WorldWideScience

Sample records for common importin alpha

  1. Mapping of nuclear import signal and importin {alpha}3 binding regions of 52K protein of bovine adenovirus-3

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    Paterson, Carolyn P.; Ayalew, Lisanework E. [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Center (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 Canada (Canada); Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 S7N 5B4 Canada (Canada); Tikoo, Suresh K., E-mail: suresh.tik@usask.ca [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Center (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 Canada (Canada); Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 S7N 5B4 Canada (Canada); School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 Canada (Canada)

    2012-10-10

    The L1 region of bovine adenovirus (BAdV)-3 encodes a non-structural protein designated 52K. Anti-52K serum detected a protein of 40 kDa, which localized to the nucleus but not to the nucleolus in BAdV-3-infected or transfected cells. Analysis of mutant 52K proteins suggested that three basic residues ({sup 105}RKR{sup 107}) of the identified domain (amino acids {sup 102}GMPRKRVLT{sup 110}) are essential for nuclear localization of 52K. The nuclear import of a GST-52K fusion protein utilizes the classical importin {alpha}/{beta}-dependent nuclear transport pathway. The 52K protein is preferentially bound to the cellular nuclear import receptor importin {alpha}3. Although deletion of amino acid 102-110 is sufficient to abrogate the nuclear localization of 52K, amino acid 90-133 are required for interaction with importin-{alpha}3 and localizing a cytoplasmic protein to the nucleus. These results suggest that 52K contains a bipartite NLS, which preferentially utilize an importin {alpha}3 nuclear import receptor-mediated pathway to transport 52K to the nucleus.

  2. Human importin alpha and RNA do not compete for binding to influenza A virus nucleoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulo, Sebastien; Akarsu, Hatice; Lotteau, Vincent; Mueller, Christoph W.; Ruigrok, Rob W.H.; Baudin, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Influenza virus has a segmented genome composed of eight negative stranded RNA segments. Each segment is covered with NP forming ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and carries a copy of the heterotrimeric polymerase complex. As a rare phenomenon among the RNA viruses, the viral replication occurs in the nucleus and therefore implies interactions between host and viral factors, such as between importin alpha and nucleoprotein. In the present study we report that through binding with the human nuclear receptor importin α5 (Impα5), the viral NP is no longer oligomeric but maintained as a monomer inside the complex. In this regard, Impα5 acts as a chaperone until NP is delivered in the nucleus for viral RNA encapsidation. Moreover, we show that the association of NP with the host transporter does not impair the binding of NP to RNA. The complex human Impα5-NP binds RNA with the same affinity as wt NP alone, whereas engineered monomeric NP through point mutations binds RNA with a strongly reduced affinity.

  3. Signaling through Cdk2, importin-alpha and NuMA is required for H2O2-induced mitosis in primary type II pneumocytes.

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    Radisavljevic, Ziv Manasija; González-Flecha, Beatriz; Manasija-Radisavljevic, Ziv

    2003-05-12

    Proliferation of alveolar type II pneumocytes, the multipotent stem cells of the alveoli, has been implicated in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a potent promoter of signaling cascades, can mediate the transmission of many intracellular signals including those involved in cell proliferation. In this study using rat primary type II pneumocytes, we demonstrate that H(2)O(2) significantly increases mitosis through a pathway that includes cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2); importin-alpha, a nuclear trafficking regulator; and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), an essential component in mitotic spindle pole formation. Upon H(2)O(2) treatment, Cdk2 is phosphorylated at position thr-160 leading to increases in importin-alpha and NuMA protein levels and resulting in a significant increase of G(2)/M phase in a roscovatine-dependent manner. Type II pneumocytes transfected with NuMA cDNA also show significant increases in G(2)/M phase, NuMA, Cdk2 thr-160 and importin-alpha expression. These effects were prevented by catalase. These results demonstrate that H(2)O(2) orchestrates a complex signaling network regulating S phase entry, nuclear trafficking and spindle pole formation through activation of Cdk2, importin-alpha, and NuMA. This pathway is essential for H(2)O(2)-induced mitosis in type II pneumocytes.

  4. The host-dependent interaction of alpha-importins with influenza PB2 polymerase subunit is required for virus RNA replication.

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    Patricia Resa-Infante

    Full Text Available The influenza virus polymerase is formed by the PB1, PB2 and PA subunits and is required for virus transcription and replication in the nucleus of infected cells. As PB2 is a relevant host-range determinant we expressed a TAP-tagged PB2 in human cells and isolated intracellular complexes. Alpha-importin was identified as a PB2-associated factor by proteomic analyses. To study the relevance of this interaction for virus replication we mutated the PB2 NLS and analysed the phenotype of mutant subunits, polymerase complexes and RNPs. While mutant PB2 proteins showed reduced nuclear accumulation, they formed polymerase complexes normally when co expressed with PB1 and PA. However, mutant RNPs generated with a viral CAT replicon showed up to hundred-fold reduced CAT accumulation. Rescue of nuclear localisation of mutant PB2 by insertion of an additional SV40 TAg-derived NLS did not revert the mutant phenotype of RNPs. Furthermore, determination of recombinant RNP accumulation in vivo indicated that PB2 NLS mutations drastically reduced virus RNA replication. These results indicate that, above and beyond its role in nuclear accumulation, PB2 interaction with alpha-importins is required for virus RNA replication. To ascertain whether PB2-alpha-importin binding could contribute to the adaptation of H5N1 avian viruses to man, their association in vivo was determined. Human alpha importin isoforms associated efficiently to PB2 protein of an H3N2 human virus but bound to diminished and variable extents to PB2 from H5N1 avian or human strains, suggesting that the function of alpha importin during RNA replication is important for the adaptation of avian viruses to the human host.

  5. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin alpha Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-19

    bipartite) stretches of the basic amino acids arginine and lysine (21). There are some reports of viral proteins, including VP24 of Ebola virus and ORF6...nucleus by importin 3 and importin 4. J. Biol. Chem. 280:15942–15951. 7. Fagerlund, R., K. Melen, L. Kinnunen, and I. Julkunen. 2002. Arginine / lysine ...out- comes correlate with the levels of TNF- (24). Recently, studies have begun to focus on the ability of han- taviruses to antagonize the innate

  6. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Edward I.; Dombrovski, Andrew K.; Swarbrick, Crystall M.D.; Raidal, Shane R.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface

  7. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

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    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  8. Venezuelan equine Encephalitis virus capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with CRM1 and importin alpha/beta that obstructs nuclear pore complex function.

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    Atasheva, Svetlana; Fish, Alexander; Fornerod, Maarten; Frolova, Elena I

    2010-05-01

    Development of the cellular antiviral response requires nuclear translocation of multiple transcription factors and activation of a wide variety of cellular genes. To counteract the antiviral response, several viruses have developed an efficient means of inhibiting nucleocytoplasmic traffic. In this study, we demonstrate that the pathogenic strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has developed a unique mechanism of nuclear import inhibition. Its capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the nuclear import receptor importin alpha/beta. This unusual complex accumulates in the center channel of the nuclear pores and blocks nuclear import mediated by different karyopherins. The inhibitory function of VEEV capsid protein is determined by a short 39-amino-acid-long peptide that contains both nuclear import and supraphysiological nuclear export signals. Mutations in these signals or in the linker peptide attenuate or completely abolish capsid-specific inhibition of nuclear traffic. The less pathogenic VEEV strains contain a wide variety of mutations in this peptide that affect its inhibitory function in nuclear import. Thus, these mutations appear to be the determinants of this attenuated phenotype. This novel mechanism of inhibiting nuclear transport also shows that the nuclear pore complex is vulnerable to unusual cargo receptor complexes and sheds light on the importance of finely adjusted karyopherin-nucleoporin interactions for efficient cargo translocation.

  9. Importin alpha binding and nuclear localization of PARP-2 is dependent on lysine 36, which is located within a predicted classical NLS

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    Valovka Taras

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of poly-ADP-ribose are named poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARP. PARP-2 is a nuclear protein, which regulates a variety of cellular functions that are mainly controlled by protein-protein interactions. A previously described non-conventional bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS lies in the amino-terminal DNA binding domain of PARP-2 between amino acids 1–69; however, this targeting sequence has not been experimentally examined or validated. Results Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we found that lysines 19 and 20, located within a previously described bipartite NLS, are not required for nuclear localization of PARP-2. In contrast, lysine 36, which is located within a predicted classical monopartite NLS, was required for PARP-2 nuclear localization. While wild type PARP-2 interacted with importin α3 and to a very weak extent with importin α1 and importin α5, the mutant PARP-2 (K36R did not interact with importin α3, providing a molecular explanation why PARP-2 (K36R is not targeted to the nucleus. Conclusion Our results provide strong evidence that lysine 36 of PARP-2 is a critical residue for proper nuclear targeting of PARP-2 and consequently for the execution of its biological functions.

  10. Importin α-importin β complex mediated nuclear translocation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5.

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    Sun, Min; Long, Juan; Yi, Yuxin; Xia, Wei

    2017-10-28

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is a secreted protein that binds to IGFs and modulates IGF actions, as well as regulates cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis independent of IGF. Proper cellular localization is critical for the effective function of most signaling molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the nuclear IGFBP-5 comes from ER-cytosol retro-translocation. In this study, we further investigated the pathway mediating IGFBP-5 nuclear import after it retro-translocation. Importin-α5 was identified as an IGFBP-5-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybrid system, and its interaction with IGFBP-5 was further confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Binding affinity of IGFBP-5 and importins were determined by surface plasmon resonance (IGFBP-5/importin-β: K D =2.44e-7, IGFBP-5/importin-α5: K D =3.4e-7). Blocking the importin-α5/importin-β nuclear import pathway using SiRNA or dominant negative impotin-β dramatically inhibited IGFBP-5-EGFP nuclear import, though importin-α5 overexpress does not affect IGFBP-5 nuclear import. Furthermore, nuclear IGFBP-5 was quantified using luciferase report assay. When deleted the IGFBP-5 nuclear localization sequence (NLS), IGFBP-5 ΔNLS loss the ability to translocate into the nucleus and accumulation of IGFBP-5 ΔNLS was visualized in the cytosol. Altogether, our findings provide a substantially evidence showed that the IGFBP-5 nuclear import is mediated by importin-α/importin-β complex, and NLS is critical domain in IGFBP-5 nuclear translocation.

  11. A pragmatic approach to estimate alpha factors for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassija, Varun; Senthil Kumar, C.; Velusamy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of coefficients in alpha factor model for common cause analysis. • A derivation of plant specific alpha factors is demonstrated. • We examine sensitivity of common cause contribution to total system failure. • We compare beta factor and alpha factor models for various redundant configurations. • The use of alpha factors is preferable, especially for large redundant systems. - Abstract: Most of the modern technological systems are deployed with high redundancy but still they fail mainly on account of common cause failures (CCF). Various models such as Beta Factor, Multiple Greek Letter, Binomial Failure Rate and Alpha Factor exists for estimation of risk from common cause failures. Amongst all, alpha factor model is considered most suitable for high redundant systems as it arrives at common cause failure probabilities from a set of ratios of failures and the total component failure probability Q T . In the present study, alpha factor model is applied for the assessment of CCF of safety systems deployed at two nuclear power plants. A method to overcome the difficulties in estimation of the coefficients viz., alpha factors in the model, importance of deriving plant specific alpha factors and sensitivity of common cause contribution to the total system failure probability with respect to hazard imposed by various CCF events is highlighted. An approach described in NUREG/CR-5500 is extended in this study to provide more explicit guidance for a statistical approach to derive plant specific coefficients for CCF analysis especially for high redundant systems. The procedure is expected to aid regulators for independent safety assessment

  12. Regulation of mitotic spindle assembly factor NuMA by Importin-β.

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    Chang, Chih-Chia; Huang, Tzu-Lun; Shimamoto, Yuta; Tsai, Su-Yi; Hsia, Kuo-Chiang

    2017-11-06

    Ran-guanosine triphosphatase orchestrates mitotic spindle assembly by modulation of the interaction between Importin-α/-β and spindle assembly factors (SAFs). The inhibition of SAFs performed by importins needs to be done without much sequestration from abundant nuclear localization signal (NLS) -containing proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine NLS-binding selectivity and that inhibit activity of Importin-β-regulated SAFs (e.g., nuclear mitotic apparatus protein [NuMA]) remain undefined. Here, we present a crystal structure of the Importin-α-NuMA C terminus complex showing a novel binding pattern that accounts for selective NLS recognition. We demonstrate that, in the presence of Importin-α, Importin-β inhibits the microtubule-binding function of NuMA. Further, we have identified a high-affinity microtubule-binding region that lies carboxyl-terminal to the NLS, which is sterically masked by Importin-β on being bound by Importin-α. Our study provides mechanistic evidence of how Importin-α/-β regulates the NuMA functioning required for assembly of higher-order microtubule structures, further illuminating how Ran-governed transport factors regulate diverse SAFs and accommodate various cell demands. © 2017 Chang et al.

  13. Importin α5 negatively regulates importin β1-mediated nuclear import of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts.

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    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Haixu; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Yan; Deng, Shanshan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-03-13

    The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is demonstrated to localize in the nucleus via intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS), but cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import of NDV M protein and the role of M's nuclear localization in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV remain unclear. In this study, importin β1 was screened to interact with NDV M protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. In vitro binding studies indicated that the NLS region of M protein and the amino acids 336-433 of importin β1 that belonged to the RanGTP binding region were important for binding. Importantly, a recombinant virus with M/NLS mutation resulted in a pathotype change of NDV and attenuated viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts and SPF chickens. In agreement with the binding data, nuclear import of NDV M protein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells required both importin β1 and RanGTP. Interestingly, importin α5 was verified to interact with M protein through binding importin β1. However, importin β1 or importin α5 depletion by siRNA resulted in different results, which showed the obviously cytoplasmic or nuclear accumulation of M protein and the remarkably decreased or increased replication ability and pathogenicity of NDV in chicken fibroblasts, respectively. Our findings therefore demonstrate for the first time the nuclear import mechanism of NDV M protein and the negative regulation role of importin α5 in importin β1-mediated nuclear import of M protein and the replication and pathogenicity of a paramyxovirus.

  14. The nuclear import of RNA helicase A is mediated by importin-α3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Satoko; Oishi, Takayuki; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Nakazawa, Minako; Fujii, Ryouji; Imamoto, Naoko; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    RNA helicase A (RHA), an ATPase/helicase, regulates the gene expression at various steps including transcriptional activation and RNA processing. RHA is known to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We identified the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of RHA and analyzed the nuclear import mechanisms. The NLS of RHA (RHA-NLS) consisting of 19 amino acid residues is highly conserved through species and does not have the consensus classical NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays revealed that the nuclear import of RHA was Ran-dependent and mediated with the classical importin-α/β-dependent pathway. The binding assay indicated that the basic residues in RHA-NLS were used for interaction with importin-α. Furthermore, the nuclear import of RHA-NLS was supported by importin-α1 and preferentially importin-α3. Our results indicate that the nuclear import of RHA is mediated by the importin-α3/importin-β-dependent pathway and suggest that the specificity for importin may regulate the functions of cargo proteins

  15. [Importin-β1 plays a key role in the nucleocytoplasmic transportation process of MARVELD1].

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    Wang, Z Y; Shi, M; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    While MARVEL domain-containing protein 1 (MARVELD1) is widely expressed in normal tissue, its expression is decreased in tumor tissue. Importin-β1 is a kind of nucleocytoplasmic transport protein, which participates in protein transportation between the nucleus and cytoplasm. It has been known that MARVELD1 binds importin-β1. To define the biological functions of the binding between MARVELD1 and importin-β1, confocal laser scanning microscopy was applied to confirm the distribution of MARVELD1 in the cells when importin-β1, is knocked down, and the results show that MARVELD1's concentration is decreased in the nucleus and elevated in the cytoplasm. GST-pull down and western blot were applied to test the binding affinity between the normal importin-β1, and several truncations of MARVELD1, and the binding affinity between the normal MARVELD1 and several truncations of importin-β1. These results show that there exist several binding points between MARVELD1 and importin-β1. Basing on these results one can come to a conclusion that importin-β1 mediates the non-classical nucleocytoplasmic transportation of MARVELD1. It was also found that knockdown of importin-β1, leads to an increase in the total density of MARVELD1. Considering the abnormally reduced expression of MARVELD1 in tumor tissue, the results of this study will help gaining a better understanding of the roles of MARVELD1 in the signal network systems during tumorigenesis in cancer cells.

  16. Putting things in place for fertilization: discovering roles for importin proteins in cell fate and spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Loveland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importin proteins were originally characterized for their central role in protein transport through the nuclear pores, the only intracellular entry to the nucleus. This vital function must be tightly regulated to control access by transcription factors and other nuclear proteins to genomic DNA, to achieve appropriate modulation of cellular behaviors affecting cell fate. Importin-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport relies on their specific recognition of cargoes, with each importin binding to distinct and overlapping protein subsets. Knowledge of importin function has expanded substantially in regard to three key developmental systems: embryonic stem cells, muscle cells and the germ line. In the decade since the potential for regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport to contribute to spermatogenesis was proposed, we and others have shown that the importins that ferry transcription factors into the nucleus perform additional roles, which control cell fate. This review presents key findings from studies of mammalian spermatogenesis that reveal potential new pathways by which male fertility and infertility arise. These studies of germline genesis illuminate new ways in which importin proteins govern cellular differentiation, including via directing proteins to distinct intracellular compartments and by determining cellular stress responses.

  17. Mechanisms of ciliary targeting: entering importins and Rabs.

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    Lu, Lei; Madugula, Viswanadh

    2018-02-01

    Primary cilium is a rod-like plasma membrane protrusion that plays important roles in sensing the cellular environment and initiating corresponding signaling pathways. The sensory functions of the cilium critically depend on the unique enrichment of ciliary residents, which is maintained by the ciliary diffusion barrier. It is still unclear how ciliary cargoes specifically enter the diffusion barrier and accumulate within the cilium. In this review, the organization and trafficking mechanism of the cilium are compared to those of the nucleus, which are much better understood at the moment. Though the cilium differs significantly from the nucleus in terms of molecular and cellular functions, analogous themes and principles in the membrane organization and cargo trafficking are notable between them. Therefore, knowledge in the nuclear trafficking can likely shed light on our understanding of the ciliary trafficking. Here, with a focus on membrane cargoes in mammalian cells, we briefly review various ciliary trafficking pathways from the Golgi to the periciliary membrane. Models for the subsequent import translocation across the diffusion barrier and the enrichment of cargoes within the ciliary membrane are discussed in detail. Based on recent discoveries, we propose a Rab-importin-based model in an attempt to accommodate various observations on ciliary targeting.

  18. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca 2+ on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery

  19. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons

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    Anderson, Fenja; Rother, Franziska; Rudolph, Kathrin; Prank, Ute; Binz, Anne; Hügel, Stefanie; Hartmann, Enno; Bader, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses which depend on many nuclear functions, and therefore on host transport factors to ensure specific nuclear import of viral and host components. While some import cargoes bind directly to certain transport factors, most recruit importin β1 via importin α. We identified importin α1 in a small targeted siRNA screen to be important for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) gene expression. Production of infectious virions was delayed in the absence of importin α1, but not in cells lacking importin α3 or importin α4. While nuclear targeting of the incoming capsids, of the HSV-1 transcription activator VP16, and of the viral genomes were not affected, the nuclear import of the HSV-1 proteins ICP4 and ICP0, required for efficient viral transcription, and of ICP8 and pUL42, necessary for DNA replication, were reduced. Furthermore, quantitative electron microscopy showed that fibroblasts lacking importin α1 contained overall fewer nuclear capsids, but an increased proportion of mature nuclear capsids indicating that capsid formation and capsid egress into the cytoplasm were impaired. In neurons, importin α1 was also not required for nuclear targeting of incoming capsids, but for nuclear import of ICP4 and for the formation of nuclear capsid assembly compartments. Our data suggest that importin α1 is specifically required for the nuclear localization of several important HSV1 proteins, capsid assembly, and capsid egress into the cytoplasm, and may become rate limiting in situ upon infection at low multiplicity or in terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. PMID:29304174

  20. Crystallization of the flexible nuclear import receptor importin-β in the unliganded state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Noelia; Kirkby, Brenda; Marfori, Mary; Kobe, Bostjan; Forwood, Jade K.

    2009-01-01

    Conditions are reported for the crystallization of the flexible nuclear import receptor importin-β. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data indicate that the structure can be solved using molecular replacement. The transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope is an essential eukaryotic process that enables proteins such as transcription factors, polymerases and histones to gain access to the genetic material contained within the nucleus. Importin-β plays a central role in the nucleocytoplasmic transport process, mediating nuclear import through a range of interactions with cytoplasmic, nuclear and nuclear pore proteins such as importin-α, Ran, nucleoporins and various cargo molecules. The unliganded form of the full-length yeast importin-β has been expressed and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion at pH 6.5 and 290 K. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 (unit-cell parameters a = 58.17, b = 127.25, c = 68.52 Å, β = 102.23). One molecule is expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution using a laboratory X-ray source and were suitable for crystal structure determination

  1. Extracellular signal-dependent nuclear import of STAT3 is mediated by various importin αs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Ryosuke; Sakaguchi, Naoko; Kano, Arihiro; Maruyama, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Ogino, Kenji; Tachibana, Taro

    2005-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is involved in a variety of biological functions. STAT3 is activated by cytokines and growth factors via the phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue, dimerization, and subsequent nuclear translocation. However, the mechanism of its nuclear translocation is unclear. A study of the cytokine-stimulated import of STAT3 into the nucleus is reported herein. An oncostatin M (OSM)-dependent nuclear import assay system was first established in living cells. Using this system, we demonstrated that the microinjection of the importin α5/NPI-1 mutant, an anti-importin β antibody, and the RanQ69L mutant inhibited the nuclear import of STAT3. Second, we showed that tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 associates, not only with importin α5/NPI-1 but also with other importin αs, as a result of OSM stimulation, as evidenced by a solution binding assay. These findings suggest that the extracellular signal-dependent nuclear transport of STAT3 is mediated by various importin αs, importin β, and Ran

  2. Importin β-type nuclear transport receptors have distinct binding affinities for Ran-GTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Silvia; Schlenstedt, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Determination of binding properties of nuclear transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes. → Biosensor measurements provide constants for dissociation, on-rates, and off-rates. → The affinity of receptors for Ran-GTP is widely divergent. → Dissociation constants differ for three orders of magnitude. → The cellular concentration of yeast Ran is not limiting. -- Abstract: Cargos destined to enter or leave the cell nucleus are typically transported by receptors of the importin β family to pass the nuclear pore complex. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 14 members of this protein family, which can be divided in importins and exportins. The Ran GTPase regulates the association and dissociation of receptors and cargos as well as the transport direction through the nuclear pore. All receptors bind to Ran exclusively in its GTP-bound state and this event is restricted to the nuclear compartment. We determined the Ran-GTP binding properties of all yeast transport receptors by biosensor measurements and observed that the affinity of importins for Ran-GTP differs significantly. The dissociation constants range from 230 pM to 270 nM, which is mostly based on a variability of the off-rate constants. The divergent affinity of importins for Ran-GTP suggests the existence of a novel mode of nucleocytoplasmic transport regulation. Furthermore, the cellular concentration of β-receptors and of other Ran-binding proteins was determined. We found that the number of β-receptors altogether about equals the amounts of yeast Ran, but Ran-GTP is not limiting in the nucleus. The implications of our results for nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding importin-α1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamikawa, Yasunao; Yasuhara, Noriko; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Importin-α1 belongs to a receptor family that recognizes classical nuclear localization signals. Encoded by Kpna2, this receptor subtype is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we identified a critical promoter region in Kpna2 and showed that the expression of this gene is differentially regulated in ES cells and NIH3T3 cells. Conserved CCAAT boxes are required for Kpna2 promoter activity in both ES and NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, deletion of the region from nucleotide position - 251 to - 179 bp resulted in a drastic reduction in Kpna2 transcriptional activity only in ES cells. This region contains Krueppel-like factor (Klf) binding sequences and is responsible for transactivation of the gene by Klf2 and Klf4. Accordingly, endogenous Kpna2 mRNA levels decreased in response to depletion of Klf2 and Klf4 in ES cells. Our results suggest that Klf2 and Klf4 function redundantly to drive high level of Kpna2 expression in ES cells. -- Research Highlights: → We showed the cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of Kpna2 encoding importin-al. → NF-Y binds the CCAAT boxes to activate Kpna2 transcription in NIH3T3 cells. → Klf2 and Klf4 redundantly activate the expression of Kpna2 in ES cells.

  4. Small molecule peptidomimetic inhibitors of importin α/β mediated nuclear transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza; Whitby, Landon R.; Singer, Eric L.; Trott, Oleg; Choi, Euna; Olson, Arthur J.; Boger, Dale L.; Gerace, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells. Translocation of proteins and many RNAs between the nucleus and cytoplasm is carried out by shuttling receptors of the β-karyopherin family, also called importins and exportins. Leptomycin B, a small molecule inhibitor of the exportin CRM1, has proved to be an invaluable tool for cell biologists, but up to now no small molecule inhibitors of nuclear import have been described. We devised a microtiter plate based permeabilized cell screen for small molecule inhibitors of the importin α/β pathway. By analyzing peptidomimetic libraries, we identified β-turn and α-helix peptidomimetic compounds that selectively inhibit nuclear import by importin α/β but not by transportin. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that large aromatic residues and/or a histidine side chain are required for effective import inhibition by these compounds. Our validated inhibitors can be useful for in vitro studies of nuclear import, and can also provide a framework for synthesis of higher potency nuclear import inhibitors. PMID:20869252

  5. Expression of triplicated and quadruplicated alpha globin genes in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Pieragostini, E; Yang, F; di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    In the sheep alpha alpha alpha globin gene haplotype, the three genes display from the 5' to the 3' end the percentage efficiencies of about 30:14:6, as indicated by the amounts of the three types of alpha chain produced in the alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha homozygotes. The 3' gene in the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotype appears to have an efficiency around 1%, as suggested by analysis of one quadruple alpha homozygote. Moreover, the total outputs of the alpha alpha alpha as well as of the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotypes do not substantially differ from that of the common alpha alpha haplotype.

  6. Interaction between alpha and upsilon-crystallin, common to the eye of the Australian platypus, by radical probe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Samah; Downard, Kevin M

    2006-10-01

    The interaction between alpha-crystallin and upsilon-crystallin, a class recently discovered in the eye of the Australian platypus, has been shown by native shift gel assay and examined by radical probe mass spectrometry in the context of the ability of alpha-crystallin to protect upsilon-crystallin from oxidation and oxidative damage through radical-based oxidative stress mechanisms. Residues 22-41, 132-148, 212-227 and 245-264 of upsilon-crystallin display the greatest protection when interacted with alpha-crystallin at a ratio of 2 : 1 observed for the complex, which is commensurate with their levels measured in the eye of the platypus. Across each domain, a delay in the onset of oxidative damage is observed as the time of exposure to radicals is increased. The results are discussed in the context of the structure of the porcine homologue of upsilon-crystallin. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Visualization of human karyopherin beta-1/importin beta-1 interactions with protein partners in mitotic cells by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Laura; Verrico, Annalisa; Asteriti, Italia Anna; Rovella, Paola; Cirigliano, Pietro; Guarguaglini, Giulia; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Lavia, Patrizia

    2018-01-30

    Karyopherin beta-1/Importin beta-1 is a conserved nuclear transport receptor, acting in protein nuclear import in interphase and as a global regulator of mitosis. These pleiotropic functions reflect its ability to interact with, and regulate, different pathways during the cell cycle, operating as a major effector of the GTPase RAN. Importin beta-1 is overexpressed in cancers characterized by high genetic instability, an observation that highlights the importance of identifying its partners in mitosis. Here we present the first comprehensive profile of importin beta-1 interactors from human mitotic cells. By combining co-immunoprecipitation and proteome-wide mass spectrometry analysis of synchronized cell extracts, we identified expected (e.g., RAN and SUMO pathway factors) and novel mitotic interactors of importin beta-1, many with RNA-binding ability, that had not been previously associated with importin beta-1. These data complement interactomic studies of interphase transport pathways. We further developed automated proximity ligation assay (PLA) protocols to validate selected interactors. We succeeded in obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of genuine importin beta-1 interactions, which were visualized and localized in situ in intact mitotic cells. Further developments of PLA protocols will be helpful to dissect importin beta-1-orchestrated pathways during mitosis.

  8. Identification of a common amino acid polymorphism in the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Andersen, C B; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler

    1997-01-01

    in a phenotype study. Single-strand conformational polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis of the coding region of the regulatory p85alpha subunit in cDNA isolated from human muscle tissue from 70 insulin-resistant NIDDM patients and 12 control subjects revealed three silent polymorphisms and a missense mutation...

  9. Glycoconjugate with terminal alpha galactose. A property common to basal cells and a subpopulation of columnar cells of numerous epithelia in mouse and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, F F; Schulte, B A; Spicer, S S

    1986-01-01

    Glycoconjugates associated with the basal cell layer of various types of epithelia in the mouse and rat were examined histochemically with a battery of lectin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates of differing sugar binding specificities. Basal cells in paraffin sections of composite tissue blocks stained with an isolectin from Griffonia simplicifolia (GSA I-B4) specific for terminal alpha-galactose residues but failed to react with the other lectins. Basal cells in epithelium lining striated and excretory ducts of salivary and lacrimal glands, tongue, esophagus, trachea, renal calyx, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, epididymis and vas deferens stained selectively and intensely for content of a glycoconjugate with terminal alpha-galactose. This galacto-conjugate appeared associated with the plasmalemma of basal cells. Basal cells with a galactocalyx formed an intermittent to continuous layer generally increasing in prevalence distally in glandular duct systems. A minor population of pyramido-columnar cells with cytosolic GSA I-B4 reactivity occurred in striated ducts and appeared less numerous in intralobular excretory ducts and more prevalent in extraglandular ducts. In trachea and renal pelvis, the GSA I-B4 positive cell profiles ranged from low cuboidal to tall pyramidal in contour, but the latter appeared not to reach the lumen. In contrast, no GSA I-B4 positive basal cells were seen in any segment of the pancreatic or bile ducts or in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that the basal cells found in similar sites in different epithelia and possessing in common a unique alpha-galactoconjugate may function in a manner common to all and not simply in providing progenitor cells for epithelial renewal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The nuclear transport receptor Importin-11 is a tumor suppressor that maintains PTEN protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muhan; Nowak, Dawid G; Narula, Navneet; Robinson, Brian; Watrud, Kaitlin; Ambrico, Alexandra; Herzka, Tali M; Zeeman, Martha E; Minderer, Matthias; Zheng, Wu; Ebbesen, Saya H; Plafker, Kendra S; Stahlhut, Carlos; Wang, Victoria M Y; Wills, Lorna; Nasar, Abu; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Wilkinson, John E; Powers, Scott; Sordella, Raffaella; Altorki, Nasser K; Mittal, Vivek; Stiles, Brendon M; Plafker, Scott M; Trotman, Lloyd C

    2017-03-06

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein levels are critical for tumor suppression. However, the search for a recurrent cancer-associated gene alteration that causes PTEN degradation has remained futile. In this study, we show that Importin-11 (Ipo11) is a transport receptor for PTEN that is required to physically separate PTEN from elements of the PTEN degradation machinery. Mechanistically, we find that the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and IPO11 cargo, UBE2E1, is a limiting factor for PTEN degradation. Using in vitro and in vivo gene-targeting methods, we show that Ipo11 loss results in degradation of Pten, lung adenocarcinoma, and neoplasia in mouse prostate with aberrantly high levels of Ube2e1 in the cytoplasm. These findings explain the correlation between loss of IPO11 and PTEN protein in human lung tumors. Furthermore, we find that IPO11 status predicts disease recurrence and progression to metastasis in patients choosing radical prostatectomy. Thus, our data introduce the IPO11 gene as a tumor-suppressor locus, which is of special importance in cancers that still retain at least one intact PTEN allele. © 2017 Chen et al.

  11. HIV-1 exploits importin 7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyens Lada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear import of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex (RTC is critical for infection of non dividing cells, and importin 7 (imp7 has been implicated in this process. To further characterize the function of imp7 in HIV-1 replication we generated cell lines stably depleted for imp7 and used them in conjunction with infection, cellular fractionation and pull-down assays. Results Imp7 depletion impaired HIV-1 infection but did not significantly affect HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac, or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. The lentiviral dependence on imp7 closely correlated with binding of the respective integrase proteins to imp7. HIV-1 RTC associated with nuclei of infected cells with remarkable speed and knock down of imp7 reduced HIV-1 DNA nuclear accumulation, delaying infection. Using an HIV-1 mutant deficient for reverse transcription, we found that viral RNA accumulated within nuclei of infected cells, indicating that reverse transcription is not absolutely required for nuclear import. Depletion of imp7 impacted on HIV-1 DNA but not RNA nuclear import and also inhibited DNA transfection efficiency. Conclusion Although imp7 may not be essential for HIV-1 infection, our results suggest that imp7 facilitates nuclear trafficking of DNA and that HIV-1 exploits imp7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome. Lentiviruses other than HIV-1 may have evolved to use alternative nuclear import receptors to the same end.

  12. Ebola virus encodes a miR-155 analog to regulate importin-α5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanwu; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Mingming; Gao, George Fu; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus caused more than 10,000 human deaths. Current knowledge of suitable drugs, clinical diagnostic biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus infection is either absent or insufficient. By screening stem-loop structures from the viral genomes of four virulence species, we identified a novel, putative viral microRNA precursor that is specifically expressed by the Ebola virus. The sequence of the microRNA precursor was further confirmed by mining the existing RNA-Seq database. Two putative mature microRNAs were predicted and subsequently validated in human cell lines. Combined with this prediction of the microRNA target, we identified importin-α5, which is a key regulator of interferon signaling following Ebola virus infection, as one putative target. We speculate that this microRNA could facilitate the evasion of the host immune system by the virus. Moreover, this microRNA might be a potential clinical therapeutic target or a diagnostic biomarker for Ebola virus.

  13. Neurospora importin α is required for normal heterochromatic formation and DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Klocko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin and associated gene silencing processes play roles in development, genome defense, and chromosome function. In many species, constitutive heterochromatin is decorated with histone H3 tri-methylated at lysine 9 (H3K9me3 and cytosine methylation. In Neurospora crassa, a five-protein complex, DCDC, catalyzes H3K9 methylation, which then directs DNA methylation. Here, we identify and characterize a gene important for DCDC function, dim-3 (defective in methylation-3, which encodes the nuclear import chaperone NUP-6 (Importin α. The critical mutation in dim-3 results in a substitution in an ARM repeat of NUP-6 and causes a substantial loss of H3K9me3 and DNA methylation. Surprisingly, nuclear transport of all known proteins involved in histone and DNA methylation, as well as a canonical transport substrate, appear normal in dim-3 strains. Interactions between DCDC members also appear normal, but the nup-6(dim-3 allele causes the DCDC members DIM-5 and DIM-7 to mislocalize from heterochromatin and NUP-6dim-3 itself is mislocalized from the nuclear envelope, at least in conidia. GCN-5, a member of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, also shows altered localization in dim-3, raising the possibility that NUP-6 is necessary to localize multiple chromatin complexes following nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  14. Drosophila TIM binds importin α1, and acts as an adapter to transport PER to the nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Reum Jang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Regulated nuclear entry of clock proteins is a conserved feature of eukaryotic circadian clocks and serves to separate the phase of mRNA activation from mRNA repression in the molecular feedback loop. In Drosophila, nuclear entry of the clock proteins, PERIOD (PER and TIMELESS (TIM, is tightly controlled, and impairments of this process produce profound behavioral phenotypes. We report here that nuclear entry of PER-TIM in clock cells, and consequently behavioral rhythms, require a specific member of a classic nuclear import pathway, Importin α1 (IMPα1. In addition to IMPα1, rhythmic behavior and nuclear expression of PER-TIM require a specific nuclear pore protein, Nup153, and Ran-GTPase. IMPα1 can also drive rapid and efficient nuclear expression of TIM and PER in cultured cells, although the effect on PER is mediated by TIM. Mapping of interaction domains between IMPα1 and TIM/PER suggests that TIM is the primary cargo for the importin machinery. This is supported by attenuated interaction of IMPα1 with TIM carrying a mutation previously shown to prevent nuclear entry of TIM and PER. TIM is detected at the nuclear envelope, and computational modeling suggests that it contains HEAT-ARM repeats typically found in karyopherins, consistent with its role as a co-transporter for PER. These findings suggest that although PER is the major timekeeper of the clock, TIM is the primary target of nuclear import mechanisms. Thus, the circadian clock uses specific components of the importin pathway with a novel twist in that TIM serves a karyopherin-like role for PER.

  15. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mobascher

    Full Text Available Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP, an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures.

  16. Humanin Peptide Binds to Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3) and Regulates Its Interaction with Importin-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomen, Evert; Evans, Hedeel G; Gedara, Samanthi H; Heyl, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear translocation of IGFBP3 by importin-β1 is a prerequisite for IGFBP3-induced apoptosis. The neuroprotective peptide humanin (HN) counteracts IGFBP3-induced cell death. However, the mechanism by which humanin protects cells is currently unknown. The natural synthesis of this peptide decreases with age, coincident with the likelihood for the development of Alzheimer's Disease, making it a promising target for therapeutics. We have examined the effect of full-length humanin and a synthetic analogue (HN 3-19), known to be sufficient for its neuroprotective function, on the interaction between IGFBP3 and importin-β1. Using competitive ligand dot blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and an ELISA-based binding assay, we determined that 1) humanin binds to IGFBP3 with a Kd of 5.05 µM and 2) both humanin (IC50 of 18.1 µM) and HN 3-19 (IC50 of 10.3 μM) interfere with the binding of importin-β1 to IGFBP3 in vitro. We also demonstrated that HN 3-19 is able to reduce the rate of apoptosis in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, suggesting a possible mechanism of action for humanin as an inhibitor of IGFBP3 nuclear translocation. Understanding the exact mechanism by which humanin and its analogue, HN 3-19, bind to IGFPB3 and regulate its interaction with importin-β1 will open the door to modulating the protein-protein interactions involved in neuronal cell death.

  17. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin α interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin α, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin α interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin α interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.

  18. Triplication of alpha-globin genes is responsible for unusual alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-globin chain ratios in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Masina, P; Rando, A; Testa, A; Di Gregorio, P

    1987-10-01

    By investigations at the DNA and protein level, it has been shown that in sheep a previously detected, presumed quantitative allele of the II alpha 113His gene, displaying a reduced efficiency (called the II alpha 113His decreases gene), is carried by a chromosome bearing three alpha-globin loci. In particular, five sheep having an alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 13:1 (13:1 phenotype) possessed the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. One sheep showing a alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 3:1 (3:1 phenotype) had the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype, while one sheep having a chain ratio of about 6:1 (6:1 phenotype) carried the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His decreases-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. Nineteen sheep, displaying the common phenotypes, all possessed the alpha alpha/alpha alpha gene arrangement. Furthermore, the possible location of the gene with reduced efficiency and the expression of the three genes in the triple alpha-globin loci chromosome are discussed.

  19. Comparison of independent screens on differentially vulnerable motor neurons reveals alpha-synuclein as a common modifier in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rachel A; Kaifer, Kevin A; Osman, Erkan Y; Carella, Francesco; Tiberi, Ariana; Ross, Jolill; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Lorson, Christian L; Murray, Lyndsay M

    2017-03-01

    The term "motor neuron disease" encompasses a spectrum of disorders in which motor neurons are the primary pathological target. However, in both patients and animal models of these diseases, not all motor neurons are equally vulnerable, in that while some motor neurons are lost very early in disease, others remain comparatively intact, even at late stages. This creates a valuable system to investigate the factors that regulate motor neuron vulnerability. In this study, we aim to use this experimental paradigm to identify potential transcriptional modifiers. We have compared the transcriptome of motor neurons from healthy wild-type mice, which are differentially vulnerable in the childhood motor neuron disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), and have identified 910 transcriptional changes. We have compared this data set with published microarray data sets on other differentially vulnerable motor neurons. These neurons were differentially vulnerable in the adult onset motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), but the screen was performed on the equivalent population of neurons from neurologically normal human, rat and mouse. This cross species comparison has generated a refined list of differentially expressed genes, including CELF5, Col5a2, PGEMN1, SNCA, Stmn1 and HOXa5, alongside a further enrichment for synaptic and axonal transcripts. As an in vivo validation, we demonstrate that the manipulation of a significant number of these transcripts can modify the neurodegenerative phenotype observed in a Drosophila line carrying an ALS causing mutation. Finally, we demonstrate that vector-mediated expression of alpha-synuclein (SNCA), a transcript decreased in selectively vulnerable motor neurons in all four screens, can extend life span, increase weight and decrease neuromuscular junction pathology in a mouse model of SMA. In summary, we have combined multiple data sets to identify transcripts, which are strong candidates for being phenotypic modifiers

  20. Structure of Importin-α from a Filamentous Fungus in Complex with a Classical Nuclear Localization Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E Bernardes

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus that has been extensively studied as a model organism for eukaryotic biology, providing fundamental insights into cellular processes such as cell signaling, growth and differentiation. To advance in the study of this multicellular organism, an understanding of the specific mechanisms for protein transport into the cell nucleus is essential. Importin-α (Imp-α is the receptor for cargo proteins that contain specific nuclear localization signals (NLSs that play a key role in the classical nuclear import pathway. Structures of Imp-α from different organisms (yeast, rice, mouse, and human have been determined, revealing that this receptor possesses a conserved structural scaffold. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Impα mechanism of action may vary significantly for different organisms or for different isoforms from the same organism. Therefore, structural, functional, and biophysical characterization of different Impα proteins is necessary to understand the selectivity of nuclear transport. Here, we determined the first crystal structure of an Impα from a filamentous fungus which is also the highest resolution Impα structure already solved to date (1.75 Å. In addition, we performed calorimetric analysis to determine the affinity and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction between Imp-α and the classical SV40 NLS peptide. The comparison of these data with previous studies on Impα proteins led us to demonstrate that N. crassa Imp-α possess specific features that are distinct from mammalian Imp-α but exhibit important similarities to rice Imp-α, particularly at the minor NLS binding site.

  1. The importin α subunit PsIMPA1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is required for the pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; Ding, Fa; Zhang, Lei; Sheng, Yuting; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-09-01

    The sensing of extracellular signals and their transduction into an appropriate response are crucial for the survival and virulence of plant pathogens. Eukaryotic plant pathogens must overcome the obstacles posed by nuclear membranes to manipulate gene expression to adapt to the host challenge. A highly sophisticated mechanism is the use of importins to transport proteins into the nucleus. In this study, we identified a conserved importin α gene, PsIMPA1, in Phytophthora sojae that was differentially expressed during the life cycle of this soybean pathogen. PsIMPA1 expression was lowest in zoospores and cysts but relatively consistent during the other life cycle stages, except for a slight increase at 6h post infection. Silenced mutants Psimpa1 had a decreased growth rate, an aberrant mycelial morphology, and a severely impaired ability to form oospores and sporangia. In addition, the Psimpa1 mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild type. 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining and in vitro hydrogen peroxide tolerance assays showed that the scavenging of reactive oxygen species by these mutants was significantly impaired. Taken together, these results indicate that PsIMPA1 regulates multiple processes during the life cycle of P. sojae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin cancer associated with commonly prescribed drugs: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and statins -weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Beatrice; Orrell, Kelsey A; Vakharia, Paras P; West, Dennis P

    2018-02-01

    Skin cancers, including both malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the US. The incidence of both MM and NMSC continues to rise. Areas covered: Current evidence for an association between four of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs in the U.S. and risk for MM and NMSC is reported. Medline was searched (January 2000 to May 2017) for each drug in the classes and for 'basal cell carcinoma', 'squamous cell carcinoma', 'non-melanoma skin cancer', 'skin cancer' and 'melanoma'. Skin cancer risk information was reported for: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitors (statins). Expert opinion: Since skin cancer risk is associated with all four classes of these commonly prescribed drugs that represent nearly 20% of the Top 100 drugs in the U.S., these important findings warrant enhanced education, especially for prescribers and those patients at high risk for skin cancer.

  3. Alpha-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibiting activities of polyphenol-rich extracts from six common bean cultivars of Southern Italy, before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Spigno, Patrizia; Riccardi, Riccardo; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Coppola, Raffaele; Fratianni, Florinda

    2018-01-16

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are a good source of nutrients and phenolic compounds with versatile health benefits. Polyphenol-rich extracts of six ecotypes of P. vulgaris were analysed to determine their phenolic profiles and assayed in vitro for inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes relevant to carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. The extracts inhibited enzyme activities in a dose-dependent manner. IC 50 values ranged from 69 ± 1.9 to 126 ± 3.2 μg/mL and from 107.01 ± 4.5 to 184.20 ± 5.7 μg/mL, before and after cooking, for α-amylase, from 39.3 ± 4.4 to 74.13 ± 6.9 μg/mL and from 51 ± 7.7 to 122.1 ± 5.2 μg/mL for α-glucosidase and from 63.11 ± 7.5 to 103.2 ± 5.9 μg/mL and from 92.0 ± 6.3 to 128.5 ± 7.4 μg/mL for lipase. Results suggest encouraging their consumption, being natural sources of enzyme inhibitors important for type-2 diabetes and obesity prevention/control. Well-monitored in vivo studies would help to establish their beneficial effects, making them worthwhile of further consideration as functional foods.

  4. The LSD1-Type Zinc Finger Motifs of Pisum sativa LSD1 Are a Novel Nuclear Localization Signal and Interact with Importin Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shanping; Huang, Kuowei; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Xiangchun; Huang, Ping; An, Chengcai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabidopsis mutant lsd1 highlight the important role of LSD1 in the negative regulation of plant programmed cell death (PCD). Arabidopsis thaliana LSD1 (AtLSD1) contains three LSD1-type zinc finger motifs, which are involved in the protein-protein interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further understand the function of LSD1, we have analyzed cellular localization and functional localization domains of Pisum sativa LSD1 (PsLSD1), which is a homolog ...

  5. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting-Against-Beta...... in publicly traded stocks versus wholly-owned private companies, we find that the former performs the best, suggesting that Buffett's returns are more due to stock selection than to his effect on management. These results have broad implications for market efficiency and the implementability of academic...

  6. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  7. Human-like PB2 627K influenza virus polymerase activity is regulated by importin-α1 and -α7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hudjetz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses may cross species barriers and transmit to humans with the potential to cause pandemics. Interplay of human- (PB2 627K and avian-like (PB2 627E influenza polymerase complexes with unknown host factors have been postulated to play a key role in interspecies transmission. Here, we have identified human importin-α isoforms (α1 and α7 as positive regulators of human- but not avian-like polymerase activity. Human-like polymerase activity correlated with efficient recruitment of α1 and α7 to viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs without affecting subcellular localization. We also observed that human-like influenza virus growth was impaired in α1 and α7 downregulated human lung cells. Mice lacking α7 were less susceptible to human- but not avian-like influenza virus infection. Thus, α1 and α7 are positive regulators of human-like polymerase activity and pathogenicity beyond their role in nuclear transport.

  8. Interferon Alpha in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B. Niewold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pleiotropic cytokine interferon alpha is involved in multiple aspects of lupus etiology and pathogenesis. Interferon alpha is important under normal circumstances for antiviral responses and immune activation. However, heightened levels of serum interferon alpha and expression of interferon response genes are common in lupus patients. Lupus-associated autoantibodies can drive the production of interferon alpha and heightened levels of interferon interfere with immune regulation. Several genes in the pathways leading to interferon production or signaling are associated with risk for lupus. Clinical and cellular manifestations of excess interferon alpha in lupus combined with the genetic risk factors associated with interferon make this cytokine a rare bridge between genetic risk and phenotypic effects. Interferon alpha influences the clinical picture of lupus and may represent a therapeutic target. This paper provides an overview of the cellular, genetic, and clinical aspects of interferon alpha in lupus.

  9. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  10. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  11. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  12. A functional genomics screen identifies an Importin-α homolog as a regulator of stem cell function and tissue patterning during planarian regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Amy; Henderson, Jordana M; Cowles, Martis W; Ross, Kelly G; Hagen, Matthew; Anderson, Christa; Szeterlak, Claudia J; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2015-10-12

    Planarians are renowned for their regenerative capacity and are an attractive model for the study of adult stem cells and tissue regeneration. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying planarian regeneration, we performed a functional genomics screen aimed at identifying genes involved in this process in Schmidtea mediterranea. We used microarrays to detect changes in gene expression in regenerating and non-regenerating tissues in planarians regenerating one side of the head and followed this with high-throughput screening by in situ hybridization and RNAi to characterize the expression patterns and function of the differentially expressed genes. Along with five previously characterized genes (Smed-cycD, Smed-morf41/mrg-1, Smed-pdss2/dlp1, Smed-slbp, and Smed-tph), we identified 20 additional genes necessary for stem cell maintenance (Smed-sart3, Smed-smarcc-1, Smed-espl1, Smed-rrm2b-1, Smed-rrm2b-2, Smed-dkc1, Smed-emg1, Smed-lig1, Smed-prim2, Smed-mcm7, and a novel sequence) or general regenerative capability (Smed-rbap46/48-2, Smed-mcm2, Smed-ptbp1, and Smed-fen-1) or that caused tissue-specific defects upon knockdown (Smed-ddc, Smed-gas8, Smed-pgbd4, and Smed-b9d2). We also found that a homolog of the nuclear transport factor Importin-α plays a role in stem cell function and tissue patterning, suggesting that controlled nuclear import of proteins is important for regeneration. Through this work, we described the roles of several previously uncharacterized genes in planarian regeneration and implicated nuclear import in this process. We have additionally created an online database to house our in situ and RNAi data to make it accessible to the planarian research community.

  13. ORF73 LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 contain an extended RGG/RG-rich nuclear and nucleolar localization signal that interacts directly with importin β1 for non-classical nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kellie; Cherezova, Lidia; DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2017-11-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigens (LANA) of KSHV and macaque RFHVMn, members of the RV1 rhadinovirus lineage, are closely related with conservation of complex nuclear localization signals (NLS) containing bipartite KR-rich motifs and RG-rich domains, which interact distinctly with importins α and ß1 for nuclear import via classical and non-classical pathways, respectively. RV1 LANAs are expressed in the nucleus of latently-infected cells where they inhibit replication and establish a dominant RV1 latency. Here we show that LANA homologs of macaque RRV and MneRV2 from the more distantly-related RV2 lineage, lack the KR-rich NLS, and instead have a large RG-rich NLS with multiple RG dipeptides and a conserved RGG motif. The RG-NLS interacts uniquely with importin β1, which mediates nuclear import and accumulation of RV2 LANA in the nucleolus. The alternative nuclear import and localization of RV2 LANA homologs may contribute to the dominant RV2 lytic replication phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  15. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  16. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  17. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  18. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  19. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  20. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  1. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  2. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  3. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from spreading Common warts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS or people who've had organ transplants Prevention To reduce your risk of common warts: Avoid direct contact with warts. This includes your own warts. Don't pick at warts. Picking may spread the ...

  5. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  6. The Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.

    2004-01-01

    Over a three-year period, David Moore made repeated early morning visits to the chamber of the House of Commons, making photographs of unseen and overlooked areas and submitting this political environment to the scrutiny of the document. The Commons pursues archaeology of our most important debating chamber, exploring how an environment can act as a metaphor for wider societal issues. In doing so Moore creates an incisive survey of the epicentre of British politics.

  7. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body has a problem producing alpha globin Beta thalassemia : when the body has a problem producing beta ... Transfusion Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Sickle Cell Disease Beta Thalassemia Blood All About Genetics Prenatal Genetic Counseling Genetic ...

  8. Neuropsychiatric Complications Associated with Interferon - Alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant ...

  9. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AbstRACt. Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal cases. Standard methods of diagnosis are limited by high false positives and negatives. This study compared the accuracy of a biomarker placental alpha ...

  10. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  11. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  12. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  13. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  14. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  15. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  16. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E

    1995-12-01

    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  17. Monte Carlo alpha deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, T.L.; Evans, F.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work demonstrated the importance of nuclear scattering to fusion product energy deposition in hot plasmas. This suggests careful examination of nuclear physics details in burning plasma simulations. An existing Monte Carlo fast ion transport code is being expanded to be a test bed for this examination. An initial extension, the energy deposition of fast alpha particles in a hot deuterium plasma, is reported. The deposition times and deposition ranges are modified by allowing nuclear scattering. Up to 10% of the initial alpha particle energy is carried to greater ranges and times by the more mobile recoil deuterons. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting......-Against-Beta and Quality-Minus-Junk factors. Further, we estimate that Buffett’s leverage is about 1.6-to-1 on average. Buffett’s returns appear to be neither luck nor magic, but, rather, reward for the use of leverage combined with a focus on cheap, safe, quality stocks. Decomposing Berkshires’ portfolio into ownership...

  19. Alpha-particle fluence in radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezic, Dragoslav; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2017-03-01

    Two methods were proposed for determining alpha-particle fluence for radiobiological experiments. The first involved calculating the probabilities of hitting the target for alpha particles emitted from a source through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the activity of the source gave the fluence at the target. The second relied on the number of chemically etched alpha-particle tracks developed on a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) that was irradiated by an alpha-particle source. The etching efficiencies (defined as percentages of latent tracks created by alpha particles from the source that could develop to become visible tracks upon chemical etching) were computed through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the experimentally counted number of visible tracks would also give the fluence at the target. We studied alpha particles with an energy of 5.486 MeV emitted from an 241Am source, and considered the alpha-particle tracks developed on polyallyldiglycol carbonate film, which is a common SSNTD. Our results showed that the etching efficiencies were equal to one for source-film distances of from 0.6 to 3.5 cm for a circular film of radius of 1 cm, and for source-film distances of from 1 to 3 cm for circular film of radius of 2 cm. For circular film with a radius of 3 cm, the etching efficiencies never reached 1. On the other hand, the hit probability decreased monotonically with increase in the source-target distance, and fell to zero when the source-target distance was larger than the particle range in air. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  20. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  1. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  2. Demystifying AlphaGo Zero as AlphaGo GAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiao; Wu, Jiasong; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The astonishing success of AlphaGo Zero\\cite{Silver_AlphaGo} invokes a worldwide discussion of the future of our human society with a mixed mood of hope, anxiousness, excitement and fear. We try to dymystify AlphaGo Zero by a qualitative analysis to indicate that AlphaGo Zero can be understood as a specially structured GAN system which is expected to possess an inherent good convergence property. Thus we deduct the success of AlphaGo Zero may not be a sign of a new generation of AI.

  3. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  4. Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic, mindfulness, mood, health and sport implications. ... the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores.

  5. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  7. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  8. High prevalence of alpha-thalassemia among individuals with microcytosis and hypochromia without anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borges

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the contribution of alpha-thalassemia to microcytosis and hypochromia, 339 adult outpatients seen at Unicamp University Hospital (with the exception of the Clinical Hematology outpatient clinics, who showed normal hemoglobin (Hb levels and reduced mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were analyzed. Ninety-eight were Blacks (28.9% and 241 were Caucasians (71.1%. In all cases, Hb A2 and F levels were either normal or low. The most common deletional and nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, --MED, -(alpha20.5, alphaHphIalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI and alphaTSAUDI] were investigated by PCR and restriction enzyme analyses. A total of 169 individuals (49.9% presented alpha-thalassemia: 145 (42.8% were heterozygous for the -alpha3.7 deletion (-alpha3.7/aa and 18 (5.3% homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7, 5 (1.5% were heterozygous for the nondeletional form alphaHphIalpha (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.3% was a --MED carrier (--MED/aa. Among the Blacks, 56 (57.1% showed the -alpha3.7/aa genotype, whereas 12 (12.2% were -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 and 1 (1.0% was an alphaHphIalpha carrier; among the Caucasians, 89 (36.9% were -alpha3.7/aa, 6 (2.5% had the -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 genotype, 4 (1.7% presented the nondeletional form (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.4% was a --MED carrier. These results demonstrate that alpha-thalassemia, mainly through the -alpha3.7 deletion, is an important cause of microcytosis and hypochromia in individuals without anemia. These data are of clinical relevance since these hematological alterations are often interpreted as indicators of iron deficiency.

  9. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  10. Origins and spreads of Alpha 1 antitrypsin variants in world human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) represents a common hereditary disorder that mainly manifests as obstructive lung diseases and less common liver ... Anthropological history of Alpha 1 antitrypsin variants / Denden et al. ..... PIZ allele to be 2000 years or 66 generations, by analyzing STR and RFLP markers on.

  11. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  12. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  13. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R. I.; Dulama, C. N.; Ciocirlan, C. N.; Toma, A.; Stoica, S. M.; Valeca, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  14. common laboratory investigations in obstetrics and gynaecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Laboratory investigations in obstetrics and gynaecology prac- tice have much in common ... HIV diagnosis and monitoring. These 'universal' tests are ... HIV. • Alpha fetoprotein and Down's screen (α-fetoprotein, β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and unconjugated oestriol). • Glucose tolerance test. • Midstream urine.

  15. Inhibitory function of adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit in the process of nuclear translocation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yukiko; Kameoka, Masanori; Shoji-Kawata, Sanae; Iwabu, Yukie; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Fujino, Masato; Natori, Yukikazu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The transfection of human cells with siRNA against adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2α) was revealed to significantly up-regulate the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This effect was confirmed by cell infection with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 as well as CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Viral adsorption, viral entry and reverse transcription processes were not affected by cell transfection with siRNA against AP2α. In contrast, viral nuclear translocation as well as the integration process was significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with siRNA against AP2α. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that a subpopulation of AP2α was not only localized in the cytoplasm but was also partly co-localized with lamin B, importin β and Nup153, implying that AP2α negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in the process of nuclear translocation of viral DNA in the cytoplasm or the perinuclear region. We propose that AP2α may be a novel target for disrupting HIV-1 replication in the early stage of the viral life cycle

  16. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  17. Alpha wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouvenot, P.

    2000-01-01

    Alter 2004, the alpha wastes issued from the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique installations will be sent to the CEDRA plant. The aims of this installation are decontamination and wastes storage. Because of recent environmental regulations concerning ozone layer depletion, the use of CFC 113 in the decontamination unit, as previously planned, is impossible. Two alternatives processes are studied: the AVD process and an aqueous process including surfactants. Best formulations for both processes are defined issuing degreasing kinetics. It is observed that a good degreasing efficiency is linked to a good decontamination efficiency. Best results are obtained with the aqueous process. Furthermore, from the point of view of an existing waste treatment unit, the aqueous process turns out to be more suitable than the AVD process. (author)

  18. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  19. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  20. Medical image of the week: alpha intrusion into REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension and chronic headaches was referred to the sleep laboratory for high clinical suspicion for sleep apnea based on a history of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. An overnight sleep study was performed. Images during N3 Sleep and REM sleep are shown (Figures 1 and 2. Alpha intrusion in delta sleep is seen in patients with fibromyalgia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, anxiety disorder, and primary sleep disorders like psychophysiological insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, circadian disorders and narcolepsy (1. Bursts of alpha waves during REM sleep may be more common during phasic REM than tonic REM. The REM alpha bursts (alpha activity lasting at least 3 seconds without an increase in EMG amplitude may represent microarousals (2. Hypersynchronous theta activity should be differentiated from the spike and waveform activity seen in seizures.

  1. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous a-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase...... inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases...... in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological...

  2. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun

    2010-01-01

    integrin cDNAs encoding alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to Bactrian camels. The complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alpha v,beta 1 and beta 6 subunits were found to be 3147, 2397, and 2364 nucleotides in length, encoding 1048, 798......, and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...

  3. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  4. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  5. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disorder associated with the development of liver and lung disease. AAT is a 52-kD glycoprotein, produced mainly by hepatocytes and secreted into the blood. Agglomeration of the AAT-protein in hepatocytes can result in liver disease. Exposure to smoke is the major risk factor for the development of lung disease characterised as early chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Diagnosis is based on the analysis of the AAT genotype and phenotype. The measurement of the AAT serum level is useful as screening test. Liver biopsy is not necessary to establish the diagnosis. Therapy for AAT-related liver disease is supportive, a specific therapy is not available. AATD is a rare condition (1:5000-10000) and, as a consequence, data and information on diagnosis and treatment are not easily accessible. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview on AATD, covering basic biology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ with Radiative Hadronic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, R J; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krasznahorkays, A Jr; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schiecks, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, J; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2008-01-01

    Hadronic final states with a hard isolated photon are studied using data taken at centre-of-mass energies around the mass of the Z0 boson with the OPAL detector at LEP. The strong coupling alpha S is extracted by comparing data and QCD predictions for event shape observables at average reduced centre-of-mass energies ranging from 24 GeV to 78 GeV, and the energy dependence of alpha S is studied. Our results are consistent with the running of alpha S as predicted by QCD and show that within the uncertainties of our analysis event shapes in hadronic Z0 decays with hard and isolated photon radiation can be described by QCD at reduced centre-of-mass energies. Combining all values from different event shape observables and energies gives alpha S (Mz)=0.1182 pm 0.0015(stat.) pm 0.0101(syst.).

  7. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Beelen, A.; Henkel, C.; Cen, R.; De Breuck, C.; Francis, P.; Kovacs, A.; Lagache, G.; Lehnert, M.; Mao, M.; Menten, K. M.; Norris, R.; Omont, A.; Tatemastu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the rad...

  8. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here.

  9. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  10. Contribution to the study of the alpha-alpha interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1965-01-01

    The new variable energy cyclotron at Berkeley that can accelerate an alpha beam up to an energy of 130 MeV and the mass production of lithium diffused junctions have enabled us to perform 2 series of measurement, in the first one we use alpha beams with an energy ranging between 50 and 120 MeV to study alpha-alpha forces in the second one we use the flexibility of the variable energy cyclotron the resonances around 40 MeV, region that can not yet be reached by tandem accelerators. This work is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the formalism of partial wave analysis and the theory of the compound nucleus. In the second chapter the author presents the 88 cyclotron at Berkeley and the diffusion chamber, the alpha detectors are lithium diffused junctions made of silicon. The third chapter deals with the experimental methods used and the issue of the reduction of the volume of data. In the fourth chapter the results obtained in the upper part of the energy range are described in terms of complex shifts that allow the description of the α-α interaction at high energy. The very low impact parameter has enabled us to find 2 new components (l=6 and l=8) of the rotational spectrum and to define a more accurate phenomenological potential. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the narrow resonances we have found between 12 and 27 MeV. We present in the last chapter a calculation of the binding energy of C 12 in which we have considered the 12 C nucleus as formed by 3 alpha particles interacting with each other through the phenomenological potential defined above

  11. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica: comparison with long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and alpha-conotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvintsev, D Yu; Polyak, Ya L; Levtsova, O V; Tourleigh, Ye V; Kasheverov, I E; Shaitan, K V; Utkin, Yu N; Tsetlin, V I

    2005-12-01

    contact nAChR by their tips only in a 'surface-touch' manner. The toxin structure undergoes some changes during the final complex formation (for 1.45 rmsd in 15-25 ps according to AMBER'99 molecular dynamics simulation), which correlates with NMR data. The data on the mobility and accessibility of spin- and fluorescence labels in free and bound NTII were used in MD simulations. The binding process is dependent on spontaneous outward movement of the C-loop earlier found in the AChBP complexes with alpha-cobratoxin and alpha-conotoxin. Among common features in binding of short- and long alpha-neurotoxins is the rearrangement of aromatic residues in the binding pocket not observed for alpha-conotoxin binding. Being in general very similar, the binding modes of short- and long alpha-neurotoxins differ in the ways of loop II entry into nAChR.

  12. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  13. Benchmarks for targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) needs to achieve certain benchmarks if t is to find its way into the clinic. This paper reviews the status of benchmarks for dose normalisation, microdosimetry, response of micrometastases to therapy, maximum tolerance doses and adequate supplies of alpha emitting radioisotopes. In comparing dose effect for different alpha immunoconjugates (IC), patients and diseases, it is appropriate to normalise dose according to specific factors that affect the efficacy of the treatment. Body weight and body surface area are two commonly used criteria. However, more advanced criteria are required, such as the volume of distribution. Alpha dosimetry presents a special challenge in clinical trials. Monte Carlo calculations can be used to determine specific energies, but these need validation. This problem could be resolved with micronuclei biological dosimetry and mutagenesis studies of radiation Jam age. While macroscopic disease can be monitored, the impact of therapy on subclinical microscopic disease is a real problem. Magnetic cell separation of cancer cells in the blood with magnetic microspheres coated with the targeting monoclonal antibody could provide the response data. Alpha therapy needs first to establish maximum tolerance doses for practical acceptance. This has been determined with 213Bi-IC for acute myelogenous leukaemia at ∼ I mCi/kg. The maximum tolerance dose has not yet been established for metastatic melanoma, but the efficacious dose for some melanomas is less than 0.3 mCi/kg and for intra-cavity therapy of GBM it is ∼ 0.14 mCi/kg for 211 At-Ie. In the case of Ra-223 for bone cancer, the emission of four alphas with a total energy of 27 MeV results in very high cytotoxicity and an effective dose of only ∼ 5 μCi/kg. The limited supplies of Ac-225 available after separation from Th-229 are adequate for clinical trials. However, should TAT become a clinical procedure, then new supplies must be found. Accelerator

  14. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  15. Improved Alpha Testing Using Hashed Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Chris; McGuire, Morgan

    2017-08-14

    We further describe and analyze the idea of hashed alpha testing from Wyman and McGuire [1], which builds on stochastic alpha testing and simplifies stochastic transparency. Typically, alpha testing provides a simple mechanism to mask out complex silhouettes using simple proxy geometry with applied alpha textures. While widely used, alpha testing has a long-standing problem: geometry can disappear entirely as alpha mapped polygons recede with distance. As foveated rendering for virtual reality spreads, this problem worsens as peripheral minification and prefiltering introduce this problem on nearby objects.

  16. ALPHA,·ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... Lieberman," in fact, found that 15·2% of 66 patients hospitalized with pulmonary emphysema had heterozygous alpha,-antitrypsin deficiency. The over-all incidence of the deficiency was 25'8% in this group. Of patients under the age of 50 years, 47·8% had deficient levels. If such observations are confirmed ...

  17. Alpha sources deposit by sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Eloy, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    We studied and realized a device able to perform some very thin substracts used for alpha spectrometry measurements. Sources are prepared by sublimation of the sample in a vacuum container. The energy required for this sublimation is furnished by a laser beam [fr

  18. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme: an encouraging target for various inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Malkeet S; Silakari, Om

    2010-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha is one of the most common pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for various inflammatory disorders. It plays an important role in the origin and progression of rheumatoid arthritis and also in other autoimmune disease conditions. Some anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies like Enbrel, Humira and Remicade have been successfully used in these disease conditions as antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Inhibition of generation of active form of tumor necrosis factor alpha is a promising therapy for various inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the inhibition of an enzyme (tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme), which is responsible for processing inactive form of tumor necrosis factor alpha into its active soluble form, is an encouraging target. Many tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibitors have been the candidates of clinical trials but none of them have reached in to the market because of their broad spectrum inhibitory activity for other matrix metalloproteases. Selectivity of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibition over matrix metalloproteases is of utmost importance. If selectivity is achieved successfully, side-effects can be over-ruled and this approach may become a novel therapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. This cytokine not only plays a pivotal role in inflammatory conditions but also in some cancerous conditions. Thus, successful targeting of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme may result in multifunctional therapy.

  20. The effect of a metalloproteinase inhibitor (GI5402) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-alpha receptors during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, P. E.; Lauw, F. N.; ten Hove, T.; te Velde, A. A.; Lumley, P.; Becherer, D.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released from the cell surface by cleavage of pro-TNF-alpha by metalloproteinases (MPs). In cell cultures, inhibition of MPs has been found not only to reduce the release of TNF-alpha, but also to enhance the surface expression of TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha

  1. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M.; Goncalez, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  2. Gene therapy for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Mueller, Christian

    2011-04-15

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common single-gene disorder among Northern Europeans and North Americans. The carrier frequency for the common missense mutation (Z-AAT) ranges from 4% in the US to nearly 25% in the Republic of Ireland. Severe AAT deficiency (plasma levels below 11 μm) is most commonly associated with an adult-onset lung disease, with pan-acinar emphysema and airway inflammation, which is thought to be primarily owing to the loss of function of AAT in neutralizing neutrophil elastase and other pro-inflammatory enzymes. In 5-10% of patients, severe liver disease may develop. This may occur at any time from infancy to adulthood, and is thought to be owing to toxicity from the Z-AAT mutant protein that folds poorly and forms insoluble polymers within the hepatocyte, which is the primary site for AAT production. Thus, gene therapy for AAT lung disease is conceived of as augmentation of serum levels (a prolonged form of protein replacement, which is currently in use), while gene therapy for liver disease presents the problem of also having to downregulate the production of Z-AAT protein. Over the years, numerous strategies have been employed for the gene therapy of both AAT-deficient lung disease and liver disease. These will be reviewed with an emphasis on modalities that have reached clinical trials recently.

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  4. Nature of the pygmy dipole resonance in Ce-140 studied in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A.M.; Harakeh, M.N.; Hasper, J.; Matic, A.; Wörtche, H.J.; Zilges, A.

    2006-01-01

    A concentration of electric-dipole excitations below the particle threshold, which is frequently denoted as the pygmy dipole resonance, has been studied in the semimagic nucleus Ce-140 in (alpha, alpha(')gamma) experiments at E-alpha=136 MeV. The technique of alpha-gamma coincidence experiments

  5. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  6. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  7. Some Common Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/appendixb.html Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviation Stands for More information ABG ...

  8. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  9. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Primary ... PIDDs Genetics & Inheritance Talking to Your Doctor Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by low levels of ...

  10. The prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Morris Valerie B; Dimitrov Borislav D; O'Brien Geraldine; Kelleher Dermot P; McPartlin Joseph; Floyd Olwen; O'Connor Catherine A; Carroll Tomás P; Taggart Clifford C; McElvaney Noel G

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and classically presents with early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common mutation presenting with clinical evidence is the Z mutation, while the S mutation is associated with a milder plasma deficiency. AATD is an under-diagnosed condition and the World Health Organisation recommends targeted detection programmes for AATD in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disea...

  11. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Eline B.; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory (WM). One neural signature of WM load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6–12 Hz). However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of WM when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and backgrou...

  12. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, M.

    1976-01-01

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  13. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  14. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  15. Novel alpha-mannosidase inhibitors; Nye alfa-mannosidaseinhibitorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, R.A.; Kang, M.S.; Peet, N.P.; Sunkara, S.P.

    1997-05-20

    [4S-(4{alpha}, 4a{beta}, 6{alpha}, 7{alpha}, 7a{alpha})]-Octahydro-1H-1-pyridine-4,5,6,7-tetrols and [4R-(4{alpha}, 4a{alpha}, 5{alpha}, 6{beta}, 7{beta}, 7a{beta})]-octahydro-1H-1-pyridine-4,5,6,7-tetrols are useful inhibitors of alpha-mannosidase and are useful immunostimulants, chemoprotective and radioprotective agents and antimetastatic agents.

  16. Activator protein 2alpha mediates parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S

    2008-10-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-alpha in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-alpha activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2alpha (AP2), an inducer of TGF-alpha gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-alpha in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression strongly correlated with TGF-alpha levels and with the rate of parathyroid growth, as expected. Furthermore, the increases in rat parathyroid content of AP2 and its binding to a consensus AP2 DNA sequence preceded the increase in TGF-alpha induced by high dietary phosphate. More significant, in A431 cells, which provide a model of enhanced TGF-alpha and TGF-alpha self-induction, mutating the core AP2 site of the human TGF-alpha promoter markedly impaired promoter activity induced by endogenous or exogenous TGF-alpha. Important for therapy, in five-sixths nephrectomized rats fed high-phosphate diets, inhibition of parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction using erlotinib, a highly specific inhibitor of TGF-alpha/EGFR-driven signals, reduced AP2 expression dosage dependently. This suggests that the increases in parathyroid AP2 occur downstream of EGFR activation by TGF-alpha and are required for TGF-alpha self-induction. Indeed, in A431 cells, erlotinib inhibition of TGF-alpha self-induction caused parallel reductions in AP2 expression and nuclear localization, as well as TGF-alpha mRNA and protein levels. In summary, increased AP2 expression and transcriptional activity at the TGF-alpha promoter determine the severity of the hyperplasia driven by parathyroid TGF-alpha self-upregulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  17. Development of rabbit monoclonal antibodies for detection of alpha-dystroglycan in normal and dystrophic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa J Fortunato

    Full Text Available Alpha-dystroglycan requires a rare O-mannose glycan modification to form its binding epitope for extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin. This functional glycan is disrupted in a cohort of muscular dystrophies, the secondary dystroglycanopathies, and is abnormal in some metastatic cancers. The most commonly used reagent for detection of alpha-dystroglycan is mouse monoclonal antibody IIH6, but it requires the functional O-mannose structure for recognition. Therefore, the ability to detect alpha-dystroglycan protein in disease states where it lacks the full O-mannose glycan has been limited. To overcome this hurdle, rabbit monoclonal antibodies against the alpha-dystroglycan C-terminus were generated. The new antibodies, named 5-2, 29-5, and 45-3, detect alpha-dystroglycan from mouse, rat and pig skeletal muscle by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In a mouse model of fukutin-deficient dystroglycanopathy, all antibodies detected low molecular weight alpha-dystroglycan in disease samples demonstrating a loss of functional glycosylation. Alternately, in a porcine model of Becker muscular dystrophy, relative abundance of alpha-dystroglycan was decreased, consistent with a reduction in expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in affected muscle. Therefore, these new rabbit monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for alpha-dystroglycan core protein detection and will enhance dystroglycan-related studies.

  18. Ly{alpha} DOMINANCE OF THE CLASSICAL T TAURI FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindhelm, Eric [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang Hao [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Brown, Joanna M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Valenti, Jeff, E-mail: eric@boulder.swri.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation plays an important role in determining chemical abundances in protoplanetary disks. H I Lyman {alpha} (Ly{alpha}) is suspected to be the dominant component of the FUV emission from Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), but is difficult to measure directly due to circumstellar and interstellar H I absorption. To better characterize the intrinsic Ly{alpha} radiation, we present FUV spectra of 14 CTTSs taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instruments. H{sub 2} fluorescence, commonly seen in the spectra of CTTSs, is excited by Ly{alpha} photons, providing an indirect measure of the Ly{alpha} flux incident upon the warm disk surface. We use observed H{sub 2} progression fluxes to reconstruct the CTTS Ly{alpha} profiles. The Ly{alpha} flux correlates with total measured FUV flux, in agreement with an accretion-related source of FUV emission. With a geometry-independent analysis, we confirm that in accreting T Tauri systems Ly{alpha} radiation dominates the FUV flux ({approx}1150 A -1700 A). In the systems surveyed this one line comprises 70%-90% of the total FUV flux.

  19. Normal aging selectively diminishes alpha lateralization in visual spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiangfei; Sun, Junfeng; Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-02-01

    EEG studies of cue-induced visual alpha power (8-13 Hz) lateralization have been conducted on young adults without examining differences that may develop as a consequence of normal aging. Here, we examined age-related differences in spatial attention by comparing healthy older and younger adults. Our key finding is that cue-induced alpha power lateralization was observed in younger, but not older adults, even though both groups exhibited classic event-related potential signatures of spatial orienting. Specifically, both younger and older adults showed significant early directing-attention negativity (EDAN), anterior directing-attention negativity (ADAN), late directing-attention positivity (LDAP) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Furthermore, target-evoked sensory components were enhanced for attended relative to unattended targets in both younger and older groups. This pattern of results suggests that although older adults can successfully allocate spatial attention, they do so without the lateralization of alpha power that is commonly observed in younger adults. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that younger and older adults might engage different neural mechanisms for attentional orienting, and that alpha power lateralization during visual spatial attention is a phenomenon that diminishes during normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The TNF-alpha transgenic mouse model of inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Schwarz, Edward M

    2003-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects multiple peripheral joints. It is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and is characterized by synovial hyperplasia, immune cell infiltration, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion. To gain insight into the etiology of the disease, a variety of animal models have been established. Twelve years ago George Kollias' laboratory generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse that over-expresses human TNF-alpha, and develops an erosive polyarthritis with many characteristics observed in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The phenotype of this mouse model validated the theory that TNF-alpha is at the apex of the pro-inflammatory cascade in rheumatoid arthritis, and foreshadowed the remarkable success of anti-TNF-alpha therapy that has transformed the effective management of this disease. As such, the TNF-Tg mice are very useful tools for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenic process and evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies for rheumatoid arthritis. In this review we (1) provide a brief summary of TNF-alpha biology and the role of this dominant cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis, (2) describe the various TNF-Tg models and their phenotypes, and (3) give examples of how this model has been used experimentally.

  1. Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTP-alpha) but not PTP-kappa inhibits translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, L N; Chen, H; Li, Y

    1999-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) are likely to play important roles in insulin action. We recently demonstrated that the nontransmembrane PTPase PTP1B can act as a negative modulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. We now examine the role of PTP-alpha and PTP-kappa (two...... transmembrane PTPases) in this metabolic action of insulin. Rat adipose cells were transfected with either PTP-alpha or PTP-kappa and effects of these PTPases on the translocation of a cotransfected epitope-tagged GLUT4 were studied. Cells overexpressing wild-type PTP-alpha had significantly lower levels...... of cell surface GLUT4 in response to insulin and a threefold decrease in insulin sensitivity when compared with control cells expressing only tagged GLUT4. Co-overexpression of PTP-alpha and PTP1B did not have additive effects, suggesting that these PTPases share common substrates. Cells overexpressing...

  2. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  3. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  4. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  5. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)

    2004-08-21

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  6. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (ams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), once installed on the International Space Station will provide precise measurements of the cosmic ray spectra up to TeV energy range, and will search for cosmological antimatter and missing matter. A prototype version of the detector was operated successfully on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998 (STS-91). Here we briefly report on the design of the AMS apparatus and present the results of the measurements of the fluxes of proton, electron, positron and helium from the STS-91 flight.

  7. Crossing symmetry in Alpha space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.

  8. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  9. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  10. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  11. Collective search by mobile robots using alpha-beta coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Robinett, R. III

    1998-04-01

    One important application of mobile robots is searching a geographical region to locate the origin of a specific sensible phenomenon. Mapping mine fields, extraterrestrial and undersea exploration, the location of chemical and biological weapons, and the location of explosive devices are just a few potential applications. Teams of robotic bloodhounds have a simple common goal; to converge on the location of the source phenomenon, confirm its intensity, and to remain aggregated around it until directed to take some other action. In cases where human intervention through teleoperation is not possible, the robot team must be deployed in a territory without supervision, requiring an autonomous decentralized coordination strategy. This paper presents the alpha beta coordination strategy, a family of collective search algorithms that are based on dynamic partitioning of the robotic team into two complementary social roles according to a sensor based status measure. Robots in the alpha role are risk takers, motivated to improve their status by exploring new regions of the search space. Robots in the beta role are motivated to improve but are conservative, and tend to remain aggregated and stationary until the alpha robots have identified better regions of the search space. Roles are determined dynamically by each member of the team based on the status of the individual robot relative to the current state of the collective. Partitioning the robot team into alpha and beta roles results in a balance between exploration and exploitation, and can yield collective energy savings and improved resistance to sensor noise and defectors. Alpha robots waste energy exploring new territory, and are more sensitive to the effects of ambient noise and to defectors reporting inflated status. Beta robots conserve energy by moving in a direct path to regions of confirmed high status.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles; Aberraciones cromosomicas inducidas por particulas {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  13. Total alpha-globin gene cluster deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, J.A.; Haruyama, A.Z.; Chu, B.M. [Kapiolani Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Most {alpha}-thalassemias [Thal] are due to large deletions. In Southeast Asians, the (--{sup SEA}) double {alpha}-globin gene deletion is common, 3 (--{sup Tot}) total {alpha}-globin cluster deletions are known: Filipino (--{sup Fil}), Thai (--{sup Thai}), and Chinese (--{sup Chin}). In a Hawaii Thal project, provisional diagnosis of {alpha}-Thal-1 heterozygotes was based on microcytosis, normal isoelectric focusing, and no iron deficiency. One in 10 unselected Filipinos was an {alpha}-Thal-1 heterozygote, 2/3 of these had a (--{sup Tot}) deletion: a {var_sigma}-cDNA probe consistently showed fainter intensity of the constant 5.5 kb {var_sigma}{sub 2} BamHI band, with no heterzygosity for {var_sigma}-globin region polymorphisms; {alpha}-cDNA or {var_sigma}-cDNA probes showed no BamHI or BglII bands diagnostic of the (--{sup SEA}) deletion; bands for the (-{alpha}) {alpha}-Thal-2 single {alpha}-globin deletions were only seen in Hb H cases. A reliable monoclonal anti-{var_sigma}-peptide antibody test for the (--{sup SEA}) deletion was always negative in (--{sup Tot}) samples. Southern digests with the Lo probe, a gift from D. Higgs of Oxford Univ., confirmed that 49 of 50 (--{sup Tot}) chromosomes in Filipinos were (--{sup Fil}). Of 20 {alpha}-Thal-1 hydrops born to Filipinos, 11 were (--{sup Fil}/--{sup SEA}) compound heterozygotes; 9 were (--{sup SEA}/--{sup SEA}) homozygotes, but none was a (--{sup Fil}/--{sup Fil}).

  14. Quantum Estimates of Alpha Emitter Life Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum estimates of several alpha radioactive life time have been made using the probability of quantum tunneling through the nuclear potential barrier. It is assumed that for a given nucleus with mass number A and isotopic number Z, there exists an alpha particle moving freely back and forth in the nucleus with mass and isotopic numbers A -4 and Z-2. If the probability of penetrating the nuclear potential barrier is Τ, then after N times (N=1/Τ hitting the barrier an alpha particle is emitted. To obtain the elapsed time for emitting an alpha particle requires N times τ0, where τ0 is the time travel for alpha across the nuclear diameter, which is dependent on alpha energy. It is assumed here that this kinetic energy is the same as the emitted energy. The emitting alpha kinetic energies here are calculated by the difference of the masses of the parent and daughter nuclei and the alpha particles. They are in closed agreement with the experimental observations. While the alpha radioactive life time are not the same order of magnitudes but give the same linearity on the logarithmic scale as function of the inverse square root of energy.

  15. Sterically hindered C(alpha, alpha)-disubstituted alpha-amino acids: synthesis from alpha-nitroacetate and incorporation into peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Hammarström, L G; Miller, T J; Fronczek, F R; McLaughlin, M L; Hammer, R P

    2001-10-19

    The preparation of sterically hindered and polyfunctional C(alpha,alpha)-disubstituted alpha-amino acids (alpha alpha AAs) via alkylation of ethyl nitroacetate and transformation into derivatives ready for incorporation into peptides are described. Treatment of ethyl nitroacetate with N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) in the presence of a catalytic amount of tetraalkylammonium salt, followed by the addition of an activated alkyl halide or Michael acceptor, gives the doubly C-alkylated product in good to excellent yields. Selective nitro reduction with Zn in acetic acid or hydrogen over Raney Ni gives the corresponding amino ester that, upon saponification, can be protected with the fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group. The first synthesis of an orthogonally protected, tetrafunctional C(alpha,alpha)-disubstituted analogue of aspartic acid, 2,2-bis(tert-butylcarboxymethyl)glycine (Bcmg), is described. Also, the sterically demanding C(alpha,alpha)-dibenzylglycine (Dbg) has been incorporated into a peptide using solid-phase synthesis. It was found that once sterically congested Dbg is at the peptide N-terminus, further chain extension becomes very difficult using uronium or phosphonium salts (PyAOP, PyAOP/HOAt, HATU). However, preformed amino acid symmetrical anhydride couples to N-terminal Dbg in almost quantitative yield in nonpolar solvent (dichloroethane-DMF, 9:1).

  16. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  17. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  18. Common Elements of Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... It is now common for multiple organizations to work collaboratively in pursuit of a single mission, which creates a degree of programmatic and process complexity that can be difficult to manage effectively...

  19. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... being "polluted" by the state and market logic and maintain their distinctness rooted in civil society´s values and logics. Through a historical case analysis of the Egmont Foundation from Denmark (a corporate philanthropic foundation from 1920), the paper shows how concrete gift-giving practices...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  20. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  1. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  2. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in human skin : A comparison of different antibodies for immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, N; de Leij, LFMH; Buurman, W; Timens, W; ten Duis, HJ

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding the localization and presence of TNF alpha in normal human skin, To study TNF alpha expression, we tested a panel of antibodies directed against human TNF alpha, First, antibodies were tested for immunoreactivity on cytospots of isolated

  3. Study of the pygmy dipole resonance in Mo-94 using the (alpha, alpha ' gamma) coincidence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Elvers, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Siebenhuehner, F.; Stoica, V. I.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2013-01-01

    The (alpha, alpha' gamma) reaction at E-alpha = 136 MeV was used to study the electric dipole response in the open-shell vibrational nucleus Mo-94 below the neutron-separation threshold. The coincidence experiment has been performed at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  5. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  6. Alpha Shape Topology of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Platen, Erwin; Vegter, Gert; Eldering, Bob; Kruithof, Nico

    2010-01-01

    We study the topology of the Megaparsec Cosmic Web on the basis of the Alpha Shapes of the galaxy distribution. The simplicial complexes of the alpha shapes are used to determine the set of Betti numbers (βk, k = 1, . . . , D), which represent a complete characterization of the topology of a

  7. Central and peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P A; van Meel, J. C. A.; de Jonge, A; Wilffert, B; Timmermans, P B

    1982-01-01

    The recent interest in the characterization and functional, role of alpha-adrenoceptors has prompted us to study the following different, although interdigitated, lines of research: (a) The functional role of calcium ions in the process of vasoconstriction, induced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor

  8. Producing alpha-olefins using polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Katz, Leonard; Steen, Eric J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-02

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an .alpha.-olefin, such as 1-hexene or butadiene. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the .alpha.-olefin.

  9. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  10. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antitrypsin inactivates elastase once it has finished its job. Without alpha 1 antitrypsin, elastase can destroy the air sacs of the lung. How is the diagnosis made? Because Alpha-1 related disease is COPD, the diagnosis is made by the same methods. Your doctor may have you do a number ...

  11. A stable lipid-induced aggregate of alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drescher, Malte; van Rooijen, Bart D; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huber, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The Parkinson's disease-related protein alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) is a 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein. Its membrane-binding properties are thought to be relevant for its physiological or pathologic activity. Here, the interaction of alphaS with POPG

  12. Determination of 210Pb in marine sediment core- A comparison between alpha and gamma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Yii Mei Wo; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly used techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry were performed to measure 210 Pb activity in marine sediment core as a comparison. Alpha analytical technique measured the activity of 210 Pb from its in-grow grand-daughter 210 Po after a chemical separation, assuming radioactive equilibrium between the two radionuclides. Meanwhile, gamma analysis technique allows direct measurement, non-destructive and no preliminary chemical separation. Through the comparison, it is found that both alpha and gamma analysis techniques were slightly difference. Overall, the results from alpha analytical technique were basically higher than those from the gamma analytical techniques. Some logical argument had been discussed to explain this situation. In routine analysis, the analytical technique used should be chosen carefully based on advantages and disadvantages of the each technique and analysis requirements. Therefore, it is recommended to determine exactly the needs and purpose of analysis and to know the sample history before decide the appropriate analytical technique. (author)

  13. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B

    2015-02-01

    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical Basis for the Use of Alpha Absorption Corrections on RCF Gross Alpha Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the supporting data and rationale for making absorption corrections to gross alpha data to correct alpha data for loss due to absorption in the sample matrix. For some time there has been concern that the gross alpha data produced by the Environmental Restoration Contractor Radiological Counting Facility, particularly gross alpha analysis on soils, has been biased toward low results, as no correction for self-absorption was applied to the counting data. The process was investigated, and a new methodology for alpha self-absorption has been developed

  15. Elimination of alpha-gal xenoreactive epitope: alpha-galactosidase treatment of porcine heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Lim, Hong-Gook; Park, Seong-Sik; Kim, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Yong Jin

    2012-05-01

    Porcine heart valves are among the most widely used tissue valves in clinical heart valve implantation. However, immunologic responses have been implicated as potential causes of the limited durability of xenograft heart valves. The study aim was to determine the effectiveness of alpha-galactosidase treatment used to degrade the major xenoreactive antigens found in xenograft heart valves. Fresh porcine heart valves and pericardium treated with alpha-galactosidase were studied to evaluate the xenoreactive galactose (alpha1,3) galactose (alpha-gal) antigen. Removal of the alpha-gal epitope from the porcine heart valve was monitored via 3,3'-diaminobenzidine staining intensity, while the removal of alpha-gal from N-glycans on porcine heart valves treated with recombinant alpha-galactosidase was determined either qualitatively or quantitatively by mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The porcine pericardium was used for monitoring the change in mechanical properties after alpha-galactosidase treatment. In addition, the biomechanical modification property of collagen fiber rearrangement on tissue was assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Following a 24-h incubation at pH 7.2, 4 degrees C, employing 0.1 U/ml of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-derived recombinant alpha-galactosidase, the enzyme effectively removed the alpha-gal epitopes expressed on porcine heart valves. The identification type of alpha-gal N-glycan on fresh aortic valve, aortic wall, pulmonary valve, and pulmonary wall was 7.1%, 10.3%, 6% and 8%, respectively. In the presence of alpha-galactosidase treatment, alpha-gal-containing N-glycans were converted into alpha-gal-negative N-glycans. Likewise, alpha-gal-containing N-glycans were not detected when MALDI-TOF MS quantitative analysis was used. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the mechanical properties and findings from TEM in alpha

  16. Alpha radioactivity in Indian cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nain, M.; Chauhan, R. P.; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    The essential constituents of radioactive and each of cements like lime, silica and alumina are derived from earth's crust in which radioactive elements like uranium, thorium etc are also present in varying amounts almost everywhere. These two elements are considered as the parent elements of uranium and thorium radioactive decay series in which radon and thoron are produced respectively as decay products. In the present study the samples of ordinary Portland cement , Portland pozzolana cement and some other cementious finishing materials like white cement, Plaster of Paris , cement putty etc were collected and analysed for radium and radon concentrations along with radon exhalation rates. Materials and Methods: Alpha sensitive LR-115 Type II plastic track detectors commonly known as S olid State Nuclear Track Detectors w ere used to measure the radium and radon concentration. The alpha particles emitted from the radon causes the radiation damaged tracks. The Chemical etching in NaOH at 60 C for about 90 minutes was done to reveal these latent tracks, which were then scanned and counted by an optical microscope of suitable magnification. By calculating the track density of registered tracks, the radon and radium concentrations along with exhalation rate of radon, were determined using required formulae. Results: The radon and radium concentration in various brands of cements found to vary from 333±9.9 to 506±13.3 Bq m-3 and from 3.7±0.1 to 5.6±0.2 Bq k g-1 while in various cementious finishing materials used in the construction, these were found to vary from 378±19.7 to 550±9.8 Bq m-3 and from 4.2±0.2 to 6.1±0.1 Bq Kg-1, respectively. Based on the data the mass and surface exhalation rates were also calculated Conclusion: The measurements indicate that there is marginal variation of the concentration of radium and radon in various brands of cements in India with lower levels in the cement samples having red oxide and higher levels in fly ash based cement

  17. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  18. Determination of alpha_s using jet cross section parameterizations at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, H

    2001-01-01

    Precise measurements of the single inclusive jet cross section have been performed by the TEVATRON experiments and will be provided by the LHC experiments extending to larger values of transverse energy. Theoretical predictions of this observable at NLO in perturbative QCD depend both on the PDF parameterization set and on the value of the strong coupling constant alpha_s. In this paper the dependence of the jet cross section on alpha_s is investigated. A method is presented to extract alpha_s(E_T) from a cross section measurement based on a parameterization of the alpha_s dependence. Systematic uncertainties and the E_T-range of applicability are discussed. A comparative study is performed between the case of ppbar at sqrt{s}=1.8 TeV (TEVATRON) and pp scattering at sqrt{s}=14 TeV (LHC).

  19. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube formation by C. albicans and to compare its activity with clotrimazole which is a topical antifungal agent commonly used for the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Alpha-mangostin was extracted by thin layer chromatography. The effect of alpha-mangostin on adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic was determined by using a colorimetric tetrazolium assay and germ tube formation by C. albicans was determined by using the counting chamber. A significant reduction of C. albicans adhesion to denture acrylic was evident after exposure to 2,000 µg/ml of alpha-mangostin for only 15 min. In addition, the 2,000 µg/ml of the alpha-mangostin-treated C. albicans had a reduced ability for germ tube formation. These inhibitory effects of alpha-mangostin were as effective as clotrimazole. Alpha-mangostin has antifungal property against C. albicans by inhibiting the adhesion to denture acrylic and germ tube formation in vitro. These results suggest the potential application of alpha-mangostin as a topical medication or a natural oral hygiene product for treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  1. Coherence in children with AD/HD and excess alpha power in their EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbie, Joel C; Clarke, Adam R; Barry, Robert J; Dupuy, Franca E; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated differences in EEG coherence measures between two groups of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) - one with the more common EEG profile (increased theta), and a group with excess alpha activity as the dominant EEG abnormality. 26 children (aged 9-13years) with AD/HD were included in each of the excess-theta and excess-alpha groups, and were age- and sex-matched with 26 control subjects. EEG was recorded from 19 electrode sites during an eyes-closed resting condition. Wave-shape coherence was calculated for eight intrahemispheric and eight interhemispheric electrode pairs, for the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. In comparison with the controls, the excess-theta AD/HD group had increased theta intrahemispheric coherences at short-medium inter-electrode distances. Frontally, the excess-theta AD/HD group had increased interhemispheric theta and reduced beta coherences. The excess-alpha group primarily showed increased slow wave (delta and theta) intrahemispheric coherence at short-medium inter-electrode distances, and reduced alpha coherence at longer inter-electrode distances, compared with controls. An increase in frontal interhemispheric theta coherence was also found. These results suggest that AD/HD children with excess alpha power have an underlying connectivity dysfunction in the frontal lobes, which is found in common with other subjects with the excess-theta EEG profile. However, a number of qualitative differences exist that could be associated with other aspects of the AD/HD diagnosis. The excess-alpha group appeared to have fewer frontal-lobe abnormalities than the excess-theta AD/HD group. This is the first study to investigate coherence in AD/HD children who have the atypical profile of increased alpha power in their EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure, function and toxicity of alpha-synuclein: the Bermuda triangle in synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of currently incurable neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the misfolding and accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates that are commonly known as synucleinopathies. Clinically, synucleinopathies are heterogeneous, reflecting the somewhat selective neuronal vulnerability characteristic of each disease. The precise molecular underpinnings of synucleinopathies remain unclear, but the process of aggregation of alpha-synuclein appears as a central event. However, there is still no consensus with respect to the toxic forms of alpha-synuclein, hampering our ability to use the protein as a target for therapeutic intervention. To decipher the molecular bases of synucleinopathies, it is essential to understand the complex triangle formed between the structure, function and toxicity of alpha-synuclein. Recently, important steps have been undertaken to elucidate the role of the protein in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings in the field of alpha-synuclein research, and put forward a new perspective over paradigms that persist in the field. Establishing whether alpha-synuclein has a causative role in all synucleinopathies will enable the identification of targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this devastating group of disorders. Alpha-synuclein is the speculated cornerstone of several neurodegenerative disorders known as Synucleinopathies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenic effects of this protein remain unknown. Here, we review the recent findings in the three corners of alpha-synuclein biology - structure, function and toxicity - and discuss the enigmatic roads that have accompanied alpha-synuclein from the beginning. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. A Language in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  4. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival naevus (Fig. 11). Conjunctival naevi are common and are located in the interpalpebral bulbar conjunctiva close to the limbus or at the caruncle. The naevus is a discrete, flat or slightly elevated sessile lesion. The colour can be from pale to brown to a dark black. If present from birth to 6 months it is considered a ...

  5. Common eye emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... episcleritis, scleritis, uveitis and acute-angle closure glaucoma. Acute conjunctivitis. Acute conjunctivitis may be bacterial, viral or allergy related. Bacterial conjunctivitis. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis begins unilaterally with hyperaemia, irritation, tearing, and a mucopurulent discharge. Common pathogens ...

  6. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  7. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  8. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  9. Is Context Common Ground?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the relation between the how’s and why’s of humour, by gradually moving from the contextual compositionality of conversational implication to a broadened perspective on the open- ended nature of conversation and the purpose humour serves in developing ‘common ground’....

  10. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  11. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  12. Direct binding of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain to the catalytic domain of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) increases focal adhesion localization of PKC alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ssang-Taek; Longley, Robert L; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    alpha. Full-length PKC alpha weakly interacted with 4V by yeast two-hybrid assays, but PKC alpha constructs that lack the pseudosubstrate region or constructs of the whole catalytic domain interacted more strongly. A mutated 4V sequence (4V(YF): LGKKPIFKK) did not interact with PKC alpha, indicating...

  13. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  14. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  15. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy eLaher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  18. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moeini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA, a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA.Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition (DSM–IV criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls.Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75 = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75 = 5.67, P = 0.025].Conclusion: A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  19. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed.

  20. AB088. Prevalence of alpha thalassemia mutations in Filipino patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silao, Catherine Lynn Tipton; Fabella, Terence Diane F.; Naranjo, Maria Liza T.; Padilla, Carmencita D.; Yuson, Ernesto D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Alpha (α)-thalassemia results from the absent or reduced synthesis of the α-globin subunit of hemoglobin. Mutational variants in the HBA1 and HBA2 genes, which code for α-globin, have been reported and cause varying degrees of disease severity. These variants are unique for every population. Local data on alpha-globin gene mutations in Filipino alpha-thalassemia is currently lacking. Methods This study aimed to identify the prevalence of common α-globin gene mutations in Filipinos highly suspected for α-thalassemia through evaluation of CBC results, red cell indices and upon ruling-out iron deficiency anemia. Sixty five [65] patients underwent DNA extraction and Alpha Globin StripAssay mutational analysis. Results The four gene deletion, (--SEA/--SEA), the three gene deletion, (-α 3.7/--FIL), (-α 3.7/--SEA), (-α 4.2/--SEA), the cis two gene, (--SEA/αα), (--FIL/αα), the trans two gene deletion, (-α3.7/-α3.7), the one gene deletion, (-α3.7/αα), and the (α2 cd 59/αα) were found in 1.54%, 21.54%, 56.92%, 1.54%, 6.15% and 1.54% of patients, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that cis two gene deletions identified are prevalent in Filipinos tested. The high prevalence of cis two gene deletion of HBA1 and HBA2 in this study is important as these alleles may increase the risk of Hb H and Hb Bart’s hydrops fetalis cases in the population.

  1. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  2. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  3. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  4. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  5. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  6. Production of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, R H; Van Beveren, S M; Shearer, M A; Coan, M H; Brockway, W J

    1990-03-01

    A method for large scale isolation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) is described. This method employs waste Cohn Fraction IV-1 as the starting material and involves fractional precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-Sepharose. The process also incorporates a ten hour, at 60 degrees C, heat-treatment step to reduce or eliminate the risk of transmission of viral disease. The final product, having a purity of approximately 60%, is freeze-dried. This preparation behaves almost identically to the alpha 1-PI in plasma and is suitable for replacement therapy in hereditary emphysema.

  7. Measurements of $\\alpha_s$ in $pp$ Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Warburton, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of the strong force, $\\alpha_s$, is deemed to be a fundamental parameter of Nature, and, beyond the quark masses, constitutes the only free parameter in the QCD Lagrangian. Provided is an overview of CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurements of $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$ evaluated at the $Z$-boson mass and of the running of $\\alpha_s(Q)$ as a function of energy-momentum transfer $Q$. The measurements were performed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations using proton-proton ($pp$) collisions with centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and data samples with time-integrated luminosities of up to 5 fb$^{-1}$. Four different categories of observable were used in the described extractions of $\\alpha_s$: inclusive jet cross sections, 3-jet to 2-jet inclusive cross-section ratios, 3-jet mass cross sections, and top-quark pair production cross sections. These results, which include the first NNLO measurement of $\\alpha_s$ at a hadron collider and the first determinations of $\\alpha_s$ at energy scales above 1 TeV, are co...

  8. A Quantitative Electrochemiluminescence Assay for Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Gerald A; Rivera, Victor R; Neal, Dwayne D; Young, Charles; Poli, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    .... Biotinylated antibodies to C. perfringens alpha toxin bound to streptavidin paramagnetic beads specifically immunoadsorbed soluble sample alpha toxin which subsequently selectively immunoadsorbed ruthenium (Ru...

  9. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2009-08-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  10. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2012-02-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  11. alpha-Crystallin A sequences of Alligator mississippiensis and the lizard Tupinambis teguixin: molecular evolution and reptilian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W W; Zweers, A; Versteeg, M; Dessauer, H C; Goodman, M

    1985-11-01

    The amino acid sequences of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A from many mammalian and avian species, two frog species, and a dogfish have provided detailed information about the molecular evolution of this protein and allowed some useful inferences about phylogenetic relationships among these species. We now have isolated and sequenced the alpha-crystallins of the American alligator and the common tegu lizard. The reptilian alpha A chains appear to have evolved as slowly as those of other vertebrates, i.e., at two to three amino acid replacements per 100 residues in 100 Myr. The lack of charged replacements and the general types and distribution of replacements also are similar to those in other vertebrate alpha A chains. Maximum-parsimony analyses of the total data set of 67 vertebrate alpha A sequences support the monophyletic origin of alligator, tegu, and birds and favor the grouping of crocodilians and birds as surviving sister groups in the subclass Archosauria.

  12. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev

    2008-01-01

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  13. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  14. Liquid scintillation alpha particle spectrometry. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.L.; Hakooz, S.A.; Johnson, L.O.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Objective to develop a technique whereby Pu may be put into solution, extracted by solvent extraction into a suitable extractive scintillant and subsequently counted. Presented here are results of attempts to separate beta and alpha activities through pulse shape discrimination. A qualitative discussion is given which yields alpha particle peak widths, resolution and response. The detection efficiency for alpha particles in a liquid scintillant is 100%. Present detection sensitivities of the equipment being used are: 4.5 x 10 -6 μCi (100 s), 1.2 x 10 -6 μCi (1000 s), and 4.0 x 10 -7 μCi (10,000 s) at the 3 sigma level. The detectability of a particular alpha-emitting species is strongly dependent upon the population of other species. The ability to discriminate depends upon the system resolution. 14 figures, 2 tables

  15. NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISHER,R.K

    2004-04-01

    Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by {approx}140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER.

  16. NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by ∼140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER

  17. Strichartz estimates on $alpha$-modulation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider some dispersive equations, including Schrodinger equations, nonelliptic Schrodinger equations, and wave equations. We develop some Strichartz estimates in the frame of alpha-modulation spaces.

  18. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides {sup 223}Ra, {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  19. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  20. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - H-Alpha

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar...

  1. Of urban commons

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Erling

    2016-01-01

    The paper is part of a joint presentation with Marius Grønning at the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Symposium of the European Academy of Land Use and Development (EALD) held in Oslo 3-5 September 2015. Last summer visitors to the Oslo opera house were met with the following announcement: “Here comes the “Opera Commons” explaining: “Operaallmenningen”, the Opera Commons, “will be a multi-functional meeting place for cultural events, recreational activities and people passing throu...

  2. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  3. Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.

  4. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-dimensional transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability

  5. Ancient roots for polymorphism at the HLA-DQ. alpha. locus in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllensten, U.B.; Erlich, H.A. (Cetus Corp., Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The genes encoding the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) exhibit a remarkable degree of polymorphism as revealed by immunologic and molecular analyses. This extensive sequence polymorphism either may have been generated during the lifetime of the human species or could have arisen before speciation and been maintained in the contemporary human population by selection or, possibly, by genetic drift. These two hypotheses were examined using the polymerase chain reaction method to amplify polymorphic sequences from the DQ{alpha} locus, as well as the DX{alpha} locus, an homologous but nonexpressed locus, in a series of primates that diverged at known times. In general, the amino acid sequence of a specific human DQ{alpha} allelic type is more closely related to its chimpanzee or gorilla counterpart than to other human DQ{alpha} alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of the silent nucleotide position changes shows that the similarity of allelic types between species is due to common ancestry rather than convergent evolution. Thus, most of the polymorphism at the DQ{alpha} locus in the human species was already present at least 5 million years ago in the ancestral species that gave rise to the chimpanzee, gorilla, and human lineages. However, one of the DQ{alpha} alleles may have arisen after speciation by recombination between two ancestral alleles.

  6. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Resistin in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkady, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common liver diseases. It is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is thought to be a part of the metabolic syndrome. It can progress from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Adipocytokines, synthesized in adipose tissue, are involved in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and their correlation to the severity of the disease. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha and resistin were measured in 20 patients with NAFLD and 20 healthy controls with ELISA method. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of both adipokines were significantly elevated in NAFLD patients than controls (P<0.01). Moreover, they were significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis than in patients with simple fatty liver. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha, resistin and each of AST, ALT and HOMA. Similarly, the results showed a significant positive correlation between the two studied adipokines, TNF-alpha and resistin (P<0.001). We conclude that TNF-alpha and resistin have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and they may be promising markers for the progressin to steatohepatitis and inhibition of their activities by drugs may be a new approach for the treatment of NAFLD

  7. Alpha-amylase activity in wheat flour and breadmaking properties in relation to different climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Slađana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the influence of different climatic conditions on the activity of alpha-amylase in wheat samples and bread quality parameters. Three wheat varieties grown in three different localities in three years were chosen for this study. Commonly used methods for estimation of alpha-amylase activity in wheat grain were employed. The obtained results indicated that harvest year 2013, which was characterized with the excessive amount of rainfall, exhibited the highest level of alpha-amylase activity and the lowest values of the peak viscosity. The lowest alpha-amylase level and the highest peak viscosity and FN value were observed for samples harvested in 2012 which was characterized with the greatest number of days with an average daily temperature above 30 and 35°C. In addition, a decrease in Mixolab parameter torque C3 and specific bread loaf volume, as well as increase in the breakdown torque (C3-C4 of samples harvested in 2013 were observed, which could be attributed to rainy weather influencing increase in alpha-amylase activity. It is found that specific bread loaf volume of wheat samples is highest in 2012. Moreover, a negative correlation between alpha-amylase activity and specific bread volume for all the samples grown in three years was determined.

  8. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  9. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra

    OpenAIRE

    POMME Stefaan; CARO MARROYO BELEN

    2014-01-01

    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue ina lpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown...

  10. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  11. Beteigeuze (Alpha Orionis) und Mintaka (Delta Orionis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Magnitude measures transformed to Johnson V of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and Delta Orionis with a wide-angle lens and DSLR are presented and discussed. Alpha Orionis light changes are shown clearly. The primary and secondary eclipses of Delta Orionis with amplitudes of 0.12 and 0.05 mag respectively are clearly recorded. They occur near phase 0.00 and 0.50 respectively of current elements from VSX (2).

  12. Considering the determination of an alpha value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B.

    1987-01-01

    Following an outline of the most important international methods of evaluating an alpha value (the monetary equivalent of one man-sievert) and an approach deemed suitable for use in the GDR, it is recommended that alpha be taken as 30,000 Mark per man-sievert in national cost-benefit analyses. This value should be revisited every five to ten years. (author)

  13. Alpha-root Processes for Derivatives pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishna, BS

    2010-01-01

    A class of mean reverting positive stochastic processes driven by alpha-stable distributions, referred to here as alpha-root processes in analogy to the square root process (Cox-Ingersoll-Ross process), is a subclass of affine processes, in particular continuous state branching processes with immigration (CBI processes). Being affine, they provide semi-analytical results for the implied term structures as well as for the characteristic exponents for their associated distributions. Their use h...

  14. Self-assembling, dynamic alphaPNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules.......In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules....

  15. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop on ''Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy'' was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference

  16. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinat...

  17. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  18. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  19. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  20. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository: VI. Selection and cost analysis of large hole drilling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.B.; Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of common drilling practices and technology and applicability of currently available drilling machinery in the excavation of the canister emplacement holes for the Alpha Repository is presented. Sections are included on drilling system applications, descriptions of drilling operations, and drill system performance

  1. Liquid-scintillation alpha-detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Accurate, quantitative determinations of alpha-emitting nuclides by conventional plate-counting methods are difficult because of sample self-absorption problems in counting and because of non-reproducible losses in conventional sample separation methods. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry offers an attractive with no sample self-absorption or geometry problems and with 100% counting efficiency. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillation counting medium. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to yield alpha spectra without beta and gamma background interference. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. Possibilities for a large number of other applications exist. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 1% range. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. The paper will present an overview of liquid scintillation alpha counting techniques and some of the results achieved for specific applications

  2. Structures of G [alpha [superscript i1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Willard, Francis S.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Fredericks, Zoey; Bodor, Erik T.; Jones, Miller B.; Blaesius, Rainer; Watts, Val J.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John; Ramer, J. Kevin; Siderovski, David P. (Karo Bio); (UNC); (Purdue)

    2010-07-19

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP bound state and an active, GTP bound state. Under basal conditions, G proteins exist in the inactive, GDP bound state; thus, nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide state-dependent G{alpha} binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective G{alpha} binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of G{alpha}{sub i} subunits. Structural determination of the G{alpha}{sub i1}/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the G{alpha} switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which G{alpha} subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange.

  3. Current status and perspectives in alpha radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérel, M; Davodeau, F; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Chatal, J F

    2006-12-01

    Systemic administration of radiolabeled antibody directed against tumor antigens in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) enables to specifically target the cancer cells and to destroy them. So far, this strategy has proven its efficiency in the treatment of some hematological cancers with antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides. In the last 2 decades, availability of short half life alpha emitters prompted to consider their use in RIT. Contrary to beta particles, alpha particles have a short path length and display a high lineic energy transfer. Those physical characteristics open new fields of clinical applications complementary to beta-RIT. To date, alpha-RIT is still at a preclinical stage of development: the radiolabeling methods need to be optimized to ensure in vivo stability of the radiopharmaceuticals. Some radionuclides have complex decay schemes with daughters emitting further alpha particles whose toxicity needs to be investigated. The modalities of administration of radiolabeled antibodies in animal models require also to be improved for delivering higher doses to tumor targets. A comprehensive analysis of the specific events occurring at cell or tissue level in response to alpha irradiation would be of great interest in order to define the best therapeutic association for residual disease or consolidation treatments. This approach has been proven to be efficient in increasing antitumor response either by using high doses with organ protection (kidney, bone marrow) or by a synergistic effect between alpha-RIT and associated treatments, such as chemotherapy.

  4. Systemic Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan B. J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fundamental principles of internal targeted alpha therapy for cancer were established many decades ago.The high linear energy transfer (LET of alpha radiation to the targeted cancer cellscauses double strand breaks in DNA. At the same time, the short range radiation spares adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts, such as lack of control of some primary cancers (e.g.glioblastoma multiformeand to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. Objective: This review charts the developing role of systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. Method: Targeted alpha therapy is a rapidly advancing experimental therapy that holds promise to deliver high cytotoxicity to targeted cancer cells. Initially thought to be indicated for leukemia and micrometastases, there is now evidence that solid tumors can also be regressed. Results: Alpha therapy may be molecular or physiological in its targeting. Alpha emitting radioisotopes such as Bi-212, Bi-213, At-211 and Ac-225 are used to label monoclonal antibodies or proteins that target specifc cancer cells. Alternatively, Radium-233 is used for palliative therapy of breast and prostate cancers because of its bone seeking properties. Conclusion: Preclinical studies and clinical trials of alpha therapy are discussed for leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, bone metastases, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers.

  5. Application of Bayesian neural network modeling to characterize the interrelationship between microstructure and mechanical property in alpha+beta-titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduri, Santhosh K.

    -mentioned quantified microstructural information, composition and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties predicted in this study are tensile properties and fracture toughness. Based on the controlled virtual experiments conducted using neural networks on alpha+beta processed alloys suggested important microstructural features that will affect tensile properties are size of the equiaxed alpha grain and volume fraction of equiaxed alpha. The controlled virtual experiments on beta heat-treated alloys suggested important microstructural features such as width of the alpha lamellae, alpha colony size and prior beta grain size have negative influence on tensile properties. The virtual experiments conducted on alloys which are processed in the alpha+beta phase field suggested that the size of the equiaxed alpha is an important variable which increases the fracture toughness. In beta-processed alloys, important microstructural features such as size of the alpha colony decrease the fracture toughness while width of the alpha lamellae and prior beta grain size increase the fracture toughness. The alloying elements such Al, O and Fe improve the yield strength of both alpha+beta processed and beta processed alpha+beta titanium alloys. The O and Al have negative influence on fracture toughness while Fe has positive influence on fracture toughness. The examination of the region beneath the fracture surface of alpha+beta processed alloy suggested occurrence of the microcracks within the equiaxed alpha particle clusters. The frequency of occurrence of the microcracks is increased when two neighboring equiaxed alpha grains have common or near common basal plane. The detailed dislocation analysis on regions near the microcrack indicated presence of extensive basal slip.

  6. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...

  7. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... or unwilling to undergo surgical resection of the prostate will benefit from such therapy....

  8. Neuronal and glial accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko; Iseki, Eizo; Togo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsuse, Omi; Katsuyama, Kayoko; Kanzaki, Seiichi; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    A number of the lysosomal storage diseases that have now been characterized are associated with intra-lysosomal accumulation of lipids, caused by defective lysosomal enzymes. We have previously reported neuronal accumulation of both alpha- and beta-synucleins in brain tissue of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Although alpha-synuclein has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, its functions remain largely unclear. In our present study, we have examined a cohort of human lipidosis cases, including Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, beta-galactosialidosis and adrenoleukodystrophy, for the expression of alpha- and beta-synucleins and the associated lipid storage levels. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in brain tissue in not only cases of lysosomal storage diseases, but also in instances of adrenoleukodystrophy, which is a peroxisomal disease. alpha-synuclein was detected in both neurons and glial cells of patients with these two disorders, although its distribution was found to be disease-dependent. In addition, alpha-synuclein-positive neurons were also found to be NeuN-positive, whereas NeuN-negative neurons did not show any accumulation of this protein. By comparison, the accumulation of beta-synuclein was detectable only in the pons of Sandhoff disease cases. This differential accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses may be related to functional differences between these two proteins. In addition, the accumulation of alpha-synuclein may also be a condition that is common to lysosomal storage diseases and adrenoleukodystrophies that show an enhanced expression of this protein upon the elevation of stored lipids.

  9. Analysis of T cell receptor alpha beta variability in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma primary tumours and metastatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøller, J; thor Straten, P; Jakobsen, Annette Birck

    1994-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse-transcription-couple......The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse...... usage of the TCR V gene families V alpha 4, V alpha 5, V alpha 22 and V beta 8, whereas the V beta 3 gene family appeared to be expressed together with HLA-A1. Other highly expressed V gene families, apparently not restricted to either HLA-A1 or -A2, were V alpha 1 (expressed in three of four primary...... tumours) and V alpha 21 (expressed in two of four tumours). We found no evidence suggesting any correlations between the haplotypes HLA-A1 and -A2 and preferential V gene family expression in the metastatic lesions, and the only common feature was V alpha 8, which was found to be highly expressed in two...

  10. Prion protein paralog doppel protein interacts with alpha-2-macroglobulin: a plausible mechanism for doppel-mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvegnù

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Doppel protein (Dpl is a paralog of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C, together sharing common structural and biochemical properties. Unlike PrP(C, which is abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS, Dpl protein expression is not detectable in the CNS. Interestingly, its ectopic expression in the brain elicits neurodegeneration in transgenic mice. Here, by combining native isoelectric focusing plus non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified two Dpl binding partners: rat alpha-1-inhibitor-3 (alpha(1I(3 and, by sequence homology, alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha(2M, two known plasma metalloproteinase inhibitors. Biochemical investigations excluded the direct interaction of PrP(C with either alpha(1I(3 or alpha(2M. Nevertheless, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed a high affinity binding occurring between PrP(C and Dpl. In light of these findings, we suggest a mechanism for Dpl-induced neurodegeneration in mice expressing Dpl ectopically in the brain, linked to a withdrawal of natural inhibitors of metalloproteinase such as alpha(2M. Interestingly, alpha(2M has been proven to be a susceptibility factor in Alzheimer's disease, and as our findings imply, it may also play a relevant role in other neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases.

  11. Prion protein paralog doppel protein interacts with alpha-2-macroglobulin: a plausible mechanism for doppel-mediated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnù, Stefano; Franciotta, Diego; Sussman, Josh; Bachi, Angela; Zardini, Elisabetta; Torreri, Paola; Govaerts, Cedric; Pizzo, Salvatore; Legname, Giuseppe

    2009-06-18

    Doppel protein (Dpl) is a paralog of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)), together sharing common structural and biochemical properties. Unlike PrP(C), which is abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), Dpl protein expression is not detectable in the CNS. Interestingly, its ectopic expression in the brain elicits neurodegeneration in transgenic mice. Here, by combining native isoelectric focusing plus non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified two Dpl binding partners: rat alpha-1-inhibitor-3 (alpha(1)I(3)) and, by sequence homology, alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M), two known plasma metalloproteinase inhibitors. Biochemical investigations excluded the direct interaction of PrP(C) with either alpha(1)I(3) or alpha(2)M. Nevertheless, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed a high affinity binding occurring between PrP(C) and Dpl. In light of these findings, we suggest a mechanism for Dpl-induced neurodegeneration in mice expressing Dpl ectopically in the brain, linked to a withdrawal of natural inhibitors of metalloproteinase such as alpha(2)M. Interestingly, alpha(2)M has been proven to be a susceptibility factor in Alzheimer's disease, and as our findings imply, it may also play a relevant role in other neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases.

  12. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  13. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  14. Selectivity of the imidazoline alpha-adrenoceptor agonists (oxymetazoline and cirazoline) for human cloned alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, K.; Obika, K.; Foglar, R.; Tsujimoto, G.

    1995-01-01

    1. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists for the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, we have compared the imidazoline class of compounds, oxymetazoline and cirazoline, with the phenethylamine, noradrenaline, in their affinities and also in their intrinsic activities in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the cloned human alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1a-, alpha 1b-, and alpha 1d-subtypes). 2. Radioligand binding studies with [125I]-HEAT showed that cirazoline and oxymetazoline had higher affinities at alpha 1a-subtype than at alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-subtypes, while noradrenaline had higher affinity at the alpha 1d-subtype than at alpha 1a- and alpha 1b-subtypes. 3. In functional studies, cirazoline caused transients of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i response) in a concentration-dependent manner and developed a maximal response similar to that to noradrenaline in CHO cells expressing the alpha 1a-subtype, while it acted as a partial agonist at alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-adrenoceptors. Oxymetazoline, on the other hand, was a weak agonist at alpha 1a-adrenoceptors, and has no intrinsic activity at the other subtypes. 4. Using the phenoxybenzamine inactivation method, the relationships between receptor occupancy and noradrenaline-induced [Ca2+]i response for alpha 1a- and alpha 1d-subtypes were found to be linear, whereas it was moderately hyperbolic for the alpha 1b-subtype, indicating the absence of receptor reserves in CHO cells expressing alpha 1a- and alpha 1d-subtypes while there exists a small receptor reserve for CHO cells expressing the alpha 1b-subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564227

  15. Immersion of fry in 17-Alpha Methyltestosterone can be highly effective for sex reversal in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    17-alpha methyltestosterone (MT) is currently used to sex reverse genetic female rainbow trout into phenotypic males, commonly referred to as neomales. Neomales are primarily generated to propagate all-female lines. The MT is most commonly administered orally, fed during the first 6-9 weeks after sw...

  16. Relative contributions of intracortical and thalamo-cortical processes in the generation of alpha rhythms, revealed by partial coherence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Vos, J.E.; Mooibroek, J.; Rotterdam, A. van

    1980-01-01

    The thalamo-cortical relationships of alpha rhythms have been analysed in dogs using partial coherence function analysis. The objective was to clarify how far the large intracortical coherence commonly recorded between different cortical sites could depend on a common thalamic site. It was found

  17. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  18. The nitric oxide-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*, deltaS*), 2alpha, 6alpha, 8beta-(R*), 8a alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, G; Spickett, C M; Kennedy, S; Rush, C; Tennant, G; Monopoli, A; Wainwright, C L

    2007-01-01

    Statins possess anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to their ability to slow atherogenesis, whereas nitric oxide (NO) also influences inflammatory cell adhesion. This study aimed to determine whether a novel NO-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*,deltaS*),2alpha,6alpha,8beta-(R*),8a alpha

  19. Measurement of radium micro-precipitates using alpha spectrometry and total alpha counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, T.; Fathivand, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study consists of two parts. The first part deals with both qualitative and quantitative analysis of 226 Ra suing alpha spectrometry measurement method. In the second part, the percentage of radioactive equilibrium between 226 Radium and its daughter products were determined by alpha spectrometry and total alpha measurement system after elapsed time of 15 days from precipitation. Materials and methods: Twelve 226 Radium samples as Barium-Radium Sulfate in form of micro-precipitates on millipore and What man 42 filters were prepared. An alpha spectrometer with surface barrier detector and a total alpha measurement system consists of scintillation crystal assembly Zinc Silver were used for counting. Results: The minimum detection limit of alpha spectrometry and total alpha counting for 226 Radium measurements in samples for counting time equal to 10000 seconds, were found to be 3.7 mBq and 15.8 mBq respectively. Results from total alpha counting showed that radioactive equilibrium between 226 Radium and its daughter products reached to about 92%± 3.5, where as, in the case of alpha spectrometry radioactive equilibrium, it was destroyed due to vacuum during counting the sample. Also in case of alpha spectrometry, the optimum sample to detector distance, was found to be 0.5 centimeter. Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that micro-precipitation can be used as a proper method for sample preparation and alpha spectrometry due to its lower detection limit to measure low concentration of 224 Radium and 226 Radium in these precipitates, prepared from different samples. Besides it is not time consuming and sources can be measured immediately after sample preparation

  20. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, Olivier [INSERM U 601, Nantes (France); Place Alexis Ricordeau, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nantes, Cedex (France); Supiot, Stephane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Davodeau, Francois; Cherel, Michel [INSERM U 601, Nantes (France)

    2005-04-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with {beta}-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with {alpha}-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of {alpha}-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with {alpha}-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of {alpha}-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an {alpha}-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with {alpha}-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of {alpha}-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  1. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Olivier; Supiot, Stéphane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel

    2005-05-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with alpha-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with alpha-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of alpha-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an alpha-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with alpha-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of alpha-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies.

  2. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  3. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  4. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  5. Alpha 1 B- but not alpha 1 A-adrenoceptors mediate inositol phosphate generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Hanft, G.; Gross, G.

    1990-01-01

    We used novel highly subtype-selective antagonists to study whether alpha 1A- and/or alpha 1B-adrenoceptors mediate the stimulation of inositol phosphate generation by noradrenaline in rat cerebral cortex. Phentolamine (10 microM) and prazosin (100 nM) completely abolished the stimulated inositol

  6. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Friedl, H P

    1995-01-01

    The role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in rats after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes or intratracheal administration of LPS has been assessed. Critical to these studies was the cloning and functional expression...

  7. Alpha-in-air monitor for continuous monitoring based on alpha to beta ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.S.; Venkataramani, R.; Swaminathan, N.; Pushparaja

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of long-lived alpha activity collected on a filter paper in continuous air monitoring of ambient working environment is difficult due to interference from much larger concentrations of short-lived alpha emitting daughter products of 222 Rn and 220 Rn. However, the ratio between the natural alpha and beta activity is approximately constant and this constancy of the ratio is used to discriminate against short-lived natural radioactivity in continuous air monitoring. Detection system was specially designed for the purpose of simultaneous counting of alpha and beta activity deposited on the filter paper during continuous monitoring. The activity ratios were calculated and plotted against the monitoring duration up to about six hours. Monitoring was carried out in three facilities with different ventilation conditions. Presence of any long-lived alpha contamination on the filter paper results in increase in the alpha to beta ratio. Long-lived 239 Pu contamination of about 16 DAC.h could be detected after about 45 minutes of commencement of the sampling. The experimental results using prototype units have shown that the approach of using alpha to beta activity ratio method to detect long-lived alpha activity in the presence of short-lived natural activity is satisfactory. (author)

  8. PLE CATALYZED HYDROLYZES OF ALPHA-SUBSTITUTED ALPHA-HYDROXY ESTERS - THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUBSTITUENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORLAG, H; KELLOGG, RM

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolyses of a variety of alpha-substituted mandelic and lactic esters using pig liver esterase (PLE) have been investigated. High to moderate enantioselectivity was found for various alpha-substituted mandelic esters, whereas PLE showed low to no enantioselectivity for

  9. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  10. Alpha-particle elastic scattering on [sup 16]O in the four [alpha]-particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qingrun (CCAST (World Lab.), Beijing (China) Inst. of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)); Yang Yongxu (Dept. of Physics, Guangxi Normal Univ., Guilin (China))

    1993-08-23

    A folding potential describing the alpha-particle scattering on [sup 16]O is constructed based on the four [alpha]-particle model of the nucleus [sup 16]O. This folding potential provides a good description of the experimental data covering a broad energy range. (orig.)

  11. Consistent Measurements of $\\alpha_{s}$ from Precise Oriented Event Shape Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertini, D.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenke, T.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Burgsmuller, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, P.; Chaussard, L.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Cowell, J.H.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Deghorain, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Erzen, B.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Green, C.; Grimm, H.J.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Gunther, M.; Guy, J.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huet, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Koratzinos, M.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Langefeld, P.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Lorstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Normand, A.; Nygren, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Rodrigo, German; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Royon, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schneider, H.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Schyns, M.A.E.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R.C.; Sheridan, A.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Sponholz, P.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Todorova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Tsirou, A.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Apeldoorn, G.W.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Vollmer, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.

    2000-01-01

    An updated analysis using about 1.5 million events recorded at $\\sqrt{s} =M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector in 1994 is presented. Eighteen infrared and collinear safe event shape observables are measured as a function of the polar angle of the thrust axis. The data are compared to theoretical calculations in${\\cal O} (\\alpha_s^2)$ including the event orientation. A combined fit of $\\alpha_s$ and of the renormalization scale $x_{\\mu}$ in $\\cal O(\\alpha_s^2$)yields an excellent description of the high statistics data. The weighted average from 18 observables including quark mass effects and correlations is $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2) = 0.1174 \\pm 0.0026$. The final result, derived from the jet cone energy fraction, the observable with the smallest theoretical and experimental uncertainty, is $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2) = =0:1180 0:0006(exp:) 0:0013(hadr:) 0:0008(scale) 0:0007(mass). Further studies include an s determination using theoretical predictions in the next-to-leading log approximation (NLLA), matched NLLA and O(\\alpha^{2}_{s})...

  12. Post-cardiorespiratory arrest beta-alpha coma: an unusual electroencephalographic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, G R K; Kumar, A; Roy, A K; Pinheiro, L

    2003-06-01

    The presence of frontally-dominant alpha pattern in the EEG is common in patients with coma due to trauma, toxic-metabolic causes and following cardiorespiratory arrest. Diffuse beta activity following resuscitation after a cardiac arrest is not well recognized. We report a case of coma in a 3-year-old girl who had a cardiac arrest from which she was revived. Initial EEG showed diffuse beta activity, which later evolved to predominantly alpha activity. The possible mechanisms involved in the generation of such rhythms are discussed. Transition of EEG activity from faster to slower frequencies is suggested as an adverse prognostic factor in post-cardiorespiratory arrest coma.

  13. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  14. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  15. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  16. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  17. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods.

  18. C595 antibody: A potential vector for targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Allen, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Mucins are high molecular-weight heavily glycosylated glycoproteins with many oligosaccharide side-chains, linked to a protein backbone called apomucin. A total of 19 different mucin genes (MUC1-MUC4, MUC5B, MUC5AC, MUC6-MUC18) have been identified to date. Mucins are present on the surface of most epithelial cells and play a role in their protection and lubrication. In cancer cells the mucin molecule becomes altered, thus representing an important target for diagnosis and therapy. Urinary epithelial mucin1 (MUC1) is found to be frequently up-regulated and abnormally glycosylated in a number of common malignancies, including breast, bladder, colon, ovarian and gastric cancer. The monoclonal antibody C595 is an IgG3 murine MAb raised against the protein core of human MUC1. Epitope mapping has shown that C595 recognizes a tetrapeptide motif (RPAP) within the protein core of MUC1 mucin that contains a large domain of multiples of a highly conserved 20-amino-acid-repeat sequence (PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSA). This antibody has previously been radiolabelled with 99m Tc and 111 In and used for imaging a range of tumour types including ovary, breast and bladder. The antibody has also been radiolabelled with 67 Cu and 188 Re for the therapy of superficial bladder cancer. More recently we have investigated the pre-clinical use of the C595 antibody for targeted alpha therapy using 213 Bi which emits alpha particles with high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (80 m) radiation and has a short physical half-life of 45.6 minutes. Alpha particles are some 7300 times heavier than beta particles and in theory, following binding of an alpha immunocongugates to the target, a large fraction of the alpha particle energy is delivered to cancer cells, with minimal concomitant radiation of normal tissues. 213 Bi was produced from the 225 Ac/ 213 Bi generator. For antibody conjugation the chelator, cyclic diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid anhydride (DTPA) was used. Initial

  19. Purification and characterization of alpha-amylase from rat pancreatic acinar carcinoma. Comparison with pancreatic alpha-amylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M K; Heda, G D; Reddy, J K

    1987-01-01

    alpha-Amylase was purified to apparent homogeneity from normal pancreas and a transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma of the rat by affinity chromatography on alpha-glucohydrolase inhibitor (alpha-GHI) bound to aminohexyl-Sepharose 4B. Recovery was 95-100% for both pancreas and tumour alpha-amylases. They were monomeric proteins, with Mr approx. 54000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing of both normal and tumour alpha-amylases resolved each into two major isoenz...

  20. Opposing actions of the progesterone metabolites, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) on mitosis, apoptosis, and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p21 in human breast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Beausoleil, Michel; Zhang, Guihua; Cialacu, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that breast tissues and breast cell lines convert progesterone (P) to 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) and that 3alphaHP suppresses, whereas 5alphaP promotes, cell proliferation and detachment. The objectives of the current studies were to determine if the 5alphaP- and 3alphaHP-induced changes in cell numbers are due to altered rates of mitosis and/or apoptosis, and if 3alphaHP and 5alphaP act on tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells, regardless of estrogen (E) and P receptor status. The studies were conducted on tumorigenic (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T47D) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) human breast cell lines, employing several methods to assess the effects of the hormones on cell proliferation, mitosis, apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p21. In all four cell lines, 5alphaP increased, whereas 3alphaHP decreased cell numbers, [(3)H]thymidine uptake and mitotic index. Apoptosis was stimulated by 3alphaHP and suppressed by 5alphaP. 5alphaP resulted in increases in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating decreased apoptosis; 3alphaHP resulted in decreases in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating increased apoptosis. The effects of either 3alphaHP or 5alphaP on cell numbers, [(3)H]thymidine uptake, mitosis, apoptosis, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, were abrogated when cells were treated simultaneously with both hormones. The expression of p21 was increased by 3alphaHP, and was unaffected by 5alphaP. The results provide the first evidence that 5alphaP stimulates mitosis and suppresses apoptosis, whereas 3alphaHP inhibits mitosis and stimulates apoptosis. The opposing effects of 5alphaP and 3alphaHP were observed in all four breast cell lines examined and the data suggest that all breast cancers (estrogen-responsive and unresponsive) might be suppressed by blocking 5alphaP formation and/or increasing 3alphaHP. The findings further support the hypothesis that progesterone metabolites are key regulatory hormones and that changes

  1. Low energy alphas in the drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Lawson, T.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Villaume, N.

    2004-01-01

    The Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks project is a US-UK endeavor to build and operate a low pressure negative ion TPC (NITPC) to search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) thought to make up the dark matter in our Galaxy. Low energy (∼10 keV) alpha events from U and Th decays within the walls and wires of the detector can enter the active volume of the detector and be confused for WIMP interactions. This paper presents data on and a model of low energy alphas in a NITPC operated at 40 Torr CS 2 with the aim of understanding and removing this potentially serious background. A comparison of the data to this model reveals good agreement with range predictions of SRIM2000 and allows us to calculate the energy dissipation per ion pair, W=19.0±0.5 eV for low energy alphas in CS 2

  2. Liver replacement for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Peters, Robert L.; Ashcavai, Mary; Redeker, Allan G.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl with advanced cirrhosis and severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency of the homozygous PiZZ phenotype was treated by orthotopic liver transplantation. After replacement of the liver with a homograft from a donor with the normal PiMM phenotype, the alpha1-antitrypsin concentration in the recipient’s serum rose to normal; it had the PiMM phenotype. Two and a third years later, chronic rejection necessitated retransplantation. Insertion of a homograft from a heterozygous PiMZ donar was followed by the identification of that phenotype in the recipient’s serum. Neither liver graft developed the alpha1-antitrypsin glycoprotein deposits seen with the deficiency state. These observations confirm that this hepatic- based inborn error metabolism is metabolically cured by liver replacement. PMID:320694

  3. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Borch Petersen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory. One neural signature of working memory load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6 ‒ 12 Hz. However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of working memory when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62 – 86 years, with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss, behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level and hearing loss; while alpha power increased with hearing loss during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe hearing loss under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of hearing loss, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  4. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, A H; Maiti, K; Mitra, S; Chotani, M A; Flavahan, S; Bailey, S R; Thompson-Torgerson, C S; Flavahan, N A

    2007-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women compared with men. Cold-induced constriction is mediated in part by enhanced activity of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2C)-ARs) located on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether 17beta-estradiol regulates alpha(2C)-AR expression and function in cutaneous VSMs. 17beta-Estradiol (0.01-10 nmol/l) increased expression of the alpha(2C)-AR protein and the activity of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter in human cultured dermal VSMs, which was assessed following transient transfection of the cells with a promoter-reporter construct. The effect of 17beta-estradiol was associated with increased accumulation of cAMP and activation of the cAMP-responsive Rap2 GTP-binding protein. Transient transfection of VSMs with a dominant-negative mutant of Rap2 inhibited the 17beta-estradiol-induced activation of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter, whereas a constitutively active mutant of Rap2 increased alpha(2C)-AR promoter activity. The effects of 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182780 (1 micromol/l), and were mimicked by a cell-impermeable form of the hormone (estrogen:BSA) or by the selective ER-alpha receptor agonist 4,4',4'''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT; 10 nmol/l) or the selective ER-beta receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; 10 nmol/l). Therefore, 17beta-estradiol increased expression of alpha(2C)-ARs by interacting with cell surface receptors to cause a cAMP/Rap2-dependent increase in alpha(2C)-AR transcription. In mouse tail arteries, 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/l) increased alpha(2C)-AR expression and selectively increased the cold-induced amplification of alpha(2)-AR constriction, which is mediated by alpha(2C)-ARs. An estrogen-dependent increase in expression of cold-sensitive alpha(2C)-ARs may contribute

  5. Advances in alpha air monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Early detection of airborne radioactive material is important for effective protection of workers, particularly at facilities handling high toxicity alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 238 Pu and 239 Pu. Variable levels of ever present and naturally occurring alpha-emitting radon daughters made gross alpha air monitoring systems unreliable for live-time monitoring of airborne plutonium. Hence, good live-time monitoring was not possible until an improved alpha air monitoring instrument capable of monitoring select plutonium radionuclides of concern was developed and marketed by nuclear instrumentation companies in the USA during the late 1960s and early 1970s. This monitoring instrument utilized a solid-state silicon-diffused junction type of detector and pulse-height analyser system to achieve a radon-daughter rejection capability. This rejection capability has resulted in an improved sensitivity for specific alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Am. Current models of this instrument are capable of detecting 40 dis/min (0.65 Bq) of plutonium alpha activity. This activity is about equal to the integrated activity workers would be exposed to if they worked for eight hours in an airborne concentration equal to the maximum permissible concentration for transportable 239 Pu. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory began using these instruments in its plutonium research laboratories when they became available in the early 1970s. Approximately 300 are currently in service, and their use has resulted in much improved protection of plutonium workers because accidental airborne releases can now be detected soon after they occur. General design features of these instruments are discussed together with actual operational experience and field calibration procedures. (author)

  6. PGC-1alpha Gly482Ser polymorphism associates with hypertension among Danish whites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Wegner, Lise; Jensen, Dorit Packert

    2005-01-01

    PGC-1alpha is a coactivator of numerous transcription factors and is expressed in tissues with high energy demands and abundant in mitochondria. It is induced in the myocardium on fasting and physical exercise, and cardiac-specific overexpression stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in mice....... The common Gly482Ser polymorphism of PGC-1alpha has previously shown association with arterial hypertension among Austrian men. Thus, we aimed at investigating this relationship in the Danish white population. The Gly482Ser polymorphism was genotyped in a total of 2562 Danish white subjects using polymerase......, the Ser/Ser genotype group had an estimated odds ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.86) for hypertension compared with Gly/X carriers (P=0.001). In conclusion, the Ser allele of PGC-1alpha Gly482Ser confers a significantly reduced risk of hypertension in whites. Further studies are needed...

  7. Inferring uncertainty from interval estimates: Effects of alpha level and numeracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Rinne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval estimates are commonly used to descriptively communicate the degree of uncertainty in numerical values. Conventionally, low alpha levels (e.g., .05 ensure a high probability of capturing the target value between interval endpoints. Here, we test whether alpha levels and individual differences in numeracy influence distributional inferences. In the reported experiment, participants received prediction intervals for fictitious towns' annual rainfall totals (assuming approximately normal distributions. Then, participants estimated probabilities that future totals would be captured within varying margins about the mean, indicating the approximate shapes of their inferred probability distributions. Results showed that low alpha levels (vs. moderate levels; e.g., .25 more frequently led to inferences of over-dispersed approximately normal distributions or approximately uniform distributions, reducing estimate accuracy. Highly numerate participants made more accurate estimates overall, but were more prone to inferring approximately uniform distributions. These findings have important implications for presenting interval estimates to various audiences.

  8. Suppression of saccharin-induced mutagenicity by interferon-alpha in human RSa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N; Suzuki, H

    1995-10-01

    Saccharin is an artificial sweetener commonly used in the formulation of foods and beverages. Sodium saccharin-induced mutagenicity is detectable in human RSa cells by estimation of cloning efficiency of ouabain-resistant mutant cells and determination of K-ras codon 12 mutation in genomic DNA, analyzed by PCR and differential dot-blot hybridization. However, in this study no phenotypic or genetic mutations were detected in RSa cells cultured with human IFN (HuIFN)-alpha before sodium saccharin treatment. The suppressive effect was lessened by transient treatment with antipain immediately after sodium saccharin treatment. Elevation of antipain-sensitive protease activity was found, furthermore, in RSa cells cultured with HuIFN-alpha and subsequently treated with sodium saccharin. Thus, antipain-sensitive protease induction in cells tested here may be involved in suppression of the mutagenicity of saccharin by HuIFN-alpha.

  9. Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy: phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of alpha-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Funke

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. There are many and diverse therapeutic strategies in the management of Type 2 diabetes. The inhibition of alpha-amylase activity is only one possibility to lower postprandial blood glucose levels. In our in-vitro studies we could demonstrate that different plants, mostly traditionally used in common diabetic therapy in Africa or Europe, are able to inhibit alpha-amylase, which is responsible for the breakdown of oligosaccharides into monosaccharides which are absorbed. An inhibition of alpha-amylase activity of 90% was seen with the extract of the leaves of Tamarindus indica. To quantify inhibtion rates, acarbose was used (IC50: 23.2 µM. Highest inhibition level of acarbose in our testmodel was about 85%. Additionally tests with pure polyphenolic compounds might explain the biological activity of the selected plants.

  10. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio

    2005-01-01

    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  11. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  12. Clustering of Lyman-Alpha Emitters galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Harold

    2009-06-01

    Galaxy clustering properties have been studied for decades to constrain cosmological parameters and have today, with large datasets of high-redshift sources piling up, become a powerful tool to discriminate and characterize primeval galaxies. In the last years, several Lyman-Alpha Emitter (LAE) galaxy samples have been gathered, which are big, uniform and compact enough to allow clustering analysis. Here we present a summary of the discussion session on the clustering properties of LAEs at the "Understanding Lyman-Alpha Emitters" conference.

  13. Diffusion of cobalt in alpha zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, U.; Pruthi, D.D.; Anand, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion of 60 Co in alpha zirconium has been studied in the temperature range of 873-1123 K using the sectioning technique. The diffusion parameters obey the following Arrhenius equation:- D = (1.132 +- 0.22)10 -4 exp((-136.43 +- 3.50 KJ)/RT)m 2 s -1 . The diffusivity in this phase is as high as that observed in β-phase. It is also about five orders of magnitude higher when compared to the self diffusion values. The high diffusivity of cobalt in alpha zirconium has been explained on the basis of an interstitial mechanism. (auth.)

  14. Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

  15. The murine alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancer: identification of alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, alpha BE-3, and MRF control elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-01-01

    The murine alpha B-crystallin gene (a member of the small heat shock protein family) is expressed constitutively at high levels in the lens and at lower levels in many other tissues, including skeletal muscle. We have previously used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter fused to the human growth hormone gene to identify an alpha B-crystallin enhancer at positions -427 to -259 that has high activity in muscle and low activity in lens cell lines. In the study reported here, we per...

  16. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  17. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L. -L.; Nitto, A. Di; Düllmann, Ch E.; Gates, J. M.; Golubev, P.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, C. J.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Hessberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, K.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schädel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Åberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Dobaczewski, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Shi, Y.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2016-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two

  18. Low dose radiation and ALARA: the potential risks to patients and staff from alpha-therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, N.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    This year a new drug containing radium-223, an alpha-emitting radionuclide, was approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration for the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer metastases. Other drugs containing short-lived alpha-emitters are on clinical trial in Europe. Commonly, these employ a radionuclide attached to an antibody that specifically targets tumor cells to produce a highly localized radio-therapeutic dose to the tumor. However, normal tissues within the body will also be irradiated, albeit sometimes at low dose, and the question arises as to whether this presents a significant additional risk to the patient. Similarly, medical staff that handle these radionuclides could receive intakes of the radionuclides. What is the risk to staff? To assess the risk resulting from small tissue alpha-doses the toxicological, both human and animal, database was re-examined. The results of 20 epidemiological and toxicological studies with alpha-emitting radionuclides were analysed. In all cases a polynomial function provided a better fit to the data than a linear, no thresholds function. Also, in 19 cases a threshold dose below which no cancer is seen was indicated. The position of this threshold varied according to cancer type, but was typically in the range 0.1 to 1.0Gy of tissue dose - with a mean of 0.5Gy. It is concluded that alpha-radiation induced tumorogenesis is a threshold response and that as long as tissue doses are kept below these thresholds no additional cancers would be seen in either patients receiving alpha-therapy or in staff exposed to 'spilt' radionuclide. The presence of thresholds questions the appropriateness of current ALARA practices that are mostly used to drive occupational alpha-radiation exposures to as close to zero as possible. (author)

  19. Alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the rat ventricular muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinami, J; Tsuchihashi, H; Baba, S; Mano, F; Maruyama, K; Nagatomo, T

    1992-02-01

    Scatchard analyses of [3H]prazosin binding in rat ventricular muscle membranes showed biphasic curves, which identified alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity sites. The alpha 1High-affinity site was completely inhibited by 1 microM phenoxybenzamine. The displacement potencies of alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists were characterized by [3H]prazosin binding to alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity sites in the absence and presence of 1 microM phenoxybenzamine. The affinities of most chemicals for alpha 1Low-affinity sites were significantly lower than those for alpha 1High-affinity sites, but WB-4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxy-phenoxyethyl)aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane), arotinolol, cinanserin, nifedipine, and p-aminoclonidine had the same affinities for both alpha 1Low- and alpha 1High-affinity sites. These results show that two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity, are present in the rat heart, and that there are physical variations in alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites, based on their selectivity to antagonists.

  20. Six HLA-D region alpha-chain genes on human chromosome 6: polymorphisms and associations of DC alpha-related sequences with DR types.

    OpenAIRE

    Spielman, R S; Lee, J; Bodmer, W F; Bodmer, J G; Trowsdale, J

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of cosmid clones containing genes related to the HLA-DR alpha chain calls for at least six HLA-D region alpha-chain coding sequences in man; namely, DR alpha, DC alpha, DX alpha (very closely related to DC alpha), SB alpha 1, SB alpha 2 (two closely linked genes on the same cosmid clones), and DZ alpha. The first four genes have been described previously. SB alpha 2 and DZ alpha are recently identified genes, characterized by their unique and, from a limited study, nonpolymorphic ban...

  1. Characterization of alpha thalassemic genotypes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Suemasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-thalassemia is the most common inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis. Genomic deletions involving the alpha-globin gene cluster on chromosome 16p13.3 are the most frequent molecular causes of the disease. Although common deletions can be detected by a single multiplex gap-PCR, the rare and novel deletions depend on more laborious techniques for their identification. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA technique has recently been used for this purpose and was successfully used in the present study to detect the molecular alterations responsible for the alpha-thalassemic phenotypes in 8 unrelated individuals (3 males and 5 females; age, 4 months to 30 years in whom the molecular basis of the disease could not be determined by conventional methods. A total of 44 probe pairs were used for MLPA, covering approximately 800 kb from the telomere to the MSLN gene in the 16p13.3 region. Eight deletions were detected. Four of these varied in size from 240 to 720 kb and affected a large region including the entire alpha-globin gene cluster and its upstream regulatory element (alpha-MRE, while the other four varied in size from 0.4 to 100 kb and were limited to a region containing this element. This study is the first in Brazil to use the MLPA method to determine the molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia. The variety of rearrangements identified highlights the need to investigate all cases presenting microcytosis and hypochromia, but without iron deficiency or elevated hemoglobin A2 levels and suggests that these rearrangements may be more frequent in our population than previously estimated.

  2. Phenomenological Alpha-Alpha Interactions and its Application on 16O Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qandil, O.S.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis includes the study of alpha-alpha interactions and apply them to the nucleus of the 16 O by using Hartree-Fock method for bosons. The used potentials are Ali-Bodmer potential, Modified Woods- Saxon potential, Fish-Bone I (FB-I) and Fish-Bone II (FB-II) potential. Also, the properties of nuclear structure of 16 O nucleus are calculated such as binding energy, form factor and root mean square radius. The results we have obtained were compared with previous results in the same field of research topic. This work requires knowledge of different kinds of potentials and the difference between the phenomenological and microscopic interactions and research in Hartree-Fock method and nuclear models, especially shell model. The content of the present thesis can be summarized as the following: The first Chapter, (Introduction), presents detailed informations about the nuclear structure, clustering, alpha clustering and nuclear models especially the shell model. Also, a review of previous researches in the research topic ( phenomenological alpha- alpha interactions). The second chapter, (Alpha-Alpha interactions), many types of phenomenological alpha-alpha interactions and its various forms are displayed, including what has been used in the thesis.The third chapter, (Derivation of Hartree-Fock Method for Bosons), illustrates the theoretical calculations which have been used in the thesis, the derivation of the Hartree-Fock method for bosons, the variational method and the derivation of binding energy, form factor and root mean square radius equations. the fourth chapter, (Numerical Results and Discussion), includes the present theoretical results of the nuclear structure of 16 O nucleus using the previous four potentials, and comparing our present results with the experimental and previous theoretical ones.

  3. Thermochemical Stability of alpha-Amino-alpha-carbonylmethyl Radicals and Their Resonance As Measured by ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Frank M.; Beckhaus, Hans-Dieter; Rüchardt, Christoph

    1997-02-07

    ESR spectra of the captodative alpha-amino-alpha-carbonylmethyl radicals 8 have been recorded. No coalescence temperature for the rotation of the two NMe groups was found at temperatures below the decomposition temperature of the radicals. From known coalescence temperatures and rotational barriers of substituted methyl radicals the rotational barrier of >/=17 kcal mol(-)(1) was estimated for the (*)C-N bond in the radicals 8. Enthalpies DeltaH(diss) and entropies DeltaS(diss) of the homolytic dissociation of 7a,c,d into 8a,c,d have been obtained from equilibrium measurements by ESR. By correcting for substituent interaction enthalpies in 7 (steric and geminal), a radical stabilization enthalpy RSE = -20.7 +/- 1.0 kcal mol(-)(1) was obtained for 8. By addition of the known RSEs of dialkylamino- and carbonyl groups, a RSE = -9.9 kcal mol(-)(1) is predicted for 8. The difference between the experimental and predicted values of 10.8 kcal mol(-)(1) is attributed to a synergistic captodative substituent effect. A linear correlation between the radical stabilization enthalpies of the radicals 8 and of other mono- and disubstituted alkyl radicals and their ESR aH(alpha) coupling constants was found. According to this correlation the reduction of aH(alpha) by 1 G corresponds to an increase in RSE of 1.57 kcal mol(-)(1). The large resonance of the captodative alpha-amino-alpha-carbonylmethyl radicals 3, expressed by their high RSE, their small aH(alpha) coupling constant, and their high rotational barrier, can be rationalized by a strong interaction between the alpha-amino and the alpha-carbonyl groups similar to that in amides and expressed in the resonance structures 6.

  4. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Reactivity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two main components of the stress system are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axes. While cortisol has been commonly used as a biomarker of HPA functioning, much less attention has been paid to the role of the SAM in this context. Studies have shown that long-term breast cancer survivors display abnormal reactive cortisol patterns, suggesting a dysregulation of their HPA axis. To fully understand the integrity of the stress response in this population, this paper explored the diurnal and acute alpha-amylase profiles of 22 breast cancer survivors and 26 women with no history of cancer. Results revealed that breast cancer survivors displayed identical but elevated patterns of alpha-amylase concentrations in both diurnal and acute profiles relative to that of healthy women, F (1, 39 = 17.95, p < 0.001 and F (1, 37 = 7.29, p = 0.010, respectively. The average area under the curve for the diurnal and reactive profiles was 631.54 ± 66.94 SEM and 1238.78 ± 111.84 SEM, respectively. This is in sharp contrast to their cortisol results, which showed normal diurnal and blunted acute patterns. The complexity of the stress system necessitates further investigation to understand the synergistic relationship of the HPA and SAM axes.

  5. Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha oscillations represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Elliott Mathewson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, but their role in cortical processing remains a matter of debate. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate in support of a role for alpha oscillations in attention selection and control. Here we first review evidence that 8-12 Hz oscillations in the brain have a general inhibitory role in cognitive processing, with an emphasis on their role in visual processing. Then, we summarize the evidence in support of our recent proposal that alpha represents a pulsed inhibition of ongoing neural activity. The phase of the ongoing EEG can influence evoked activity and subsequent processing, and we propose that alpha exerts its inhibitory role through alternating microstates of inhibition and excitation. Finally, we discuss evidence that this pulsed inhibition can be entrained to rhythmic stimuli in the environment, such that preferential processing occurs for stimuli at predictable moments. The entrainment of preferential phase may provide a mechanism for temporal attention in the brain. This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves.

  6. Sequential nearest-neighbor effects on computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Jorge A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Serrano, Pedro; Wuethrich, Kurt [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States); Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate sequential nearest-neighbor effects on quantum-chemical calculations of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, we selected the structure of the nucleic acid binding (NAB) protein from the SARS coronavirus determined by NMR in solution (PDB id 2K87). NAB is a 116-residue {alpha}/{beta} protein, which contains 9 prolines and has 50% of its residues located in loops and turns. Overall, the results presented here show that sizeable nearest-neighbor effects are seen only for residues preceding proline, where Pro introduces an overestimation, on average, of 1.73 ppm in the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. A new ensemble of 20 conformers representing the NMR structure of the NAB, which was calculated with an input containing backbone torsion angle constraints derived from the theoretical {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts as supplementary data to the NOE distance constraints, exhibits very similar topology and comparable agreement with the NOE constraints as the published NMR structure. However, the two structures differ in the patterns of differences between observed and computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, {Delta}{sub ca,i}, for the individual residues along the sequence. This indicates that the {Delta}{sub ca,i} -values for the NAB protein are primarily a consequence of the limited sampling by the bundles of 20 conformers used, as in common practice, to represent the two NMR structures, rather than of local flaws in the structures.

  7. Production of pi /sup 0/ at large transverse momentum in alpha alpha and alpha p collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Karabarbounis, A; Fields, T; Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Goldberg, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Lissauer, D; Mannelli, I; Molzon, W; Mouzourakis, P; Palmer, R B; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, P; Resvanis, L K; Stumer, I; Trakkas, C; Willis, W

    1981-01-01

    Inclusive pi /sup 0/ production has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings in alpha alpha and alpha p collisions near 90 degrees , for p/sub T/ between 2 and 5 GeV/c. The differential cross sections show a slower exponential fall-off with p/sub T/ than has been observed in pp collisions at the corresponding nucleon- nucleon centre-of-mass energies at large p/sub T/. The ratio of the pi /sup 0/ production cross sections for alpha alpha collisions to those for pp collisions is observed to be larger than 16. (8 refs).

  8. A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmad, A.A.Z.; Ferdous, N.

    1984-10-01

    A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction is made. The experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross-sections and polarizations in proton-alpha and neutron-alpha scattering is described. The phenomenological approach which includes the study of both local and non-local potentials reproducing the experimental alpha-nucleon scattering data, is discussed. Basic studies of the alpha-nucleon interaction attempting to build an interaction between an alpha particle and a nucleon from first principles are then described. A critical discussion of the results with some concluding remarks suggesting the direction for further investigation is made. (author)

  9. Production of {alpha}-glucosidases by Bacillus sp. strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.R. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Baigori, M.D. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Sineriz, F. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    {alpha}-Glucosidase was detected in four wild-type amylolytic production strains belonging to the Bacillus genus. The strains showed {alpha}-glucosidase activity in extracellular and membrane-bound fractions. Kinetic studies of the {alpha}-glucosidase synthesis in the batch cultures of four strains of the Bacillus genus showed two profiles: partially and totally growth-linked synthesis. The presence of different activities and production profiles of {alpha}-glucosidase in the strains at high or low glucose concentrations in the medium would indicate that {alpha}-glucosidase may have a role in the regulation of the metabolism of {alpha}-polysaccharides. (orig.)

  10. Remarks on tilde g_{alpha}-irresolute maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Rebecca Paul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few of the class of generalized closed sets form a topology. The class of tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets is one among them. The aim of this paper is to introduce the different notions of irresolute function using tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets and study some of their basic properties.We also study the relation between strongly tilde g_{alpha}- continuous and perfectly eg-continuous functions. We also introduce tilde g_{alpha}-compact and ilde g_{alpha}-connectedspaces and study their properties using tilde g_{alpha}-continuous and eg-irresolute functions.

  11. Alpha -2b treatment of Malignant Melanoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Interferon preparations such as interferon alpha are widely used in the treatment of a number of non malignant and malignant conditions including malignant melanoma where it used. Mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose- reduction or treatment ...

  12. Laboratory system for alpha particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.R.; Chiu, N.W.

    1987-03-01

    An automated alpha particle spectroscopy system has beeen designed and fabricated. It consists of two major components, the automatic sample changer and the controller/data acquisition unit. It is capable of unattended analysis of ten samples for up to 65,000 seconds per sample

  13. Biomarkers of Alpha Particle Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    work towards the identification of gene-based biomarkers of alpha-particle radiation exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) isolated from...manipulation et l’exposition au rayonnement ionisant chez les humains . CSSP-2012-CD-1117 and CSSP-2012-CD-1114 iii Table of contents...19 Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Centre for

  14. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with tem...

  15. Extraction of molybdenum VI by alpha benzoinoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achache, M.; Meklati, M.

    1990-06-01

    The concentration of molybdenum, was studied using alpha benzoinoxime dissolved in chloroform. Several acids and salt at different levels of concentration were investigated as well as other parameters such as (mixing time, extractant to metal ratio, temperature etc.) The molybdenum stippling was also studied in alkaline medium with the subsequent recovery of the extractant and solvent

  16. Syndecan-4 associates with alpha-actinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greene, Daniel K; Tumova, Sarka; Couchman, John R

    2002-01-01

    during the formation of focal adhesions. To date, a direct link between syndecan-4 and the cytoskeleton has remained elusive. We now demonstrate by Triton X-100 extraction immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays that the focal adhesion component alpha-actinin interacts with syndecan-4 in a beta...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rapid heartbeat upon standing. Affected individuals often develop emphysema, which is a lung disease caused by damage to the small air ... exposure to tobacco smoke accelerates the appearance of emphysema symptoms and damage to the lungs. About 10 percent of infants with alpha-1 ...

  18. Evaluation of microcrystalline cellulose modifed from alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha cellulose was obtained from Costus afer and part of it was modified to microcrystalline cellulose (CAMCC). The physicochemical properties of the microcrystalline cellulose were determined and compared with those of commercial microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101). The swelling capacity, hydration capacity, loss ...

  19. Physicochemical and powder properties of alpha- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cob alpha-celluloses (CAC) was extracted from maize cobs by defibering, delignification and bleaching; then subjected to acid hydrolysis to obtain Cob- microcrystalline-cellulose (CMCC). Their physicochemical properties were evaluated and compared with those of Avicel®, a commercial variety of microcrystalline ...

  20. Comparison of alpha decay and alpha transfer reactions in the lead region. [R matrix theory, absolute alpha widths, cross sections, 93 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Data were taken for five transitions in the lead region allowing a quantitative comparison with corresponding alpha-decay data via R-matrix theory using the same target + alpha nuclear potential. Good agreement between the absolute reduced widths determined from the two sets of data suggests that in transfer reactions, as in alpha decay, an alpha particle in its ground state is transferred in a one-step process. In a separate analysis, elastic and total reaction cross sections for the systems ..cap alpha.. + /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi were analyzed to obtain a limited set of potentials which, in turn, were used to calculate absolute alpha widths. Existing shell model calculations give ..gamma../sub ..cap alpha..//sup 2/ values three orders of magnitude smaller.

  1. Involvement of the clock gene Rev-erb alpha in the regulation of glucagon secretion in pancreatic alpha-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vieira

    Full Text Available Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60-70% inhibition in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05 and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001. High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05. AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01 and glucagon release (p<0.05. These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway.

  2. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proia, R.L. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.

  3. Nicotine enhances expression of the alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 5, and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors modulating calcium metabolism and regulating adhesion and motility of respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, S; Ndoye, A; Nguyen, V T; Grando, S A

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of direct toxic effects of nicotine (Nic) on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) suggested by our previous findings of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the epithelial cells lining mucocutaneous membranes. We now demonstrate for the first time that human and murine BEC both in vivo and in vitro express functional nAChRs, and that classic alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 7 subunits can contribute to formation of these acetylcholine-gated ion channels. In human bronchial and mouse lung tissues, and in cultures of human BEC, the nAChRs were visualized by subunit-specific antibodies on the cell membranes, particularly at the sites of cell-to-cell contacts. The epithelial cells of submucosal glands abundantly expressed alpha 7 nAChRs. Smoking significantly (p epithelial nAChRs apparently involve regulation of cell-to-cell communications, adhesion and motility, because Mec caused rapid and profound changes in these cell functions which were reversible by Nic. An over exposure of BEC to Nic, however, produced an antagonist-like effect, suggesting that the pathobiological effects of Nic toxicity might result from both activation of nAChR channels and nAChR desensitization. We conclude that medical consequences of smoking can be mediated by direct toxic effects of inhaled Nic on the respiratory tissues wherein Nic specifically binds to and activates the nicotinic ion channels present on the cell surfaces of BEC. We believe that outside the neural system Nic interferes with functioning of non-neuronal cholinergic networks by displacing from nAChR its natural ligand acetylcholine which acts as a local hormone or cytokine in a variety of non-neuronal locations.

  4. Chromaticity separation and the alpha response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, S M; Cooper, N R; Wilkins, A J

    2018-01-08

    Chromatic gratings can be uncomfortable to view and can evoke a large haemodynamic response. Both the discomfort and the amplitude of the haemodynamic response increase monotonically with the perceptual difference in the colour of the component bars of the grating, as registered by the separation in their chromaticity in the CIE 1976 UCS diagram. Individuals with photosensitive epilepsy exhibit epileptiform EEG activity in response to flickering light of alternate colours. The probability of the epileptiform response again increases monotonically with the separation of the colours in the CIE UCS diagram. We investigated whether alpha power, which is known to reflect the excitation of large populations of neurons, is similarly affected by the separation in chromaticity. Chromatic square-wave gratings with bars that differed in CIE UCS chromaticity were presented, together with a central fixation cross. In 18 non-clinical participants, alpha responses were recorded over the visual cortex (O1, Oz, O2, PO3, POz, PO4, P1, P2) and compared to responses in prefrontal cortex (F1, F2). Gratings comprised bars of two alternate colours that either had a small difference in chromaticity (mean CIE UCS separation of 0.03), a medium difference (mean separation of 0.19), or a large difference (mean separation of 0.43). The colour pairs had chromaticities that lay on the red-green, red-blue, or blue-green borders of the screen gamut. Regardless of the hue, the larger the separation in chromaticity, the greater the alpha desynchronization and the lower the alpha power (p = 0.004), but only in posterior electrodes (p < 0.001). Together this indicates that differences in colour evoke a cortical excitation that increases monotonically with the colour difference. In this respect the alpha response resembles the haemodynamic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The measurement of $\\alpha_s$ from event shapes with the DELPHI detector at the highest LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    Hadronic event shape distributions are determined from data in e+e- collisions between 183 and 207 GeV. From these the strong coupling alpha_s is extracted in O(alpha_s^2), NLLA and matched O(alpha_s^2)+NLLA theory. Hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as an analytical power ansatz are applied. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at and around M_Z allows a combined measurement of alpha_s from all DELPHI data and a test of the energy dependence of the strong coupling.

  6. Assessment of alpha radioactivity in Indian tobacco leaf-a detailed study with SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, K.K.; Halder, S.; Maiti, S.

    2009-01-01

    People who inhale tobacco smoke are exposed to higher concentrations of radioactivity since tobacco contains polonium ( 210 Po) and lead ( 210 Pb) both of which are radioactive elements of radon decay series. Among these 210 Po emits damaging type of radiation-alpha radiation is 1000 times more carcinogenic than gamma radiation (DiFranza and Winters, 1982). It generates the localized radiation dose and the health of common people gets affected seriously. In view of this a detail measurement of radioactivity of tobacco leaf is essential. This paper presents a detail investigation on the measurement of alpha radioactivity in raw tobacco leaves, in a few commonly used Indian brand cigarettes and in packed chewing tobacco materials with solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). The study reveals the presence of pronounced alpha activity in cigarette tobacco and chewing tobacco samples ranging from 60-75 mBq/gm and 60- 75 mBq/gm. The alpha activity value is comparatively lower in raw tobacco leaves (9-50 mBq/gm). The annual committed effective dose of the smokers of these branded cigarettes has estimated to be 50-700 (μSv/y), whereas the effective dose value in raw tobacco leaves and chewing tobacco samples is 54-201 μSv/y and 230-290 μSv/y, respectively which are within the range found in cigarette samples. (author)

  7. Muramidase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, and S-100 protein immunoreactivity in giant cell lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Lloyd, R V

    1987-01-01

    A spectrum of giant cell lesions was evaluated for muramidase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, and S-100 protein immunoreactivity using an avidin-biotin-complex immunoperoxidase method. Peripheral giant cell granuloma, central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor, osteitis fibrosa cystica, cherubism, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath showed similar patterns of reactivity. Granulomatous inflammatory lesions stained more intensely for muramidase than did noninflammatory lesions. Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin was a slightly better marker of giant cell lesions than was alpha-1-antitrypsin. Positive S-100 protein staining in half the lesions was thought to be due to the presence of Langerhans cells. The results supported the belief that giant cell lesions of bone and tendon sheath are differentiated toward cells of the mononuclear-phagocyte system and that multinucleated giant cells are derived from macrophages.

  8. Measurement of total alpha activity in water; Messung der Gesamt-Alpha-Aktivitaet in Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikenberg, Jost [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Strahlenschutz und Sicherheit; Florschuetz, Bernd [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Kassel (Germany). Dezernat 15 - Strahlenschutz; Salvamoser, Josef [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen, Woerthsee (Germany); Steinkopff, Thomas [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Wilhelm, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Sicherheitsmanagement - Analytische Labore; Wisser, Sascha [FCI, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    The article describes the measurement of the total alpha activity in an (evaporated) liquid sample, and the various sample preparation methods for measurements with proportional counters or LSC. (orig.)

  9. Common Czech vs colloquial Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Иванович Изотов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a phenomenon of Common Czech in respect to Standard Czech is regarded. Main features of Common Czech are described. Linguistic situation in Czech Republic is compared to the classical diglossia situation.

  10. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  11. Synthesis and coupling reactions of alpha,alpha-dialkylated amino acids with nucleobase side chains.

    OpenAIRE

    Azumaya, I; Aebi, R; Kubik, S; Rebek, J

    1995-01-01

    Several di- and tripeptides containing protected purine (adenine) and pyrimidine (thymine) residues on their side chains were synthesized. The parent amino acids alpha, alpha-dialkylated in a symmetrical manner. An effective coupling procedure was developed for these sterically hindered amino acids: the fluoren-9-ylmethyloxycarbonyl-protected amino acid was dehydrated to its oxazolinone form, which was coupled in good yields with amino esters in hot tetrachloroethane.

  12. Catalytic enantioselective Michael addition reactions of alpha-nitroesters to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, E; Veldman, N; Spek, AL; Feringa, BL

    1997-01-01

    Enantioselective Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters 2a-d with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones were carried out in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Al-Li-(R,R')-2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl ('AlLiBINOL') complex prepared in situ from LiAlH4 and 2.45 equiv. of (R,R')-BINOL. The

  13. resistance in the common bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on ...

  14. CAMEX-4 NOAA LYMAN-ALPHA HYGROMETER V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 NOAA Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer dataset was collected by the NOAA Lyman-alpha Total Water Hygrometer, which was flown during the fourth field campaign in the...

  15. Alpha-(trifluoromethyl)amine derivatives via nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of nitrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D W; Owens, J; Hiraldo, D

    2001-04-20

    (Trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane (TMSCF(3)) reacts with nitrones to afford alpha-(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamines protected as O-trimethylsilyl ethers. Potassium t-butoxide initiates the nucleophilic trifluoromethylation. The reaction works best with alpha,N-diaryl nitrones, and the conditions are compatible with a range of substituents on the aryl groups. Acidic deprotection of the nitrone/TMSCF(3) adducts generates alpha-(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamines. Catalytic hydrogenation of the adducts produces alpha-(trifluoromethyl)amines. Nitrone/TMSCF(3) adducts with strong electron-withdrawing groups on the alpha-aryl ring or heterocyclic alpha-aryl groups undergo an elimination/addition sequence to generate alpha,alpha-bis(trifluoromethyl)amines. Nitrones with alkyl groups bound directly to the 1,3-dipolar moiety fail to react with TMSCF(3), but trifluoromethylation of beta,gamma-unsaturated nitrones followed by reduction of the double bond can circumvent this limitation.

  16. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  17. Estimation of Time-Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last decade alpha-stable distributions have become a standard model for impulsive data. Especially the linear symmetric alpha-stable processes have found...

  18. Interferon alpha for chronic hepatitis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zaigham; Khan, Muhammad Arsalan; Salih, Mohammad; Jafri, Wasim

    2011-12-07

    Hepatitis D virus is a small defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus infection to infect a person. Hepatitis D is a difficult-to-treat infection. Several clinical trials have been published on the efficacy of interferon alpha for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. However, there are few randomised trials evaluating the effects of interferon alpha, and it is difficult to judge any benefit of this intervention from the individual trials. To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of interferon alpha for patients with chronic hepatitis D. We identified relevant for the review randomised clinical trials by electronic searches in the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until May 2011. We also checked the bibliographic references of identified randomised trials, textbooks, and review articles in order to find randomised trials not identified by the electronic searches. Randomised clinical trials evaluating interferon alpha versus placebo or no intervention for patients with chronic hepatitis D infection. Two authors assessed the trials and extracted data on mortality, virologic, biochemical, and histological response as well as adverse events at end of treatment and six months or more after completing treatment. The analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat principle including all randomised participants irrespective of follow-up. Drop-outs, withdrawals, and non-compliance were considered as treatment failures. Data were analysed with fixed- and random-effects models. Reported results were based on fixed-effect model except in cases where statistical significance varied between the two models. Six randomised trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two hundred and one randomised participants (male = 174) were included. The risk of bias in all the included trials was high

  19. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M.D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Burrows, C; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C.L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M.C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J.S; Hardy, W.N; Hayden, M.E; Humphries, A.J; Isaac, C.A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J.T.K; Menary, S; Napoli, S.C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C.Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R.L; Sampson, J.A; Sarid, E; Seddon, D; Silveira, D.M; So, C; Stracka, S; Tharp, T; Thompson, R.I; Thornhill, J; Tooley, M.P; Van Der Werf, D.P; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA ' s analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA ' s new neutral atom trap.

  20. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  1. A prevalent amino acid polymorphism at codon 98 (Ala98Val) of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anuradha, Shekher; Radha, Venkatesan; Deepa, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Among Europeans, mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha) gene are associated with the most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3. In Asian Indians, type 2 diabetes occurs earlier and often overlaps with MODY, but the genetics of the latter are unknown....... The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Ala98Val polymorphism of the HNF1alpha gene in different types of diabetes in Asian Indians....

  2. Covariation of spectral and nonlinear EEG measures with alpha biofeedback.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Elfadil, H.; Klaver, P.; Roschke, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated how different spectral and nonlinear EEG measures covaried with alpha power during auditory alpha biofeedback training, performed by 13 healthy subjects. We found a significant positive correlation of alpha power with the largest Lyapunov-exponent, pointing to an increased

  3. Particularization of alpha contamination using CR-39 track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of alpha particles. Furthermore, measurement of alpha ...

  4. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  5. Is mapping a part of common cause failure quantification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Important issues in any procedure used for estimating basic event probabilities of common cause failures (CCF) for probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) are: which plants and systems to use, how to combine them, and how to transform data from systems with different numbers of similar components to obtain CCF-rates for a specific group of components. These issues are addressed with focus on the last part called ''mapping''. Certain parametric models are considered for transforming CCF event experience from data-source plants to the target plant, the plant of interest. Two sets of rules are reviewed and compared for transforming rates and assessment uncertainties from larger to smaller systems i.e. mapping down. Epistemic uncertainties are taken into account in the estimation. Mapping down equations are presented also for the alpha-factors and for the variances of CCF-rates. Consistent rules are developed for mapping up CCF-rates, uncertainties and alpha factors from smaller to larger systems. These rules are not limited to a binomial CCF model. Consistency requirements are severe and dictate certain limits to possible parametric values. Empirical alpha factors are used to quantify robust mapping ratios of complete CCF-rates. Mapping is critically analyzed and practical recommendations are made. (orig.)

  6. Alpha blockers: A relook at phenoxybenzamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambhunath Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ is an alpha adrenergic antagonist, used for the management of hypertension. PBZ acts by blocking alpha-adrenergic receptors, leading to vasodilatation and low systemic vascular resistance. This helps in control of blood pressure in pheochromocytoma, improvement of systemic oxygen delivery, and optimization of the Qp/Qs in pediatric cardiac surgery such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome and improving perfusion parameters during open heart surgery. The uses have further extended to causalgia, Raynaud's phenomenon, autonomic hyperreflexia, and even for patency of radial artery conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. However, its prolonged hypotensive effect limits the regular use. In this review, we discussed the mechanism of action, pharmaco-physiology of PBZ, perioperative uses in different clinical setting and controversies for its uses; publications in different scientific journals from the previous years.

  7. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  8. Alpha-contaminated waste management workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    These proceedings are published to provide a record of the oral presentations made at the DOE Alpha-Contaminated Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, on August 10-13, 1982. The papers are transcriptions of these oral presentations and, as such, do not contain as significant detail as will be found in the reviewed papers to be published in the periodical Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management in the first issue for 1983. These transcriptions have been reviewed by the speakers and some illustrations have been provided, but these contain only the preliminary information that will be provided in the technical papers to be published in the periodical. These papers have been grouped under the following headings: source terms; disposal technology and practices for alpha-contaminated waste; risk analyses and safety assessments. These papers in addition to those dealing with legislative and regulatory aspects have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  9. Sneutrino Inflation with $\\alpha$-attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Kallosh, Renata; Roest, Diederik; Wrase, Timm

    2016-11-22

    Sneutrino inflation employs the fermionic partners of the inflaton and stabilizer field as right-handed neutrinos to realize the seesaw mechanism for light neutrino masses. A crucial ingredient in existing constructions for sneutrino (multi-)natural inflation is an unbroken discrete shift symmetry. We demonstrate that a similar construction applies to $\\alpha$-attractor models. In this case the hyperbolic geometry protects the neutrino Yukawa couplings to the inflaton field, and the masses of leptons and Higgs fields, from blowing up when the inflaton is super-Planckian. We find that the predictions for $n_s$ and $r$ for $\\alpha$-attractor cosmological models, compatible with the current cosmological data, are preserved in the presence of the neutrino sector.

  10. The ALPHA project: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Cachard, F. de; Coddington, P.; Dreier, J.; Smith, B.; Guentay, S.; Varadi, G.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the ALPHA project is presented, including a summary of progress and current status. The project comprises the experimental and analytical investigation of the long-term decay heat removal phenomena from the containment of the next generation of 'passive' Advanced Light Water Reactors. The effects of aerosols that may result from hypothetical severe accidents are also considered. The construction of the major ALPHA experimental facilities, PANDA, LINX-2 and AIDA, has been completed and all facilities are now in their commissioning phases. Scaling studies have guided the design of the experimental facilities. Several small-scale experiments and studies have already produced valuable results which can be used to direct the experimental work, as well as the design of the passive ALWRs. (author) 7 figs., 23 refs

  11. Alpha Resonant States in 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Souza, M. A.; Miyake, H.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Ukita, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The 9 Be( 6 Li,d) 13 C reaction was used to investigate alpha resonant states in 13 C up to 15 MeV of excitation. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. An energy resolution of 50 keV was obtained. Several narrow alpha resonant states not previously measured were detected, in particular the one at the (3α+n) threshold populated by an L = 2 transfer, revealing a 9 Be+α component for the 1/2 - cluster state candidate at this threshold. Experimental angular distributions are presented in comparison with DWBA predictions.

  12. Ripple loss of alpha particles in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Keiji; Takizuka, Tomonori; Azumi, Masafumi

    1989-07-01

    Part I: A benchmark test for the ripple loss of alpha particles in ITER has been executed by using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code. In ITER with a plasma current of the order of 10 MA and an edge ripple of the order of 3%, the total power-loss fraction derived by JAERI's OFMC code is 6.6%. Part II: Two dimensional heat load on the first wall due to ripple loss of alpha particles in ITER has been estimated by using an OFMC code. The peak heat load due to ripple-trapped loss is of the order of 0.1 MW/m 2 . The peak heat load by ripple-untrapped loss averaged over the toroidal angle is about 0.07 MW/m 2 . (author)

  13. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eGarcés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG. A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p< 0.05 in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68±0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05±0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57±0.59•10-2 for controls and (2.70±0.49•10-2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  14. The time-course of EEG Alpha Power Changes in Creative Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eSchwab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increases in EEG alpha power during creative ideation are among the most consistent findings in the neuroscientific study of creativity, but existing studies did not focus on time-related changes of EEG alpha activity patterns during the process of creative ideation so far. Since several cognitive processes are involved in the generation of creative ideas, different EEG correlates may result as a function of time. In this study we addressed this crucial point. Forty-five participants worked on the Alternative Uses Task while the EEG was recorded and changes in task-related power (relative to rest in the upper-frequency band (10-12 Hz for three isochronous time intervals of the idea generation period were determined. Alpha power changes during idea generation followed a characteristic time course: We found a general increase of alpha power at the beginning of idea generation that was followed by a decrease and finally by a re-increase of alpha prior to responding that was most pronounced at parietal and temporal sites of the right hemisphere. Additionally, the production of more original ideas was accompanied by increasing hemispheric asymmetry (more alpha in the right than left hemisphere with increasing duration of the idea generation period. The observed time course of brain activity may reflect the progression of different but well-known stages in the idea generation process: That is the initial retrieval of common and old ideas followed by the actual generation of novel and more creative ideas by overcoming typical responses through processes of mental simulation and imagination.

  15. Quantitative autoradiography of alpha particle emission in geo-materials using the Beaver™ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardini, Paul; Angileri, Axel; Descostes, Michael; Duval, Samuel; Oger, Tugdual; Patrier, Patricia; Rividi, Nicolas; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Toubon, Hervé; Donnard, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    In rocks or artificial geo-materials, radioactive isotopes emitting alpha particles are dispersed according to the mineralogy. At hand specimen scale, the achievement of quantitative chemical mapping of these isotopes takes on a specific importance. Knowledge of the distribution of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides is of prime interest to several disciplines, from the geochemistry of uranium deposits, to the dispersion of uranium mill tailings in the biosphere. The disequilibrium of these disintegration chains is also commonly used for dating. However, some prime importance isotopes, such as 226 Ra, are complicated to localize in geo-materials. Because of its high specific activity, 226 Ra is found in very low concentrations (~ppq), preventing its accurate localization in rock forming minerals. This paper formulates a quantitative answer to the following question: at hand specimen scale, how can alpha emitters in geo-materials be mapped quantitatively? In this study, we tested a new digital autoradiographic method (called the Beaver™) based on a Micro Patterned Gaseous Detector (MPGD) in order to quantitatively map alpha emission at the centimeter scale rock section. Firstly, for two thin sections containing U-bearing minerals at secular equilibrium, we compared the experimental and theoretical alpha count rates, measured by the Beaver™ and calculated from the uranium content, respectively. We found that they are very similar. Secondly, for a set of eight homemade standards made up of a mixture of inactive sand and low-radioactivity mud, we compared the count rates obtained by the Beaver™ and by an alpha spectrometer. The results indicate (i) a linearity between both count rates, and (ii) that the count obtained by the Beaver™ can be estimated from the count obtained by the alpha spectrometry using a factor of 0.82.

  16. Quantitative autoradiography of alpha particle emission in geo-materials using the Beaver™ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardini, Paul; Angileri, Axel [IC2MP Equipe HydrASA, 6 Rue Michel Brunet, B35, TSA 51106 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France); Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines, R& D Department, Paris (France); Duval, Samuel; Oger, Tugdual [AI4R SAS, Nantes (France); Patrier, Patricia [IC2MP Equipe HydrASA, 6 Rue Michel Brunet, B35, TSA 51106 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France); Rividi, Nicolas [Service Camparis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Siitari-Kauppi, Marja [Radiochemistry Laboratory, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Toubon, Hervé [AREVA Mines, R& D Department, Paris (France); Donnard, Jérôme [AI4R SAS, Nantes (France)

    2016-10-11

    In rocks or artificial geo-materials, radioactive isotopes emitting alpha particles are dispersed according to the mineralogy. At hand specimen scale, the achievement of quantitative chemical mapping of these isotopes takes on a specific importance. Knowledge of the distribution of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides is of prime interest to several disciplines, from the geochemistry of uranium deposits, to the dispersion of uranium mill tailings in the biosphere. The disequilibrium of these disintegration chains is also commonly used for dating. However, some prime importance isotopes, such as {sup 226}Ra, are complicated to localize in geo-materials. Because of its high specific activity, {sup 226}Ra is found in very low concentrations (~ppq), preventing its accurate localization in rock forming minerals. This paper formulates a quantitative answer to the following question: at hand specimen scale, how can alpha emitters in geo-materials be mapped quantitatively? In this study, we tested a new digital autoradiographic method (called the Beaver™) based on a Micro Patterned Gaseous Detector (MPGD) in order to quantitatively map alpha emission at the centimeter scale rock section. Firstly, for two thin sections containing U-bearing minerals at secular equilibrium, we compared the experimental and theoretical alpha count rates, measured by the Beaver™ and calculated from the uranium content, respectively. We found that they are very similar. Secondly, for a set of eight homemade standards made up of a mixture of inactive sand and low-radioactivity mud, we compared the count rates obtained by the Beaver™ and by an alpha spectrometer. The results indicate (i) a linearity between both count rates, and (ii) that the count obtained by the Beaver™ can be estimated from the count obtained by the alpha spectrometry using a factor of 0.82.

  17. Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Optic Radiations and LGN, and Their Relationship to EEG Alpha Waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Renauld

    Full Text Available At rest, healthy human brain activity is characterized by large electroencephalography (EEG fluctuations in the 8-13 Hz range, commonly referred to as the alpha band. Although it is well known that EEG alpha activity varies across individuals, few studies have investigated how this may be related to underlying morphological variations in brain structure. Specifically, it is generally believed that the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and its efferent fibres (optic radiation, OR play a key role in alpha activity, yet it is unclear whether their shape or size variations contribute to its inter-subject variability. Given the widespread use of EEG alpha in basic and clinical research, addressing this is important, though difficult given the problems associated with reliably segmenting the LGN and OR. For this, we employed a multi-modal approach and combined diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and EEG in 20 healthy subjects to measure structure and function, respectively. For the former, we developed a new, semi-automated approach for segmenting the OR and LGN, from which we extracted several structural metrics such as volume, position and diffusivity. Although these measures corresponded well with known morphology based on previous post-mortem studies, we nonetheless found that their inter-subject variability was not significantly correlated to alpha power or peak frequency (p >0.05. Our results therefore suggest that alpha variability may be mediated by an alternative structural source and our proposed methodology may in general help in better understanding the influence of anatomy on function such as measured by EEG or fMRI.

  18. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  19. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  20. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  1. Effects of internally deposited alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and quantify the human health effects of occupational exposures to radium, use the health effects data from the radium study to predict responses to other alpha-emitting and/or bone-seeking radionuclides at occupational exposure levels and above, and predict the effects of these radionuclides, specifically environmental radium and its daughters, at nonoccupational exposure levels. 14 refs

  2. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  3. Alpha-particle Gas Pressure Gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    Described are preliminary results obtained on a novel gas pressure gauge that operates between 0.1 and 1000 mb. This gauge uses a 1- micron Ci alpha particle source to ionize the gas in a small chamber with an electric field imposed between anode and cathode electrodes that drives positive ions to the cathode where they are collected electronically. This gauge could make Martian pressure measurements.

  4. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  5. Convulxin binds to native, human glycoprotein Ib alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Sachiko; Kanaji, Taisuke; Furihata, Kenichi; Kato, Kazunobu; Ware, Jerry L; Kunicki, Thomas J

    2003-10-10

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type snake protein from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, is the quintessential agonist for studies of the collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and its role in platelet adhesion to collagens. In this study, CVX, purified from venom, behaves as expected, i.e. it binds to platelet GPVI and recombinant human GPVI, induces platelet aggregation and platelet prothrombinase activity, and binds uniquely to GPVI in ligand blots of SDS-denatured proteins. Nonetheless, we find that CVX has a dual specificity for both GPVI and native but not denatured human GPIb alpha. First, CVX binds to human GPIb alpha expressed on the surface of CHO cells. Second, CVX binds weakly to murine platelet GPIb alpha but more strongly to human platelet GPIb alpha, as evidenced by comparative binding to wild-type, GPVI(-/-), FcR gamma (-/-), and human GPIb transgenic mice. Third, the binding of CVX to human GPIb alpha is inhibited by soluble, recombinant human GPVI. Fourth, CVX binding to GPIb alpha is disrupted by phenylalanine substitutions at GPIb alpha tyrosine-276, tyrosine-278, and tyrosine-279, which also disrupts von Willebrand factor and alpha-thrombin binding to GPIb alpha. Fifth, CVX binding to GPIb alpha on Chinese hamster ovary cell transfectants is inhibited by function-blocking murine monoclonal anti-GPIb alpha antibodies. Lastly, CVX fails to bind to denatured GPIb alpha in detergent extracts of platelets. Three separate preparations of CVX (two purified by the authors; one obtained commercially) produced equivalent results. These results indicate that CVX exhibits dual specificity for both native GPIb alpha and GPVI. Furthermore, the binding site on GPIb alpha for CVX may be close to that for von Willebrand factor. Therefore, a contribution of GPIb alpha to CVX-induced platelet responses needs to be carefully re-evaluated.

  6. Measurement of microbial alpha-amylases with p-nitrophenyl glycosides as the substrate complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Trepeta, R W; Edberg, S C

    1984-01-01

    The detection of alpha-amylase is commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories to aid in differentiating Streptococcus bovis from other streptococci. It is also useful in identifying Eikenella corrodens and the gravis subspecies of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and in separating species of the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Bacillus. Currently, the most frequently used procedure utilizes starch as the substrate and iodine as the indicator. Starch is incorporated into a...

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic

    OpenAIRE

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube ...

  8. Genetically Modified alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity ...

  9. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  10. Alpha 1A and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors enhance inositol phosphate generation in rat renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Büscher, R.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the role of alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in noradrenaline- and methoxamine-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in rat renal cortical slices. [3H]Prazosin binding studies with and without inactivation of alpha 1B-adrenoceptors by chloroethylclonidine treatment suggested

  11. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  12. Structure of the alpha-1,6/alpha-1,4-specific glucansucrase GTFA from Lactobacillus reuteri 121

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijning, Tjaard; Vujicic-Zagar, Andreja; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke; Vujičić-Žagar, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    The reuteransucrase GTFA from Lactobacillus reuteri 121, which belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family GH70, synthesizes branched alpha-glucans with both alpha-1,6-and alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages (reuteran) from sucrose. The crystal structure of GTFA-Delta N, a 118 kDa fragment of GTFA comprising

  13. Comparison of alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor coupling to inositol phosphate formation in rat kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, R.; Erdbrügger, W.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.; Michel, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared the coupling mechanisms of rat renal alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-like adrenoceptors to inositol phosphate formation. The experiments were performed in parallel in native renal tissue preparations and in those where alpha 1B-adrenoceptors had been inactivated by treatment with 10 mumol/l

  14. ALPHA, Mass Generation and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2008-05-01

    The generation of Planck energy 10E19 Gev/Planck time during the observable age of the universe (10E60 Planck times) would generate 10E79 Gev. 10E79 Gev approximates the energy of the baryon number, implying an increase of the baryon number by 10E19/Planck time. What is the source of energy for this mass generation? The ALPHA implicated as negative entropy in [1] must create vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is negative energy. Nature must balance negative energy by generating positive energy (mass), implying ALPHA balances the increasing entropy of the visible universe and generates baryonic mass. Additionally, the successful cloning of the sheep Dolly, and observed molecular blinking dots in biochemistry support the binary BITS of ON and OFF states in [1]. Vindicating Hermite's 1873 mathematical linkage of the base of natural logarithm to transcendentality will implicate natural log based ALPHA in [1] as connected to consciousness. [1] Goradia S: www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0210040v3.

  15. The Alpha Dynamo Effects in Laboratory Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; Stewart C. Prager

    2001-10-16

    A concise review of observations of the alpha dynamo effect in laboratory plasmas is given. Unlike many astrophysical systems, the laboratory pinch plasmas are driven magnetically. When the system is overdriven, the resultant instabilities cause magnetic and flow fields to fluctuate, and their correlation induces electromotive forces along the mean magnetic field. This alpha-effect drives mean parallel electric current, which, in turn, modifies the initial background mean magnetic structure towards the stable regime. This drive-and-relax cycle, or the so-called self-organization process, happens in magnetized plasmas in a timescale much shorter than resistive diffusion time, thus it is a fast and unquenched dynamo process. The observed alpha-effect redistributes magnetic helicity (a measure of twistedness and knottedness of magnetic field lines) but conserves its total value. It can be shown that fast and unquenched dynamos are natural consequences of a driven system where fluctuations are statistically either not stationary in time or not homogeneous in space, or both. Implications to astrophysical phenomena will be discussed.

  16. Lectin interactions with alpha-galactosylated xenoantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    alpha-Galactosylated xenoantigens (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1 and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) are often detected with the alpha-Gal specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4). However, this lectin exhibits a broad and variable specificity......-galactophilic lectins to alpha-galactosylated neoglycoproteins. The lectins were: Euonymus europaeus agglutinin (EEA), Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa agglutinin (PA-IL). Although both GS1 B4 and MPA strongly bound glycoconjugates terminating...... in Gal there seems to be some differentiation in their sugar binding preferences. MPA was the only lectin that showed high affinity for the pentasaccharide Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc and for the Galalpha-glycans on non-primate thyroglobulin. The length of the xenoantigenic...

  17. Hybrid (BDBB) interferon-alpha: preformulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J D; Bentley, D; Stringer, R A; Lowther, N

    1999-10-05

    A number of techniques, including RP-HPLC, HP-SEC and SDS-PAGE have been used in the delineation of degradative mechanisms of recombinant hybrid (BDBB) interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in the solution phase. Different degradation profiles are found according to medium pH. At pH 4.0 the major routes of degradation are via chemical transformation of the monomeric protein to a species which retains antiviral activity, and by self-proteolytic hydrolysis. At pH 7.6, methionine-oxidation is the major chemical degradative process. Protein aggregation is also a significant route of degradation at the higher pH. The results have assisted in a targeted preformulation screen of potentially stabilising excipients and possible parenteral solution dosage forms have been identified. Preliminary 'real-time' storage data confirm excellent chemical and physical stability of IFN-alpha in vehicles formulated at pH 7.6 or, especially, pH 4.0 under the proposed shelf conditions.

  18. Single particle level scheme for alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.

    1998-01-01

    The fine structure phenomenon in alpha decay was evidenced by Rosenblum. In this process the kinetic energy of the emitted particle has several determined values related to the structure of the parent and the daughter nucleus. The probability to find the daughter in a low lying state was considered strongly dependent on the spectroscopic factor defined as the square of overlap between the wave function of the parent in the ground state and the wave functions of the specific excited states of the daughter. This treatment provides a qualitative agreement with the experimental results if the variations of the penetrability between different excited states are neglected. Based on single particle structure during fission, a new formalism explained quantitatively the fine structure of the cluster decay. It was suggested that this formalism can be applied also to alpha decay. For this purpose, the first step is to construct the level scheme of this type of decay. Such a scheme, obtained with the super-asymmetric two-center potential, is plotted for the alpha decay of 223 Ra. It is interesting to note that, diabatically, the level with spin 3/2 emerging from 1i 11/2 (ground state of the parent) reaches an excited state of the daughter in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  19. Apo And Calcium-Bound Crystal Structures of Alpha-11 Giardin, An Unusual Annexin From 'Giardia Lamblia'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, P.; Nguyen, E.T.; Svard, S.G.; Luecke, H.; /UC, Irvine /Uppsala U. /Karolinska Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Alpha-11 giardin is a member of the multi-gene alpha-giardin family in the intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium-dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. Several alpha giardins are highly expressed during parasite-induced diarrhea in humans. Despite being a member of a large family of proteins, little is known about the function and cellular localization of alpha-11 giardin, although giardins are often associated with the cytoskeleton. It has been shown that Giardia exhibits high levels of alpha-11 giardin mRNA transcript throughout its life cycle; however, constitutive over-expression of this protein is lethal to the parasite. Determining the three-dimensional structure of an alpha-giardin is essential to identifying functional domains shared in the alpha-giardin family. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound forms of alpha-11 giardin, the first alpha giardin to be characterized structurally. Crystals of apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin diffracted to 1.1 angstroms and 2.93 angstroms, respectively. The crystal structure of selenium-substituted apo alpha-11 giardin reveals a planar array of four tandem repeats of predominantly {alpha}-helical domains, reminiscent of previously determined annexin structures, making this the highest-resolution structure of an annexin to date. The apo alpha-11 giardin structure also reveals a hydrophobic core formed between repeats I/IV and II/III, a region typically hydrophilic in other annexins. Surprisingly, the Ca{sup 2+}-bound structure contains only a single calcium ion, located in the DE loop of repeat I and coordinated differently from the two types of calcium sites observed in previous annexin structures. The apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin structures assume overall similar conformations; however, Ca2+-bound alpha-11 giardin crystallized in a lower

  20. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  1. Five Theses on the Common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Roggero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present five theses on the common within the context of the transformations of capitalist social relations as well as their contemporary global crisis. My framework involves ‘‘cognitive capitalism,’’ new processes of class composition, and the production of living knowledge and subjectivity. The commons is often discussed today in reference to the privatizationand commodification of ‘‘common goods.’’ This suggests a naturalistic and conservative image of the common, unhooked from the relations of production. I distinguish between commons and the common: the first model is related to Karl Polanyi, the second to Karl Marx. As elaborated in the postoperaista debate, the common assumes an antagonistic double status: it is boththe plane of the autonomy of living labor and it is subjected to capitalist ‘‘capture.’’ Consequently, what is at stake is not the conservation of ‘‘commons,’’ but rather the production of the common and its organization into new institutions that would take us beyond the exhausted dialectic between public and private.

  2. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ via the Differential 2-Jet-Rate with ATLAS at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lichtnecker, Markus

    The first determination of the strong coupling constant alpha_s via the differential 2-jet-rate in pp collisions at the LHC (at a center-of-mass-energy of 7 TeV) is presented. Data gathered by the ATLAS experiment are fitted by next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD predictions from calculations with the program NLOJET++. As an observable, the jet-flip-parameter from 3 to 2 reconstructed jets is investigated, using the infrared and collinear safe kT jet algorithm in the exclusive reconstruction mode. The jet-flip-parameters from real data are compared to simulated data from Monte Carlo generators. For the determination of alpha_s, real data have been corrected for the jet-energy-scale, whereas the calculations from NLOJET++ have been corrected for the influence of hadronization effects as well as the impact of the Underlying Event by applying bin-by-bin corrections. The fit between real data and the calculations from NLOJET++ yields a value of alpha_s(M_Z)=0.120 +/-0.001(stat.) +/-0.005(syst.), which is...

  3. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032

  4. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fournier

    Full Text Available Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others. While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/.

  5. Determination of hCG-alpha subunit in threatened pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Pohanka, J.; Fingerova, H.; Janouskova, M.; Krikal, Z.; Prasilova, J.; Zupkova, H.

    1987-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of the hCG-alpha subunit was made using an antibody anti hCG-alpha serum, highly purified hCG-alpha for 125 I-labelling and the standard hCG-alpha. Sera of healthy pregnant women sampled throughout the whole pregnancies were used to determine x-bar±S.D. of hCG-alpha for 14-day intervals. Included in the study were groups of women with high risk of premature labor, late toxemia of pregnancy, twins and fetal hypotrophy. It was shown that increased hCG-alpha is found in pregnant women in whom signs of late toxemia of pregnancy are combined with high risk of premature labor, or with twin pregnancies, while in those with fetal hypotrophy hCG-alpha is within normal limits. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs

  6. Prevalence of Co-Inheritance of Alpha-Thalassemia with Beta-Thalassemia and Beta-Hemoglobinopathy in Ahvaz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaddin Saki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-inheritance of hemoglobin gene defects is a rare important status that can lead to double heterozygote or homozygote with significant clinical manifestations. Such conditions can be observed in co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia or hemoglobinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alpha-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy co-inheritance in a considerable number of Iranian.   Methods: This descriptive study was performed on patients with abnormal hematological findings in favor of alpha-thalassemia, beta-thalassemia or beta-hemoglobinopathies. Patients with low MCV and MCH levels and high HbA2 (>3.5 and those with low MCV and MCH and normal or low HbA2 were candidate for molecular analysis for beta and alpha thalassemia respectively. Abnormal Hb electrophoresis was diagnostic criteria for molecular analysis of beta-hemoglobinopathies.   Results: Study revealed that more than half of the patients with alpha-thalassemia affected simultaneously by beta-thalassemia and about thirty percent inherited beta-hemoglobinopathies. Among patients with beta-thalassemia, HbSCd6 (A-T was the most common mutation and in alpha-thalassemic patients α 3.7 was the commonest mutation.   Conclusion: Relatively high prevalence of co-inheritance of alfa-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies reflect the necessity of genetic consulting and molecular analysis in diagnosis of such conditions.

  7. A prevalent amino acid polymorphism at codon 98 (Ala98Val) of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anuradha, Shekher; Radha, Venkatesan; Deepa, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Among Europeans, mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha) gene are associated with the most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3. In Asian Indians, type 2 diabetes occurs earlier and often overlaps with MODY, but the genetics of the latter are unknown...

  8. $\\alpha_{S}$ Evolution from 35 GeV to 202 GeV and Flavour Independence

    CERN Document Server

    Biebel, O.

    2000-01-01

    Determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_S at centre-of-mass energies of 192 through 202 GeV at LEP are presented. The energy evolution of alpha_S is in agreement with the prediction of QCD. The combined investigation of OPAL and JADE data in the energy range of 35 through 189 GeV yields alpha_S(m_Z)=0.1187^{+0.0034}_{-0.0019}. The strenght of the strong coupling is flavour independent if quark mass effects are taken into account.

  9. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  10. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  11. The A and B variants of the alpha 3 integrin subunit: tissue distribution and functional characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Melker, A. A.; Sterk, L. M.; Delwel, G. O.; Fles, D. L.; Daams, H.; Weening, J. J.; Sonnenberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    The alpha subunits of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 1, and alpha 7 beta 1 have homologous sequences and are similar in structure. Two cytoplasmic variants, A and B, have been identified for each of these alpha subunits, although the alpha 3B splice variant has been

  12. A retrospective analysis on the correlation between hip pain, physical examination findings, and alpha angle on MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Olcay; Isyar, Mehmet; Karataş, Dilek; Ormeci, Tugrul; Cerci, Halis; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-11-15

    We aimed to search whether alpha angle, a radiological clue used in the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement, is correlated with the presence of hip pain, internal rotation angle, and impingement test results on hip impingement patients (CAM type). Medical records of 334 patients (156 women, 178 men) with an average age of 33.8 ± 8.4 (range 20-50) years were retrospectively studied for the alpha angle of the hip measured on magnetic resonance images (MRI). Hip pain and internal rotation angles as well as results of impingement tests were reviewed. Hip pain was reported more frequently on the right side (n = 35, 10.5%) compared to the left side (n = 22, 6.6%) (p = 0.047). No difference was observed between the right and left sides regarding alpha angles (p = 0.145), internal rotation angles (p = 0.637), or positivity of impingement test (p = 0.210). Internal rotation angles were significantly higher in cases without hip pain (p < 0.001) and in patients with negative impingement test result (p < 0.001). Internal rotation angle correlated positively with age and negatively with the alpha angle. Alpha angle was increased in cases that report pain, those with an internal rotation angle <20°, or cases with positive impingement test. The pain was more common, internal rotation angle was higher, and positivity for impingement was more frequent if the alpha angle was <55°. Patients with hip pain or positive impingement test or internal rotation angle <20° had increased alpha angles (p < 0.001). The pain, impingement test results, and internal rotation angle seem to be associated with alpha angle of the hip measured on MRI in hip impingement patients.

  13. Correlations between the alpha angle and femoral head asphericity: Implications and recommendations for the diagnosis of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Michael D., E-mail: michael.harris@utah.edu [Department of Orthopaedics, Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 590 Wakara Way A-100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Kapron, Ashley L., E-mail: ashley.kapron@utah.edu [Department of Orthopaedics, Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 590 Wakara Way A-100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Peters, Christopher L., E-mail: chris.peters@hsc.utah.edu [Department of Orthopaedics, 590 Wakara Way A-100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Anderson, Andrew E., E-mail: andrew.anderson@hsc.utah.edu [Department of Orthopaedics, Department of Bioengineering, Department of Physical Therapy, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, 590 Wakara Way A-100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: To determine the strength of common radiographic and radial CT views for measuring true femoral head asphericity. Patients and methods: In 15 patients with cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and 15 controls, alpha angles were measured by two observers using radial CT (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°) and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for the: anterior–posterior (AP), standing frog-leg lateral, 45° Dunn with neutral rotation, 45° Dunn with 40° external rotation, and cross-table lateral views. A DRR validation study was performed. Alpha angles were compared between groups. Maximum deviation from a sphere of each subject was obtained from a previous study. Alpha angles from each view were correlated with maximum deviation. Results: There were no significant differences between alpha angles measured on radiographs and the corresponding DRRs (p = 0.72). Alpha angles were significantly greater in patients for all views (p ≤ 0.002). Alpha angles from the 45° Dunn with 40° external rotation, cross-table lateral, and 60° radial views had the strongest correlations with maximum deviation (r = 0.831; r = 0.823; r = 0.808, respectively). The AP view had the weakest correlation (r = 0.358). Conclusion: DRRs were a validated means to simulate hip radiographs. The 45° Dunn with 40° external rotation, cross-table lateral, and 60° radial views best visualized femoral asphericity. Although commonly used, the AP view did not visualize cam deformities well. Overall, the magnitude of the alpha angle may not be indicative of the size of the deformity. Thus, 3D reconstructions and measurements of asphericity could improve the diagnosis of cam FAI.

  14. Gene-based therapy for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian; Flotte, Terence R

    2013-03-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) has been an attractive target for the development of gene therapy because it is a common single gene disorder, for which there would appear to be significant benefit to be gained for lung disease patients by augmentation of plasma levels of wild-type (M) alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). While a significant proportion of patients also have liver disease, which is unlikely to be benefitted by augmentation, the potential to treat or prevent lung disease by replacement of plasma levels to at least 11 microMolar (571 mcg/ml) is the basis upon which several protein replacement therapies have been licensed for human use. Further enhancing the likelihood of success of gene therapy is the fact that the AAT coding sequence is relatively short and the protein appears to function primarily in the plasma and extracellular space. This means that AAT production from any cell or tissue capable of secreting it could be useful therapeutically for augmentation. Based on these considerations, attempts have been made to develop AAT therapies using nonviral gene transfer, gammaretrovirus, recombinant adenovirus (rAd), and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors. These have resulted in three phase I clinical trials (one of cationic liposome, one of rAAV2, and one of rAAV1) and one phase II clinical trial (with rAAV1). The results of the latter trial, while promising, demonstrated levels were only 3 to 5% of the target range. This indicates the need to further increase the dose of the vector and/or to increase the levels to within the therapeutic range.

  15. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  16. Bioequivalence of a Liquid Formulation of Alpha1-Proteinase Inhibitor Compared with Prolastin®-C (Lyophilized Alpha1-PI) in Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alan F; Campos, Michael A; Brantly, Mark L; Stocks, James M; Sandhaus, Robert A; Lee, Douglas; Steinmann, Kimberly; Lin, Jiang; Sorrells, Susan

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the bioequivalence, safety, and immunogenicity of a new liquid formulation of human plasma-derived alpha 1 -proteinase inhibitor, Liquid Alpha 1 -PI, compared with the Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI formulation (Prolastin®-C), for augmentation therapy in patients with alpha 1 -antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). In this double-blind, randomized, 20-week crossover study, 32 subjects with AATD were randomized to receive 8 weekly infusions of 60 mg/kg of Liquid Alpha 1 -PI or Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI. Serial blood samples were drawn for 7 days after the last dose followed by 8 weeks of the alternative treatment. The primary endpoint was bioequivalence at steady state, as measured by area under the concentration versus time curve from 0 to 7 days (AUC 0-7 days ) postdose using an antigenic content assay. Bioequivalence was defined as 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of the geometric least squares (LS) mean of AUC 0-7 days for both products within the limits of 0.80 and 1.25. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Mean alpha 1 -PI concentration versus time curves for both formulations were superimposable. Mean AUC 0-7 days was 20 320 versus 19 838 mg × h/dl for Liquid Alpha 1 -PI and Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI, respectively. The LS mean ratio of AUC 0-7 days (90% CI) for Liquid Alpha 1 -PI versus Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI was 1.05 (1.03-1.08), indicating bioequivalence. Liquid Alpha 1 -PI was well tolerated and adverse events were consistent with Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI. Immunogenicity to either product was not detected. In conclusion, Liquid Alpha 1 -PI is bioequivalent to Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI, with a similar safety profile. The liquid formulation would eliminate the need for reconstitution and shorten preparation time for patients receiving augmentation therapy for AATD.

  17. Gender dependent association between perinatal morbidity and estrogen receptor-alpha Pvull polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzbach, László; Treszl, András; Balogh, Adám; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tulassay, Tivadar; Rigó J, János

    2005-01-01

    Assuming the importance of estrogen in perinatal physiology, we tested the association of an estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) gene Pvull pP polymorphism with perinatal morbidity in premature infants. The ER-alpha Pp genotype was determined in 69 low-birth weight (LBW) boys and 72 LBW girls, 86 term boys and 81 term girls. The association between risk factors, genotype, gender and perinatal morbidity was tested with binary logistic regression analysis. Boys carrying "p" allele were at lower risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (OR [95% Cl]: 0.24 [0.07-0.83]) and patent ductus arteriosus (OR [95% Cl]: 0.24 [0.05-0.97]). The carrier state of the "p" allele was associated with a 34-h shorter period of oxygen supplementation on average (P=0.0018). Boys with pp genotype were at greater risk for intraventricular hemorrhage (OR [95% Cl]: 4.39 [1.15-16.82]). No association between ER-alpha Pvull polymorphism and morbidity was present in girls. Since homozygocity for any Pvull alleles (i.e. having PP or pp genotype) increases the risk for at least one of the most common perinatal complications, it is likely that the heterozygous carrier state of Pvull genotypes has a protective effect, which is gender-dependent.

  18. Some rules to improve the energy resolution in alpha liquid scintillation with beta rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Aupiais, J; Dacheux, N

    2003-01-01

    Two common scintillating mixtures dedicated to alpha measurements by means of alpha liquid scintillation with pulse shape discrimination were tested: the di-isopropylnaphthalene - based and the toluene-based solvents containing the commercial cocktails Ultima Gold AB trademark and Alphaex trademark. We show the possibility to enhance the resolution up to 200% by using no-water miscible cocktails and by reducing the optical path. Under these conditions, the resolution of about 200 keV can be obtained either by the Tri Carb sup T sup M or by the Perals sup T sup M spectrometers. The time responses, e.g., the time required for a complete energy transfer between the initial interaction alpha particle-solvent and the final fluorescence of the organic scintillator, have been compared. Both cocktails present similar behavior. According to the Foerster theory, about 6-10 ns are required to complete the energy transfer. For both apparatus, the detection limits were determined for alpha emitters. The sensitivity of the...

  19. Coinheritance of alpha-thalassemia-1 and hemoglobin E/beta zero-thalassemia: practical implications for neonatal screening and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, L; Chui, D H; Dallaire, M; LeRoy, B; Waye, J S; Perentesis, J P

    1998-05-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia, and beta-thalassemia are common among Southeast Asians and often occur in compound heterozygous states that complicate neonatal screening. We describe a kindred with alpha-thalassemia-1, HbE, and beta zero-thalassemia. The proband had HbE/beta zero-thalassemia, with severe anemia and failure to thrive. His father also had HbE/beta zero-thalassemia but had coinherited alpha-thalassemia-1 and was free of symptoms.

  20. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Donald W.; Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later sta...

  1. Excitation of states with the large moment in reactions (alpha, d) and (alpha, p)

    CERN Document Server

    Burtebaev, N; Dujsebaev, B A; Sakuta, S B

    2002-01-01

    In this work reaction (alpha, d) and (alpha, p) on light nuclei is investigated. Systematization of three-body high-spin states in such a sup 1 sup 5 N, sup 1 sup 6 N, sup 1 sup 7 O, sup 1 sup 9 F nuclei is carried out. On its basis the energy estimation of residual interaction of three nucleons for (d sub 5 sub / sub 2) sub 1 sub 3 sub / 2 sub + sub , sub 1 sub / sub 2 configuration is obtained. (author)

  2. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  3. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  4. Characteristics of alpha males in Nepal gray langurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borries, Carola; Perlman, Rachel F; Koenig, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    In species with strong male-male competition, access to females in multimale-multifemale groups is usually regulated via a dominance hierarchy. The highest ranking (alpha) male often has priority of access and sires most offspring. The alpha male can change in three basic ways: (i) a recent immigrant or a resident challenges and becomes the new alpha; (ii) formation of a new group; (iii) succession-becoming alpha after higher ranking males have left. When, in a given primate population, the alpha male changes in different ways, two questions arise: (a) which is the most successful tactic and (b) do male attributes, such as age, aggressiveness or propensity to commit infanticide, affect the outcome? We examined these questions in the seasonally breeding Nepal gray langurs (Semnopithecus schistaceus) at Ramnagar, where new alpha males were either recent immigrants or residents. Success was measured as alpha tenure, residency duration, and the number of offspring sired (paternity exclusion based on DNA analysis, 28 infants). We documented 12 alpha-male tenures across two multimale-multifemale groups between 1991 and 1997. The predominant mode of change was the immigrant tactic. Age had no effect perhaps because alpha males were among the youngest adult males in their group. As expected, infanticidal males performed similarly to non-infanticidal ones. Alpha tenure was highly variable and longer for immigrant alphas and hyper-aggressive ones. However, none of the tactics or attributes examined resulted in significantly longer residencies or more offspring, likely because of the timing of immigrations and stochastic effects (i.e., the number of conceptions occurring per alpha tenure). The influence of female mate choice on male reproductive success requires further investigation. Furthermore, it remains to be examined why resident alpha males-with their presumed better knowledge of their opponents -performed so poorly. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22437, 2017. © 2015 Wiley

  5. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation. Central and peripheral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A; Delgado, R; Airaghi, L; Cutuli, M; Garofalo, L; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Lipton, J M

    1999-10-20

    Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host responses and inhibit proinflammatory signals in the central nervous system (CNS). One such strategy could be based on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Increases in circulating TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin in mice, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that antiinflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation. In addition to its central influences, alpha-MSH has inhibitory effects on peripheral host cells, in which it reduces release of proinflammatory mediators. alpha-MSH reduces chemotaxis of human neutrophils and production of TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO by monocytes. In research on septic patients, alpha-MSH inhibited release of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in whole blood samples in vitro. Combined central and peripheral influences can be beneficial in treatment of sepsis.

  6. Synthesis of high specific activity 17{alpha}-cyanomethyl-17{beta} -hydroxy-[14{alpha}, 15{alpha}-{sup 3}H]estra-4,9-dien-3-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droescher, P. [VEB Jenapharm, Jena (Germany); Roemer, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    An improved synthesis of the tritium labelled form of the new pharmacon DIENOGEST is described. The [14{alpha}, 15{alpha}-{sup 3}H]DIENOGEST was obtained with a specific activity of 51 Ci/mmol and a radiochemical purity > 98%. (Author).

  7. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  8. Cluster and alpha decay of superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Stöcker, H.; Gherghescu, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated cluster radioactivity and alpha decay of some superheavy nuclei with atomic numbers Z = 119, 120 , which may be produced in the future. Two models are used to calculate the half-lives against cluster radioactivity: ASAF (Analytical Super-Asymmetric Fission) and UNIV (Universal Formula). For α decay half-lives we are based on four models: ASAF, UNIV, semFIS (semi-empirical formula based on Fission Theory) and AKRA (first author Akrawy). The Q -values are calculated using the theoretical model of atomic masses WS10, which sometimes is called W4.

  9. Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility impact gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility (AFETF) impact gun is a unique tool for impact testing 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat sources of up to 178-mm dia at velocities to 300 m/s. An environmentally-sealed vacuum chamber at the muzzle of the gun allows preheating of the projectile to 1,000 0 C. Immediately prior to impact, the heat source projectile is completely sealed in a vacuum-tight catching container to prevent escape of its radioactive contents should rupture occur. The impact velocity delivered by this gas-powered gun can be regulated to within +-2%

  10. Fetal dosimetry from natural alpha emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, S.J

    1999-09-01

    The size of marrow cavities in fetal vertebra, rib and sternum was investigated using an image analysis system. The average chord lengths through marrow spaces in the vertebrae were found to increase approximately linearly with gestational age from 140 {mu}m at 20 weeks to 300 {mu}m at 40 weeks. Average chord lengths through marrow spaces in fetal rib and sternum were 330 {mu}m at 35 weeks in both cases. These results can be compared with an average chord length across marrow spaces in adult vertebra of 1172 {mu}m. At natural background UK exposure, activity concentrations of supported {sup 210}Po in fetal bone of 0.075 Bq kg{sup -1} and 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1} at mid- and late gestation respectively were calculated. Monte Carlo simulations modelling the paths of alpha-particles in fetal vertebra gave a total alpha-radiation dose to marrow over the second and third trimesters of 32.0 {+-} 0.8 {mu}Sv with the {sup 210}Po in bone contributing 8.9 {+-} 0.9 {mu}Sv. The dose to primitive haemopoietic stem cells, the target cells for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and the survival of these stem cells following a hit by an alpha-particle was investigated, also using Monte Carlo simulations. Alpha-particles emitted from bone and marrow contributed an average dose of 1.9 Gy to stem cells with a nuclear diameter of 3.8 {mu}m. This study has estimated that 1% of babies born each year are born with a mutated primitive haemopoietic stem cell due to in utero irradiation from high LET radiation. That is 7,320 babies compared to an estimated 300 incidences of cALL each year initiated in utero. The probability that a mutated cell will go on to give rise to leukaemia is unknown but it would seem not unlikely that irradiation in utero plays a substantial part in the induction of childhood leukaemia. (author)

  11. Alpha transport and blistering in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Wilson, K.L.; Bisson, C.L.; Haggmark, L.G.; Goldston, R.J.

    1978-12-01

    The particle flux and angular distribution of 3.5 MeV alpha particles impinging on the first wall from uncontained banana orbits in an axisymmetric tokamak reactor have been calculated. The resulting helium concentration profiles in the first wall can give rise to surface exfoliation under specified conditions. The major mitigating factor is the simultaneous surface recession due to sputtering by the D-T charge exchange neutral flux. For the parameters used in these calculations blistering in high sputtering rate materials such as Be is unlikely whereas in low sputtering rate materials such as Nb, He induced surface deformation is quite probable

  12. Risk estimates for exposure to alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The primary scope of this report is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from occupational exposure to short-lived daughters of radon and thoron. The Subcommittee on Risk Estimates considers that inhalation of radon and thoron daughters is the major radiation hazard from alpha radiation in uranium mining. The secondary scope of this report is the consideration of the applicability of the risk estimates derived from miners to the general public. The risk to members of the public from radium-226 in drinking water is also considered. Some research requirments are suggested

  13. Sterol synthesis. A novel reductive rearrangement of an alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal epoxide; a new chemical synthesis of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta, 15alpha-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, E J; Schroepfer, G J

    1977-04-01

    Reduction of 3beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with either lithium triethylboro-hydride or lithium aluminum hydride (4 molar excess) gave 5-alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol in high yield. Reduction of the epoxy ester with lithium triethylborodeuteride or lithium aluminum deuteride (4 molar excess) gave [7alpha-2-H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol. Reduction of 2beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum hydride gave, in addition to the expected 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol, a significant yield (33%) of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1. Reduction of the epoxy ester with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum deuteride gave [7alpha-2H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol and 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1 which contained two atoms of stably bound deuterium.

  14. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W

    1999-01-01

    . In these cells, integrin alpha3beta1 occasionally colocalizes with the staining generated by the 12C4 antibody but alpha6beta4 integrin does not. In wounded MCF-10A cell cultures, the 12C4 antibody stains the extracellular matrix beneath those cells at the very edge of the cellular sheet that moves to cover......Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found...... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...

  15. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  17. Communication, timing, and common learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 230-247 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : common knowledge * learning * communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2011

  18. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have...... language to synergetic coordination between biological agents who draw on wordings to act within cultural ecosystems. Crucially, human coordination depends on, not just bodies, but also salient patterns of articulatory movement (‘wordings’). These rich patterns function as non-local resources that...

  19. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States. The two most common types are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (the names ... You may need a procedure called surgical lymph node biopsy to check if the cancer has spread ...

  1. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other ... Current Pathway Introduction Treatment Options Side Effects Emotional Challenges Life Planning Summary '; if (window.location.href.indexOf(" ...

  2. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  4. Forest commons and local enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the inf...

  5. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  6. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  7. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  8. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Croft Thomas

    Full Text Available The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse.

  9. Combination of digital autoradiography and alpha track analysis to reveal the distribution of definite alpha- and beta-emitting nuclides in contaminated samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, I. [Lomonosov MSU (Russian Federation); Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky GEOKHI RAS (Russian Federation); Shiryaev, A. [Frumkin IPCE RAS (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S.; Ivanov, I. [PA Mayak (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Digital autoradiography using Imaging Plate is commonly employed for searching 'hot' particles in the contaminated soil, sediment and aerosol probes. However digital radiography images combined with Alpha Track radiography data could provide much more information about micro-distribution of different alpha- and beta- nuclides. The discrimination method to estimate the distribution of radionuclides that are the main contributors to the total radioactivity ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am) has been developed on the case of artificial reservoir V-17 (PA 'Mayak'). The bottom sediments and hydrobionts probes collected from V-17 along with the standards of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 241}Am have been exposed for a short time (15 min) using a stack of 3 Imaging Plates (Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System, Perkin Elmer). The attenuation of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity from layer to layer of the Imaging Plates depends on the type and energy of radiation. Integrated approach using PSL attenuation in the samples and standards (digital radiography) along with Alpha Track radiography and gamma-spectroscopy of the preparation was used to estimate the contribution of the main nuclides in specific parts of contaminated samples. The observation of the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs activity maxima could help to find the phases which are responsible for preferential sorption of the nuclides. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Autoxidation versus biotransformation of alpha-pinene to flavors with Pleurotus sapidus: regioselective hydroperoxidation of alpha-pinene and stereoselective dehydrogenation of verbenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Ulrich; Lehnert, Nicole; Fraatz, Marco A; Hardebusch, Björn; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G

    2009-11-11

    The enzymatic conversion of alpha-pinene to verbenols, verbenone, and minor volatile flavors was studied using submerged cultured cells, lyophilisate, and microsomal fractions of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus . The similarity of the product range obtained by the bioconversions with the range of products found after autoxidation of alpha-pinene at 100 degrees C suggested similar initial pinene radicals. Extracts of the bioconversions were analyzed using thin layer chromatography with hydroperoxide staining and cool on-column capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two isomer alpha-pinene hydroperoxides were identified as the key intermediates and their structures confirmed by comparison with synthesized reference samples and by microchemical reduction to (Z)- and (E)-verbenol. When the biocatalysts were supplemented with one of the verbenols, only the (Z)-isomer was oxidized, indicating the activity of a highly stereospecific monoterpenol dehydrogenase. The structural comparison of subunits shows that fungal oxifunctionalization reactions of some common terpene substrates, such as (+)-limonene or (+)-valencene, might likewise be catalyzed by dioxygenases rather than by CYP450 enzymes, as previously assumed.

  11. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Friedl, H P

    1995-01-01

    in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids by Western blot analysis. Anti-MIP-1 alpha administered at commencement of IgG immune complex- or LPS-induced injury resulted in significant reductions in BAL neutrophils as well as in injury as measured by pulmonary vascular permeability. Under such conditions, in both models...

  12. Workshop on High-precision $\\alpha_s$ measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    S. Alekhin; d'Enterria, David; A. Banfi; S. Bethke; J. Blümlein; K.G. Chetyrkin; D. d’Enterria; G. Dissertori; X. Garcia i Tormo; A. H. Hoang; M. Klasen; T. Klijnsma; S. Kluth; J.-L. Kneur; B.A. Kniehl; D. W. Kolodrubetz; J. Kühn; P. Mackenzie; B. Malaescu; V. Mateu; L. Mihaila; S. Moch; K. Mönig; R. Pérez-Ramos; A. Pich; J. Pires; K. Rabbertz; G. P. Salam; F. Sannino; J. Soto i Riera; M. Srebre; I. W. Stewart

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experiment...

  13. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of alpha-L-rhamnosides using recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Winter, K.; Šimčíková, Daniela; Schlack, B.; Weignerová, Lenka; Pelantová, Helena; Soetaert, W.; Desmet, T.; Křen, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 147, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 640-644 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alpha-L-Rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Glycosylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  14. alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, alpha and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT alpha over a in C. neoformans populations limits alpha-a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between alpha isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural alpha AD alpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1 alpha was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed alpha AD alpha strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.

  15. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-01-16

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Our results show that TO decreased the cell viability by 26%, and significantly increased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1alpha production compared with media control (about 1.6-fold for TNF-alpha, and 2.4-fold for IL-1alpha, P < 0.05). Also, TO strongly induced apoptosis of Hep G2 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Increased amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha contributed to TO-induced apoptosis. Anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies almost abolished it. These results suggest that TO induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

  16. Alpha decay calculations with a new formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrawy, D. T.; Poenaru, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    A new semi-empirical formula for calculations of α decay half-lives is presented. It was derived from the Royer relationship by introducing new parameters which are fixed by fit to a set of experimental data. We are using three sets: set A with 130 e-e (even-even), 119 e-o (even-odd), 109 o-e, and 96 o-o, set B with 188 e-e, 147 e-o, 131 o-e and 114 o-o, and set C with 136 e-e, 84 e-o, 76 o-e and 48 o-o alpha emitters. A comparison of results obtained with the new formula (newF) and the following well known relationships: semiempirical relationship based on fission theory (semFIS), analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model and universal formula (UNIV) made in terms of rms standard deviation. We also introduced a weighted mean value of this quantity, allowing us to compare the global properties of a given model. For set B the order of the four models is the following: semFIS, UNIV, newF and ASAF. Nevertheless for even-even alpha emitters, UNIV gives the second best result after semFIS, and for odd-even parents the second is newF. Despite its simplicity in comparison with semFIS, newF, presented in this article, behaves quite well, competing with the other well known relationships.

  17. Nonlinear feedback control for high alpha flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold

    1990-01-01

    Analytical aerodynamic models are derived from a high alpha 6 DOF wind tunnel model. One detail model requires some interpolation between nonlinear functions of alpha. One analytical model requires no interpolation and as such is a completely continuous model. Flight path optimization is conducted on the basic maneuvers: half-loop, 90 degree pitch-up, and level turn. The optimal control analysis uses the derived analytical model in the equations of motion and is based on both moment and force equations. The maximum principle solution for the half-loop is poststall trajectory performing the half-loop in 13.6 seconds. The agility induced by thrust vectoring capability provided a minimum effect on reducing the maneuver time. By means of thrust vectoring control the 90 degrees pitch-up maneuver can be executed in a small place over a short time interval. The agility capability of thrust vectoring is quite beneficial for pitch-up maneuvers. The level turn results are based currently on only outer layer solutions of singular perturbation. Poststall solutions provide high turn rates but generate higher losses of energy than that of classical sustained solutions.

  18. Alpha decay calculations with a new formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrawy, D T; Poenaru, D N

    2017-01-01

    A new semi-empirical formula for calculations of α  decay half-lives is presented. It was derived from the Royer relationship by introducing new parameters which are fixed by fit to a set of experimental data. We are using three sets: set A with 130 e–e (even–even), 119 e–o (even–odd), 109 o–e, and 96 o–o, set B with 188 e–e, 147 e–o, 131 o–e and 114 o–o, and set C with 136 e–e, 84 e–o, 76 o–e and 48 o–o alpha emitters. A comparison of results obtained with the new formula (newF) and the following well known relationships: semiempirical relationship based on fission theory (semFIS), analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model and universal formula (UNIV) made in terms of rms standard deviation. We also introduced a weighted mean value of this quantity, allowing us to compare the global properties of a given model. For set B the order of the four models is the following: semFIS, UNIV, newF and ASAF. Nevertheless for even–even alpha emitters, UNIV gives the second best result after semFIS, and for odd–even parents the second is newF. Despite its simplicity in comparison with semFIS, newF, presented in this article, behaves quite well, competing with the other well known relationships. (paper)

  19. Alpha-amylase inhibition kinetics by caulerpenyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CENGIZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many algae have important secretions which are generally used for defensive purposes. These secretions take attentions of a lot of researchers who are wondering if these metabolites can be used for medical researches or not. Among these metabolites, caulerpenyne (CYN which is the main metabolite of Caulerpa species, have had an important place in Caulerpa researches since the results related to its determined properties such as cytotoxic, antiviral, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects have been proven by many scientific reports. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of CYN isolated from C. prolifera on alpha-amylase was investigated. The inhibition experiments were done with CYN by spectrophotometric determination method. In order to evaluate the type of inhibition Lineweaver–Burk plot was produced. The results obtained from enzyme kinetic studies exhibited an un-competitive type of inhibition, which is characterized by the difference of Vmax and KM from those of the free enzyme, of alpha-amylase in the presence of CYN. The present study showed that Caulerpa species can be a potential target for producing diabetic drugs in the light of the results obtained for CYN.

  20. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  1. Variation in the number of alpha-globin loci in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, A; Ramunno, L; Masina, P

    1986-03-01

    Southern blot analysis was used to compare sheep and goat restriction-endonuclease maps of the DNA region containing the alpha-globin genes. The identical digestion patterns observed in both species with three endonucleases (BamHI, BstEII, and PstI) show that in sheep a single chromosome normally bears two nonallelic alpha-globin genes positioned at the same distance as in goat. Variant digestion patterns with enzymes that cleave outside (BamHI and HindIII) and within (EcoRI) the alpha-globin loci allowed us to infer that chromosomes with different numbers of alpha-globin loci are also present in sheep. In particular, in the 60 sheep considered, four individuals were heterozygous (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha) and one was homozygous (alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha) for chromosomes with three loci and one individual was heterozygous for a chromosome with four loci (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha alpha). This variation in the number of copies of alpha-globin loci can be explained by means of unequal crossovers.

  2. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  3. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  4. Alpha-decay within Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Silisteanu, I.; Wunsch, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the frame of Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions the alpha-decay widths are determined by the alpha-daughter nucleus optical potential and by the formation factors. It is shown that the calculated absolute values of the alpha widths for Po light isotopes are in good agreement with experimental data, if the real part of the optical potential with the parameters fitted by the low energy α-scattering is used

  5. Numerical analysis of alpha spectra using two different codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, S.; Jimenez-Ramos, M.C.; Villa, M.; Vioque, I.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents an intercomparison between commercial software for alpha-particle spectrometry, Genie 2000, and the new free available software, Winalpha, developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to compare both codes, different environmental spectra containing plutonium, uranium, thorium and polonium have been analyzed, together with IAEA test alpha spectra. A statistical study was performed in order to evaluate the precision and accuracy in the analyses, and to enhance the confidence in using the software on alpha spectrometric studies

  6. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal

    2007-04-01

    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  7. Renal Amyloidosis Associated With 5 Novel Variants in the Fibrinogen A Alpha Chain Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowczenio, Dorota; Stensland, Maria; de Souza, Gustavo A; Strøm, Erik H; Gilbertson, Janet A; Taylor, Graham; Rendell, Nigel; Minogue, Shane; Efebera, Yvonne A; Lachmann, Helen J; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Hawkins, Philip N; Heimdal, Ketil R; Selvig, Kristian; Lægreid, Inger K; Demoulin, Nathalie; Aydin, Selda; Gillmore, Julian D; Wien, Tale N

    2017-05-01

    Fibrinogen A alpha chain amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disease associated with mutations in the fibrinogen A alpha chain ( FGA ) gene, and it is the most common cause of hereditary renal amyloidosis in the UK. Patients typically present with kidney impairment and progress to end-stage renal disease over a median time of 4.6 years. Six patients presented with proteinuria, hypertension, and/or lower limb edema and underwent detailed clinical and laboratory investigations. A novel FGA gene mutation was identified in each case: 2 frameshift mutations F521Sfs*27 and G519Efs*30 and 4 single base substitutions G555F, E526K, E524K, R554H. In 5 subjects, extensive amyloid deposits were found solely within the glomeruli, which stained specifically with antibodies to fibrinogen A alpha chain, and in one of these cases, we found coexistent fibrinogen A alpha chain amyloidosis and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease. One patient was diagnosed with light-chain amyloidosis after a bone marrow examination revealed a small clonal plasma cell population, and laser microdissection of the amyloid deposits followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry identified kappa light chain as the fibril protein. We report 6 novel mutations in the FGA gene: 5 were associated with renal fibrinogen A alpha chain amyloidosis and 1 was found to be incidental to light-chain amyloid deposits discovered in a patient with a plasma cell dyscrasia. Clinical awareness and suspicion of hereditary amyloidosis corroborated by genetic analysis and adequate typing using combined immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection and mass spectrometry is valuable to avoid misdiagnosis, especially when a family history of amyloidosis is absent.

  8. Ethanol and (-)-alpha-Pinene: attractant kairomones for bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    In 2002-2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (-)-alpha-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with ethanol lures (release rate, about 0.6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to ten species of ambrosia beetles (Ambrosiodmus tachygraphus, Anisandrus sayi, Dryoxylon onoharaensum, Monarthrum mali, Xyleborinus saxesenii, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus ferrugineus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus) and two species of bark beetles (Cryptocarenus heveae and Hypothenemus sp.). Traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene lures (release rate, 2-6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to five bark beetle species (Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes porculus, Hylastes salebrosus, Hylastes tenuis, and Ips grandicollis) and one platypodid ambrosia beetle species (Myoplatypus flavicornis). Ethanol enhanced responses of some species (Xyleborus pubescens, H. porculus, H. salebrosus, H. tenuis, and Pityophthorus cariniceps) to traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene in some locations. (-)-alpha-Pinene interrupted the response of some ambrosia beetle species to traps baited with ethanol, but only the response of D. onoharaensum was interrupted consistently at most locations. Of 23 species of ambrosia beetles captured in our field trials, nine were exotic and accounted for 70-97% of total catches of ambrosia beetles. Our results provide support for the continued use of separate traps baited with ethanol alone and ethanol with (-)-alpha-pinene to detect and monitor common bark and ambrosia beetles from the southeastern region of the US.

  9. 1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Venu; Chun, Rene F; Liu, Nancy Q; Lisse, Thomas S; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin D-insufficiency is a prevalent condition in populations throughout the world, with low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) linked to a variety of human health concerns including cancer, autoimmune disease and infection. Current data suggest that 25OHD action involves localized extra-renal conversion to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) via tissue-specific expression of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). In cells such as macrophages, expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase is intimately associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogens. However, this mechanism may not be exclusive to extra-renal generation of 1,25(OH)2D. To investigate the relationship between TLR-mediated pathogen recognition and vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity, intracrine responses to 25OHD metabolism were explored in vitro using the established colonic cell lines Caco-2 and Caco-2 clone BBe. Analysis of antibacterial factors such as cathelicidin (LL37) and beta-defensin-4 (DEFB4) was carried out following co-treatment with TLR ligands. Data indicate that, unlike macrophages, Caco-2 and BBe colonic cell lines are unresponsive to TLR-induced 1alpha-hydroxylase. Alternative activators of 1alpha-hydroxylase such as transforming growth factor beta were also ineffective at priming intracrine responses to 25OHD. Thus, in common with other barrier sites such as the skin or placenta, colonic epithelial cells may require specific factors to initiate intracrine responses to vitamin D. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  11. inheritance of resistance to common bacterial blight in common

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Pastor-Corrales, 1991; Zapata et al., 2009; 2010). Quantitative inheritance was observed by Honna. (1956) after making original interspecific crosses between resistant P. acutifolius 'tepary 4' and susceptible P. vulgaris. It is also critical to have durable sources of resistance to Xap. Sources of resistance to Xap in common ...

  12. A stable lipid-induced aggregate of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Malte; van Rooijen, Bart D; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huber, Martina

    2010-03-31

    The Parkinson's disease-related protein alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) is a 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein. Its membrane-binding properties are thought to be relevant for its physiological or pathologic activity. Here, the interaction of alphaS with POPG [1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-(Phosphorac-(1-glycerol))] small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) is investigated by spin-label EPR using double electron-electron resonance (DEER). Intermolecular distances between four single mutants reveal that well-defined aggregates are formed. The data suggest a coexistence of two dimer structures with main interactions in the helix 2, encompassing residues 50-100. Previously, the horseshoe conformation was detected by intramolecular restraints obtained by DEER on alphaS double mutants (Drescher et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 7796). The present study suggests that interdigitation of two monomers in the aggregate fills the void between the two helices of each of the monomers thus providing a rationale for the horseshoe structure. This aggregate is lipid induced and affects the structure of the POPG SUVs, which become leaky and diminish in size upon contact with alphaS suggesting a possible origin of conflicting results in the recent literature (Jao et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105 (50), 19666; Georgieva et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130 (39), 12856; Bortolus et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 6690).

  13. A study on alpha particles range in Cr-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Z.A.; Talaat, T.M.; Abdel-Aziz, Kh.M.A.; El-Asser, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Cr-39 plastic nuclear track detector has been used in range determination of alpha particles. A set of experiments was carried out for studying alpha energy and track diameter relationships. This work was done under the optimum conditions of Cr-39 etching in 6.25 N NaOH at 70 degree C for various etching times. Determination of alpha range in Cr-39 recorders was studied at different energy values using the over etched track profile technique. Data are discussed within the framework of track formation theory in plastic foils, comparison between experimental and theoretical values of alpha range is included

  14. Alpha particle loss in the TFTR DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha particle loss was measured during the TFTR DT experiments using a scintillator detector located at the vessel bottom in the ion grad-B drift direction. The DT alpha particle loss to this detector was consistent with the calculated first-orbit loss over the whole range of plasma current I=0.6-2.7 MA. In particular, the alpha particle loss rate per DT neutron did not increase significantly with fusion power up to 10.7 MW, indicating the absence of any new ''collective'' alpha particle loss processes in these experiments

  15. An alpha-numeric code for representing N-linked glycan structures in secreted glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufi, Faraaz Noor Khan; Park, Wonjun; Lee, May May; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2009-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput techniques have led to the creation of increasing amounts of glycome data. The storage and analysis of this data would benefit greatly from a compact notation for describing glycan structures that can be easily stored and interpreted by computers. Towards this end, we propose a fixed-length alpha-numeric code for representing N-linked glycan structures commonly found in secreted glycoproteins from mammalian cell cultures. This code, GlycoDigit, employs a pre-assigned alpha-numeric index to represent the monosaccharides attached in different branches to the core glycan structure. The present branch-centric representation allows us to visualize the structure while the numerical nature of the code makes it machine readable. In addition, a difference operator can be defined to quantitatively differentiate between glycan structures for further analysis. The usefulness and applicability of GlycoDigit were demonstrated by constructing and visualizing an N-linked glycosylation network.

  16. Proceedings of the International Symposium Advances in alpha, Beta- and Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) is an association of radionuclide metrology laboratories whose membership is composed of delegates of these laboratories together with other scientists actively engaged in the study and applications of radioactivity. The scientific activities are carried out in the frame of six Working Groups. Two of them, the Alpha-Particle Spectrometry and the Gamma-and Beta-ray Spectrometry Working Groups held a common workshop in Pushkin, St. Petersburg, 18 to 20 September 1996, under the title Advances in Alpha-Beta-and Gamma-Ray Sepectrometry, at the kind invitation of the D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology. More than 30 people from 14 laboratories attended the meeting, and nineteen oral communications were presented, from which twelve were retained for publication an are included in these proceedings. (Author)

  17. Genetic and biosynthetic studies of families carrying hemoglobin J alpha Mexico: association of alpha-thalassemia with HbJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabuchet, G; Benabadji, M; Labie, D

    1978-06-09

    Hemoglobin J Mexico, an alpha chain mutant, was studied in eight unrelated Algerian families. The quantities of the abnormal hemoglobin in 116 subjects are trimodally distributed: 55% in homozygotes, 31% and 38% in heterozygotes. Both hematological data and the alpha/beta chain biosynthetic ratio are normal in heterozygotes with 31% Hb J and in homozygotes. In contrast, the MCV and MCH as well as the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio are slightly reduced in heterozygotes with 38% Hb J and in their relatives carrying Hb A. The elevated expression of alphaJ chains in heterozygotes with 38% Hb J may be due to an alpha thalassemia gene trans to the alphaJ locus.

  18. Apo and calcium-bound crystal structures of cytoskeletal protein alpha-14 giardin (annexin E1) from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Svärd, Staffan G; Luecke, Hartmut

    2009-01-30

    Alpha-14 giardin (annexin E1), a member of the alpha giardin family of annexins, has been shown to localize to the flagella of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. Alpha giardins show a common ancestry with the annexins, a family of proteins most of which bind to phospholipids and cellular membranes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and are implicated in numerous membrane-related processes including cytoskeletal rearrangements and membrane organization. It has been proposed that alpha-14 giardin may play a significant role during the cytoskeletal rearrangement during differentiation of Giardia. To gain a better understanding of alpha-14 giardin's mode of action and its biological role, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of alpha-14 giardin and its phospholipid-binding properties. Here, we report the apo crystal structure of alpha-14 giardin determined in two different crystal forms as well as the Ca(2+)-bound crystal structure of alpha-14 giardin, refined to 1.9, 1.6 and 1.65 A, respectively. Although the overall fold of alpha-14 giardin is similar to that of alpha-11 giardin, multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing was required to solve the alpha-14 giardin structure, indicating significant structural differences between these two members of the alpha giardin family. Unlike most annexin structures, which typically possess N-terminal domains, alpha-14 giardin is composed of only a core domain, followed by a C-terminal extension that may serve as a ligand for binding to cytoskeletal protein partners in Giardia. In the Ca(2+)-bound structure we detected five bound calcium ions, one of which is a novel, highly coordinated calcium-binding site not previously observed in annexin structures. This novel high-affinity calcium-binding site is composed of seven protein donor groups, a feature rarely observed in crystal structures. In addition, phospholipid-binding assays suggest that alpha-14 giardin exhibits calcium-dependent binding to

  19. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift......Civil society and its philanthropic and voluntary organisations are currently experiencing public and political attention and demands to safeguard society’s ‘common good’ through social cohesion and as providers of welfare services. This has raised the question by both practitioners and researchers......-giving concepts, practices and operational forms throughout history have played a significant role in defining the common good and its future avenues. Through an analytical attitude based on microhistory, conceptual history and the sociology of translation it shows that civil society’s institutional logic always...

  20. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect...... cells, all others in Escherichia coli. IC(50) studies involving the established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBBt, TBBz, apigenin and emodin were carried out and the K(i) values calculated. Although the differences in the K(i) values found were modest, there was a general tendency showing that the CK2...... holoenzymes were more sensitive towards the inhibitors than the free catalytic subunits. Thermal inactivation experiments involving the individual catalytic subunits showed an almost complete loss of activity after only 2 min at 45 degrees C. In the case of the two holoenzymes, the CK2alpha...

  2. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  3. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  4. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators.We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO.Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in regulating the response of Müller glia to hypoxia.

  5. The H alpha Galaxy Survey. III. Constraints on supernova progenitors from spatial correlations with H alpha emission

    OpenAIRE

    James, P. A.; Anderson, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We attempt to constrain progenitors of the different types of supernovae from their spatial distributions relative to star formation regions in their host galaxies, as traced by H alpha + NII line emission. Methods: We analyse 63 supernovae which have occurred within galaxies from our H alpha survey of the local Universe. Three statistical tests are used, based on pixel statistics, H alpha radial growth curves, and total galaxy emission-line fluxes. Results: Many more type II supernovae...

  6. Olefination of alpha-hydroxy or alpha-aminoaldehyde derivatives via reaction of their arylsulfonylhydrazones with sulfonyl anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicha, Jerzy; Zarecki, Andrzej

    2004-08-20

    Reaction of tosylhydrazones of O-substituted alpha-hydroxy or N-substituted alpha-amino aldehydes (2, 7, 11, 15, 17, and 20) with selected alpha-magnesio alkyl phenyl sulfones afforded the respective derivatives of allylic alcohols or allylic amines. 2,3-O-Isopropylidene-D-glyceraldehyde (1) was transformed into its tosylhydrazone (2) and then olefins 4a with retention of optical purity. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  7. Serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal sepsis and meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Fadelallah, Mohamed F.; Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and differentiate them. Blood samples were collected from 35 full term neonates with suspected infection who admitted to the Neonatology Unit, Pediatric Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 2002 - June 2003. On the basis of laboratory and bacteriological results, newborns were classified into: sepsis (n=28), meningitis (n=7), and healthy controls (n=16). Sepsis groups were further subdivided according to culture results into: group 1 = proven sepsis (n=6), group 2 = clinical sepsis (n=14), and group 3 = possible-infected (n=8). Serum levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay while CRP by nephelometer: In sepsis and meningitis patients, serum levels of CRP (p<0.01, p<0.05,) and IL-1alpha (p<0.001, p<0.05) were elevated than controls. C-reactive protein levels elevated in proven sepsis (p<0.001) and IL-1alpha elevated in all subgroups of sepsis (groups 1, 2, 3) compared with (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) controls. Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha showed no significant differences between studied groups. In sepsis and meningitis, IL-1alpha had a highest sensitivity (89%, 86%), and negative predictive values (89% and 93%). Interleukin-1alpha and CRP increased in neonatal sepsis and meningitis, but cannot differentiate between them. Interleukin-1alpha had a highest sensitivity in prediction of neonatal infection and its assessment may improve accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  8. Investigating alpha-globin structural variants: a retrospective review of 135,000 Brazilian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Miyuki Kimura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brazil has a multiethnic population with a high diversity of hemoglobinopathies. While screenings for beta-globin mutations are far more common, alterations affecting alpha-globin genes are usually more silent and less well known. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a screening program for alpha-globin gene mutations in a representative sample of the Southeastern Brazilian population. Methods: A total of 135,000 individuals, including patients with clinical suspicion of hemoglobinopathies and their family members, randomly chosen individuals submitted to blood tests and blood donors who were abnormal hemoglobin carriers were analyzed. The variants were screened by alkaline and acid electrophoreses, isoelectric focusing and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the abnormal chains were investigated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Mutations were identified by molecular analyses, and the oxygen affinity, heme-heme cooperativity and Bohr effect of the variants were evaluated by functional tests. Results: Four new and 22 rare variants were detected in 98 families. Some of these variants were found in co-inheritance with other hemoglobinopathies. Of the rare hemoglobins, Hasharon, Stanleyville II and J-Rovigo were the most common, the first two being S-like and associated with alpha-thalassemia. Conclusion: The variability of alpha-globin alterations reflects the high degree of racial miscegenation and an intense internal migratory flow between different Brazilian regions. This diversity highlights the importance of programs for diagnosing hemoglobinopathies and preventing combinations that may lead to important clinical manifestations in multiethnic populations.

  9. Uncaria tomentosa acts as a potent TNF-alpha inhibitor through NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Hall, Lisa; Arnason, John T; Cano, Pablo; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2010-02-17

    Uncaria tomentosa, commonly known as Cat's Claw or Uña de gato, is a medicinal plant that has been shown to have effective anti-inflammatory activities. We have previously shown that treatment of monocyte-like THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha while augmenting the production of IL-1beta. Since TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are usually regulated similarly and share a number of common promoter elements, including NF-kappaB and AP-1, the ability of Uncaria tomentosa to differentially regulate these inflammatory cytokines is of particular interest. To determine the mechanism of action of Uncaria tomentosa, we investigated the effects of specific inhibitors of NF-kappaB on cellular responses including transcription factor activation using TransAM assays, the expression of cytokines as measured by ELISA, and cell survival as measured by changes in cell number following treatment. Treatment with Uncaria tomentosa inhibited the LPS-dependent activation of specific NF-kappaB and AP-1 components. In addition, treatment with Uncaria tomentosa enhanced cell death when NF-kappaB was inhibited. The ability of Uncaria tomentosa to inhibit TNF-alpha production was diminished when NF-kappaB activation was prevented by drugs that mask NF-kappaB subunit nuclear localization signals, while IL-1beta expression was unchanged. These results demonstrate that Uncaria tomentosa is able to elicit a response via an NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism. Further studies to characterize the mechanism by which Uncaria tomentosa can affect this pathway could provide a means to develop anti-TNF-alpha therapies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of alpha6-containing GABAA receptors by pentobarbital occurs through a different mechanism than activation by GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew T; Fisher, Janet L

    2010-03-08

    The GABA(A) receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels which are the targets for many clinically used sedatives, including the barbiturates. The barbiturate pentobarbital acts through multiple sites on the GABA(A) receptor. At low concentrations (muM), it acts as a positive allosteric modulator while at higher concentrations it can directly activate the receptor. This agonist action is influenced by the subunit composition of the receptor, and pentobarbital is a more effective agonist than GABA only at receptors containing an alpha6 subunit. The conformational change that translates GABA binding into channel opening is known to involve a lysine residue located in an extracellular domain between the 2nd and 3rd transmembrane domains. Mutations of this residue disrupt activation of the channel by GABA and have been linked to inherited epilepsy. Pentobarbital binds to the receptor at a different agonist site than GABA, but could use a common signal transduction mechanism to gate the channel. To address this question, we compared the effect of a mutating the homologous lysine residue in the alpha1 or alpha6 subunits (K278 or K277, respectively) to methionine on direct activation of recombinant GABA(A) receptors by GABA or pentobarbital. We found that this mutation reduced GABA sensitivity for both alpha1 and alpha6 subunits, but affected pentobarbital sensitivity only for the alpha1 subunit. This suggests that pentobarbital acts through a distinct signal transduction pathway at the alpha6 subunit, which may account for its greater efficacy compared to GABA at receptors containing this subunit.

  11. Study of ({alpha}, {sup 3}He) and ({alpha}, t) reactions on {sup 28}Si at 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darshan, V.P.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Ramaswamy, C.R.; Raja Rao, M.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Banerjee, S.R.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Dept. of Phys., Bangalore Univ. (India)

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 28}Si({alpha}, {sup 3}He){sup 29}Si, {sup 28}Si({alpha}, t){sup 29}P and Si({alpha}, {alpha})Si reactions were studied at E{sub {alpha}} = 45 MeV. Exact finite-range (EFR) DWBA analysis was carried out for the transitions to the ground state and to five excited states in {sup 29}Si and {sup 29}P. Spectroscopic strengths G were extracted for all the states and were compared with the predictions from shell-model and quasi-particle core-coupling calculations. Similar EFR-DWBA analyses were carried out from available (unpublished) data for the {sup 28}Si({alpha}, {sup 3}He){sup 29}Si reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 64.9 and 120 MeV, and for the {sup 28}Si({alpha}, t){sup 29}P reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 50 and 64.9 MeV. The comparison of experimental and theoretical values of G are provided. (author)

  12. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  13. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  14. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhijie; Sun, Hongmin; Lu, Chengbiao; Yao, Li; Chen, Shengyong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI). It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation. PMID:23861723

  15. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI. It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation.

  16. Alpha-like resonances in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, V. V.; Delion, D. S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate normal dipole oscillations in a system of protons, neutrons and α-particles within the Brink approach. We introduce an effective mass of α-clusters in terms of the spectroscopic factor. The Pauli exclusion principle is taken into account by using the Wildermuth rule. The ratio between alpha and giant resonance energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) is investigated for N = Z and N> Z systems. In both cases we notice an unexpected decrease of this ratio versus the increase of the spectroscopic factor. Due to this fact the possibility to experimentally detect α-like oscillations is enhanced in nuclei above 100Sn. The occurrence of the pygmy mode in N> Z systems decreases the EWSR for the α-like oscillations.

  17. Towards antihydrogen trapping and spectroscopy at ALPHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopy of antihydrogen has the potential to yield high-precision tests of the CPT theorem and shed light on the matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe. The ALPHA antihydrogen trap at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator aims to prepare a sample of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole-based Ioffe trap and to measure the frequency of several atomic transitions. We describe our techniques to directly measure the antiproton temperature and a new technique to cool them to below 10 K. We also show how our unique position-sensitive annihilation detector provides us with a highly sensitive method of identifying antiproton annihilations and effectively rejecting the cosmic-ray background.

  18. Ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, K.; Takizuka, T.; Azumi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles has been studied by the newly developed Monte-Carlo code in which the motion of banana orbit in a toroidal field ripple is described by a mapping method. The existence of ripple-resonance diffusion has been confirmed numerically. We have developed another new code in which the radial displacement of banana orbit is given by the diffusion coefficients from the mapping code or the orbit following Monte-Carlo code. The ripple loss of α particles during slowing down has been estimated by the mapping model code as well as the diffusion model code. From the comparison of the results with those from the orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, it has been found that all of them agree very well. (author)

  19. Follow-Up Multicenter Alpha Counting Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J. D.; Clark, B. M.; Wong, R.; Slayman, C.; Gordon, M. S.; He, Y.; Marckmann, J.; McNally, B. D.; Wu, T.

    2014-08-01

    A follow-up alpha emissivity study was conducted to examine the wide variability observed in previous work that was hypothesized to be due to differences in the pulse height discrimination threshold among participant's equipment. Two samples, one mixed energy and one monoenergetic, were prepared and sequentially circulated to all participants for counting. Analysis of the data demonstrates that only a small portion of the variability is explained by this mechanism. The role of the sample to entrance window gap for some counters was analyzed post hoc using the same data set and may be responsible for a large amount of the variability. The results of this large-scale study demonstrate the continuing uncertainty for these measurements and the importance of interpreting their results appropriately when estimating soft error rates.

  20. Alpha-synuclein structure, functions, and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, when a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson′s disease (PD is made, serious damage has already been done to nerve cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The diagnosis of PD in its earlier stages, before this irreversible damage, would be of enormous benefit for future treatment strategies designed to slow or halt the progression of this disease that possibly prevents accumulation of toxic aggregates. As a molecular biomarker for the detection of PD in its earlier stages, alpha-synuclein (α-syn, which is a key component of Lewy bodies, in which it is found in an aggregated and fibrillar form, has attracted considerable attention. Here, α-syn is reviewed in details.

  1. Alpha Radiation Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Manandhar, Sandeep; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Kimerling, Lionel; Melloni, Andrea; Agarwal, Anuradha M.

    2016-09-21

    Photonic technologies are today of great interest for use in harsh environments, such as outer space, where they can potentially replace current communication systems based on radiofrequency components. However, very much alike to electronic devices, the behavior of optical materials and circuits can be strongly altered by high-energy and high-dose ionizing radiations. Here, we investigate the effects of alpha () radiation with MeV-range energy on silicon oxynitride (SiON) optical waveguides. Irradiation with a dose of 5×1015 cm-2 increases the refractive index of the SiON core by nearly 10-2, twice as much that of the surrounding silica cladding, leading to a significant increase of the refractive index contrast of the waveguide. The higher mode confinement induced by -radiation reduces the loss of tightly bent waveguides. We show that this increases the quality factor of microring resonators by 20%, with values larger than 105 after irradiation.

  2. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  3. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  4. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  5. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  6. Common sleep disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present.

  7. Antihistamines for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sutter, An I M; Saraswat, Avadhesh; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-11-29

    The common cold is an upper respiratory tract infection, most commonly caused by a rhinovirus. It affects people of all age groups and although in most cases it is self limiting, the common cold still causes significant morbidity. Antihistamines are commonly offered over the counter to relieve symptoms for patients affected by the common cold, however there is not much evidence of their efficacy. To assess the effects of antihistamines on the common cold. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1948 to July week 4, 2015), EMBASE (2010 to August 2015), CINAHL (1981 to August 2015), LILACS (1982 to August 2015) and Biosis Previews (1985 to August 2015). We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using antihistamines as monotherapy for the common cold. We excluded any studies with combination therapy or using antihistamines in patients with an allergic component in their illness. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. We included 18 RCTs, which were reported in 17 publications (one publication reports on two trials) with 4342 participants (of which 212 were children) suffering from the common cold, both naturally occurring and experimentally induced. The interventions consisted of an antihistamine as monotherapy compared with placebo. In adults there was a short-term beneficial effect of antihistamines on severity of overall symptoms: on day one or two of treatment 45% had a beneficial effect with antihistamines versus 38% with placebo (odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.92). However, there was no difference between antihistamines and placebo in the mid term (three to four days) to long term (six to 10 days). When evaluating individual symptoms such as nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea and sneezing, there was some beneficial effect of the sedating antihistamines compared to placebo (e.g. rhinorrhoea on day three: mean difference (MD) -0

  8. Alpha-emitting radionuclides in cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, James W.; Ibrahim, Shawki Amin

    1978-01-01

    As part of general studies of the concentration of 239/240 Pu, 238 Pu and 228,230,232 Th in the tissues of non-occupationally exposed individuals, it became evident that there was little or no information on their content in cigarette tobacco. To better understand this possible route of intake and its potential for lung exposure we have measured these nuclides in tobacco samples, from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which have a well-known growing history, and in brand name cigarettes purchased commercially. The concentration of 239/240 Pu in both USDA and brand name tobacco has a range of 0.4-0.7 pCi/kg of tobacco while the 238 Pu concentration was ≤ 0.05 pCi/kg. The 228 Th concentration for USDA tobacco was 200 pCi/kg tobacco while the 232 Th was only 14 pCi/kg. The high 228/232 Th ratio may result from a lower uptake of 232 Th compared to that of 228 Ra. By comparing the concentration of these measured nuclides to other alpha emitters in tobacco that have been reported in the literature, i.e. 210 Po (400 pCi/kg) and 226 Ra (150 pCi/kg), it is apparent that 228 Th represents a significant fraction of the total alpha activity. It is also evident there is a much greater potential for exposure of the lung to radiation from 228 Th than from 239/240 Pu as a result of cigarette smoking. (author)

  9. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Donald W; Herbst, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic "column leg" appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.

  10. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  12. Detection of PML-retinoic acid receptor-alpha fusion transcripts in acute promyelocytic leukemia with trisomy 8 but without t(15;17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K; Sasaki, K; Tasaka, T; Nagai, M; Kawanishi, K; Takahara, J; Irino, S

    1994-03-01

    Chromosome translocation t(15;17), the breakpoints of which are in the PML gene on chromosome 15 and retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR alpha) gene on chromosome 17, is specifically found in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Clinically typical APL without t(15;17) and with the PML-RAR alpha fusion transcripts or rearrangements in PML and/or RAR alpha gene has been reported, suggesting submicroscopic changes at the molecular level without apparent t(15;17) or observation of normal metaphases. Trisomy 8 is common in APL as a secondary chromosomal abnormality in addition to t(15;17), as well as in acute myelogenous leukemia in general, but it is rare as a sole chromosomal anomaly in APL. PML-RAR alpha fusion transcript was detected in an APL case with trisomy 8 but without t(15;17), indicating that the leukemic cells lacked t(15;17) and still expressed the PML-RAR alpha fusion transcripts. This indicates that the same submicroscopic molecular changes as in APL with t(15;17) do occur in APL without t(15;17) and supports the use of molecular analysis for PML-RAR alpha fusion in APL.

  13. Jet Production in ep Collisions at Low Q^2 and Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kosior, E.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Tabasco, J.E.Ruiz; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A.Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2010-01-01

    The production of jets is studied in deep-inelastic e+p scattering at low negative four momentum transfer squared 5alpha_s.

  14. Peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alpha-2b for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Goran; Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    : We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and LILACS until October 2013. We also searched conference abstracts, journals, and grey...... compared peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin versus peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in 5847 patients. All trials had a high risk of bias. Very few trials reported data on very few patients for the patient-relevant outcomes all-cause mortality, liver-related morbidity, serious adverse events......, and quality of life. Accordingly, we were unable to conduct meta-analyses on all-cause mortality, liver-related morbidity, and quality of life. Twelve trials reported on adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment without clear evidence of a difference between the two peginterferons (197/2171 (9...

  15. Alpha spectrometry of thick sources. I. Application to alpha emitters determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Rivero, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining alpha emitters by silicon surface barrier detector spectroscopy using thick sources is studied. Two types of spectra have been obtained. They have different shapes of line according to the procedure used for preparing the sources. For both spectra a computing least square programme has been developed. In this way it is possible to calculate line intensities with accuracy better than 20 percent. (author) [es

  16. Measurement of radon daughters in air samples by alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Crespo, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of polonium 214 and polonium 218. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter (Author)

  17. Immunotoxicity of the pyrethroid insecticides deltametrin and alpha-cypermetrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Claesson, M. H.; Ropke, C.

    1996-01-01

    The synthetic pyrethroids deltametrin and alpha-cypermetrin were studied for effects on the immune system in 28-day studies in F344 male rats. Sixteen rats per group were dosed with either deltametrin 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg body wt./day or alpha-cypermetrin 0, 4, 8, or 12 mg/kg body wt./day in soy...

  18. Reproductive partitioning among polyandrous alpha and beta pale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, polyandrous males participated equally in building nests, provisioning prey and incubating, in the fertility window the dominant alpha males copulated 31–5 days before the females laid, whereas subordinate beta males only copulated 5–3 days before laying. If this copulation timing by alpha males was indicative ...

  19. Does formate reduce alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Q.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The reported reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia by formate is much slower than described (Morowitz et al., 1995). The formate reduction if any is small under these conditions. Glutamate is produced from a reduction by a second molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate involving an oxidative decarboxylation.

  20. Association of polymorphism in the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sahand Rayaneh

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Association of polymorphism in the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene with milk production traits in ... Abstract. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) as a strong protease inhibitor plays a major role in the protection of tissues ..... populations over generations; iii) Different statistical models used to analyse the data. For the traits ...