half century, FIP remains one of the last important infections of cats for which we have no single diagnostic test, no vaccine and no definitive explanations for how virus and host interact to cause disease. How can a ubiquitous and largely non-pathogenic enteric coronavirus transform into a highly lethal pathogen? What are the interactions between host and virus that determine both disease form (wet or dry) and outcome (death or resistance)? Why is it so difficult, and perhaps impossible, to develop a vaccine for FIP? What role do genetics play in disease susceptibility? This review will explore research conducted over the last 5 years that attempts to answer these and other questions. Although much has been learned about FIP in the last 5 years, the ultimate answers remain for yet more studies. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 1. Date: June 1, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 2. Date: June...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious mononucleosis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  14. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  15. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraj, J.; Sedlak, J.; Chorvath, B.; Rauko, P.

    1997-01-01

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  16. Purification of infectious adenovirus in two hours by ultracentrifugation and tangential flow filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugai, Hideyo; Yamasaki, Takahito; Hirose, Megumi; Inabe, Kumiko; Kujime, Yukari; Terashima, Miho; Liu, Bingbing; Tang, Hong; Zhao, Mujun; Murata, Takehide; Kimura, Makoto; Pan, Jianzhi; Obata, Yuichi; Hamada, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2005-01-01

    Adenoviruses are excellent vectors for gene transfer and are used extensively for high-level expression of the products of transgenes in living cells. The development of simple and rapid methods for the purification of stable infectious recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) remains a challenge. We report here a method for the purification of infectious adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) that involves ultracentrifugation on a cesium chloride gradient at 604,000g for 15 min at 4 deg C and tangential flow filtration. The entire procedure requires less than two hours and infectious Ad5 can be recovered at levels higher than 64% of the number of plaque-forming units (pfu) in the initial crude preparation of viruses. We have obtained titers of infectious purified Ad5 of 1.35 x 10 10 pfu/ml and a ratio of particle titer to infectious titer of seven. The method described here allows the rapid purification of rAds for studies of gene function in vivo and in vitro, as well as the rapid purification of Ad5

  17. Professional challenges and opportunities in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    The two closely linked specialties of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases face important challenges. We report the consensus of clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians assembled by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Both specialties have different training requirements in different European countries and are not universally recognised as professions. The specialties are rapidly evolving as they adapt to the changing demands within hospital practice, including the need to deal with emerging infections, rapidly increasing internationalisation, and immigration. Clinical microbiology needs to develop and master technological advances such as laboratory automation and an avalanche of new methods for rapid diagnostics. Simultaneously, the pressure for concentration, amalgamation, and out-sourcing of laboratory services is ever-increasing. Infectious disease physicians have to meet the professional challenge of subspecialisation and the continual need to find new niches for their skills. Despite these challenges, each of these specialties continues to thrive in Europe and will enjoy important opportunities over the next few years. The recently formed European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden, will increase demands in areas of surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance on both specialties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, β-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  19. Discovering network behind infectious disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.

  20. A Case Report of Infectious Mononucleosis after Curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movahedi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Epstein Barr Virus (EBV infection leading to Infectious Mononucleosis (IM is one of the etiologies of fever in women after curettage. EBV is a virus that can be transferred from carrier to the recipient through contact.

    The focus of this article is to bring more awareness to EBV as a rare cause of infection and fever after curettage procedure.

     

    Case Report

    This is a case of a woman who developed fever after curettage procedure. After a series of medical tests, the cause of her fever was found to be IM from an EBV infection. The emphasis of this report is to bring medical team’s attention to both common and uncommon etiologies of fever after an abortion procedure for better diagnosis and treatment of patients

  1. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  2. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha

    1998-01-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous

  5. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferguson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery.

  6. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for...

  7. A lipidomic concept in infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases resemble a great threat to the human health according to World Health Organization where about 17% of all deaths (≈9.2 million deaths in 2013 recorded are related to infectious diseases. The pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are the principle causes of infectious diseases. Ebola, AIDS, dengue, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis are among 216 infectious diseases found where the immunity represents the first line defense in infection. Lipidomic includes examination of different biological lipids in the biological cell. The lipidomic research covers all aspects of individual lipid molecule including its structure, function, connection with other cell constituents such as protein, lipid, and metabolite in both health and disease conditions. Details of cell biology obtained from different pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites provide a great data on molecular structure of host-pathogen relation and consequently on infection process. The lipids here play a very important role in many processes involved in host-pathogen relations. The role of lipid in host-pathogen link includes many processes in (1 structural host constituents, (2 host recognition, (3 intracellular transferring, and (4 energy and resource homeostasis during pathogen duplication. There are many lipid phosphatases, kinases, and lipases molecules that greatly involved in these processes and controlling pathogen expression and infection progress. The cell lipid metabolism depends on an adequate energy stores that push the infection to be accelerated and disease symptoms to be appeared. Consequently, future lipidomics studies are the basic for detecting the lipid role in host-pathogen relations which help in therapy advances and biomarkers development.

  8. Infectious myocarditis (Clinic, diagnostics, principles of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Finogeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective myocarditis can be considered as a case of myocardial damage caused by different infectious agents. Traditionally discusses the questions of diagnostics and treatment infectious myocarditis. The paper has repeatedly stressed the difficulty of clinical diagnosis, and the laboriousness and economic costs of laboratory tests and additional researches. Endomyocardial biopsy findings remain the gold standard for unequivocally establishing the diagnosis. However, it is technically extremely invasive test and can be performed only in specialized cardiology centers. The paper analyzes in detail not only own materials, but also results of researches published in numerous domestic and foreign sources of literature. Publication of «Infectious myocarditis» is necessary due to the fact that patients with a diagnosis of «Myocarditis » account for 11% of all cardiovascular disease in the world. Article is timely and necessary for many professionals, senior students of medical universities.

  9. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

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    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  10. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  11. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) virus in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Lasse; Neuvonen, Erkki; Hyytiäinen, Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994. PMID:17222341

  13. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV virus in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyytiäinen Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994.

  14. Visualization and analytics tools for infectious disease epidemiology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Au, Alan P; Detwiler, Landon Todd; Fu, Tsung-Chieh; Painter, Ian S; Abernethy, Neil F

    2014-10-01

    A myriad of new tools and algorithms have been developed to help public health professionals analyze and visualize the complex data used in infectious disease control. To better understand approaches to meet these users' information needs, we conducted a systematic literature review focused on the landscape of infectious disease visualization tools for public health professionals, with a special emphasis on geographic information systems (GIS), molecular epidemiology, and social network analysis. The objectives of this review are to: (1) identify public health user needs and preferences for infectious disease information visualization tools; (2) identify existing infectious disease information visualization tools and characterize their architecture and features; (3) identify commonalities among approaches applied to different data types; and (4) describe tool usability evaluation efforts and barriers to the adoption of such tools. We identified articles published in English from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 2013 from five bibliographic databases. Articles with a primary focus on infectious disease visualization tools, needs of public health users, or usability of information visualizations were included in the review. A total of 88 articles met our inclusion criteria. Users were found to have diverse needs, preferences and uses for infectious disease visualization tools, and the existing tools are correspondingly diverse. The architecture of the tools was inconsistently described, and few tools in the review discussed the incorporation of usability studies or plans for dissemination. Many studies identified concerns regarding data sharing, confidentiality and quality. Existing tools offer a range of features and functions that allow users to explore, analyze, and visualize their data, but the tools are often for siloed applications. Commonly cited barriers to widespread adoption included lack of organizational support, access issues, and misconceptions about tool

  15. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP in our section material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić-Kovačević Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP has been diagnozed in our section material in 23 cats, 19 Persian and 4 domestic, of both sexes, aged between 5 months and 8 years. The majority of the infected population were animals under 20 months of age. The macroscopic finding in most cats was of granulomatous character, and large quantities of goldenyellow gelatinous exudate were observed in the stomach cavity of 7 animals, corresponding to the exudative form of FIP. Granulomas were in most cases located in the abdomen wall, liver, spleen, omentum and serous membrane of intestines, and the histological structure was characterized by fibrinoid-necrotic centers with numerous lymphocytes, monocytes, angioblasts and fibroblasts. Immunohistochemically, feline corona virus (FCV antigens were exprimed in the cytoplasm of macrophages, more rarely in plasma cells in granulomas, and sometimes in necrotized areas.

  17. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  18. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  19. Invasive candidosis: contrasting the perceptions of infectious disease physicians and intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schultz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We analyze how infectious disease physicians perceive and manage invasive candidosis in Brazil, in comparison to intensive care unit specialists. Methods A 38-question survey was administered to 56 participants. Questions involved clinicians' perceptions of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidosis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The perception that candidemia not caused by Candida albicans occurs in less than 10% of patients is more commonly held by intensive care unit specialists (p=0.018. Infectious disease physicians almost always use antifungal drugs in the treatment of patients with candidemia, and antifungal drugs are not as frequently prescribed by intensive care unit specialists (p=0.006. Infectious disease physicians often do not use voriconazole when a patient's antifungal treatment has failed with fluconazole, which also differs from the behavior of intensive care unit specialists (p=0.019. Many intensive care unit specialists use fluconazole to treat candidemia in neutropenic patients previously exposed to fluconazole, in contrast to infectious disease physicians (p=0.024. Infectious disease physicians prefer echinocandins as a first choice in the treatment of unstable neutropenic patients more frequently than intensive care unit specialists (p=0.013. When candidemia is diagnosed, most infectious disease physicians perform fundoscopy (p=0.015, whereas intensive care unit specialists usually perform echocardiograms on all patients (p=0.054. Conclusions This study reveals a need to better educate physicians in Brazil regarding invasive candidosis. The appropriate management of this disease depends on more drug options being available in our country in addition to global coverage in private and public hospitals, thereby improving health care.

  20. De novo generation of infectious prions with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Huaiyi; Yu, Guohua; Yuan, Chonggang; Ma, Jiyan

    2013-12-01

    The prion hypothesis is strongly supported by the fact that prion infectivity and the pathogenic conformer of prion protein (PrP) are simultaneously propagated in vitro by the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, due to sPMCA's enormous amplification power, whether an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed recombinant PrP (rPrP) remains to be satisfactorily resolved. To address this question, we performed unseeded sPMCA with rPrP in a laboratory that has never been exposed to any native prions. Two types of proteinase K (PK)-resistant and self-perpetuating recombinant PrP conformers (rPrP-res) with PK-resistant cores of 17 or 14 kDa were generated. A bioassay revealed that rPrP-res(17kDa) was highly infectious, causing prion disease in wild-type mice with an average survival time of about 172 d. In contrast, rPrP-res(14kDa) completely failed to induce any disease. Our findings reveal that sPMCA is sufficient to initiate various self-perpetuating PK-resistant rPrP conformers, but not all of them possess in vivo infectivity. Moreover, generating an infectious prion in a prion-free environment establishes that an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed rPrP.

  1. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Harmless and Pathogenic Strains of Infectious Microalgae, Prototheca spp.

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    Jayaseelan Murugaiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P. spp are associated with rare algal infections of invertebrates termed protothecosis. Among the seven generally accepted species, P. zopfii genotype 2 (GT2 is associated with a severe form of bovine mastitis while P. blaschkeae causes the mild and sub-clinical form of mastitis. The reason behind the infectious nature of P. zopfii GT2, while genotype 1 (GT1 remains non-infectious, is not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the protein expression level difference between the genotypes of P. zopfii and P. blaschkeae. Cells were cultured to the mid-exponential phase, harvested, and processed for LC-MS analysis. Peptide data was acquired on an LTQ Orbitrap Velos, raw spectra were quantitatively analyzed with MaxQuant software and matching with the reference database of Chlorella variabilis and Auxenochlorella protothecoides resulted in the identification of 226 proteins. Comparison of an environmental strain with infectious strains resulted in the identification of 51 differentially expressed proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism, energy production and protein translation. The expression level of Hsp70 proteins and their role in the infectious process is worth further investigation. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005305.

  2. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

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    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  3. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    Full Text Available Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and

  4. The molecular genetics of inflammatory, autoimmune, and infectious diseases of the sinonasal tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Kathleen T

    2014-06-01

    The sinonasal tract is frequently affected by a variety of nonneoplastic inflammatory disease processes that are often multifactorial in their etiology but commonly have a molecular genetic component. To review the molecular genetics of a variety of nonneoplastic inflammatory diseases of the sinonasal tract. Inflammatory lesions of the sinonasal tract can be divided into 3 main categories: (1) chronic rhinosinusitis, (2) infectious diseases, and (3) autoimmune diseases/vasculitides. The molecular diagnosis and pathways of a variety of these inflammatory lesions are currently being elucidated and will shed light on disease pathogenesis and treatment. The sinonasal tract is frequently affected by inflammatory lesions that arise through complex interactions of environmental, infectious, and genetic factors. Because these lesions are all inflammatory in nature, the molecular pathology surrounding them is most commonly due to upregulation and down-regulation of genes that affect inflammatory responses and immune regulation.

  5. Radioisotopic studies on equine infectious anemia, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1973-01-01

    Red cell mass and blood volume of 16 thoroughbred horse, 11 healthy and 5 with naturally acquired equine infectious anemia, were determined by means of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes. The mean values obtained in healthy thoroughbred horses were as follows: red cell mass 40,64 and blood volume 102,32 ml/kg body weight. The mean red cell mass and blood volume in anemic horses were respectively 21,13 and 107,71 ml/Kg body weight. The difference in red cell mass value between the two groups was statistically significant (P [pt

  6. Unusual infectious mononucleosis complicated by vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimanta Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis (IM is a clinical syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. It manifests as fever, pharyngitis, malaise, adenopathy, and atypical lymphocytosis. Cardiovascular complications are thought to be rare in IM. There are very few case reports of EBV-associated vasculitides, like Kawasaki disease and systemic polyarteritis nodosa, however, involvement of the large caliber arteries like the aorta and its branches have been reported only scarcely. Myocarditis also is rare as an early manifestation of EBV infection. We present here a rare case of IM, presented initially with acute myocarditis and later with large-vessels arteritis.

  7. Selected emerging infectious diseases of squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James

    2013-05-01

    It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging Ranaviral Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Decline

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    Jacques Robert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae not only affect wild amphibian populations but also agriculture and international animal trade. Although, the prevalence of RV infections and die offs has markedly increased over the last decade, it is still unclear whether these viruses are direct causal agents of extinction or rather are the resulting (secondary consequences of weakened health of amphibian populations leading to increased susceptibility to viral pathogens. In either case, it is important to understand the critical role of host immune defense in controlling RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission; this is the focus of this review.

  9. Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus - infectious mononucleosis in an adult with liver failure, splenic rupture, and spontaneous esophageal bleeding with ensuing esophageal necrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Daniel; Hilswicht, Sarah; Schöb, Dominik S; von Trotha, Klaus T; Junge, Karsten; Gassler, Nikolaus; Truong, Son; Neumann, Ulf P; Binnebösel, Marcel

    2014-02-05

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome most commonly associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. The majority of patients with infectious mononucleosis recovers without apparent sequelae. However, infectious mononucleosis may be associated with several acute complications. In this report we present a rare case of esophageal rupture that has never been described in the literature before. We present the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian man affected by severe infectious mononucleosis complicated by fulminant hepatic failure, splenic rupture and esophageal necrosis. Although primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is rarely fatal, fulminant infection may occur - in this case leading to hepatic failure, splenic rupture and esophageal necrosis, subsequently making several surgical interventions necessary. We show here that infectious mononucleosis is not only a strictly medical condition, but can also lead to severe surgical complications.

  10. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.

  11. Vimentin Modulates Infectious Internalization of Human Papillomavirus 16 Pseudovirions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Graham, Lisa M; Lang, Dirk M; Blumenthal, Melissa J; Bergant Marušič, Martina; Katz, Arieh A

    2017-08-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract, with virtually all cases of cervical cancer being attributable to infection by oncogenic HPVs. However, the exact mechanism and receptors used by HPV to infect epithelial cells are controversial. The current entry model suggests that HPV initially attaches to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface, followed by conformational changes, cleavage by furin convertase, and subsequent transfer of the virus to an as-yet-unidentified high-affinity receptor. In line with this model, we established an in vitro infection system using the HSPG-deficient cell line pgsD677 together with HPV16 pseudovirions (HPV16-PsVs). While pgsD677 cells were nonpermissive for untreated HPV16-PsVs, furin cleavage of the particles led to a substantial increase in infection. Biochemical pulldown assays followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that furin-precleaved HPV16-PsVs specifically interacted with surface-expressed vimentin on pgsD677 cells. We further demonstrated that both furin-precleaved and uncleaved HPV16-PsVs colocalized with surface-expressed vimentin on pgsD677, HeLa, HaCaT, and NIKS cells, while binding of incoming viral particles to soluble vimentin protein before infection led to a substantial decrease in viral uptake. Interestingly, decreasing cell surface vimentin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in HeLa and NIKS cells significantly increased HPV16-PsV infectious internalization, while overexpression of vimentin had the opposite effect. The identification of vimentin as an HPV restriction factor enhances our understanding of the initial steps of HPV-host interaction and may lay the basis for the design of novel antiviral drugs preventing HPV internalization into epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Despite HPV being a highly prevalent sexually transmitted virus causing significant disease burden worldwide, particularly cancer of the cervix, cell surface

  12. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

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    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  13. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

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    Cécile Viboud

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing mathematical transmission models and improve disease forecasts.

  14. Interventions for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review of treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Torbicki, Emma; Oh, Justin; Mishra, Sharmistha; Page, Andrea V.; Boggild, Andrea K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) due to traveler?s diarrhea is the second most common illness seen in post-travel clinics, yet its optimal management remains unknown. We performed a systematic review to evaluate treatment efficacy in PI-IBS. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, CAB abstracts, and the Cochrane Library to February 3, 2014 for intervention studies of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of PI-IBS and examined the evidence...

  15. Prevalence of infectious diseases in Sonali chickens at Bogra Sadar Upazila, Bogra, Bangladesh

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    Md. Lipon Talukdar

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that several infectious diseases are commonly present in Sonali chicken in the study area of Bangladesh. Mixed infections are more prevalent as compared to single infection. Proper hygienic management and appropriate vaccination should be taken in consideration for effective control the diseases. Further microbiological and molecular diagnoses are suggested for detail studies of these diseases and their pathogens. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 39-44

  16. Antibiotic-Induced Rash in Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Ramos, Carroll L

    2017-02-01

    To provide an extensive review of case reports, epidemiological data, and the underlying mechanism of antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with concurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM). A MEDLINE literature search inclusive of the dates 1946 to June 2016 was performed using the search terms anti-bacterial agents and infectious mononucleosis. EMBASE (1980 to June 2016) was searched using the terms mononucleosis and antibiotic agent and drug eruption. References of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations and information. We selected English-language, primary literature, review articles, and mechanistic articles that addressed antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with concurrent IM. We assessed all case reports available for causality utilizing a modified Naranjo nomogram specifically designed for this subject. We assembled the available epidemiological data into tables to identify trends in incidence rates over the years. We identified 17 case reports of antibiotic-associated rash in patients with IM. The median Naranjo score was 6 (range = 1 to 8). The top 3 reported drugs were ampicillin, azithromycin, and amoxicillin. Incidence of this adverse effect was higher in the 1960s (55.6%, 45%, and 33%) than in 2013 (33% and 15%). The mechanism most commonly proposed is a transient virus-mediated immune alteration that sets the stage for loss of antigenic tolerance and the development of a reversible, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to the antibiotic. A reassessment of the long-held belief of the high incidence (80%-100%) of antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with IM seems prudent. Additional studies will be necessary to clarify this issue.

  17. Clustering of contacts relevant to the spread of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiong; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Kenward, Michael G; Melegaro, Alessia; Jit, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Infectious disease spread depends on contact rates between infectious and susceptible individuals. Transmission models are commonly informed using empirically collected contact data, but the relevance of different contact types to transmission is still not well understood. Some studies select contacts based on a single characteristic such as proximity (physical/non-physical), location, duration or frequency. This study aimed to explore whether clusters of contacts similar to each other across multiple characteristics could better explain disease transmission. Individual contact data from the POLYMOD survey in Poland, Great Britain, Belgium, Finland and Italy were grouped into clusters by the k medoids clustering algorithm with a Manhattan distance metric to stratify contacts using all four characteristics. Contact clusters were then used to fit a transmission model to sero-epidemiological data for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in each country. Across the five countries, 9-15 clusters were found to optimise both quality of clustering (measured using average silhouette width) and quality of fit (measured using several information criteria). Of these, 2-3 clusters were most relevant to VZV transmission, characterised by (i) 1-2 clusters of age-assortative contacts in schools, (ii) a cluster of less age-assortative contacts in non-school settings. Quality of fit was similar to using contacts stratified by a single characteristic, providing validation that single stratifications are appropriate. However, using clustering to stratify contacts using multiple characteristics provided insight into the structures underlying infection transmission, particularly the role of age-assortative contacts, involving school age children, for VZV transmission between households. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectious endophthalmitis in Boston keratoprosthesis: incidence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Irmgard; Martin, Kathryn V; Martin, Jacqueline N; Naumova, Elena N; Cadorette, James J; Sforza, J Tammy; Pineda, Roberto; Dohlman, Claes H

    2014-11-01

    To determine the cumulative worldwide incidence of infectious endophthalmitis and associated vision loss after Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) Type I/II implantation and to propose both safe and inexpensive prophylactic antibiotic regimens. Two retrospective methods were used to determine the incidence, visual outcomes and aetiologies of infectious endophthalmitis associated with the B-KPro divided per decade: (i) systematic review of the literature from 1990 through January 2013 and (ii) a surveillance survey sent to all surgeons who implanted B-KPros through 2010 with 1-year minimum follow-up. In addition, a single-Boston surgeon 20-year experience was examined. From 1990 through 2010, there were 4729 B-KPros implanted worldwide by 209 U.S. surgeons and 159 international surgeons. The endophthalmitis cumulative mean incidence declined from 12% during its first decade of use to about 3% during its second decade in the Unites States and about 5% internationally during the second decade. There remains a large incidence range both in the United States (1-12.5%) and internationally (up to 17%). Poor compliance with daily topical antibiotics is an important risk factor. While Gram-positive organisms remained dominant, fungal infections emerged during the second decade. Daily prophylactic topical antibiotics have dramatically reduced the endophthalmitis incidence. Although Gram-positive organisms are the most common aetiology, antimicrobials must be inclusive of Gram-negative organisms. Selection of prophylactic regimens should be tailored to local antibiotic susceptibility patterns, be cost-effective, and should not promote the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. An example of a broad-spectrum, low-cost prophylactic option for non-autoimmune patients includes trimethoprim/polymyxinB once daily. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

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    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusion. The remarkable ability of L pneumophila to infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells suggests a common strategy that exploits very fundamental cellular processes. The bacteria enter host cells via coiling phagocytosis and quickly subvert organelle trafficking events, leading to formation of a replicative phagosome in which the bacteria multiply. Vegetative growth continues for 8 to 10 h, after which the bacteria develop into a short, highly motile form called the ‘mature form’. The mature form exhibits a thickening of the cell wall, stains red with the Gimenez stain, and is between 10 and 100 times more infectious than agar-grown bacteria. Following host cell lysis, the released bacteria infect other host cells, in which the mature form differentiates into a Gimenez-negative vegetative form, and the cycle begins anew. Virulence of L pneumophila is considered to be multifactorial, and there is growing evidence for both stage specific and sequential gene expression. Thus, L pneumophila may be a good model system for dissecting events associated with the host-parasite interactions.

  20. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

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    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  1. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  2. Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

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    Elisabeth Sappenfield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis; there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.

  3. Microparticles as immune regulators in infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lung Ling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their clear relationship to immunology, few existing studies have examined potential role of microparticles (MP in infectious disease. Infection with pathogens usually leads to the expression of a range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as significant stress in both infected and uninfected cells. It is thus reasonable to infer from studies to date that infection-associated inflammation also leads to MP production. MP are produced by most of the major cell types in the immune system, and appear to be involved at both the innate and adaptive levels, potentially serving different functions at each level. Thus, MP do not appear to have a universal function; instead their functions are source- or stimulus-dependent, although likely to be primarily either pro- or anti-inflammatory. Importantly, in infectious diseases MP may have the ability to deliver antigen to APC via the biological cargo acquired from their cells of origin. Another potential benefit of MP would be to transfer and/or disseminate phenotype and function to target cells. However, MP may also potentially be manipulated, particularly by intracellular pathogens for survival advantage.

  4. Splenic Infarction in Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Samuele; Abate, Maria Valentina; Chinello, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of a febrile patient with acute abdominal pain represents a frequent yet possibly challenging situation in the emergency department (ED). Splenic infarction is an uncommon complication of infectious mononucleosis, and may have a wide range of clinical presentations, from dramatic to more subtle. Its pathogenesis is still incompletely understood, yet it may be associated with the occurrence of transient prothrombotic factors. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with fever, sore throat, left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and splenomegaly, with no history of recent trauma. Laboratory tests revealed a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and positive lupus anticoagulant. Abdominal ultrasonography showed several hypoechoic areas in the spleen consistent with multiple infarctions. Magnetic resonance imaging eventually confirmed the diagnosis. He was admitted for observation and supportive treatment, and was discharged in good condition after 7 days. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous splenic infarction should be considered in the differential list of patients presenting with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and features of infectious mononucleosis; the diagnosis, however, may not be straightforward, as clinical presentation may also be subtle, and abdominal ultrasonography, which is often used as a first-line imaging modality in pediatric EDs, has low sensitivity in this scenario and may easily miss it. Furthermore, although treatment is mainly supportive, close observation for possible complications is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals.

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  7. A comparative study between infectious and systemic inflammation

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    Anindhya Sundar Das

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immune system may occur as a result of either external (mostly infection-mediated inflammation or internal factors (systemic inflammation. Distinct stimuli act on the immune cells to induce diverse pathways leading to characteristic gene expressions in these cases. Bacterial inflammation, caused primarily by its lipopolysaccharides (LPS, conceives an array of diseases including intestinal bowel disease (IBD, ulcerative colitis and sepsis. In contrast, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 or TNF-α leads to chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Castleman’s disease, etc. It is important to understand the signatures of infectious and systemic gene expression for better designing of treatment regime against inflammatory diseases. To understand the distinctive pattern of gene expression between infectious inflammation and systemic inflammation, THP-1 macrophages were treated individually with LPS (100 ng/mL, IL-6 (50 ng/mL or TNF-α (10 ng/mL and global transcriptomic analysis was performed using Agilent’s human 8x15K array. The common set of differentially expressed genes in IL-6 and TNF-α-treated cohorts were compared with LPS-treated cohorts. Our analysis revealed that 2743 and 150 genes contributed to LPS-mediated inflammation and systemic inflammation with respect to untreated samples, respectively (fold change ≥ 1.5. 868 commonly expressed genes contributed to systemic inflammation with respect to LPS-mediated inflammation. Among these commonly expressed genes, only 68 genes were observed to contribute to both types of inflammation, suggesting their importance in activation of diverse pathways in LPS-mediated and systemic inflammation. A detailed functional annotation of these genes revealed that EGR1, JUN, NF-kB, REL, STAT-1 and BCL-3 are important transcription factors (TFs for distinctive signatures between these two types of inflammation

  8. Smectite for acute infectious diarrhoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Cuello-García, Carlos A; Florez, Ivan D; Pérez-Pico, Víctor M

    2018-04-25

    As mortality secondary to acute infectious diarrhoea has decreased worldwide, the focus shifts to adjuvant therapies to lessen the burden of disease. Smectite, a medicinal clay, could offer a complementary intervention to reduce the duration of diarrhoea. To assess the effects of smectite for treating acute infectious diarrhoea in children. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase (Ovid), LILACS, reference lists from studies and previous reviews, and conference abstracts, up to 27 June 2017. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing smectite to a control group in children aged one month to 18 years old with acute infectious diarrhoea. Two review authors independently screened abstracts and the full texts for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Our primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and clinical resolution at day 3. We summarized continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) and dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we pooled data in meta-analyses and assessed heterogeneity. We explored publication bias using a funnel plot. Eighteen trials with 2616 children met our inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in both ambulatory and in-hospital settings, and in both high-income and low- or middle-income countries. Most studies included children with rotavirus infections, and half included breastfed children.Smectite may reduce the duration of diarrhoea by approximately a day (MD -24.38 hours, 95% CI -30.91 to -17.85; 14 studies; 2209 children; low-certainty evidence); may increase clinical resolution at day 3 (risk ratio (RR) 2.10, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.39; 5 trials; 312 children; low-certainty evidence); and may reduce stool output (MD -11.37, 95% CI -21.94 to -0.79; 3 studies; 634 children; low-certainty evidence).We are uncertain whether smectite reduces

  9. Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: clinical, radiological and pulmonary function sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.B.; Masel, J.P.; Masters, B.

    1998-01-01

    Background. There are few data on clinical, chest radiograph (CXR) or pulmonary function sequelae in children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (pulmonary crepitations, abnormalities on CXR, CT, nuclear medicine scans, or bronchography, with a history of past pulmonary infection and in the absence of other underlying pathology). Objective. To analyse the methodology of diagnosis, long-term clinical imaging and pulmonary function sequelae of post-infectious BO in children. Materials and methods. Imaging (CXRs, CT and nuclear lung scans) and clinical histories of 19 children were analysed. Results. Clinical follow-up (mean 6.8 years), revealed a high incidence of continuing problems (asthma and bronchiectasis). Fixed airway obstruction was the most common pulmonary function sequela. The sequelae on follow-up (mean 5.8 years) CXR were classified into five patterns which are illustrated: unilateral hyperlucency of an enlarged lung/part of lung; complete collapse of the affected lobe; unilateral hyperlucency of a small or normal-sized lung; bilateral hyperlucent lungs and a mixed pattern of persistent collapse, hyperlucency and peribronchial thickening. Conclusion. Long-term observations in children with post-infectious BO should be undertaken to detect bronchiectasis and obstructive airway disease. Sequelae evident on CXR, other than those previously described, can be found. Bronchography and/or lung biopsy are not usually required for the diagnosis of post-infectious BO. (orig.)

  10. Clinical characteristics, risk factors and pre-surgical evaluation of post-infectious epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellner, J; Trinka, E

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent complication of central nervous system (CNS) infections. Post-infectious epilepsy is commonly refractory to medical treatment and plays a pivotal role for the poor long-term outcome of CNS infections. To provide an overview of clinical characteristics and risk factors of seizures associated with CNS infections. In addition, to summarize the state of the art of anticonvulsive treatment and the pre-surgical evaluation process in refractory cases. A comprehensive literature search for articles published between January 1970 and December 2011 was carried out. The occurrence of seizures during the acute course of meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscess is the main risk factor for the development of post-infectious epilepsy. There is a shortage of trials evaluating the efficacy of prophylactic and symptomatic treatment during the course of acute infection. Moreover, there are no randomized-controlled trials studying anticonvulsive drugs and their combinations for the management of post-infectious epilepsy. In a selected group of patients, however, medically refractory focal epilepsy is potentially curable by surgery. Further studies are required to improve the pathogenetic understanding of post-infectious epilepsy in order to develop preventive measures as well as to evaluate additional medical and surgical treatment strategies for the patients currently not considered for surgery. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  11. Analysis Of Clinical, Haematological And Biochemical Parameters In Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis

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    Canović Petar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV usually occurs in early childhood and often does not present clinical symptoms. More than 90% of adults are infected with this virus. A primary infection that occurs in adolescence or adulthood is usually clinically presented as infectious mononucleosis with a triad of symptoms: fever, lymphadenopathy and pharyngitis. Our retrospective study included 51 patients with a median age of 17 (9-23 years and serologically confirmed infectious mononucleosis. All patients with infectious mononucleosis were treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at the Clinical Center in Kragujevac during 2013. We analysed the clinical, haematological and laboratory parameters of patients. The aspartate-aminotransferase levels were increased in 40 patients, with a mean value of 116.24 (±93.22; the alanine-aminotransferase levels were increased in 44 patients, with a mean value of 189.24 (±196.69. Lymphadenopathy was the most common clinical feature upon admission in 49 patients (96%; 38 patients (74.5% had splenomegaly, and 20 (39% had hepatomegaly. Twenty-six patients (51% had leukocytosis with lymphocytosis, while 15 (75% of the 20 who had a normal leukocyte count also had lymphocytosis. In the present study, we updated the clinical, haematological and laboratory parameters, which may lead to the establishment of an accurate diagnosis and promote further treatment of the patients.

  12. "Nanoantibiotics": a new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ae Jung; Kwon, Young Jik

    2011-12-10

    Despite the fact that we live in an era of advanced and innovative technologies for elucidating underlying mechanisms of diseases and molecularly designing new drugs, infectious diseases continue to be one of the greatest health challenges worldwide. The main drawbacks for conventional antimicrobial agents are the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. Drug resistance enforces high dose administration of antibiotics, often generating intolerable toxicity, development of new antibiotics, and requests for significant economic, labor, and time investments. Recently, nontraditional antibiotic agents have been of tremendous interest in overcoming resistance that is developed by several pathogenic microorganisms against most of the commonly used antibiotics. Especially, several classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) and nanosized carriers for antibiotics delivery have proven their effectiveness for treating infectious diseases, including antibiotics resistant ones, in vitro as well as in animal models. This review summarizes emerging efforts in combating against infectious diseases, particularly using antimicrobial NPs and antibiotics delivery systems as new tools to tackle the current challenges in treating infectious diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious...... mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of infectious mononucleosis patients in Denmark and Sweden were...... statistical tests including the trend tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 1381 cancers were observed during 689 619 person-years of follow-up among 38 562 infectious mononucleosis patients (SIR = 1. 03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.09). Apart from Hodgkin's disease (SIR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1...

  14. Infectious mononucleosis mimicking lymphoma: distinguishing morphological and immunophenotypic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Abner; Ferry, Judith A; Soupir, Chad P; Hasserjian, Robert P; Harris, Nancy L; Zukerberg, Lawrence R

    2012-08-01

    The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection) is usually made on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. However, an atypical clinical presentation occasionally results in a lymph node or tonsillar biopsy. The morphological features of EBV-infected lymphoid tissue can easily mimic lymphoma. Furthermore, the immunophenotype of the immunoblasts has not been well characterized. To assess the morphological spectrum of acute EBV infection and the utility of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing difficult cases that resemble lymphoma, we reviewed 18 cases of acute EBV infection submitted in consultation to our institution with an initial diagnosis of/or suspicion for lymphoma. Patients included nine male and nine female individuals with a median age of 18 years (range 9-69). Biopsies were obtained from lymph nodes (3/18) or Waldeyer's ring (15/18). Infectious mononucleosis was confirmed by monospot or serological assays in 72% of cases (13/18). All cases featured architectural distortion by a polymorphous infiltrate with an immunoblastic proliferation, sometimes forming sheets. Reed-Sternberg-like cells were present in 8/18 (44%) of the cases. Infiltrates were often accompanied by necrosis (10/18) and mucosal ulceration (6/15). The majority of immunoblasts in all cases were CD20+ B cells with a post-germinal center immunophenotype (strongly positive for MUM1/IRF4 (18/18), CD10- (18/18 negative) and BCL-6- (16/18 negative; 2/18 faint BCL-6 expression in mononucleosis, and warrants additional consideration before a diagnosis of lymphoma is made.

  15. Assessment of Infectious Waste Management Practices at Hospital with Excellent Accreditation Level in Bandung, Cimahi and East Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Novi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the procedures available and methods of handling and disposing of infectious waste at Military hospital with Excellent Accreditation level in Bandung, Cimahi and East Jakarta, Indonesia. A total three (3 military hospitals with equal type of hospital and level accreditation were surveyed during the course of this research. The methods consisted of survey and interview with the authorities of the hospital and the personal involved in the management of the generated waste. The information was collected using forms specially developed for this purpose. Site visits were conducted to support and supplement information gathered in the survey. Assessment of infectious waste handling divided into six parameters: Hospital policy at organizational structure, status of cleaning services worker, classification/segregation process, collect and transport the infectious waste, condition of temporary storage of infectious waste and disposal phase of infectious waste. The result showed that the hospital with highest level of accreditation have less appropriate practices when it comes to segregation, collecting, storage and disposal of waste generated in comparison to developed country. It appears that hospital authorities should pay better attention to educational planning, organizational resources and supervision at infectious waste management.

  16. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nepal based on hypervariable region of VP2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2005-01-01

    Two Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates, NP1SSH and NP2K were obtained from a severe infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Nepal in 2002. The hypervariable (HV) region of VP2 gene (1326 bp) of the isolates was generated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The obtained nucleotide sequences were compared with those of twenty other IBDV isolates/strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on this comparison revealed that NP1SSH and NP2K clustered with very virulent (vv) IBDV strains of serotype 1. In contrast, classical, Australian classical and attenuated strains of serotype 1 and avirulent IBDV strains of serotype 2 formed a different cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two isolates showed a 98.3% identity with each other and 97.1% and 98.3% identities, respectively with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolates/strains. Three amino acids substitutions at positions 300 (E-->A), 308 (I-->F) and 334 (A-->P) within the HV region were common for both the isolates. The amino acids substitutions at positions 27 (S-->T), 28 (I-->T), 31 (D-->A), 36 (H-->Y), 135 (E-->G), 223 (G-->S), 225 (V-->I), 351 (L-->I), 352 (V-->E) and 399 (I-->S) for NP1SSH and at position 438 (I-->S) for NP2K were unique and differed from other IBDV isolates/strains. NP1SSH and NP2K showed highest similarity (97.8%) with the BD399 strain from Bangladesh as compared with other vvIBDV isolates/strains. We conclude that the NP1SSH and NP2K isolates of IBDV from Nepal represent vvIBDV of serotype 1.

  17. Chimeric infectious DNA clones, chimeric porcine circoviruses and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to infectious DNA clones, infectious chimeric DNA clones of porcine circovirus (PCV), vaccines and means of protecting pigs against viral infection or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by PCV2. The new chimeric infectious DNA clone and its derived, avirulent chimeric virus are constructed from the nonpathogenic PCV1 in which the immunogenic ORF gene of the pathogenic PCV2 replaces a gene of the nonpathogenic PCV1, preferably in the same pos...

  18. [Epidemiology of imported infectious diseases in China, 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Wang, X; Ren, R Q; Zhou, L; Tu, W W; Ni, D X; Li, Q; Feng, Z J; Zhang, Y P

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 were used to conduct data cleaning and analysis. Results: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 16 206 imported cases of infectious diseases were reported in China. Of all the cases, 83.12% (13 471 cases) were malaria cases, followed by dengue fever (2 628 cases, 16.22%). The majority of the imported cases were males (14 522 cases, 89.61%). Most cases were aged 20-50 years. Except Zika virus disease and yellow fever, which were mainly reported before and after spring festival, other imported infectious diseases mainly occurred in summer and autumn. The epidemic in affected provinces varied with the types of infectious diseases, and Yunnan reported the largest case number of imported infectious diseases, followed by Jiangsu, Guangxi and Guangdong. The imported cases were mainly from Asian countries, such as Burma, and African countries, such as Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana, which also varied with the types of infectious diseases. Conclusions: We should pay more attention to imported infectious diseases and strengthen the prevention and control measures in our country. In order to reduce the incidence of imported infectious diseases, the health education should be enforced for persons who plan to travel abroad and the active surveillance should be strengthened for returned travelers.

  19. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules in an Immunocompetent Adolescent with Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Praveena Nediyara; Puliyel, Mammen; Myers, Melissa; Abughali, Nazha

    2018-02-15

    Infectious mononucleosis is usually a self-limiting illness, but can be rarely associated with complications. A 17-year-old boy with Epstein-Barr virus related infectious mononucleosis and cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia with incidentally noted multiple pulmonary nodules. Nodules regressed over the next few weeks without specific therapy. Pediatricians need to be aware of this rare clinical presentation of infectious mononucleosis so that further invasive testing can be avoided.

  20. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  1. Circle of Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2012-01-01

    a common professional language like in mathematics, colour and music. The result is a weaker professionalism in the aesthetic competences compared to the professionalism and competences in other areas. A research project [1] on contrasts or opposites in form investigated the phenomenon in the fields...

  2. Prevention of Infectious Mastitis by Oral Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 During Late Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leónides; Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Manzano, Susana; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Virginia; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that oral administration of lactobacilli can be an efficient approach to treat lactational infectious mastitis. In this trial, we have evaluated the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 to prevent this condition when orally administered during late pregnancy to women who had experienced infectious mastitis after previous pregnancies. In this study, 108 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Those in the probiotic group (n = 55) ingested daily 9 log10 colony-forming units of L. salivarius PS2 from approximately week 30 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas those in the placebo group (n = 53) received a placebo. The occurrence of mastitis was evaluated during the first 3 months after delivery. Globally, 44 of 108 women (41%) developed mastitis; however, the percentage of women with mastitis in the probiotic group (25% [n = 14]) was significantly lower than in the control group (57% [n = 30]). When mastitis occurred, the milk bacterial counts in the probiotic group were significantly lower than those obtained in the placebo group. Oral administration of L. salivarius PS2 during late pregnancy appears to be an efficient method to prevent infectious mastitis in a susceptible population. NCT01505361. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Role of Urbanization, Land-Use Diversity, and Livestock Intensification in Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh; Castrence, Miguel; Nong, Duong; Spencer, James; Lam, Nguyen; Finucane, Melissa; Duc Vien, Tran; Wilcox, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) continue to significantly threaten human and animal health. While there has been some progress in identifying underlying proximal driving forces and causal mechanisms of disease emergence, the role of distal factors is most poorly understood. This article focuses on analyzing the statistical association between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and urbanization, land-use diversity and poultry intensification. A special form of the urban transiti...

  4. Effect of Experience of Internal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future Infectious Disease Fellowship Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Experience of !ntcrnal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future lntCctious Di~casc Fcllo\\vship Application Sb. GRANT N_UMBER...undefined. Since 2008 at our institution. internal medicine (!!vi) residents have been required to do a four-\\\\’eek inpatient !D rotation as an intern... Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Fut ure Infectious Disease Fellowship Application ~ Poeter# 1440 .,...._,: OVfil"S~ ti

  5. Genetics and pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. These data demonstrate distinctive circulating virulent and avirulent strains in natural populations. In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional potential differentiated healthy cats from cats with FIP. These findings may have potential as diagnostic markers for virulent FIP-associated FCoV.

  6. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  7. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  8. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  9. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  11. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Daegu Hyosung Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suh and Joo MR Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance.

  13. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won; Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin

    2004-01-01

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance

  14. Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

  15. Feline Coronaviruses: Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, G; Thiel, H-J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins. We also review the current classification of FCoVs into distinct serotypes and biotypes, cellular receptors of FCoVs and their presumed role in viral virulence, and discuss other aspects of FIPV-induced pathogenesis. Our current knowledge of genetic differences between FECVs and FIPVs has been mainly based on comparative sequence analyses that revealed "discriminatory" mutations that are present in FIPVs but not in FECVs. Most of these mutations result in amino acid substitutions in the S protein and these may have a critical role in the switch from FECV to FIPV. In most cases, the precise roles of these mutations in the molecular pathogenesis of FIP have not been tested experimentally in the natural host, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools including genetically engineered virus mutants. We discuss the recent progress in the development of FCoV reverse genetics systems suitable to generate recombinant field viruses containing appropriate mutations for in vivo studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. A Systematic Review Regarding Tonometry and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Nicole; Hodge, William; Li, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    Tonometry has been identified as a common method for measuring the intraocular pressure in patients. The direct contact between the tonometer and the eye may contribute to the risk of cross infection, especially of viral particles, from one patient to another. A systematic review was undertaken to address the likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and prion diseases transmission through the use of tonometers. Additionally, a comparison of the current tonometer disinfection methods is provided to assist with identifying which technique effectively reduces the risk of disease transmission. An electronic literature search was conducted using the following databases: Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Biosis Previews, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Dissertation indexes were also searched, and these included: Dissertations and Abstracts, and Dissertations and Abstracts - UK/Ireland. Additionally, the Clinicaltrials.gov trial registry was searched to identify any other relevant literature. Two independent reviewers critically appraised the articles retrieved through the literature search. In total, 11 unique studies were deemed relevant for this systematic review. The available evidence demonstrated that the use of tonometers contributes to the transmission of these infectious diseases in vitro . The results also demonstrated variability in determining the most effective tonometer sterilization technique against these infectious diseases in vitro . There was limited evidence available regarding the transmission of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and prion diseases through the use of tonometers. Additionally, due to the variability regarding the most effective sterilization techniques, it is difficult to identify which sterilization technique is most effective or adequately effective against these infectious diseases. Future research studies regarding infectious disease transmission through tonometry and

  18. A Systematic Review Regarding Tonometry and the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Nicole; Hodge, William; Li, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Tonometry has been identified as a common method for measuring the intraocular pressure in patients. The direct contact between the tonometer and the eye may contribute to the risk of cross infection, especially of viral particles, from one patient to another. A systematic review was undertaken to address the likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and prion diseases transmission through the use of tonometers. Additionally, a comparison of the current tonometer disinfection methods is provided to assist with identifying which technique effectively reduces the risk of disease transmission. An electronic literature search was conducted using the following databases: Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Biosis Previews, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Dissertation indexes were also searched, and these included: Dissertations and Abstracts, and Dissertations and Abstracts - UK/Ireland. Additionally, the Clinicaltrials.gov trial registry was searched to identify any other relevant literature. Two independent reviewers critically appraised the articles retrieved through the literature search. In total, 11 unique studies were deemed relevant for this systematic review. The available evidence demonstrated that the use of tonometers contributes to the transmission of these infectious diseases in vitro. The results also demonstrated variability in determining the most effective tonometer sterilization technique against these infectious diseases in vitro. There was limited evidence available regarding the transmission of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and prion diseases through the use of tonometers. Additionally, due to the variability regarding the most effective sterilization techniques, it is difficult to identify which sterilization technique is most effective or adequately effective against these infectious diseases. Future research studies regarding infectious disease transmission through tonometry and

  19. Spatial distribution of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases in China: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Fu, Yang; Liu, Jinlin; Mao, Ying

    2018-01-01

    China is the largest developing country with a relatively developed public health system. To further prevent and eliminate the spread of infectious diseases, China has listed 39 notifiable infectious diseases characterized by wide prevalence or great harm, and classified them into classes A, B, and C, with severity decreasing across classes. Class A diseases have been almost eradicated in China, thus making class B diseases a priority in infectious disease prevention and control. In this retrospective study, we analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases that remain active all over China. Global and local Moran's I and corresponding graphic tools are adopted to explore and visualize the global and local spatial distribution of the incidence of the selected epidemics, respectively. Inter-correlations of clustering patterns of each pair of diseases and a cumulative summary of the high/low cluster frequency of the provincial units are also provided by means of figures and maps. Of the 12 most commonly notifiable class B infectious diseases, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis show high incidence rates and account for more than half of the reported cases. Almost all the diseases, except pertussis, exhibit positive spatial autocorrelation at the provincial level. All diseases feature varying spatial concentrations. Nevertheless, associations exist between spatial distribution patterns, with some provincial units displaying the same type of cluster features for two or more infectious diseases. Overall, high-low (unit with high incidence surrounded by units with high incidence, the same below) and high-high spatial cluster areas tend to be prevalent in the provincial units located in western and southwest China, whereas low-low and low-high spatial cluster areas abound in provincial units in north and east China. Despite the various distribution patterns of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases, certain similarities between

  20. Infectious endocardial intracardiac defibrillator lead, infectious pericarditis, and delayed constrictive pericarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator (ICD since 1980s is becoming more popular these days. The rate of both, endocarditis and constrictive pericarditis are low but it still needs attention. We are reporting a rare case of ICD endocarditis as a result of toe infection in a diabetic patient. This was followed by infectious pericarditis after device removal by open heart surgery and then delayed constrictive pericarditis.

  1. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance and phylogenetic group patterns in human and porcine urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Krag, L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals such as pigs. The most frequent infectious agent in such infections is Escherichia coli. Virulence characteristics of E. coli UTI strains range from highly virulent pyelonephritis strains...... to relatively benign asymptomatic bacteriuria strains. Here we analyse a spectrum of porcine and human UTI E. coli strains with respect to their antibiotic resistance patterns and their phylogenetic groups, determined by multiplex PCR. The clonal profiles of the strains differed profoundly; whereas human...

  2. Infectious uveitis. New developments in etiology and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, L.

    2009-01-01

    Uveitis is an inflammation of the inner-eye and is initiated by various infectious and noninfectious causes. In a large portion of patients the etiology is unknown and might be associated with until now undiagnosed infections.The identification of infectious uveitis is of crucial importance since

  3. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  6. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  7. Molecular cloning of S1 glycoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro protein expression is an important method of obtaining large amounts of viral proteins to investigate their biological properties. The S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus, due to its effective immune-dominant role is an appropriate candidate for production of recombinant vaccine against infectious bronchitis ...

  8. Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K.; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Bedu-Addo, George

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4–15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38–52%), for malnutrition 50% (43–57%) and for CRFs 16% (11–21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21–34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2–9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3–11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted. PMID:28727775

  9. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  10. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  11. A complete categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garira, Winston

    2017-12-01

    Modelling of infectious disease systems has entered a new era in which disease modellers are increasingly turning to multiscale modelling to extend traditional modelling frameworks into new application areas and to achieve higher levels of detail and accuracy in characterizing infectious disease systems. In this paper we present a categorization framework for categorizing multiscale models of infectious disease systems. The categorization framework consists of five integration frameworks and five criteria. We use the categorization framework to give a complete categorization of host-level immuno-epidemiological models (HL-IEMs). This categorization framework is also shown to be applicable in categorizing other types of multiscale models of infectious diseases beyond HL-IEMs through modifying the initial categorization framework presented in this study. Categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems in this way is useful in bringing some order to the discussion on the structure of these multiscale models.

  12. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  13. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near......-exponential growth, while the districts of Bomi in Liberia and Kenema in Sierra Leone displayed near constant incidences.Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon...

  14. Infectious mononucleosis with atypical manifestations accompanied by transient IgM antibody response for cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Funada, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Takako; Fujinami, Haruka; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Murakami, Jun; Kudo, Takahiko; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2011-10-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome caused by primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is common in adolescents. In adults, particularly in elderly people, the clinical picture of IM tends to be atypical, often leading to a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is also complicated because infection with EBV can induce the synthesis of cross-reacting immunoglobulin M antibodies for other herpesviruses. We report an unusual case of infectious mononucleosis in a 34-year-old immunocompetent adult. Epidemiological studies indicate that the average age of primary EBV infection in developed countries is increasing. IM with atypical presentation will be a diagnostic challenge in the future as the number of EBV-naïve adults increases.

  15. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

  16. Prion remains infectious after passage through digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt C VerCauteren

    Full Text Available Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos, have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196-231 d postinoculation (x =198; 95% CI: 210-216 and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces (ˆp=1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0. Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases.

  17. Modeling Common-Sense Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    This paper presents a methodology for efficient synthesis of dynamical model simulating a common-sense decision making process. The approach is based upon the extension of the physics' First Principles that includes behavior of living systems. The new architecture consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-base and incorporating it in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions.

  18. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  19. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  20. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Macrolides: A Canadian Infectious Disease Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S McKenna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of erythromycin in 1965, no new compounds from the macrolide antimicrobial class were licensed in Canada until the 1990s. Clarithromycin and azithromycin, since their introduction, have become important agents for treating a number of common and uncommon infectious diseases. They have become prime agents in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, and have revolutionized the management of both genital chlamydial infections, by the use of single-dose therapy with azithromycin, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, by the use of clarithromycin. The improvement of clarithromycin and azithromycin over the gastrointestinal intolerability of erythromycin has led to supplanting the use of the latter for many primary care physicians. Unfortunately, the use of these agents has also increased the likelihood for misuse and has raised concerns about a resultant increase in the rates of macrolide resistance in many important pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This paper reviews the pharmacology and evidence for the current indications for use of these newer agents, and provides recommendations for appropriate use.

  2. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  3. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    Civil society and its philanthropic and voluntary organisations are currently experiencing public and political attention and demands to safeguard society’s ‘common good’ through social cohesion and as providers of welfare services. This has raised the question by both practitioners and researchers...... that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift......-giving concepts, practices and operational forms throughout history have played a significant role in defining the common good and its future avenues. Through an analytical attitude based on microhistory, conceptual history and the sociology of translation it shows that civil society’s institutional logic always...

  4. Peritonite infecciosa felina: 13 casos Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Numa pesquisa realizada em tecidos de 638 gatos necropsiados, foram encontrados 13 casos (2,03% de peritonite infecciosa felina. Oito desses casos (61,53% eram da forma efusiva ou úmida, e 5 apresentavam a forma seca ou não-efusiva da doença. A idade dos gatos afetados variou de 2 meses a 3 anos. Doze gatos (92,30% eram de raças puras, cinco deles (38,47% eram oriundos de ambientes onde havia mais de um gato e três eram provenientes de um mesmo gatil. A duração da doença clínica foi de 7 a 45 dias e os sinais clínicos incluíram emagrecimento, anorexia, diarréia, icterícia, vômito, linfadenopatia e distúrbios neurológicos. Os achados de necropsia na forma úmida incluíam excesso de líquido viscoso (50ml a 1 litro, translúcido ou levemente opaco na cavidade peritoneal e, em um caso, na cavidade torácica. Exsudato fibrinoso cobria as superfícies serosas dos órgãos abdominais dando-lhes aspecto granular e brancacento. Na forma seca, havia múltiplos focos granulomatosos sob a superfície serosa e para o interior do parênquima de órgãos abdominais; esses achados eram particularmente proeminentes nos rins. Opacidade de córnea foi observada em um gato. Histologicamente, havia graus variáveis de vasculite e perivasculite piogranulomatosa, particularmente em arteríolas. Meningite ou meningoencefalite piogranulomatosa foram observadas em três gatos com a forma seca de peritonite infecciosa felina.In a survey carried out in tissue specimens from 638 necropsied cats, 13 cases (2.03% of feline infectious peritonitis were found. Eight of those (61.53% were of the effusive or wet form and five had the dry non-effusive form of the disease. Ages of affected cats varied from 2-months to 3 yeas. Twelve affected cats (92.30% were purebreds, five of these cats (38.47% came from households with more than one cat and three of them came from the same comercial cat raising facility. The duration of clinical courses were 7-45 days and

  5. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models for Infectious Disease and Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Ott, C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultures hold enormous potential to advance our understanding of infectious disease and to effectively translate basic cellular research into clinical applications. Using novel NASA bioreactor technology, the rotating wall vessel (RWV), we have engineered physiologically relevant 3-D human tissue culture models for infectious disease studies. The design of the RWV is based on the understanding that organs and tissues function in a 3-D environment, and that this 3-D architecture is critical for the differentiated form and function of tissues in vivo. The RWV provides large numbers of cells which are amenable to a wide variety of experimental manipulations and provides an easy, reproducible, and cost-effective approach to enhance differentiated features of cell culture models.

  6. Visible-light-responsive ZnCuO nanoparticles: benign photodynamic killers of infectious protozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Ayub, Attiya; Muhammad, Bakhtiar; Khan, Momin; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2015-01-01

    Human beings suffer from several infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans. Recently, there has been a great interest in developing biocompatible nanostructures to deal with infectious agents. This study investigated benign ZnCuO nanostructures that were visible-light-responsive due to the resident copper in the lattice. The nanostructures were synthesized through a size-controlled hot-injection process, which was adaptable to the surface ligation processes. The nanostructures were then characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and photoluminescence analysis to measure crystallite nature, size, luminescence, composition, and band-gap analyses. Antiprotozoal efficiency of the current nanoparticles revealed the photodynamic killing of Leishmania protozoan, thus acting as efficient metal-based photosensitizers. The crystalline nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility when tested for macrophage toxicity and in hemolysis assays. The study opens a wide avenue for using toxic material in resident nontoxic forms as an effective antiprotozoal treatment.

  7. How next-generation sequencing and multiscale data analysis will transform infectious disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Theodore R; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Recent reviews have examined the extent to which routine next-generation sequencing (NGS) on clinical specimens will improve the capabilities of clinical microbiology laboratories in the short term, but do not explore integrating NGS with clinical data from electronic medical records (EMRs), immune profiling data, and other rich datasets to create multiscale predictive models. This review introduces a range of "omics" and patient data sources relevant to managing infections and proposes 3 potentially disruptive applications for these data in the clinical workflow. The combined threats of healthcare-associated infections and multidrug-resistant organisms may be addressed by multiscale analysis of NGS and EMR data that is ideally updated and refined over time within each healthcare organization. Such data and analysis should form the cornerstone of future learning health systems for infectious disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. The Efficacy of Probiotic in Adults with Acute Infectious Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawin Mahen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, acute diarrhea is most commonly caused by infectious pathogens. Regardless of the cause, diarrhea is primarily treated by fluid replacement therapy to decrease the risk of dehydration and death, although it does not affect the duration of diarrhea. Probiotics are able to shorten the duration of diarrhea in children, but its efficacy in adults is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of probiotic in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea in adults as compared to placebo. Systematic search was done using four databases: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Embase, without limit on the year of publication. Randomized clinical trials were selected as the appropriate study design to answer the clinical question and two studies were considered relevant for appraisal. In conclusion, probiotics could improve the recovery of acute infectious diarrhea in adults (level of evidence 1b however more studies should be carried out since only very few strains of probiotics have been investigated. Keywords: probiotics, treatment efficacy, acute diarrhea, adults.     Efektivitas Probiotik pada Orang Dewasa dengan Diare:  Sebuah Laporan Kasus Berbasis Bukti   Abstrak Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan global dengan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Di negara berkembang, diare akut biasanya disebabkan oleh infeksi. Terlepas dari penyebabnya, tata laksana utama diare adalah terapi rehidrasi untuk mengurangi dehidrasi dan kematian walaupun hal tersebut tidak memengaruhi durasi diare. Probiotik dapat memperpendek durasi diare pada anak-anak, namun efektivitasnya pada orang dewasa masih belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efek probiotik dalam mengurangi durasi diare akut pada orang dewasa dibandingkan plasebo. Pencarian sistematik dilakukan pada empat database: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, dan Embase, tanpa membatasi tahun publikasi

  9. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  10. Genome editing technologies to fight infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.

  11. Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.

  12. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Marjomäki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus B species (EV-B are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1, actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC and protein kinase Cα (PKCα. Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1 and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9. These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

  13. Reproduction numbers of infectious disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Driessche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This primer article focuses on the basic reproduction number, ℛ0, for infectious diseases, and other reproduction numbers related to ℛ0 that are useful in guiding control strategies. Beginning with a simple population model, the concept is developed for a threshold value of ℛ0 determining whether or not the disease dies out. The next generation matrix method of calculating ℛ0 in a compartmental model is described and illustrated. To address control strategies, type and target reproduction numbers are defined, as well as sensitivity and elasticity indices. These theoretical ideas are then applied to models that are formulated for West Nile virus in birds (a vector-borne disease, cholera in humans (a disease with two transmission pathways, anthrax in animals (a disease that can be spread by dead carcasses and spores, and Zika in humans (spread by mosquitoes and sexual contacts. Some parameter values from literature data are used to illustrate the results. Finally, references for other ways to calculate ℛ0 are given. These are useful for more complicated models that, for example, take account of variations in environmental fluctuation or stochasticity. Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Disease control, West Nile virus, Cholera, Anthrax, Zika virus

  14. Podoconiosis: non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gail; Tekola, Fasil; Newport, Melanie J

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews peer-reviewed publications and book chapters on the history, epidemiology, genetics, ecology, pathogenesis, pathology and management of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis). Podoconiosis is a non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkalic clay soils. It is found in at least 10 countries in tropical Africa, Central America and northwest India, where such soils coexist with high altitude, high seasonal rainfall and low income. Podoconiosis develops in men and women working barefoot on irritant soils, with signs becoming apparent in most patients by the third decade of life. Colloid-sized silicate particles appear to enter through the skin, are taken up into macrophages in the lower limb lymphatics and cause endolymphangitis and obliteration of the lymphatic lumen. Genetic studies provide evidence for high heritability of susceptibility to podoconiosis. The economic burden is significant in affected areas dependent on subsistence farming. Podoconiosis is unique in being an entirely preventable non-communicable disease. Primary prevention entails promoting use of footwear in areas of irritant soil; early stages are reversible given good foot hygiene, but late stages result in considerable economic and social difficulties, and require extended periods of elevation and occasionally nodulectomy.

  15. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine S; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R; Siddell, Stuart G

    2015-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Infectious pleural effusion status and treatment progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Ze-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Pleural cavity infection continuously seriously threatens human health with continuous medical progress. From the perspective of pathophysiology, it can be divided into three stages: exudative stage, fibrin exudation and pus formation stage, and organization stage. Due to the pathogenic bacteria difference of pleural cavity infection and pulmonary infection, it is very important for disease treatment to analyze the bacteria and biochemical characteristics of the infectious pleural effusion. Most prognoses of patients have been relatively good, while for some patients, the complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema could be evolved. Antibiotic treatment and sufficient drainage are the foundation for this treatment. No evidence can support the routine use of a fibrin agent. However, it has been reported that the plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease can be recommended to be applied in the pleural cavity. In case of failure on conservative medical treatment, operative treatment can be applied such as thoracoscopy and pleural decortication. According to the clinical characteristics of these patients, it is a key to research prognosis, as well as early evaluation and stratification, in the future. PMID:29268539

  17. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  18. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 35225

  19. [FEATURES OF CLINICAL COURSE OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS IN CHILDREN DEPENDENT ON ETIOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Iu P; Zarets'ka, A V; Slobodnichenko, L M; Iurchenko, I V

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the clinical features of infectious mononucleosis in children (based on the analysis of the data for children of different ages treated in Odessa clinical hospital of infectious diseases in connection with infectious mononucleosis) based on etiological factors.

  20. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  1. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mejía Salazar

    Full Text Available Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus from a chronic wasting disease (CWD endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013, we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  2. Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation. However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1 only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2 the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  3. Infectious mononucleosis due to epstein-barr virus infection in children: A profile from eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Nandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to delineate the clinical and laboratory profile of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection in children admitted to tertiary care teaching hospitals. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational multicentric analysis of clinical and laboratory features of children between 1 month to 12 years with a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis due to EBV infection confirmed by positive serology over a 12-month period after seeking approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: Out of 66 children screened, 53 were included in final analysis. The majority were aged between 5 and 8 years with male: female ratio of 1.2:1. Most presentations were during the monsoon months. The common clinical features were fever (100%, splenomegaly (86.7%, and cervical lymphadenopathy (73.5% in contrast to the classical triad of fever, sore throat, and generalized lymphadenopathy described in the literature. There were no age differences in clinical findings except for generalized and cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly which were commoner in 9–12 years age band. Although the incidence of common findings matched with previously published studies, there were some notable differences. While frequencies of upper eyelid edema, epitrochlear lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly were more, those of rash and sore throat were less. Lymphocytosis and presence of atypical lymphocytes were relatively less common in our series. All children recovered. Conclusions: This multicentric study on profiling childhood infectious mononucleosis, possibly first of its kind from Eastern India, has documented clinical and laboratory features associated with this condition. These data can serve as a reference for future studies.

  4. Children's Infectious Disease in Moscow: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on statistical data, a comparative analysis of infectious morbidity and mortality in Moscow in 2015 and 2014 revealed a whole, the decline in these indicators. Made significant progress in reducing infectious morbidity in Moscow due to the vaccination of children, including — increased regional calendar of preventive vaccinations. However, analysis of the work of medical institutions indicates the feasibility of the development and introduction of technologies of management of patients with post-infectious syndromes, as well as improving the health care system for children with infectious diseases based on a multidisciplinary approach in close cooperation infectious disease and pediatricians of different specialties. To solve these problems is proposed a plan to improve the effectiveness of children's infectious diseases services relating to the reorganization of hospital beds and outpatient care, ensure the continuity of the different health facilities, implementation of modern methods of etiological diagnosis of infections, the organization of continuous vocational training of paediatricians in Moscow on a specialty «Infectious diseases».

  5. Structural genomics of infectious disease drug targets: the SSGCID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacy, Robin; Begley, Darren W.; Phan, Isabelle; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Varani, Gabriele; Buchko, Garry W.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the focus, goals and overall mission of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is given. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium of researchers at Seattle BioMed, Emerald BioStructures, the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that was established to apply structural genomics approaches to drug targets from infectious disease organisms. The SSGCID is currently funded over a five-year period by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to determine the three-dimensional structures of 400 proteins from a variety of Category A, B and C pathogens. Target selection engages the infectious disease research and drug-therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. The protein-expression systems, purified proteins, ligand screens and three-dimensional structures produced by SSGCID constitute a valuable resource for drug-discovery research, all of which is made freely available to the greater scientific community. This issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F, entirely devoted to the work of the SSGCID, covers the details of the high-throughput pipeline and presents a series of structures from a broad array of pathogenic organisms. Here, a background is provided on the structural genomics of infectious disease, the essential components of the SSGCID pipeline are discussed and a survey of progress to date is presented

  6. The role and importance of veterinary laboratories in the prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M J

    1998-08-01

    Veterinary laboratories which deal with infectious diseases form three groups according to the tasks for which they are responsible. The first group includes central or national veterinary laboratories, national or international reference laboratories, high-security laboratories, district regional or state veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The major role of these laboratories is to assist national Veterinary Services in diagnosing infectious animal diseases. The second group comprises laboratories that produce veterinary diagnostic kits and those that produce veterinary vaccines. The third group is composed of veterinary research laboratories, which generally concentrate on basic research and do not contribute directly to the diagnosis and control of infectious animal diseases. The author describes the objectives of each of the three groups of laboratories.

  7. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  8. [Antibiotic treatment for prevention of infectious complications in joint replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, D; Nyc, O; Pokorný, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2006-04-01

    used only in indicated cases when deep infection is suspected and no assessment of the causative agent is available. Otherwise this approach carries a high risk of infectious complications in aseptic revision arthroplasty. Long-term, unjustified administration of antibiotics leads to an increase in resistance to the antibiotic involved. Some studies show that a day's course is as effective as a seven-day one. A shorter antibiotic course decreases the costs, reduces side-effects and minimizes the development of resistance. An optimal duration of antibiotic treatment has not been defined yet, and is still a hot issue for discussion. Many authors recommend one pre-operative antibiotic dose and, according to the kind of antibiotic, agree to its 24-hour administration in order to lower the toxic effect of antibiotic and to prevent selection of resistant microorganisms. The choice of suitable antibiotics for prophylactic treatment should be based on the range of agents causing joint replacement infections and the pharmacological properties of the drug. This should have minimal toxicity, should be well tolerated by the patient and, from the epidemiological point of view, should have a low risk of inducing resistance because of frequent use. Naturally, it is not possible to include all antibiotics against all causative agents and therefore attention should be paid, in the first place, to Gram-positive bacteria, i. e., staphylococci and streptococci, which are the most common causes of infectious complications associated with joint replacement. Because of difficulties related to the right choice of antibiotic, it is recommended to keep a record of complications in each patient in order to provide feedback and to facilitate the establishment of reliable antibiotic-based prevention. The prevention of infection in orthopedics is a comprehensive issue. It cannot be expected that prophylactic antibiotic treatment will compensate for mistakes made in operative protocols, for

  9. Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ben Z; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J; Binns, Helen J; Taylor, Renee

    2009-07-01

    The goal was to characterize prospectively the course and outcome of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents during a 2-year period after infectious mononucleosis. A total of 301 adolescents (12-18 years of age) with infectious mononucleosis were identified and screened for nonrecovery 6 months after infectious mononucleosis by using a telephone screening interview. Nonrecovered adolescents underwent a medical evaluation, with follow-up screening 12 and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis. After blind review, final diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome at 6, 12, and 24 months were made by using established pediatric criteria. Six, 12, and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis, 13%, 7%, and 4% of adolescents, respectively, met the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. Most individuals recovered with time; only 2 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months seemed to have recovered or had an explanation for chronic fatigue at 12 months but then were reclassified as having chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months. All 13 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome 24 months after infectious mononucleosis were female and, on average, they reported greater fatigue severity at 12 months. Reported use of steroid therapy during the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis did not increase the risk of developing chronic fatigue syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis may be a risk factor for chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Female gender and greater fatigue severity, but not reported steroid use during the acute illness, were associated with the development of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Additional research is needed to determine other predictors of persistent fatigue after infectious mononucleosis.

  10. Nutritional Status and Infectious Disease of Undernourished Children under five in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, from April to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomina Caesarea Nurhasanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition frequently occurs in children under five. If not treated, it will cause acute health effects and affect on cognitive development, social, physical work capacity and productivity. Undernutrition can be accompanied by the presence of infectious disease that can worsen the children’s nutritional status. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status and infectious disease of undernutrition children under five in Jatinangor Subdistrict. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out to 7 parents and undernourished children under five, in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor. It was conducted from April to December 2012. The inclusion criterias were undernourished children under five with a history of infectious disease in the previous year, and the parents were willing to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria were parents and/or the children who were not at home when the collection of the data was conducted.. Data collection was conducted using measurement of nutritional status, in depth interview and environmental observation. The data were presented in tables, figures and narration. Results: Three subjects with undernutrition (-3SD to -2SD and four subjects with severe undernutrition (<-3SD. Factors affecting poor nutritional status were weight loss, no significant weight gain, diet and eating habit, and onset of disease. Commonly occurred infectious diseases were common cold, diarrhea, fever and cough. Some factors affecting infectious diseases were family member transmission, immunization, and treatment behavior. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and infectious diseases contribute to undernutrition in children under five.

  11. [Isolated palsy of the hypoglossal nerve complicating infectious mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra-Dallière, C; Mernes, R; Juntas-Morales, R

    2011-01-01

    Neurological complications of infectious mononucleosis are rare. Various disorders have been described: meningitis, encephalitis, peripheral neuropathy. Isolated cranial nerve palsy has rarely been reported. A 16-year-old man was admitted for isolated and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, four weeks after infectious mononucleosis. Cerebral MRI, cerebrospinal fluid study and electromyography were normal. IgM anti-VCA were positive. Two months later, without treatment, the tongue had almost fully recovered. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of isolated palsy of the hypoglossal nerve complicating infectious mononucleosis have been previously reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Anti-infectious treatments in urology: general remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, F; Karsenty, G; Guy, L; Bastide, C; Bernard, L

    2013-11-01

    To define the general use of anti-infectious treatments in urology. A review of national guidelines and articles published on the subject in the Medline database, selected by keywords, depending on the scientific relevance was performed. While the epidemiology clearly shows the non-reduction of the anti-infectious treatments use in France, the resistance increases to highlight foo-resistant germs. Urology is not an exception to this observation, and different means are set to improve the prescription made by urologists. The epidemiological observation confirms the urgent need to improve the prescription of anti-infectious treatments particularly in urology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 11, 2012...

  14. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation. Date: February..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  15. 78 FR 40756 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  16. 78 FR 21960 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants and..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  17. 78 FR 34664 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Opportunities for Collaborative Research at the NIH Clinical..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  18. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  19. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials. Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  20. 77 FR 46099 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 46100

  1. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence, Basic and Clinical Components... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  2. 77 FR 45644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation (U01) Cooperative Agreement..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  3. 77 FR 70791 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34) Grants and Implementation..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 20, 2012...

  4. 76 FR 32980 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial Implementation Grants. Date: June... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  5. 78 FR 46357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation Cooperative Agreement (U01....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  6. 77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  7. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Antibacterial..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  8. 75 FR 21005 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Inner City Asthma Consortium: Statistical and Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 15, 2010...

  9. 76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; DAIDS Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants. Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  10. 75 FR 77650 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trails. Date..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  11. 78 FR 22274 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  12. Polyphony and verb forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some special uses of indicative and subjunctive verb forms in Spanish, which contemporary linguistics explains using the notions of polyphony, evidentials, echoic representation, quotatives, etc. These terms, even though they refer to different characteristics and belong to different theoretical frameworks, share one common feature: they all refer to diverse linguistic forms (discourse markers, linguistic negation, quotatives, echoic utterances, etc. characterized by the presence and interaction of different voices or points of view in one discourse sequence. In this study we are interested in a description of quotative or polyphonic meanings expressed by specific verb forms and tenses, the imperfect and the conditional, and also by indicative forms in subordinate substantive clauses with a negative main verb and by subjunctive forms in subordinate concessive clauses. Our research focuses on the analysis of the linguistic conditions that make possible the evidential use of the conditional, the imperfect and the echoic (metarepresentative interpretation of indicative and subjunctive forms in the above-mentioned contexts. The examples we discuss show that evidential and echoic interpretations are inferential meanings derived from the extralinguistic situation and the knowledge that speakers have of the world.

  13. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  14. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas

    2017-05-01

     For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures.  A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated.  The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars.  By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Meta-analysis: Smectite in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Dziechciarz, P; Mrukowicz, J

    2006-01-15

    Although not currently recommended, dioctahedral smectite (smectite) is commonly used to treat acute infectious diarrhoea in many countries. To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of smectite in treating acute infectious diarrhoea in children. Using medical subject headings and free-language terms, the following electronic databases were searched for studies relevant to acute infectious diarrhoea and smectite: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library; additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. Only randomized-controlled trials were included. Nine randomized-controlled trials (1238 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Combined data from six randomized-controlled trials showed that smectite significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea compared with placebo. The pooled weighted mean difference was (-22.7 h, 95% CI: -24.8 to -20.6) with a fixed model and remained significant in a random effect model (-24.4 h, 95% CI: -29.8 to -19.1). The chance of cure on intervention day 3 was significantly increased in the smectite vs. the control group (RR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.36-1.98; number needed to treat 4, 95% CI: 3-5). Adverse effects were similar in both groups. Smectite may be a useful adjunct to rehydration therapy in treating acute paediatric gastroenteritis. However, the results of this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution as most of the included studies had important limitations. Cost-effectiveness analyses should be undertaken before routine pharmacological therapy with smectite is recommended.

  16. Data mining strategies to improve multiplex microbead immunoassay tolerance in a mouse model of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Mani

    Full Text Available Multiplex methodologies, especially those with high-throughput capabilities generate large volumes of data. Accumulation of such data (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. is fast becoming more common and thus requires the development and implementation of effective data mining strategies designed for biological and clinical applications. Multiplex microbead immunoassay (MMIA, on xMAP or MagPix platform (Luminex, which is amenable to automation, offers a major advantage over conventional methods such as Western blot or ELISA, for increasing the efficiencies in serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. MMIA allows detection of antibodies and/or antigens efficiently for a wide range of infectious agents simultaneously in host blood samples, in one reaction vessel. In the process, MMIA generates large volumes of data. In this report we demonstrate the application of data mining tools on how the inherent large volume data can improve the assay tolerance (measured in terms of sensitivity and specificity by analysis of experimental data accumulated over a span of two years. The combination of prior knowledge with machine learning tools provides an efficient approach to improve the diagnostic power of the assay in a continuous basis. Furthermore, this study provides an in-depth knowledge base to study pathological trends of infectious agents in mouse colonies on a multivariate scale. Data mining techniques using serodetection of infections in mice, developed in this study, can be used as a general model for more complex applications in epidemiology and clinical translational research.

  17. One Health, emerging infectious diseases and wildlife: two decades of progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew A; Daszak, Peter; Wood, James L N

    2017-07-19

    Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions. Concurrently, infectious disease has been identified as an increasing threat to wildlife conservation. A synthesis published in 2000 showed common anthropogenic drivers of disease threats to biodiversity and human health, including encroachment and destruction of wildlife habitat and the human-assisted spread of pathogens. Almost two decades later, the situation has not changed and, despite improved knowledge of the underlying causes, little has been done at the policy level to address these threats. For the sake of public health and wellbeing, human-kind needs to work better to conserve nature and preserve the ecosystem services, including disease regulation, that biodiversity provides while also understanding and mitigating activities which lead to disease emergence. We consider that holistic, One Health approaches to the management and mitigation of the risks of emerging infectious diseases have the greatest chance of success.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Construction and biological activities of the first infectious cDNA clones of the genus Foveavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Baozhong, E-mail: bmeng@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Venkataraman, Srividhya; Li, Caihong; Wang, Weizhou [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Dayan-Glick, Cathy; Mawassi, Munir [The Plant Pathology Department-The Virology Unit, Plant Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250 (Israel)

    2013-01-20

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV, genus Foveavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) is one of the most prevalent viruses in grapevines and is associated with three distinct diseases: rupestris stem pitting, vein necrosis and Syrah decline. Little is known about the biology and pathological properties of GRSPaV. In this work, we engineered a full-length infectious cDNA clone for GRSPaV and a GFP-tagged variant, both under the transcriptional control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S promoter. We demonstrated that these cDNA clones were infectious in grapevines and Nicotiana benthamiana through fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immuno electron microscopy. Interestingly, GRSPaV does not cause systemic infection in four of the most commonly used herbaceous plants, even in the presence of the movement proteins of two other viruses which are known to complement numerous movement-defective viruses. These infectious clones are the first of members of Foveavirus which would allow further investigations into mechanisms governing different aspects of replication for GRSPaV and perhaps related viruses.

  19. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  20. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  1. Infectious mononucleosis - not always a benign condition: a case report of infectious mononucleosis-associated acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Andrew; Akilan, Kosalan; Carr, David

    2018-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is typically a self-limited viral infection of adolescence and early adulthood that resolves in a period of weeks, causing no major sequelae. We describe a case of a healthy 18-year-old female diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis who also presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, moderate transaminitis, and cholestatic biochemistry. An ultrasound revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis, generally a condition seen in the context of critical illness. Further investigating emergency department patients with infectious mononucleosis is often not indicated, but may be important for those who present atypically.

  2. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J.; Londy, F.; Chrisp, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  3. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, Vanessa; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Caumes, Eric; Jensenius, Mogens; Castelli, Francesco; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Weld, Leisa; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; de Vries, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Weber, Rainer; Cramer, Jakob; Pérignon, Alice; Odolini, Silvia; Carosi, Giampiero; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we

  4. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, V.; Gautret, P.; Schlagenhauf, P.; Burchard, G.D.; Caumes, E.; Jensenius, M.; Castelli, F.; Gkrania-Klotsas, E.; Weld, L.; Lopez-Velez, R.; de Vries, P.; von Sonnenburg, F.; Loutan, L.; Parola, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in

  5. Probiotics in infectious diarrhoea: are they indicated? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review focusing on Saccharomyces boulardii. ... economic benefits of probiotic treatment in adjunction to ORS in acute infectious gastroenteritis in children. ... In acute gastroenteritis, there is evidence of efficacy of some strains of lactobacilli ...

  6. Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis in young adults: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won

    2009-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.

  7. original article assessment of quality of care delivered for infectious

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    ABSTRACT. BACK GROUND: Providing quality of care for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients is crucial in ... Although a cure for tuberculosis was developed more than 50 .... 1(5.0%) Junior clinical nurse and 1(5.0%) health assistants.

  8. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans’ demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas. Because of the various types of geographic properties in Iran, substantial climatic variability, as well as unstable political situations and poor public health conditions in some of neighboring countries, EIDs and RIDs are serious public health problems; among them, zoonotic and drug resistant diseases are the most significant. Hence, this review provides an overview of the significant bacterial, viral and fungal EIDs and RIDs in Iran regarding their epidemiological aspects. PMID:29225752

  9. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  10. Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates.

  11. System for identification of microorganism and detection of infectious disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for the identification of microorganisms or infectious disorders are disclosed, comprising obtaining a suitable sample from sources such as persons, animals, plants, food, water or soil. The methods also comprise providing tailored nucleic acid substrate(s) designed to react with a type 1...... topoisomerase from one or more microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s), and incubating said substrate with said sample, or extracts or preparations from the sample, so that the substrate is processed by said topoisomerase if said microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s) is present in the sample. Finally......, processed substrates are identified and potentially quantified by one or more of a range of standard molecular biology methods and read-out systems. The identification and potential quantification of microorganisms and infectious agents, including but not limited to Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium...

  12. Disjoint forms in graphical user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Achten, P.M.; Plasmeijer, M.J.; Loidl, H.W.

    Forms are parts of a graphical user interface (GUI) that show a set of values and allow the user to update them. The declarative form construction library FunctionalForms is extended with disjoint form combinators to capture some common patterns in which the form structure expresses a choice. We

  13. Common features of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the availability of novel therapeutic approaches, TB is considered as one of the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against M. tuberculosis; they ingest and sequester the bacilli within granulomatous structures. Control and resolution of the infection requires activated T lymphocytes as well as Th1 cytokines. There are two forms of TB: active TB and latent TB. Latent TB is a state in which M. tuberculosis survives in the body without causing overt signs and symptoms. People with latent TB are noncontagious. However, M. tuberculosis can become active in the body, multiply, and cause overt TB. Sarcoidosis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology which can affect multiple systems of the body. Nonspecific constitutional symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, malaise, and weight loss, are present in approximately one-third of patients. Chest X-ray usually shows hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Although the lungs are the most common sites of inflammation, sarcoidosis can also involve other organs, such as the eyes (intraocular and adnexal, skin, lymph nodes, salivary glands, heart, spleen, liver, and the nervous system. Recent investigations have provided further insights into the genetic basis of sarcoidosis and the way genotype determines the clinical presentation and phenotype of patients. Histopathologic features are usually insufficient for diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis in endemic areas for TB can become a great challenge. Both TB and sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases; TB is characterized by caseating granulomas, whereas sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating granulomas. New cases of sarcoidosis are increasingly being diagnosed in areas endemic for TB due to increased orientation of physicians and availability of diagnostic modalities

  14. Serosurvey of infectious disease agents of carnivores in captive red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Wei, Fuwen; Li, Ming; Dubovi, Edward J; Loeffler, I Kati

    2007-03-01

    The future of the endangered red panda (Ailurusfulgens) depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases. The present study is a first step toward improved understanding of infectious diseases in the species' home regions. Serum samples obtained from 73 red pandas in 10 captive facilities in southwest, east, and northeast China from October to December 2004 were tested for antibodies against nine common infectious pathogens of carnivores. Antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine adenovirus (CAV) in the three facilities in which red pandas were vaccinated were highly variable. The CAV titer in one vaccinated red panda was high enough to suggest infection with the field virus following vaccination. Together with anecdotal reports of vaccine-associated morbidity and mortality, our results suggest that the Chinese vaccine is not suitable for this species. In the seven unvaccinated groups, CDV titers were low and occurred in 20-100% of the animals; antibody titers against CPV were found in seven of eight areas. Only one of 61 and two of 61 unvaccinated red pandas had CAV and canine coronavirus titers, respectively, and these titers were all low. Positive titers to Toxoplasma gondii were found in four locations (33-94% seropositive); the titers in 52% of seropositive individuals were of a magnitude consistent with active disease in other species (1:1,024 to > or = 1:4,096). One red panda in each of three locations was seropositive for Neospora caninum. Antibodies against canine herpesvirus and Brucella canis were not detected in any of the samples. Only one of the 73 red pandas had a weak positive influenza A titer. The results of this study emphasize the need for research on and protection against infectious diseases of red pandas and other endangered species in China.

  15. Transmission of infectious diseases from internationally adopted children to their adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciauvaud, J; Rigal, E; Pascal, J; Nourrisson, C; Poirier, P; Poirier, V; Vidal, M; Mrozek, N; Laurichesse, H; Beytout, J; Labbe, A; Lesens, O

    2014-08-01

    Internationally adopted children may suffer from different pathologies, including infectious diseases contracted in the country of origin. We evaluated the frequency of infectious diseases that may disseminate from adoptees to adoptive families on their arrival in France. All children who attended the clinic for international adoption in Clermont-Ferrand from January 2009 through to December 2011 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Standardized medical records dedicated to international adoption were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, clinical diagnosis, and biological and radiological results. Data were completed by phone interviews with adoptive families after informed consent. One hundred and forty-two medical records were retrospectively reviewed and 86% of families agreed to be interviewed. One hundred and seventy-one potentially transmissible infections were diagnosed in 142 children, 12% (n = 20) of which were transmitted to adoptive families. Most of these infections were benign and transmission was restricted to the close family. Tinea was diagnosed in 44 adoptees and transmitted in 15 cases. Panton Valentine leukocidin producing methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was transmitted to an adoptive father who required hospitalization for bursitis. Transmission also occurred for CMV (n = 1), hepatitis A (n = 1), giardiasis (n = 1), scabies (n = 1), Moluscum (n = 2) and pediculosis (n = 2). Two cases of chronic hepatitis B and latent tuberculosis were diagnosed without subsequent transmission. In conclusion, infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children and should be detected shortly after arrival to avoid transmission. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jones Flores Cassenote

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.

  17. Dentigenous infectious foci ? a risk factor of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Kr?l, Irena; S?jka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. Material/Methods The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired hear...

  18. The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Sanjaya N; Daveson, Kathryn L

    2010-10-01

    The 2010 Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting took place in May in the Northern Territory (Australia) and focussed on infections in the region. The meeting highlights included the changing spectrum of malaria and dengue in endemic regions, the latest on influenza epidemiology, multidrug-resistant organisms and infectious diseases in the Australian indigenous population. This was complemented by subspeciality interest group research encompassing mycobacterial disease, infection control, mycology and virology.

  19. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E.; Sharif, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Context: Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. Objective: PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. Design: An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual report...

  20. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activated T cells. Since feline infectious peritonitis virus does not infect T cells, and viral proteins did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, we postulate that soluble mediators released during the infe...

  1. Immune–neural connections: how the immune system’s response to infectious agents influences behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Robert H.; Kelley, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Humans and animals use the classical five senses of sight, sound, touch, smell and taste to monitor their environment. The very survival of feral animals depends on these sensory perception systems, which is a central theme in scholarly research on comparative aspects of anatomy and physiology. But how do all of us sense and respond to an infection? We cannot see, hear, feel, smell or taste bacterial and viral pathogens, but humans and animals alike are fully aware of symptoms of sickness that are caused by these microbes. Pain, fatigue, altered sleep pattern, anorexia and fever are common symptoms in both sick animals and humans. Many of these physiological changes represent adaptive responses that are considered to promote animal survival, and this constellation of events results in sickness behavior. Infectious agents display a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRR are expressed on both the surface [e.g. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4] and in the cytoplasm [e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptors] of cells of the innate immune system, primarily macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells initiate and propagate an inflammatory response by stimulating the synthesis and release of a variety of cytokines. Once an infection has occurred in the periphery, both cytokines and bacterial toxins deliver this information to the brain using both humoral and neuronal routes of communication. For example, binding of PRR can lead to activation of the afferent vagus nerve, which communicates neuronal signals via the lower brain stem (nucleus tractus solitarius) to higher brain centers such as the hypothalamus and amygdala. Blood-borne cytokines initiate a cytokine response from vascular endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Cytokines can also reach the brain directly by leakage through the BBB via circumventricular organs or by being

  2. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common

  3. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Müller, Jan; Junghanss, Thomas; Weber, Tim Frederik

    2018-02-01

     Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases.  The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories. Radiological pertinent knowledge was compiled based on literature search.  A small selection of frequently imported infectious diseases covers a considerable fraction of health care problems associated with migration. For cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis imaging is the most relevant diagnostic procedure defining also disease stages. Tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniosis are important differentials for malignant diseases.  Imaging plays a meaningful role in diagnosis, treatment stratification, and follow-up of imported infectious diseases. Radiological skills concerning these diseases are important for providing health care for patients in context of migration.   · Imaging plays a meaningful role in multidisciplinary care for imported infectious diseases.. · A small selection covers a considerable fraction of infectious diseases expected in context of migration.. · Stojkovic M, Müller J, Junghanss T et al. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; 190: 121 - 133. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  5. [Evaluation of chemokines in tears of patients with infectious keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shinsuke; Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the chemokine profile in tears of patients with infectious keratitis. Subjects were 32 eyes of 16 patients with infectious keratitis and 5 eyes of 5 healthy volunteers as a control. The patients with infectious keratitis were classified into two groups of eyes: 10 with bacterial keratitis and 6 with Acanthamoeba keratitis. Tear fluid was obtained from both eyes of the patients with infectious keratitis and from the right eyes of the control subjects using filter paper. Chemokine concentration (unit: Odu/mm2) and its profile in tears was analyzed using an antibody-array. In terms of chemokine profile in the bacterial keratitis group, the expression volume of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the diseased eyes was significantly higher than in the healthy eyes (p tears of the Acanthamoeba keratitis group. Regarding the chemokine ratio, the IL-8/MEC ratio in the diseased eyes of the Pseudomonas keratitis group and the MCP-1/IL-8 in the diseased eyes of the Acanthamoeba keratitis group showed a significantly high level (p tears of infectious keratitis patients is useful as a clinical tear laboratory test to interpret the pathologic condition of infectious keratitis

  6. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  7. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jietao Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps < 0.05 than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria (ps < 0.05 than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  8. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  9. IL-6 blockade in the management of non-infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Claudia; Sota, Jurgen; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Tosi, Gian Marco; Frediani, Bruno; Iannone, Florenzo; Galeazzi, Mauro; Franceschini, Rossella; Rigante, Donato; Cantarini, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Several pathogenetic studies have paved the way for a newer more rational therapeutic approach to non-infectious uveitis, and treatment of different forms of immune-driven uveitis has drastically evolved in recent years after the advent of biotechnological drugs. Tumor necrosis factor-α targeted therapies, the first-line recommended biologics in uveitis, have certainly led to remarkable results in patients with non-infectious uveitis. Nevertheless, the decision-making process turns out to be extremely difficult in anti-tumor necrosis factor or multidrug-resistant cases. Interleukin (IL)-6 holds a critical role in the pathogenic pathways of uveitis, due to its extended and protean range of effects. On this background, manipulation of IL-6 inflammatory cascade has unraveled encouraging outcomes. For instance, rising evidence has been achieved regarding the successful use of tocilizumab, the humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against the IL-6 receptor, in treating uveitis related to juvenile idiopathic arthritis or Behçet's disease. Similar findings have also been reported for uveitis associated with systemic disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or multicentric Castleman disease, but also for idiopathic uveitis, the rare birdshot chorioretinopathy, and even in cases complicated by macular edema. This work provides a digest of all current experiences and evidences concerning IL-6 blockade, as suggested by the medical literature, proving its potential role in the management of non-infectious uveitis.

  10. First case of scrub typhus with meningoencephalitis from Kerala: An emerging infectious threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Saifudheen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the most common infectious diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. It has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India, and its presence has been documented in at least 11 Indian states. However, scrub typhus meningoencephalitis has not been well documented in Kerala. We report two cases of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis from northern Kerala. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test with a titer of > 1:320. The first patient succumbed to illness due to respiratory failure and the second patient improved well.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a complication of acute infectious mononucleosis infection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Independently, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and infectious mononucleosis are not uncommon in the pediatric population, but acute onset of OSA, as a respiratory complication in the setting of acute EBV infection is extremely uncommon. Previous reports of this clinical entity are sparse and from nearly two decades ago. Urgent adenotonsillectomy was commonly advocated. This complication may be managed medically with systemic corticosteroids and non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a case is presented to highlight an updated management approach to this rarely encountered clinical problem in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors affecting visual outcomes after treatment of infectious endophthalmitis in northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yospaiboon Y

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yosanan Yospaiboon, Anocha Intarapanich, Wipada Laovirojjanakul, Tanapat Ratanapakorn, Suthasinee Sinawat, Thuss Sanguansak, Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo KKU Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: To determine factors affecting visual outcomes after treatment of infectious endophthalmitis during 2012–2016 at a large referral eye center in northeastern Thailand. Patients and methods: Medical charts of patients with a diagnosis of infectious endophthalmitis including demographic data, types of endophthalmitis, causative organisms, methods of treatment, anatomical, and functional outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Factors associated with improved visual outcomes were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and eleven patients (417 eyes were recruited for the study. The three most common types were post-traumatic (44.53%, post-operative (31.87%, and endogenous endophthalmitis (17.52%. Vitreous cultures revealed causative organisms in 41.25%. Most common Gram-positive organisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 30% (36/120, Bacillus spp. 20% (24/120, and Streptococcus pneumoniae 18.33% (20/120. Most common Gram-negatives were Pseudomonas spp. 24.32% (9/37, Klebsiella spp. 24.32% (9/37, and Enterobacter spp. 16.21% (6/37. Methods of treatment were medical treatment (18.71% and surgical treatment (81.29%, including pars plana vitrectomy with or without silicone oil tamponade (62.59% and destructive surgery (18.71%. After treatment, visual improvement was noted in 44.6%, stable vision in 18.47%, and worse vision in 36.93%. Factors associated with improved visual outcomes were post-operative endophthalmitis (P<0.001, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (P=0.003, and initial visual acuity before treatment of hand motion or better (P=0.017.Conclusion: Most infectious endophthalmitis patients were post-traumatic, post-operative, and endogenous. The most common method of treatment was

  13. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  14. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  15. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  16. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  17. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  18. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  19. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  20. Defining European preparedness and research needs regarding emerging infectious animal diseases: results from a Delphi expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentholt, M T A; Cardoen, S; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Ooms, B W; Frewer, L J

    2012-02-01

    Emerging and major infectious animal diseases can have significant international impact on social, economic and environmental level, and are being driven by various factors. Prevention and control measures should be prepared at both national and international level to mitigate these disease risks. Research to support such policy development is mostly carried out at national level and dedicated transnational research programmes are still in its infancy. This research reports on part of a process to develop a common strategic research agenda on emerging and major infectious diseases of livestock in Europe, covering a 5-15-year time span. A two round online Delphi study was conducted to explore the views of experts on issues relating to research needs on emerging infectious diseases of livestock in Europe. Drivers that may influence the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases in both the short (next 5 years) and medium term (10-15 years) were identified. Drivers related to regulatory measures and biological science developments were thought to decrease the incidence, and socio-economic factors to increase the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases. From the first round a list of threats to animal health was compiled and participants combined these threats with relevant drivers in the second round. Next to identifying threats to animal health, also possible mitigatory actions to reduce the negative impact of these threats were identified. Participants emphasised that interdisciplinary research is needed to understand drivers of emerging infectious animal diseases, as well as to develop prevention and control measures which are both socio-economic and technical. From this it can be concluded that interdisciplinary research combining both natural and social research themes is required. Some of the European member states research budget needs to be allocated so that effective prevention and mitigation strategies can be developed. Copyright © 2011